WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonuniform alignment patterns

  1. Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation on nonuniform substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Wen Ze; Zou Xian Wu; Jin Zhun Zhi

    2003-01-01

    Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on nonuniform substrate was investigated by computer simulations. The nonuniform substrates are represented by Leath percolations with the probability p. p stands for the degree of nonuniformity and takes values in the range p sub c<=p<=1, where p sub c is the threshold of percolation. The DLA cluster grows up on the Leath percolation substrate. The patterns of the DLA clusters appear asymmetrical and nonuniform, and the branches are relative few for the case p is close to p sub c. In addition, the pattern depends on the shape of substrate. As p increases from p sub c to 1, cluster changes to pure DLA gradually. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension increases from 1.46 to 1.68. Also, the random walks on Leath percolations through the range p sub c<=p<=1 were examined. Our simulations show the Honda-Toyoki-Matsushita relation is still reasonable for fractional dimensional systems.

  2. Cryo-EM image alignment based on nonuniform fast Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengfan; Penczek, Pawel A

    2008-08-01

    In single particle analysis, two-dimensional (2-D) alignment is a fundamental step intended to put into register various particle projections of biological macromolecules collected at the electron microscope. The efficiency and quality of three-dimensional (3-D) structure reconstruction largely depends on the computational speed and alignment accuracy of this crucial step. In order to improve the performance of alignment, we introduce a new method that takes advantage of the highly accurate interpolation scheme based on the gridding method, a version of the nonuniform fast Fourier transform, and utilizes a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm for the refinement of the orientation parameters. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that by using less than half of the sample points and taking twice the runtime, our new 2-D alignment method achieves dramatically better alignment accuracy than that based on quadratic interpolation. We also apply our method to image to volume registration, the key step in the single particle EM structure refinement protocol. We find that in this case the accuracy of the method not only surpasses the accuracy of the commonly used real-space implementation, but results are achieved in much shorter time, making gridding-based alignment a perfect candidate for efficient structure determination in single particle analysis.

  3. Cryo-EM image alignment based on nonuniform fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhengfan; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2008-01-01

    In single particle analysis, two-dimensional (2-D) alignment is a fundamental step intended to put into register various particle projections of biological macromolecules collected at the electron microscope. The efficiency and quality of three-dimensional (3-D) structure reconstruction largely depends on the computational speed and alignment accuracy of this crucial step. In order to improve the performance of alignment, we introduce a new method that takes advantage of the highly accurate interpolation scheme based on the gridding method, a version of the nonuniform fast Fourier transform, and utilizes a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm for the refinement of the orientation parameters. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that by using less than half of the sample points and taking twice the runtime, our new 2-D alignment method achieves dramatically better alignment accuracy than that based on quadratic interpolation. We also apply our method to image to volume registration, the key step in the single particle EM structure refinement protocol. We find that in this case the accuracy of the method not only surpasses the accuracy of the commonly used real-space implementation, but results are achieved in much shorter time, making gridding-based alignment a perfect candidate for efficient structure determination in single particle analysis

  4. Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Burnell, Josh J.; Byrnes, Emi J.; Copeland, Cathy; Desta, Tsega; Fischer, Shanna R.; Goldy, Jeff; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Kidney, Jolene M.; Lemon, Tracy; Orta, Geralyn J.; Parry, Sheana E.; Pathak, Sayan D.; Pearson, Owen C.; Reding, Melissa; Shapouri, Sheila; Smith, Kimberly A.; Soden, Chad; Solan, Beth M.; Weller, John; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding variations in gene sequence and expression level associated with phenotype, yet how genetic diversity translates into complex phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the relationship between genetic background and spatial patterns of gene expression across seven strains of mice, providing the most extensive cellular-resolution comparative analysis of gene expression in the mammalian brain to date. Using comprehensive brainwide anatomic coverage (more than 200 brain regions), we applied in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial expression patterns of 49 genes encoding well-known pharmaceutical drug targets. Remarkably, over 50% of the genes examined showed interstrain expression variation. In addition, the variability was nonuniformly distributed across strain and neuroanatomic region, suggesting certain organizing principles. First, the degree of expression variance among strains mirrors genealogic relationships. Second, expression pattern differences were concentrated in higher-order brain regions such as the cortex and hippocampus. Divergence in gene expression patterns across the brain could contribute significantly to variations in behavior and responses to neuroactive drugs in laboratory mouse strains and may help to explain individual differences in human responsiveness to neuroactive drugs. PMID:20956311

  5. Aligned carbon nanotubes patterned photolithographically by silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Mau, Albert H. W.

    2003-02-01

    Selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysis of iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) on quartz substrate patterned photolithographically by metallic silver has been demonstrated. Micro/nanopattern of aligned CNTs can be achieved by using a photomask with features on a microscale. With convenient use of simple high-contract black and white films as a photomask, aligned nanotubes patterned with 20 μm resolution in large scale can be fabricated. This practical fabrication of aligned CNTs on patterned conducting substrate could be applied to various device applications of CNTs.

  6. Pattern optimizing verification of self-align quadruple patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Masatoshi; Yamada, Kazuki; Oyama, Kenichi; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shouhei; Koike, Kyohei; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2017-03-01

    Lithographic scaling continues to advance by extending the life of 193nm immersion technology, and spacer-type multi-patterning is undeniably the driving force behind this trend. Multi-patterning techniques such as self-aligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) have come to be used in memory devices, and they have also been adopted in logic devices to create constituent patterns in the formation of 1D layout designs. Multi-patterning has consequently become an indispensible technology in the fabrication of all advanced devices. In general, items that must be managed when using multi-patterning include critical dimension uniformity (CDU), line edge roughness (LER), and line width roughness (LWR). Recently, moreover, there has been increasing focus on judging and managing pattern resolution performance from a more detailed perspective and on making a right/wrong judgment from the perspective of edge placement error (EPE). To begin with, pattern resolution performance in spacer-type multi-patterning is affected by the process accuracy of the core (mandrel) pattern. Improving the controllability of CD and LER of the mandrel is most important, and to reduce LER, an appropriate smoothing technique should be carefully selected. In addition, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is generally used to meet the need for high accuracy in forming the spacer film. Advances in scaling are accompanied by stricter requirements in the controllability of fine processing. In this paper, we first describe our efforts in improving controllability by selecting the most appropriate materials for the mandrel pattern and spacer film. Then, based on the materials selected, we present experimental results on a technique for improving etching selectivity.

  7. Beam pattern improvement by compensating array nonuniformities in a guided wave phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Lee, Seung-Seok; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple data processing algorithm which can improve the performance of a uniform circular array based on guided wave transducers. The algorithm, being intended to be used with the delay-and-sum beamformer, effectively eliminates the effects of nonuniformities that can significantly degrade the beam pattern. Nonuniformities can arise intrinsically from the array geometry when the circular array is transformed to a linear array for beam steering and extrinsically from unequal conditions of transducers such as element-to-element variations of sensitivity and directivity. The effects of nonuniformities are compensated by appropriately imposing weight factors on the elements in the projected linear array. Different cases are simulated, where the improvements of the beam pattern, especially the level of the highest sidelobe, are clearly seen, and related issues are discussed. An experiment is performed which uses A0 mode Lamb waves in a steel plate, to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The discrepancy between theoretical and experimental beam patterns is explained by accounting for near-field effects. (paper)

  8. Spike Pattern Recognition for Automatic Collimation Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Azzopardi, Gabriella; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC makes use of a collimation system to protect its sensitive equipment by intercepting potentially dangerous beam halo particles. The appropriate collimator settings to protect the machine against beam losses relies on a very precise alignment of all the collimators with respect to the beam. The beam center at each collimator is then found by touching the beam halo using an alignment procedure. Until now, in order to determine whether a collimator is aligned with the beam or not, a user is required to follow the collimator’s BLM loss data and detect spikes. A machine learning (ML) model was trained in order to automatically recognize spikes when a collimator is aligned. The model was loosely integrated with the alignment implementation to determine the classification performance and reliability, without effecting the alignment process itself. The model was tested on a number of collimators during this MD and the machine learning was able to output the classifications in real-time.

  9. Adding muscle where you need it: non-uniform hypertrophy patterns in elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, G G; Knaus, K R; Fiorentino, N M; Meyer, C H; Hart, J M; Blemker, S S

    2017-10-01

    Sprint runners achieve much higher gait velocities and accelerations than average humans, due in part to large forces generated by their lower limb muscles. Various factors have been explored in the past to understand sprint biomechanics, but the distribution of muscle volumes in the lower limb has not been investigated in elite sprinters. In this study, we used non-Cartesian MRI to determine muscle sizes in vivo in a group of 15 NCAA Division I sprinters. Normalizing muscle sizes by body size, we compared sprinter muscles to non-sprinter muscles, calculated Z-scores to determine non-uniformly large muscles in sprinters, assessed bilateral symmetry, and assessed gender differences in sprinters' muscles. While limb musculature per height-mass was 22% greater in sprinters than in non-sprinters, individual muscles were not all uniformly larger. Hip- and knee-crossing muscles were significantly larger among sprinters (mean difference: 30%, range: 19-54%) but only one ankle-crossing muscle was significantly larger (tibialis posterior, 28%). Population-wide asymmetry was not significant in the sprint population but individual muscle asymmetries exceeded 15%. Gender differences in normalized muscle sizes were not significant. The results of this study suggest that non-uniform hypertrophy patterns, particularly large hip and knee flexors and extensors, are advantageous for fast sprinting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Asanithi, Piyapong; Brunner, Eric W; Jurewicz, Izabela; Bo, Chiara; Sear, Richard P; Dalton, Alan B [Department of Physics and Surrey Materials Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Azad, Chihye Lewis; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Fang Shaoli; Lima, Marcio D; Lepro, Xavier; Collins, Steve; Baughman, Ray H, E-mail: r.sear@surrey.ac.uk [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080-3021 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is required for tissue engineering; almost all tissues consist of oriented cells. The aligned substrates are made using straightforward physical chemistry techniques from forests of multiwall nanotubes; no lithography is required to make inexpensive large-scale substrates with highly aligned nanoscale grooves. Interestingly, although the cells strongly align with the nanoscale grooves, only a few also elongate along this axis: alignment of the cells does not require a pronounced change in morphology of the cell. We also pattern the nanotube bundles over length scales comparable to the cell size and show that the cells follow this pattern.

  11. Generation and Detection of Alignments in Gabor Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Blusseau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to be used in psychophysical experiments to compare directly visual perception to an a contrario algorithm, on a straight patterns detection task. The method is composed of two parts. The first part consists in building a stimulus, namely an array of oriented elements, in which an alignment is present with variable salience. The second part focuses on a detection algorithm, based on the a contrario theory, which is designed to predict which alignment will be considered as the most salient in a given stimulus.

  12. Understanding the critical challenges of self-aligned octuple patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji; Xiao, Wei; Kang, Weiling; Chen, Yijian

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a thorough investigation of self-aligned octuple patterning (SAOP) process characteristics, cost structure, integration challenges, and layout decomposition. The statistical characteristics of SAOP CD variations such as multi-modality are analyzed and contributions from various features to CDU and MTT (mean-to-target) budgets are estimated. The gap space is found to have the worst CDU+MTT performance and is used to determine the required overlay accuracy to ensure a satisfactory edge-placement yield of a cut process. Moreover, we propose a 5-mask positive-tone SAOP (pSAOP) process for memory FEOL patterning and a 3-mask negative-tone SAOP (nSAOP) process for logic BEOL patterning. The potential challenges of 2-D SAOP layout decomposition for BEOL applications are identified. Possible decomposition approaches are explored and the functionality of several developed algorithm is verified using 2-D layout examples from Open Cell Library.

  13. Pattern recognition in complex activity travel patterns : comparison of Euclidean distance, signal-processing theoretical, and multidimensional sequence alignment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joh, C.H.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The application of a multidimensional sequence alignment method for classifying activity travel patterns is reported. The method was developed as an alternative to the existing classification methods suggested in the transportation literature. The relevance of the multidimensional sequence alignment

  14. Shear Alignment of Diblock Copolymers for Patterning Nanowire Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Kyle T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Metallic nanowire meshes are useful as cheap, flexible alternatives to indium tin oxide – an expensive, brittle material used in transparent conductive electrodes. We have fabricated nanowire meshes over areas up to 2.5 cm2 by: 1) mechanically aligning parallel rows of diblock copolymer (diBCP) microdomains; 2) selectively infiltrating those domains with metallic ions; 3) etching away the diBCP template; 4) sintering to reduce ions to metal nanowires; and, 5) repeating steps 1 – 4 on the same sample at a 90° offset. We aligned parallel rows of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) [PS(48.5 kDa)-b-P2VP(14.5 kDa)] microdomains by heating above its glass transition temperature (Tg ≈ 100°C), applying mechanical shear pressure (33 kPa) and normal force (13.7 N), and cooling below Tg. DiBCP samples were submerged in aqueous solutions of metallic ions (15 – 40 mM ions; 0.1 – 0.5 M HCl) for 30 – 90 minutes, which coordinate to nitrogen in P2VP. Subsequent ozone-etching and sintering steps yielded parallel nanowires. We aimed to optimize alignment parameters (e.g. shear and normal pressures, alignment duration, and PDMS thickness) to improve the quality, reproducibility, and scalability of meshes. We also investigated metals other than Pt and Au that may be patterned using this technique (Cu, Ag).

  15. Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Jin; Jeong, Eun; Chin, Mi Hyung; Lee, Seung Hee; Ji, Seunghoon; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Viewing angle control of a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) liquid crystal display using only one panel is investigated. In conventional PVA modes, a vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) director tilts down in four directions making 45 deg. with respect to crossed polarizers to exhibit a wide viewing angle. In the viewing angle control device, one pixel was divided into two sub-pixels such that the LC director in the main pixel is controlled to be tilted down in multiple directions making an angle with the polarizer, playing the role of main display with the wide viewing angle, while the LC director in the sub-pixel is controlled to be tilted down to the polarizer axis, playing the role of sub-pixel to the viewing angle control for the narrow viewing angle. Using sub-pixel control, light leakage or any type of information such as characters and image can be generated in oblique viewing directions without distorting the image quality in the normal direction, which will prevent others from peeping at the displayed image by overlapping the displayed image with the made image

  16. High yield growth of patterned vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using inkjet-printed catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, James D; Stringer, Jonathan; Ghita, Oana R; Smith, Patrick J

    2013-10-09

    This study reports on the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes localized at specific sites on a growth substrate by deposition of a nanoparticle suspension using inkjet printing. Carbon nanotubes were grown with high yield as vertically aligned forests to a length of approximately 400 μm. The use of inkjet printing for catalyst fabrication considerably improves the production rate of vertically aligned patterned nanotube forests compared with conventional patterning techniques, for example, electron beam lithography or photolithography.

  17. Microdosimetric implications of the nonuniformity of deposition patterns of inhaled radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Hofmann, W.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol deposition studies have demonstrated that deposition patterns of inhaled aerosols within airway bifurcations are distinctly inhomogeneous during inhalation as well as exhalation. Current lung deposition models, however, employ analytical equations for the calculation of deposition efficiencies, which, by definition, cannot describe local inhomogeneities of deposition within airway bifurcations. In the present study, local deposition patterns in airway bifurcations were computed by our recently developed numerical particle deposition model. To quantify the inhomogeneities of predicted deposition patterns, the whole surface of the bifurcation was scanned by a pre-specified surface element. Local deposition enhancement factors were then determined as the ratio of local to average deposition densities. In the present study, distributions of enhancement factors and their corresponding maximum values were computed for a physiologically realistic bifurcation geometry in upper human bronchial airways (airway generations 3-4 in Weibel's Model-A) assuming various surface element (patch) sizes (0.1 mm x 0.1 mm-3 mm x 3 mm). Simulations were performed for a wide range of particle sizes (1 mm-10 μm) and flow conditions (flow rates of 10 and 60 l/min, and parabolic and uniform inlet flow profiles). Computed air velocity fields and particle trajectories demonstrated the significant role of secondary flows for particle deposition. In the case of inspiration, areas of enhanced deposition were formed primarily at the carinal ridge or at the inner sides of the daughter branches. In the case of expiration, ''hot spots'' could be observed are at the top and bottom of the parent airway. The sizes of these deposition hot spots depend on particle size, flow rate and bifurcation geometry. For example, enhanced deposition areas for large particles were much more intense than those found for ultrafine particles. The computed local deposition enhancement factors exhibited strong

  18. Non-uniform distribution pattern for differentially expressed genes of transgenic rice Huahui 1 at different developmental stages and environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available DNA microarray analysis is an effective method to detect unintended effects by detecting differentially expressed genes (DEG in safety assessment of genetically modified (GM crops. With the aim to reveal the distribution of DEG of GM crops under different conditions, we performed DNA microarray analysis using transgenic rice Huahui 1 (HH1 and its non-transgenic parent Minghui 63 (MH63 at different developmental stages and environmental conditions. Considerable DEG were selected in each group of HH1 under different conditions. For each group of HH1, the number of DEG was different; however, considerable common DEG were shared between different groups of HH1. These findings suggested that both DEG and common DEG were adequate for investigation of unintended effects. Furthermore, a number of significantly changed pathways were found in all groups of HH1, indicating genetic modification caused everlasting changes to plants. To our knowledge, our study for the first time provided the non-uniformly distributed pattern for DEG of GM crops at different developmental stages and environments. Our result also suggested that DEG selected in GM plants at specific developmental stage and environment could act as useful clues for further evaluation of unintended effects of GM plants.

  19. Detecting oscillatory patterns and time lags from proxy records with non-uniform sampling: Some pitfalls and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik

    2013-04-01

    Time series analysis offers a rich toolbox for deciphering information from high-resolution geological and geomorphological archives and linking the thus obtained results to distinct climate and environmental processes. Specifically, on various time-scales from inter-annual to multi-millenial, underlying driving forces exhibit more or less periodic oscillations, the detection of which in proxy records often allows linking them to specific mechanisms by which the corresponding drivers may have affected the archive under study. A persistent problem in geomorphology is that available records do not present a clear signal of the variability of environmental conditions, but exhibit considerable uncertainties of both the measured proxy variables and the associated age model. Particularly, time-scale uncertainty as well as the heterogeneity of sampling in the time domain are source of severe conceptual problems that may lead to false conclusions about the presence or absence of oscillatory patterns and their mutual phasing in different archives. In my presentation, I will discuss how one can cope with non-uniformly sampled proxy records to detect and quantify oscillatory patterns in one or more data sets. For this purpose, correlation analysis is reformulated using kernel estimates which are found superior to classical estimators based on interpolation or Fourier transform techniques. In order to characterize non-stationary or noisy periodicities and their relative phasing between different records, an extension of continuous wavelet transform is utilized. The performance of both methods is illustrated for different case studies. An extension to explicitly considering time-scale uncertainties by means of Bayesian techniques is briefly outlined.

  20. Aligning protein sequence and analysing substitution pattern using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Aligning protein sequences using a score matrix has became a routine but valuable method in modern biological ..... the amino acids according to their substitution behaviour ...... which may cause great change (e.g. prolonging the helix) in.

  1. Pattern analysis of aligned nanowires in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    An image processing method for evaluating the quality of nanowire alignment in a microchannel is described. A solution containing nanowires flowing into a microchannel will tend to deposit the nanowires on the bottom surface of the channel via near-wall shear flows. The deposited nanowires generally form complex directional structures along the direction of flow, and the physical properties of these structures depend on the structural morphology, including the alignment quality. A quantitative analysis approach to characterizing the nanowire alignment is needed to estimate the useful features of the nanowire structures. This analysis consists of several image processing methods, including ridge detection, texton analysis and autocorrelation function (ACF) calculation. The ridge detection method improved the ACF by extracting nanowire frames 1–2 pixels in width. Dilation filters were introduced to permit a comparison of the ACF results calculated from different images, regardless of the nanowire orientation. An ACF based on the FFT was then calculated over a square interrogation window. The alignment angle probability distribution was obtained using texton analysis. Monte Carlo simulations of artificially generated images were carried out, and the new algorithm was applied to images collected using two types of microscopy. (paper)

  2. Wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene (PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns. The micro/nano pillars were prepared using hot embossing on silicon microporous template and alumina nanoporous template, which were fabricated by ultraviolet (UV lithography and inductive coupled plasma (ICP etching, and two-step anodic oxidation, respectively. The results indicate that the combination of micro/nano patterning and plasma irradiation can easily regulate wettabilities of PS surfaces, i.e. from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity, or from hydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. During the wettability transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity there is only mild hydrophilicity loss. After plasma irradiation, moreover, the wettability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns is more stable than that of flat PS surfaces. The observed wettability transition and wettability stability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns are new phenomena, which may have potential in creating programmable functional polymer surfaces.

  3. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Kanoh, Hatsuho

    2016-01-01

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  4. Hohlraum Target Alignment from X-ray Detector Images using Starburst Design Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, R.R.; Conder, A.; Edwards, O.; Kroll, J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Mapoles, E.; McGuigan, D.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to initiate a fusion reaction. The target container, or hohlraum, must be accurately aligned to an x-ray imaging system to allow careful monitoring of the frozen fuel layer in the target. To achieve alignment, x-ray images are acquired through starburst-shaped windows cut into opposite sides of the hohlraum. When the hohlraum is in alignment, the starburst pattern pairs match nearly exactly and allow a clear view of the ice layer formation on the edge of the target capsule. During the alignment process, x-ray image analysis is applied to determine the direction and magnitude of adjustment required. X-ray detector and source are moved in concert during the alignment process. The automated pointing alignment system described here is both accurate and efficient. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing that enables automation of the starburst pointing alignment.

  5. The influence of conductivities consistent with field-aligned currents on high-latitude convection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, L.G.; Marklund, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The influence on the high-latitude ionospheric convection of conductivities associated with upward field-aligned currents is investigated. Potential patterns are calculated from a given distribution of field-aligned currents and a conductivity model. The resulting patterns are shown to be modified considerably by including a coupling term between the conductivity and the field-aligned current in the conductivity model. The clockwise rotation of the entire potential pattern is reduced when the conductivity enhancement coincides with the regions of upward field-aligned current. Also, the electric field within these regions turns out to be rather insensitive to change in the magnitude of the current. In regions of downward current or when the current-dependent conductivity is excluded there is on the other hand an almost linear relationship between current and electric field. Although the particles producing the conductivity enhancement may not be the same as those carrying the major part of the field-aligned current it is clear from observations that there is a positive correlation between upward current conductivity. Therefore, the simple relationship used in this study is believed to reflect rather well the principal features of the current-conductivity coupling, which is of im- portance to the modelling of ionospheric electrodynamics. (With 26 refs.) (authors)

  6. Patterned forests of vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using metal salt catalyst solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, David J; Flavel, Benjamin S; Baronian, Keith H R; Downard, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for producing patterned forests of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is described. An aqueous metal salt solution is spin-coated onto a substrate patterned with photoresist by standard methods. The photoresist is removed by acetone washing leaving the acetone-insoluble catalyst pattern on the substrate. Dense forests of vertically aligned (VA) MWCNTs are grown on the patterned catalyst layers by chemical vapour deposition. The procedures have been demonstrated by growing MWCNT forests on two substrates: silicon and conducting graphitic carbon films. The forests adhere strongly to the substrates and when grown directly on carbon film, offer a simple method of preparing MWCNT electrodes.

  7. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-30nm pitch Mx level patterning with EUV self-aligned double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Angélique; Lee, Joe; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Shearer, Jeffrey; Xu, Yongan; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    We report a sub-30nm pitch self-aligned double patterning (SADP) integration scheme with EUV lithography coupled with self-aligned block technology (SAB) targeting the back end of line (BEOL) metal line patterning applications for logic nodes beyond 5nm. The integration demonstration is a validation of the scalability of a previously reported flow, which used 193nm immersion SADP targeting a 40nm pitch with the same material sets (Si3N4 mandrel, SiO2 spacer, Spin on carbon, spin on glass). The multi-color integration approach is successfully demonstrated and provides a valuable method to address overlay concerns and more generally edge placement error (EPE) as a whole for advanced process nodes. Unbiased LER/LWR analysis comparison between EUV SADP and 193nm immersion SADP shows that both integrations follow the same trend throughout the process steps. While EUV SADP shows increased LER after mandrel pull, metal hardmask open and dielectric etch compared to 193nm immersion SADP, the final process performance is matched in terms of LWR (1.08nm 3 sigma unbiased) and is only 6% higher than 193nm immersion SADP for average unbiased LER. Using EUV SADP enables almost doubling the line density while keeping most of the remaining processes and films unchanged, and provides a compelling alternative to other multipatterning integrations, which present their own sets of challenges.

  8. Laser micro-machining of hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns for fluid driven self-alignment in micro-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Jorritsma, Mark; Arnaldo del Cerro, D.; Chang, Bo; Liimatainen, Ville; Zhou, Quan; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Fluid driven self-alignment is a low cost alternative to fast but relatively inaccurate robotic pickand-place assembly of micro-fabricated components. This fluidic self-alignment technique relies on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic pattern on the surface of the receiving substrate, which confines a fluid

  9. Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer Nanowire/Micro- and Nanotube Arrays on any Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Morber, Jenny Ruth

    2009-05-25

    A study was conducted to fabricate wafer-level patterned and aligned polymer nanowire (PNW), micro- and nanotube arrays (PNT), which were created by exposing the polymer material to plasma etching. The approach for producing wafer-level aligned PNWs involved a one-step inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching process. The polymer nanowire array was fabricated in an ICP reactive ion milling chamber with a pressure of 10mTorr. Argon (Ar), O 2, and CF4 gases were released into the chamber as etchants at flow rates of 15 sccm, 10 sccm, and 40 sccm. Inert gasses, such as Ar-form positive ions were incorporated to serve as a physical component to assist in the material degradation process. One power source (400 W) was used to generate dense plasma from the input gases, while another power source applied a voltage of approximately 600V to accelerate the plasma toward the substrate.

  10. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet

  11. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  12. Controllable deposition distance of aligned pattern via dual-nozzle near-field electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xindu; Zeng, Jun; Liang, Feng; Wu, Peixuan; Wang, Han

    2017-03-01

    For large area micro/nano pattern printing, multi-nozzle electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing setup is an efficient method to boost productivity in near-field electrospinning (NFES) process. And controlling EHD multi-jet accurate deposition under the interaction of nozzles and other parameters are crucial concerns during the process. The influence and sensitivity of various parameters such as the needle length, needle spacing, electrode-to-collector distance, voltage etc. on the direct-write patterning performance was investigated by orthogonal experiments with dual-nozzle NFES setup, and then the deposition distance estimated based on a novel model was compared with measurement results and proven. More controllable deposition distance and much denser of aligned naofiber can be achieved by rotating the dual-nozzle setup. This study can be greatly contributed to estimate the deposition distance and helpful to guide the multi-nozzle NFES process to accurate direct-write pattern in manufacturing process in future.

  13. Self-alignment of RFID dies on four-pad patterns with water droplet for sparse self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Bo; Routa, Iiris; Sariola, Veikko; Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an in-depth study of a water-droplet-assisted self-alignment technique that self-aligns radio frequency identification (RFID) dies on four-pad patterns. The segmented structure of four hydrophilic pads on a hydrophobic substrate brings freedom to the design of the electrical functionality and the surface functionality. The paper investigates the influence of the key parameters that may affect the self-alignment in theory and experiment. The theoretical model justifies that RFID dies can be reliably aligned on the segmented four-pad pattern even when the initial placement error is as large as 50% of the size of the die and the gap between the four pads is about 10% of the size of the die. A method has been introduced to estimate the sufficient droplet volume for self-alignment. A series of experiments have been carried out to verify the results of the model. The experiments indicate that the self-alignment between the 730 × 730 µm RFID dies and the pattern occurs reliably when the releasing bias between the RFID die and antenna is less than 400 µm for patterns with 50 and 100 µm gaps, and successful self-alignment is possible even with greater bias of 500 µm

  14. Design Pattern Mining Using Distributed Learning Automata and DNA Sequence Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Context Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. Objective This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. Method The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. Results The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. Conclusion The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns. PMID:25243670

  15. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeilpour

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.

  16. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.

  17. An Enumerative Combinatorics Model for Fragmentation Patterns in RNA Sequencing Provides Insights into Nonuniformity of the Expected Fragment Starting-Point and Coverage Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Celine; Haeseler, Arndt Von

    2017-03-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as the method of choice for measuring the expression of RNAs in a given cell population. In most RNA-seq technologies, sequencing the full length of RNA molecules requires fragmentation into smaller pieces. Unfortunately, the issue of nonuniform sequencing coverage across a genomic feature has been a concern in RNA-seq and is attributed to biases for certain fragments in RNA-seq library preparation and sequencing. To investigate the expected coverage obtained from fragmentation, we develop a simple fragmentation model that is independent of bias from the experimental method and is not specific to the transcript sequence. Essentially, we enumerate all configurations for maximal placement of a given fragment length, F, on transcript length, T, to represent every possible fragmentation pattern, from which we compute the expected coverage profile across a transcript. We extend this model to incorporate general empirical attributes such as read length, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules of the transcript. We further introduce the fragment starting-point, fragment coverage, and read coverage profiles. We find that the expected profiles are not uniform and that factors such as fragment length to transcript length ratio, read length to fragment length ratio, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules influence the variability of coverage across a transcript. Finally, we explore a potential application of the model where, with simulations, we show that it is possible to correctly estimate the transcript copy number for any transcript in the RNA-seq experiment.

  18. Line roughness improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning by wafer stress engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; Biolsi, Peter; Chae, Soo Doo; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Kagaya, Munehito; Lee, Choongman; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tsujikawa, Shimpei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Okubo, Kazuya; Imai, Kiyotaka

    2018-04-01

    In integrated circuit and memory devices, size shrinkage has been the most effective method to reduce production cost and enable the steady increment of the number of transistors per unit area over the past few decades. In order to reduce the die size and feature size, it is necessary to minimize pattern formation in the advance node development. In the node of sub-10nm, extreme ultra violet lithography (EUV) and multi-patterning solutions based on 193nm immersionlithography are the two most common options to achieve the size requirement. In such small features of line and space pattern, line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER) contribute significant amount of process variation that impacts both physical and electrical performances. In this paper, we focus on optimizing the line roughness performance by using wafer stress engineering on 30nm pitch line and space pattern. This pattern is generated by a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) technique for the potential application of fin formation. Our investigation starts by comparing film materials and stress levels in various processing steps and material selection on SAQP integration scheme. From the cross-matrix comparison, we are able to determine the best stack of film selection and stress combination in order to achieve the lowest line roughness performance while obtaining pattern validity after fin etch. This stack is also used to study the step-by-step line roughness performance from SAQP to fin etch. Finally, we will show a successful patterning of 30nm pitch line and space pattern SAQP scheme with 1nm line roughness performance.

  19. Alignment of human cardiomyocytes on laser patterned biphasic core/shell nanowire assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Karin; Haidar, Ayman; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Lee, Juseok; Martinez Miró, Marina; Kaan Akkan, Cagri; Cenk Aktas, Oral; Veith, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The management of end stage heart failure patients is only possible by heart transplantation or by the implantation of artificial hearts as a bridge for later transplantation. However, these therapeutic strategies are limited by a lack of donor hearts and by the associated complications, such as coagulation and infection, due to the used artificial mechanical circulatory assist devices. Therefore, new strategies for myocardial regenerative approaches are under extensive research to produce contractile myocardial tissue in the future to replace non-contractile myocardial ischemic and scarred tissue. Different approaches, such as cell transplantation, have been studied intensively. Although successful approaches have been observed, there are still limitations to the application. It is envisaged that myocardial tissue engineering can be used to help replace infarcted non-contractile tissue. The developed tissue should later mimic the aligned fibrillar structure of the extracellular matrix and provide important guidance cues for the survival, function and the needed orientation of cardiomyocytes. Nanostructured surfaces have been tested to provide a guided direction that cells can follow. In the present study, the cellular adhesion/alignment of human cardiomyocytes and the biocompatibility have been investigated after cultivation on different laser-patterned nanowires compared with unmodified nanowires. As a result, the nanostructured surfaces possessed good biocompatibility before and after laser modification. The laser-induced scalability of the pattern enabled the growth and orientation of the adhered myocardial tissue. Such approaches may be used to modify the surface of potential scaffolds to develop myocardial contractile tissue in the future. (paper)

  20. Unexpected alignment patterns in high-j intruder bands evidence for a strong residual neutron proton interaction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, R.; Johnson, A.; Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm

    1990-01-01

    The alignment of h 11/12 protons in νi 13/2 intruder bands in mass A = 130 region is investigated. The lack of a clear h 11/12 band crossing is compared with the alignment pattern of i 13/2 neutrons in πi 13/2 intruder bands in mass A = 180 region. The very smooth rise in angular momentum in the intruder bands is related to a possible neutron proton interaction between the single intruder orbital and the aligned two-quasiparticle configuration. 36 refs., 3 figs

  1. Biomechanical Alignment of Main Wear-Pattern on MOM Total Hip Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of retrievals, femoral heads and cups are sent for analysis with no designation as to positioning in-vivo. In addition, when patients retain the femoral prosthesis, evidence of neck impingement damage is lost. In this case report we studied head and cup wear-patterns and stripe damage in a novel case that included a large diameter metal-on-metal THA that was retrieved with the head still fused to the stem. This provided anatomical positioning of head wear-pattern and stripe damage as represented by the orientation of the femoral stem in radiographic images. We investigated (1 size, shape and location of head and cup wear-patterns, (2 cup-to-stem impingement damage, and (3 head stripe-wear. The head wear-pattern was elliptical in shape, 40mm diameter with area covering 2200 sq.mm. Its hemispherical ratio was 56% with aspect ratio 1.2 and typical of large-diameter MOM retrievals. Wear-pattern extended from 12° above superior head-margin to approximately 40° inferior to polar axis. Centroidal vector in coronal plane was 13° posterior to polar axis and in transverse plane was 19° superior to polar axis. These vector data corresponded well with biomechanical predictions of resultant load axes in gait studies. Stripe damage was identified on the head, and the cup rim could thereby be aligned to verify neck impingement and also head subluxation mechanisms. Cup wear-pattern was not centrally contained, indicating this patient had experienced repetitive edge-wear during gait. Thinning of the cup rim by 350- 400μm indicated that posterior impingement with repetitive anterior subluxation of the head had created this edge-wear.

  2. Combined Cell Culture-Biosensing Platform Using Vertically Aligned Patterned Peptide Nanofibers for Cellular Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskin, Mehmet B.; Sasso, Luigi; Dimaki, Maria

    2013-01-01

    it possible to avoid a loss of sensitivity because of the diffusion of the sample. The obtained results showed that the peptide nanofibers were suitable as a cell culturing substrate for PC12 cells. The peptide nanofibers could be employed as an alternative biological material to increase the adherence......This Article presents the development of a combined cell culture–biosensing platform using vertically aligned self-assembled peptide nanofibers. Peptide nanofibers were patterned on a microchip containing gold microelectrodes to provide the cells with a 3D environment enabling them to grow...... and proliferate. Gold microelectrodes were functionalized with conductive polymers for the electrochemical detection of dopamine released from PC12 cells. The combined cell culture–biosensing platform assured a close proximity of the release site, the cells and the active surface of the sensor, thereby rendering...

  3. Synthesis of Patterned Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes by PECVD Using Different Growth Techniques: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangele, Aparna; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Pandey, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Immense development has been taken place not only to increase the bulk production, repeatability and yield of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in last 25 years but preference is also given to acknowledge the basic concepts of nucleation and growth methods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VAC-NTs) are forest of CNTs accommodated perpendicular on a substrate. Their exceptional chemical and physical properties along with sequential arrangement and dense structure make them suitable in various fields. The effect of different type of selected substrate, carbon precursor, catalyst and their physical and chemical status, reaction conditions and many other key parameters have been thoroughly studied and analysed. The aim of this paper is to specify the trend and summarize the effect of key parameters instead of only presenting all the experiments reported till date. The identified trends will be compared with the recent observations on the growth of different types of patterned VACNTs. In this review article, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of different techniques to precisely determine the role of different parameters responsible for the growth of patterned vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. We have covered various techniques proposed in the span of more than two decades to fabricate the different structures and configurations of carbon nanotubes on different types of substrates. Apart from a detailed discussion of each technique along with their specific process and implementation, we have also provided a critical analysis of the associated constraints, benefits and shortcomings. To sum it all for easy reference for researchers, we have tabulated all the techniques based on certain main key factors. This review article comprises of an exhaustive discussion and a handy reference for researchers who are new in the field of synthesis of CNTs or who wants to get abreast with the techniques of determining the growth of VACNTs arrays.

  4. A MEMORY EFFICIENT HARDWARE BASED PATTERN MATCHING AND PROTEIN ALIGNMENT SCHEMES FOR HIGHLY COMPLEX DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    Bennet, M.Anto; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Deepika, M.; Nanthini, N.; Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Priyanka, M.

    2017-01-01

    Protein sequence alignment to find correlation between different species, or genetic mutations etc. is the most computational intensive task when performing protein comparison. To speed-up the alignment, Systolic Arrays (SAs) have been used. In order to avoid the internal-loop problem which reduces the performance, pipeline interleaving strategy has been presented. This strategy is applied to an SA for Smith Waterman (SW) algorithm which is an alignment algorithm to locally align two proteins...

  5. Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm. In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.

  6. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Laser-assisted simultaneous transfer and patterning of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on polymer substrates for flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications.

  8. Alignment of breast cancer screening guidelines, accountability metrics, and practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Haas, Jennifer S; Bitton, Asaf; Brackett, Charles; Weiss, Julie; Goodrich, Martha; Harris, Kimberly; Pyle, Steve; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening guidelines and metrics are inconsistent with each other and may differ from breast screening practice patterns in primary care. This study measured breast cancer screening practice patterns in relation to common evidence-based guidelines and accountability metrics. Cohort study using primary data collected from a regional breast cancer screening research network between 2011 and 2014. Using information on women aged 30 to 89 years within 21 primary care practices of 2 large integrated health systems in New England, we measured the proportion of women screened overall and by age using 2 screening definition categories: any mammogram and screening mammogram. Of the 81,352 women in our cohort, 54,903 (67.5%) had at least 1 mammogram during the time period, 48,314 (59.4%) had a screening mammogram. Women aged 50 to 69 years were the highest proportion screened (82.4% any mammogram, 75% screening indication); 72.6% of women at age 40 had a screening mammogram with a median of 70% (range = 54.3%-84.8%) among the practices. Of women aged at least 75 years, 63.3% had a screening mammogram, with the median of 63.9% (range = 37.2%-78.3%) among the practices. Of women who had 2 or more mammograms, 79.5% were screened annually. Primary care practice patterns for breast cancer screening are not well aligned with some evidence-based guidelines and accountability metrics. Metrics and incentives should be designed with more uniformity and should also include shared decision making when the evidence does not clearly support one single conclusion.

  9. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  10. Molecular structure determination from x-ray scattering patterns of laser-aligned symmetric-top molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P. J.; Starodub, D.; Saldin, D. K.; Shneerson, V. L.; Ourmazd, A.; Santra, R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the molecular structure information contained in the x-ray diffraction patterns of an ensemble of rigid CF 3 Br molecules aligned by an intense laser pulse at finite rotational temperature. The diffraction patterns are calculated at an x-ray photon energy of 20 keV to probe molecular structure at angstrom-scale resolution. We find that a structural reconstruction algorithm based on iterative phase retrieval fails to extract a reliable structure. However, the high atomic number of Br compared with C or F allows each diffraction pattern to be treated as a hologram. Using this approach, the azimuthal projection of the molecular electron density about the alignment axis may be retrieved.

  11. JDet: interactive calculation and visualization of function-related conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Thilo; García-Martín, Juan A; Rausell, Antonio; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2012-02-15

    We have implemented in a single package all the features required for extracting, visualizing and manipulating fully conserved positions as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern in multiple sequence alignments. The program allows, among other things, to run different methods for extracting these positions, combine the results and visualize them in protein 3D structures and sequence spaces. JDet is a multiplatform application written in Java. It is freely available, including the source code, at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/JDet. The package includes two of our recently developed programs for detecting functional positions in protein alignments (Xdet and S3Det), and support for other methods can be added as plug-ins. A help file and a guided tutorial for JDet are also available.

  12. Spontaneous magnetic alignment by yearling snapping turtles: rapid association of radio frequency dependent pattern of magnetic input with novel surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2015-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA) by juvenile snapping turtles using exposure to low-level radio frequency (RF) fields at the Larmor frequency to help characterize the underlying sensory mechanism. Turtles, first introduced to the testing environment without the presence of RF aligned consistently towards magnetic north when subsequent magnetic testing conditions were also free of RF ('RF off → RF off'), but were disoriented when subsequently exposed to RF ('RF off → RF on'). In contrast, animals initially introduced to the testing environment with RF present were disoriented when tested without RF ('RF on → RF off'), but aligned towards magnetic south when tested with RF ('RF on → RF on'). Sensitivity of the SMA response of yearling turtles to RF is consistent with the involvement of a radical pair mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of RF appears to result from a change in the pattern of magnetic input, rather than elimination of magnetic input altogether, as proposed to explain similar effects in other systems/organisms. The findings show that turtles first exposed to a novel environment form a lasting association between the pattern of magnetic input and their surroundings. However, under natural conditions turtles would never experience a change in the pattern of magnetic input. Therefore, if turtles form a similar association of magnetic cues with the surroundings each time they encounter unfamiliar habitat, as seems likely, the same pattern of magnetic input would be associated with multiple sites/localities. This would be expected from a sensory input that functions as a global reference frame, helping to place multiple locales (i.e., multiple local landmark arrays) into register to form a global map of familiar space.

  13. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes over vertically aligned silicon nanowire bundles for achieving uniform field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Jr; Huang, Yung-Jui; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Lee, San-Liang

    2014-01-01

    A fabrication strategy is proposed to enable precise coverage of as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) mats atop vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) bundles in order to realize a uniform bundle array of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions over a large sample area. No obvious electrical degradation of as-fabricated SiNWs is observed according to the measured current-voltage characteristic of a two-terminal single-nanowire device. Bundle arrangement of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions is optimized to relax the electrostatic screening effect and to maximize the field enhancement factor. As a result, superior field emission performance and relatively stable emission current over 12 h is obtained. A bright and uniform fluorescent radiation is observed from CNT-SiNW-based field emitters regardless of its bundle periodicity, verifying the existence of high-density and efficient field emitters on the proposed CNT-SiNW bundle arrays.

  14. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Miriam E; Hamm, Michael W; Hu, Frank B; Abrams, Steven A; Griffin, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee’s original conclusions. In the original SR, 15 studies met the criteria for inclusion; since then, an additional 8 studies have been identified and included. The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies, with methodologies that included modeling, life cycle assessment, and land use analysis. Across studies, consistent evidence indicated that a dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment. This dietary pattern differs from current average consumption patterns in the United States. Our updated SR confirms and strengthens the conclusions of the original US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee SR, which found that adherence to several well-characterized dietary patterns, including vegetarian (with variations) diets, dietary guidelines–related diets, Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promotes greater health and has a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes

  15. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Miriam E; Hamm, Michael W; Hu, Frank B; Abrams, Steven A; Griffin, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions. In the original SR, 15 studies met the criteria for inclusion; since then, an additional 8 studies have been identified and included. The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies, with methodologies that included modeling, life cycle assessment, and land use analysis. Across studies, consistent evidence indicated that a dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment. This dietary pattern differs from current average consumption patterns in the United States. Our updated SR confirms and strengthens the conclusions of the original US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee SR, which found that adherence to several well-characterized dietary patterns, including vegetarian (with variations) diets, dietary guidelines-related diets, Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promotes greater health and has a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes.

  16. Wet etch methods for InAs nanowire patterning and self-aligned electrical contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, G.; d'Hollosy, S.; Hofstetter, L.; Baumgartner, A.; Nygård, J.; Schönenberger, C.; Csonka, S.

    2016-05-01

    Advanced synthesis of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) enables their application in diverse fields, notably in chemical and electrical sensing, photovoltaics, or quantum electronic devices. In particular, indium arsenide (InAs) NWs are an ideal platform for quantum devices, e.g. they may host topological Majorana states. While the synthesis has been continously perfected, only a few techniques have been developed to tailor individual NWs after growth. Here we present three wet chemical etch methods for the post-growth morphological engineering of InAs NWs on the sub-100 nm scale. The first two methods allow the formation of self-aligned electrical contacts to etched NWs, while the third method results in conical shaped NW profiles ideal for creating smooth electrical potential gradients and shallow barriers. Low temperature experiments show that NWs with etched segments have stable transport characteristics and can serve as building blocks of quantum electronic devices. As an example we report the formation of a single electrically stable quantum dot between two etched NW segments.

  17. Linear q-nonuniform difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    2010-01-01

    We introduce basic concepts of q-nonuniform differentiation and integration and study linear q-nonuniform difference equations and systems, as well as their application in q-nonuniform difference linear control systems. (author)

  18. larvalign: Aligning Gene Expression Patterns from the Larval Brain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzing, Sascha E A; Strauch, Martin; Truman, James W; Bühler, Katja; Thum, Andreas S; Merhof, Dorit

    2018-01-01

    The larval brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a small, tractable model system for neuroscience. Genes for fluorescent marker proteins can be expressed in defined, spatially restricted neuron populations. Here, we introduce the methods for 1) generating a standard template of the larval central nervous system (CNS), 2) spatial mapping of expression patterns from different larvae into a reference space defined by the standard template. We provide a manually annotated gold standard that serves for evaluation of the registration framework involved in template generation and mapping. A method for registration quality assessment enables the automatic detection of registration errors, and a semi-automatic registration method allows one to correct registrations, which is a prerequisite for a high-quality, curated database of expression patterns. All computational methods are available within the larvalign software package: https://github.com/larvalign/larvalign/releases/tag/v1.0.

  19. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, M V; Spengler, N; Mager, D; Wang, N; Kiss, S Z; Höfflin, J; While, P T; Korvink, J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner. (paper)

  20. High Current Emission from Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linfan; Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Jiao, Tifeng

    2015-12-01

    Vertically, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were successfully fabricated on hexagon patterned Si substrates through radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using gas mixtures of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) with Fe/Al2O3 catalysts. The CNTs were found to be graphitized with multi-walled structures. Different H2/C2H2 gas flow rate ratio was used to investigate the effect on CNT growth, and the field emission properties were optimized. The CNT emitters exhibited excellent field emission performance (the turn-on and threshold fields were 2.1 and 2.4 V/μm, respectively). The largest emission current could reach 70 mA/cm2. The emission current was stable, and no obvious deterioration was observed during the long-term stability test of 50 h. The results were relevant for practical applications based on CNTs.

  1. Relaxing the electrostatic screening effect by patterning vertically-aligned silicon nanowire arrays into bundles for field emission application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Yung-Jr, E-mail: yungjrhung@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, San-Liang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Beng, Looi Choon [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Jui [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    Top-down fabrication strategies are proposed and demonstrated to realize arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire bundles and bundle arrays of carbon nanotube–silicon nanowire (CNT–SiNW) heterojunctions, aiming for releasing the electrostatic screening effect and improving the field emission characteristics. The trade-off between the reduction in the electrostatic screening effect and the decrease of emission sites leads to an optimal SiNW bundle arrangement which enables the lowest turn-on electric field of 1.4 V/μm and highest emission current density of 191 μA/cm{sup 2} among all testing SiNW samples. Benefiting from the superior thermal and electrical properties of CNTs and the flexible patterning technologies available for SiNWs, bundle arrays of CNT–SiNW heterojunctions show improved and highly-uniform field emission with a lower turn-on electric field of 0.9 V/μm and higher emission current density of 5.86 mA/cm{sup 2}. The application of these materials and their corresponding fabrication approaches is not limited to the field emission but can be used for a variety of emerging fields like nanoelectronics, lithium-ion batteries, and solar cells. - Highlights: • Aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) bundle arrays are realized with top-down methods. • Growing carbon nanotubes atop SiNW bundle arrays enable uniform field emission. • A turn-on field of 0.9 V/μm and an emission current of > 5 mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved.

  2. Nonuniform sampling by quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, D. Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Rovnyak, Virginia G.; Rovnyak, David

    2018-03-01

    A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license.

  3. Field-aligned currents and convection patterns in the Southern Polar Cap during stable northward, southward, and azimuthal IMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papitashvili, V.O.; Belov, B.A.; Gromova, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    Equivalent ionospheric current patterns are derived from ground-based geomagnetic observations for events on 11-12 November 1979 (B/sub z/ >> 0), 24 November 1981 (B/sub z/ > 0) (B/sub y/ >> 0), and 25-26 November 1979 (B/sub y/ 0 . Due to stable external conditions, it is possible to calculate the field-aligned current (FAC) density within cells formed by two adjacent stations by taking into account the uniform conductivity of the summer polar ionosphere. These results completely correspond to regressional analysis of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) and ground-based geomagnetic data, and also to satellite observations of the NBZ current system. During stable southward IMF a new result was obtained, a reversal of antisunward convection flow is identified, and an NBZ-like FAC system is restored in the central part of the southern polar cap. The authors conclude that there may be an additional NBZ-like FAC system poleward of -85 0 , which is independent of the IMF and is generated by the quasi-viscous interaction between solar-wind plasma and high-latitude lobes of the magnetospheric tail

  4. Amino acid and nucleotide recurrence in aligned sequences: synonymous substitution patterns in association with global and local base compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, M; Nishizawa, K

    2000-10-01

    The tendency for repetitiveness of nucleotides in DNA sequences has been reported for a variety of organisms. We show that the tendency for repetitive use of amino acids is widespread and is observed even for segments conserved between human and Drosophila melanogaster at the level of >50% amino acid identity. This indicates that repetitiveness influences not only the weakly constrained segments but also those sequence segments conserved among phyla. Not only glutamine (Q) but also many of the 20 amino acids show a comparable level of repetitiveness. Repetitiveness in bases at codon position 3 is stronger for human than for D.melanogaster, whereas local repetitiveness in intron sequences is similar between the two organisms. While genes for immune system-specific proteins, but not ancient human genes (i.e. human homologs of Escherichia coli genes), have repetitiveness at codon bases 1 and 2, repetitiveness at codon base 3 for these groups is similar, suggesting that the human genome has at least two mechanisms generating local repetitiveness. Neither amino acid nor nucleotide repetitiveness is observed beyond the exon boundary, denying the possibility that such repetitiveness could mainly stem from natural selection on mRNA or protein sequences. Analyses of mammalian sequence alignments show that while the 'between gene' GC content heterogeneity, which is linked to 'isochores', is a principal factor associated with the bias in substitution patterns in human, 'within gene' heterogeneity in nucleotide composition is also associated with such bias on a more local scale. The relationship amongst the various types of repetitiveness is discussed.

  5. Field nonuniformity correction for quantitative analysis of digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    Several factors, including the heel effect, variation in distance from the x-ray source to points in the image and path obliquity contribute to the signal nonuniformity of mammograms. To best use digitized mammograms for quantitative image analysis, these field non-uniformities must be corrected. An empirically based correction method, which uses a bowl-shaped calibration phantom, has been developed. Due to the annular spherical shape of the phantom, its attenuation is constant over the entire image. Remaining nonuniformities are due only to the heel and inverse square effects as well as the variable path through the beam filter, compression plate and image receptor. In logarithmic space, a normalized image of the phantom can be added to mammograms to correct for these effects. Then, an analytical correction for path obliquity in the breast can be applied to the images. It was found that the correction causes the errors associated with field nonuniformity to be reduced from 14% to 2% for a 4 cm block of material corresponding to a combination of 50% fibroglandular and 50% fatty breast tissue. A repeatability study has been conducted to show that in regions as far as 20 cm away from the chest wall, variations due to imaging conditions and phantom alignment contribute to <2% of overall corrected signal

  6. Pitch peak alignment in an outside focus realization : Frisian-Dutch bilingual speakers’ declarative and imperative intonation patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, Amber; Hilton, Nanna; Coler, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates intonational pitch variations and pitch peak alignment in declarative sentences and is part of a larger study of declarative, interrogative and imperative grammatical constructions in the Frisian-Dutch contact situation. Frisian is a minority language spoken in the province

  7. Influence Of Nonuniformity On Infrared Focal Plane Array Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, A. F.; Barone, F. R.; Kruer, M. R.

    1985-08-01

    It is well known that detector response nonuniformity results in pattern noise with staring sensors that is a severe problem in the infrared due to the low intrinsic contrast of IR imagery. The pattern noise can be corrected by electronic processing; however, the ability to correct for pattern noise is limited by the interaction of interscene and intrascene variability with the dynamic range of the processor (number of bits) and, depending upon the algorithm used, by nonlinearities in the detector response. This paper quantifies these limitations and describes the interaction of detector gain nonuniformity and detector nonlinearities. Probabilistic models are developed to determine the maximum sensitivity that can be obtained using a two-point algorithm to correct a nonlinear response curve over a wide temperature range. Curves that permit a prediction of the noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) under varying circumstances are presented. A piecewise linear approach to dealing with severe detector response nonlinearities is presented and analyzed for its effectiveness.

  8. Roughness and uniformity improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning technique for 10nm node and beyond by wafer stress engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; O'Meara, David; Mohanty, Nihar; Franke, Elliott; Pillai, Karthik; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Dimension shrinkage has been a major driving force in the development of integrated circuit processing over a number of decades. The Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) technique is widely adapted for sub-10nm node in order to achieve the desired feature dimensions. This technique provides theoretical feasibility of multiple pitch-halving from 193nm immersion lithography by using various pattern transferring steps. The major concept of this approach is to a create spacer defined self-aligned pattern by using single lithography print. By repeating the process steps, double, quadruple, or octuple are possible to be achieved theoretically. In these small architectures, line roughness control becomes extremely important since it may contribute to a significant portion of process and device performance variations. In addition, the complexity of SAQP in terms of processing flow makes the roughness improvement indirective and ineffective. It is necessary to discover a new approach in order to improve the roughness in the current SAQP technique. In this presentation, we demonstrate a novel method to improve line roughness performances on 30nm pitch SAQP flow. We discover that the line roughness performance is strongly related to stress management. By selecting different stress level of film to be deposited onto the substrate, we can manipulate the roughness performance in line and space patterns. In addition, the impact of curvature change by applied film stress to SAQP line roughness performance is also studied. No significant correlation is found between wafer curvature and line roughness performance. We will discuss in details the step-by-step physical performances for each processing step in terms of critical dimension (CD)/ critical dimension uniformity (CDU)/line width roughness (LWR)/line edge roughness (LER). Finally, we summarize the process needed to reach the full wafer performance targets of LWR/LER in 1.07nm/1.13nm on 30nm pitch line and space pattern.

  9. Cycle stability of the electrochemical capacitors patterned with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in an LiPF6-based electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yi-Deng; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Lam, Hoa Hung; Chang, Chuan-hua; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2013-09-07

    The miniature ultracapacitors, with interdigitated electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and an inter-electrode gap of 20 μm, have been prepared in the LiPF6 organic electrolyte with and without PVdF-HFP gel. PVdF-HFP between two opposing electrodes enhances the device reliability, but lessens its power performance because of the extra diffusion resistance. Also noteworthy are the gel influences on the cycle stability. When the applied voltage is 2.0 or 2.5 V, both the LiPF6 and the gel capacitors exhibit excellent stability, typified by a retention ratio of ≥95% after 10,000 cycles. Their coulombic efficiencies quickly rise up, and hold steady at 100%. Nonetheless, when the applied voltage is 3.5 or 4.0 V, the cycle stability deteriorates, since the negative electrode potential descends below 0.9 V (vs. Li), leading to electrolyte decomposition and SEI formation. For the LiPF6 capacitor, its retention ratio could be around 60% after 10,000 cycles and the coulombic efficiency of 100% is difficult to reach throughout its cycle life. On the other hand, the gel capacitor cycles energy with a much higher retention ratio, >80% after 10,000 cycles, and a better coulombic efficiency, even though electrolyte decomposition still occurs. We attribute the superior stability of the gel capacitor to its extra diffusion resistance which slows down the performance deterioration.

  10. Heteroepitaxial Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed ZnO Nanowires on GaN Using Laser Interference Ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Dajun

    2010-08-23

    A simple two-step method of fabricating vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is described. The method combines laser interference ablation (LIA) and low temperature hydrothermal decomposition. The ZnO nanowires grow heteroepitaxially on unablated regions of GaN over areas spanning 1 cm2, with a high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to study the structural characteristics of the LIA-patterned GaN substrate in detail. These studies reveal the possible mechanism for the preferential, site-selective growth of the ZnO nanowires. The method demonstrates high application potential for wafer-scale integration into sensor arrays, piezoelectric devices, and optoelectronic devices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL CHANGES IN KNEE ALIGNMENT PATTERN IN NORMAL SOUTH-EAST NIGERIAN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0 AND 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko V.C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the chronological changes in knee alignment pattern in normal South-East Nigerian children aged between 0 and 5 years. A total number of 1450 subjects (680 males and 770 females were used for the study. The intercondylar/intermalleolar distances were measured using a vernier caliper with the subjects standing erect in anatomical position to determine straight knee, genu valgum and genu varum. The data was analysed with Microsoft Excel version 2007. The prevalence was presented as percentage (%.The result showed that the subjects have varum by the first year of life, prevalently genu valgum in type by the second year, valgum by the third year, neutral by the fourth and fifth year.

  12. Nonuniform quantum turbulence in superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskii, Sergey K.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of quantum turbulence in a channel with an inhomogeneous counterflow of superfluid turbulent helium is studied. The counterflow velocity Vns x(y ) along the channel is supposed to have a parabolic profile in the transverse direction y . Such statement corresponds to the recent numerical simulation by Khomenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 180504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.180504]. The authors reported about a sophisticated behavior of the vortex-line density (VLD) L (r ,t ) , different from L ∝Vns x(y) 2 , which follows from the straightforward application of the conventional Vinen theory. It is clear that Vinen theory should be refined by taking into account transverse effects, and the way it ought to be done is the subject of active discussion in the literature. In this work, we discuss several possible mechanisms of the transverse flux of VLD L (r ,t ) which should be incorporated in the standard Vinen equation to describe adequately the inhomogeneous quantum turbulence. It is shown that the most effective among these mechanisms is the one that is related to the phase-slippage phenomenon. The use of this flux in the modernized Vinen equation corrects the situation with an unusual distribution of the vortex-line density, and satisfactorily describes the behavior L (r ,t ) both in stationary and nonstationary situations. The general problem of the phenomenological Vinen theory in the case of nonuniform and nonstationary quantum turbulence is thoroughly discussed.

  13. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  14. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  15. Long-term stress distribution patterns of the ankle joint in varus knee alignment assessed by computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Tomohiro; Majima, Tokifumi; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Minami, Akio

    2012-09-01

    The stress distribution of an ankle under various physiological conditions is important for long-term survival of total ankle arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to measure subchondral bone density across the distal tibial joint surface in patients with malalignment/instability of the lower limb. We evaluated subchondral bone density across the distal tibial joint in patients with malalignment/instability of the knee by computed tomography (CT) osteoabsorptiometry from ten ankles as controls and from 27 ankles with varus deformity/instability of the knee. The quantitative analysis focused on the location of the high-density area at the articular surface, to determine the resultant long-term stress on the ankle joint. The area of maximum density of subchondral bone was located in the medial part in all subjects. The pattern of maximum density in the anterolateral area showed stepwise increases with the development of varus deformity/instability of the knee. Our results should prove helpful for designing new prostheses and determining clinical indications for total ankle arthroplasty.

  16. Modified alignment CGHs for aspheric surface test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Bong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2009-08-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) for optical test are commonly consisted of one main pattern for testing aspheric surface and some alignment patterns for aligning the interferometer, CGH, and the test optics. To align the CGH plate and the test optics, we designed the alignment CGHs modified from the cat's eye alignment method, which are consisted of a couple of CGH patterns. The incident beam passed through the one part of the alignment CGH pattern is focused onto the one radius position of the test aspheric surface, and is reflected to the other part, and vice versa. This method has several merits compared to the conventional cat's eye alignment method. First, this method can be used in testing optics with a center hole, and the center part of CGH plate can be assigned to the alignment pattern. Second, the alignment pattern becomes a concentric circular arc pattern. The whole CGH patterns including the main pattern and alignment patterns are consisted of only concentric circular fringes. This concentric circular pattern can be easily made by the polar coordinated writer with circular scanning. The required diffraction angle becomes relatively small, so the 1st order diffraction beams instead of the 3rd order diffraction beam can be used as alignment beams, and the visibility can be improved. This alignment method also is more sensitive to the tilt and the lateral shift of the test aspheric surface. Using this alignment pattern, a 200 mm diameter F/0.5 aspheric mirror and a 600 mm diameter F/0.9 mirror were tested.

  17. An efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction method for infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiyan; Sui, Xiubao; Zhao, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The non-uniformity response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors has a bad effect on images with fixed pattern noise. At present, it is common to use shutter to prevent from radiation of target and to update the parameters of non-uniformity correction in the infrared imaging system. The use of shutter causes "freezing" image. And inevitably, there exists the problems of the instability and reliability of system, power consumption, and concealment of infrared detection. In this paper, we present an efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction (NUC) method for infrared focal plane arrays. The infrared imaging system can use the data gaining in thermostat to calculate the incident infrared radiation by shell real-timely. And the primary output of detector except the shell radiation can be corrected by the gain coefficient. This method has been tested in real infrared imaging system, reaching high correction level, reducing fixed pattern noise, adapting wide temperature range.

  18. Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)

  19. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...

  20. Investigation of Non-Uniform Rust Distribution and Its Effects on Corrosion Induced Cracking in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Wahyuniarsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform corrosion still widely used by a lot of researchers and engineers to analyze the corrosion induced cracking. However, in practice, corrosion process occurred non-uniformly. The part nearest to the exposed surface is more likely to have faster corrosion initiation compared with other regions. This research is mainly focused on investigating the effect of non-uniform rust distribution to cover cracking in reinforced concrete. An experimental test performed using accelerated corrosion test by using 5% NaCl solution and applied a constant electric current to the concrete samples. The rust distribution and measurement were observed by using a digital microscope. Based on the experimental result, it was found that the rust was distributed in a non-uniform pattern. As a result, the cracks also formed non-uniformly along the perimeter of steel bar. At the last part of this paper, a simulation result of concrete cracking induced by non-uniform corrosion is presented. The result compared with a simulation using uniform corrosion assumption to investigate the damage pattern of each model. The simulation result reveals stress evolution due to rust expansion which leads to concrete cracking. Furthermore, a comparison of stresses induced by non-uniform corrosion and uniform corrosion indicates that non-uniform corrosion could lead to earlier damage to the structure which is specified by the formation and propagation of the crack.

  1. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  2. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  3. Casimir energy of a nonuniform string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, L.; Lambiase, G.; Nesterenko, V. V.

    2000-07-01

    The Casimir energy of a nonuniform string built up from two pieces with different speeds of sound is calculated. A standard procedure of subtracting the energy of an infinite uniform string is applied, the subtraction being interpreted as the renormalization of the string tension. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous string this method is completely equivalent to zeta renormalization.

  4. Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the

  5. Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration

  6. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  7. Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.

  8. Instruction sequence based non-uniform complexity classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to non-uniform complexity in which single-pass instruction sequences play a key part, and answer various questions that arise from this approach. We introduce several kinds of non-uniform complexity classes. One kind includes a counterpart of the well-known non-uniform

  9. Physical Limitations To Nonuniformity Correction In IR Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, D. A.; Kruer, M. R.; Gridley, J. C.; Sarkady, K.

    1988-05-01

    Simple nonuniformity correction algorithms currently in use can be severely limited by nonlinear response characteristics of the individual pixels in an IR focal plane array. Although more complicated multi-point algorithms improve the correction process they too can be limited by nonlinearities. Furthermore, analysis of single pixel noise power spectrums usually show some level of 1 /f noise. This in turn causes pixel outputs to drift independent of each other thus causing the spatial noise (often called fixed pattern noise) of the array to increase as a function of time since the last calibration. Measurements are presented for two arrays (a HgCdTe hybrid and a Pt:Si CCD) describing pixel nonlinearities, 1/f noise, and residual spatial noise (after nonuniforming correction). Of particular emphasis is spatial noise as a function of the lapsed time since the last calibration and the calibration process selected. The resulting spatial noise is examined in terms of its effect on the NEAT performance of each array tested and comparisons are made. Finally, a discussion of implications for array developers is given.

  10. Vortices in nonuniform upper-hybrid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, T.A.; Vranjes, J.

    1992-01-01

    The equations describing the interaction of an upper-hybrid pump wave with small low-frequency density perturbations are discussed under assumption that the pump is spatially nonuniform. The conditions for the modulational instability are investigated. Instead of a dispersion relation, describing the growth of perturbations in the case of an uniform pump, in our case of nonuniform pump a differential equation is obtained and from its eigenvalues are found the instability criteria. Taking into account the slow-frequency self-interaction terms some localized solutions similar to dipole vortices are found, but described by analytic functions in all space. It is shown that their characteristic size and speed are determined by the pump intensity and its spatial structure. (au)

  11. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....

  12. Allowance for influence of gravity field nonuniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsysar, A. P.

    1987-03-01

    The constants of a quartz-metal pendulum used in higher-order gravimetric networks have been determined and a formula has been derived for the total correction for gravity field nonuniformity measurements made with the pendulum. Nomograms were constructed on the basis of these formulas and are used in introducing corrections into pendulum measurements. A table was prepared giving the components of the correction for some values of the derivatives of gravity potential from surrounding masses. Errors can be caused by building walls, the pedestal on which the instrument sits and other factors, and these must be taken into account since they increase the normal gravity gradient. After introducing these correction components for the nonuniform gravity field, the gravity field at the measurement point is related to the instrument point coinciding with the middle of the pendulum knife blade.

  13. Surface magnetic canting in a nonuniform film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.; Pappas, D.P.; Anisimov, A.V.; Popov, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The zero temperature equilibrium configuration of a nonuniform system made of a ferromagnetic (FM) monolayer on top of a semi-infinite FM film is calculated using a nonlinear mapping formulation of mean-field theory, where the surface is taken into account via an appropriate boundary condition. The analytical criterion for the existence of surface magnetic canting, previously obtained by Popov and Pappas, is also recovered

  14. Statistical evaluation of unobserved nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1988-07-01

    Tests designed to promote nonuniform corrosion have been conducted at PNL on A216 steel. In all of the tests performed to date, there have been no manifestations of significant nonuniform corrosion. Although this may suggest that nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel may not be a significant problem in the nuclear waste repository, a question arises as to whether enough tests have been conducted for a sufficient length of time to rule out nonuniform corrosion of A216 steel. In this report, a method for determining the required number of tests is examined for two of the mechanisms of nonuniform corrosion: pitting and crevice corrosion

  15. Subrandom methods for multidimensional nonuniform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Methods of nonuniform sampling that utilize pseudorandom number sequences to select points from a weighted Nyquist grid are commonplace in biomolecular NMR studies, due to the beneficial incoherence introduced by pseudorandom sampling. However, these methods require the specification of a non-arbitrary seed number in order to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. Because the performance of pseudorandom sampling schedules can substantially vary based on seed number, this can complicate the task of routine data collection. Approaches such as jittered sampling and stochastic gap sampling are effective at reducing random seed dependence of nonuniform sampling schedules, but still require the specification of a seed number. This work formalizes the use of subrandom number sequences in nonuniform sampling as a means of seed-independent sampling, and compares the performance of three subrandom methods to their pseudorandom counterparts using commonly applied schedule performance metrics. Reconstruction results using experimental datasets are also provided to validate claims made using these performance metrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decomposed Photo Response Non-Uniformity for Digital Forensic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Chang-Tsun

    The last few years have seen the applications of Photo Response Non-Uniformity noise (PRNU) - a unique stochastic fingerprint of image sensors, to various types of digital forensic investigations such as source device identification and integrity verification. In this work we proposed a new way of extracting PRNU noise pattern, called Decomposed PRNU (DPRNU), by exploiting the difference between the physical andartificial color components of the photos taken by digital cameras that use a Color Filter Array for interpolating artificial components from physical ones. Experimental results presented in this work have shown the superiority of the proposed DPRNU to the commonly used version. We also proposed a new performance metrics, Corrected Positive Rate (CPR) to evaluate the performance of the common PRNU and the proposed DPRNU.

  17. Micromagnetics of thermally activated switching in nonuniformly magnetized nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Moro, E.; Francisco, C. de; Alejos, O.

    2001-01-01

    Patterned magnetic elements are being proposed as media for the future ultrahigh density storage systems. The equilibrium states of different patterned magnetic dots at zero temperature have been studied in numerous micromagnetic works while in the last year some studies have begun to include the effect of temperature in the computations. In this research a stochastic dynamic micromagnetic study is carried out for rectangular magnetic dots with size 10 by 3.1 times the exchange length, patterned in a film with a thickness of 5 times the exchange length. Two kinds of nonuniform magnetized nanodots are studied in detail: those in which the state prior to the switching follows the shape of a 'C' and those following an 'S'. In both cases a field near to the zero-temperature switching field is applied and then the thermally activated switching is observed. The dependence of the switching time on temperature is analyzed. It is observed how for the 'C' configuration an Arrhenius-like behavior is obtained in a large temperature window while this is not the case for the 'S' configuration. The micromagnetic structure of the switching thermally activated modes leading to these behaviors is also studied

  18. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Ottinger, P. F. [Engility Corporation, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  19. High-order nonuniformly correlated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2018-02-01

    We have introduced a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations named high-order nonuniformly correlated (HNUC) beams, as an extension of conventional nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams. Such beams bring a new parameter (mode order) which is used to tailor the spatial coherence properties. The behavior of the spectral density of the HNUC beams on propagation has been investigated through numerical examples with the help of discrete model decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Our results reveal that by selecting the mode order appropriately, the more sharpened intensity maxima can be achieved at a certain propagation distance compared to that of the NUC beams, and the lateral shift of the intensity maxima on propagation is closed related to the mode order. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the r.m.s width and the propagation factor of the HNUC beams on free-space propagation are derived by means of Wigner distribution function. The influence of initial beam parameters on the evolution of the r.m.s width and the propagation factor, and the relation between the r.m.s width and the occurring of the sharpened intensity maxima on propagation have been studied and discussed in detail.

  20. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Gustafsson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  1. Liquid Crystal Microlens Using Nanoparticle-Induced Vertical Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shug-June Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticle-induced vertical alignment (NIVA of the nematic liquid crystals (LC is applied to achieve an adaptive flat LC microlens with hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN mode by dropping polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS nanoparticle solution on a homogeneous alignment layer. The vertical alignment induced by the POSS nanoparticles resulted in the formation of a hybrid-aligned LC layer with concentric nonuniform distribution of the refractive index in the planar LC cell, which subsequently played the role of the lens, even in the absence of any applied voltages. The dimensions of the concentric HAN structure significantly depend on the volume of the microdroplet and the POSS concentration. The focus effect of this flat microlens was observed while electrically controlling its focal length using the applied voltages from −50 mm to −90 mm.

  2. A stability criterion for HNFDE with non-uniform delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingwen; Zhong Shouming; Zhang Fengli

    2005-01-01

    Stability of functional differential equations (FDE) is an increasingly important problem in both science and engineering. Delays, whether uniform or non-uniform, play an important role in the dynamics of a system. Since non-uniform delay is more general and less focused than uniform delay, this paper concentrates on the stability of high-order neutral functional differential equations (HNFDE) with non-uniform delay, and proposes a sufficient condition for it. This result may be widely helpful, thanks to the frequent emergence of a HNFDE with non-uniform delay in various fields. Its effectiveness is illustrated by some examples

  3. A DSP-based neural network non-uniformity correction algorithm for IRFPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong-liang; Jin, Wei-qi; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiu

    2009-07-01

    An effective neural network non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm based on DSP is proposed in this paper. The non-uniform response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors produces corrupted images with a fixed-pattern noise(FPN).We introduced and analyzed the artificial neural network scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithm. A design of DSP-based NUC development platform for IRFPA is described. The DSP hardware platform designed is of low power consumption, with 32-bit fixed point DSP TMS320DM643 as the kernel processor. The dependability and expansibility of the software have been improved by DSP/BIOS real-time operating system and Reference Framework 5. In order to realize real-time performance, the calibration parameters update is set at a lower task priority then video input and output in DSP/BIOS. In this way, calibration parameters updating will not affect video streams. The work flow of the system and the strategy of real-time realization are introduced. Experiments on real infrared imaging sequences demonstrate that this algorithm requires only a few frames to obtain high quality corrections. It is computationally efficient and suitable for all kinds of non-uniformity.

  4. Optical security devices using nonuniform schlieren texture of UV-curable nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keizo; Ohtsubo, Junji

    2016-02-10

    We proposed and quantitatively evaluated an optical security device that provides nonuniform or random patterns of schlieren texture in nematic liquid crystal as unique identification information with a design by employing computer image processing and normalized cross correlation. Using the same photomask as the first author's university logo, the written patterns, which were composed of polymerized isotropic areas and polymerized nematic areas, were stable among different cells. Judging from the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.09, the patterns of the schlieren texture were unique in different cells. These results indicate that photocurable nematic liquid crystal materials have the potential to be applied to security devices for anticounterfeiting measures.

  5. Characterization and Processing of Non-Uniformities in Back-Illuminated CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Alia D.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Maddocks, Sally

    2018-01-01

    In astronomical photometry, Charged Coupled Device (CCD) detectors are used to achieve high precision photometry and must be properly calibrated to correct for noise and pixel non-uniformities. Uncalibrated images may contain bias offset, dark current, bias structure and uneven illumination. In addition, standard data reduction is often not sufficient to “normalize” imagery to single-digit millimagnitude (mmag) precision. We are investigating an apparent non-uniformity, or interference pattern, in a back-illuminated sensor, the Alta U-47, attached to a DFM Engineering 41-cm Ritchey-Chrétien f/8 telescope. Based on the amplitude of this effect, we estimate that instrument magnitude peak-to-valley deviations of 50 mmag or more may result. Our initial testing strongly suggests that reflected skylight from high pressure sodium city lights may be the cause of this interference pattern. Our research goals are twofold: to fully characterize this non-uniformity and to determine the best method to remove this interference pattern from our reduced CCD images.

  6. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  7. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  8. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  9. Flexible RF filter using a nonuniform SCISSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-03-15

    This work presents a flexible radiofrequency (RF) filter using an integrated microwave photonic circuit that comprises a nonuniform side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (N-SCISSOR). The filter passband can be reconfigured by varying the N-SCISSOR parameters. When employing a dual-parallel Mach-Zechnder modulator, the filter is also able to perform frequency down-conversion. In the experiment, various filter response shapes are shown, ranging from a flat-top band-pass filter to a total opposite high-rejection (>40  dB) notch filter, with a frequency coverage of greater than two octaves. The frequency down-conversion function is also demonstrated.

  10. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D

    2014-01-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)

  11. Desynchronization boost by non-uniform coordinated reset stimulation in ensembles of pulse-coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134

  12. Test stand for non-uniformity correction of microbolometer focal plane arrays used in thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kastek, Mariusz

    2013-10-01

    Uneven response of particular detectors (pixels) to the same incident power of infrared radiation is an inherent feature of microbolometer focal plane arrays. As a result an image degradation occurs, known as Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), which distorts the thermal representation of an observed scene and impairs the parameters of a thermal camera. In order to compensate such non-uniformity, several NUC correction methods are applied in digital data processing modules implemented in thermal cameras. Coefficients required to perform the non-uniformity correction procedure (NUC coefficients) are determined by calibrating the camera against uniform radiation sources (blackbodies). Non-uniformity correction is performed in a digital processing unit in order to remove FPN pattern in the registered thermal images. Relevant correction coefficients are calculated on the basis of recorded detector responses to several values of radiant flux emitted from reference IR radiation sources (blackbodies). The measurement of correction coefficients requires specialized setup, in which uniform, extended radiation sources with high temperature stability are one of key elements. Measurement stand for NUC correction developed in Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT, comprises two integrated extended blackbodies with the following specifications: area 200×200 mm, stabilized absolute temperature range +15 °C÷100 °C, and uniformity of temperature distribution across entire surface +/-0.014 °C. Test stand, method used for the measurement of NUC coefficients and the results obtained during the measurements conducted on a prototype thermal camera will be presented in the paper.

  13. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjeres, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery

  14. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  15. Aligning the unalignable: bacteriophage whole genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Sèverine; Chateau, Annie; Pompidor, Nicolas; Guertin, Paul; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, many studies focused on the description and comparison of large sets of related bacteriophage genomes. Due to the peculiar mosaic structure of these genomes, few informative approaches for comparing whole genomes exist: dot plots diagrams give a mostly qualitative assessment of the similarity/dissimilarity between two or more genomes, and clustering techniques are used to classify genomes. Multiple alignments are conspicuously absent from this scene. Indeed, whole genome aligners interpret lack of similarity between sequences as an indication of rearrangements, insertions, or losses. This behavior makes them ill-prepared to align bacteriophage genomes, where even closely related strains can accomplish the same biological function with highly dissimilar sequences. In this paper, we propose a multiple alignment strategy that exploits functional collinearity shared by related strains of bacteriophages, and uses partial orders to capture mosaicism of sets of genomes. As classical alignments do, the computed alignments can be used to predict that genes have the same biological function, even in the absence of detectable similarity. The Alpha aligner implements these ideas in visual interactive displays, and is used to compute several examples of alignments of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium bacteriophages, involving up to 29 genomes. Using these datasets, we prove that Alpha alignments are at least as good as those computed by standard aligners. Comparison with the progressive Mauve aligner - which implements a partial order strategy, but whose alignments are linearized - shows a greatly improved interactive graphic display, while avoiding misalignments. Multiple alignments of whole bacteriophage genomes work, and will become an important conceptual and visual tool in comparative genomics of sets of related strains. A python implementation of Alpha, along with installation instructions for Ubuntu and OSX, is available on bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/thekswenson/alpha).

  16. Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.

  17. Flexural Free Vibrations of Multistep Nonuniform Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojin Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exact approach to investigate the flexural free vibrations of multistep nonuniform beams. Firstly, one-step beam with moment of inertia and mass per unit length varying as I(x=α11+βxr+4 and m(x=α21+βxr was studied. By using appropriate transformations, the differential equation for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section is reduced to a four-order differential equation with constant coefficients. According to different types of roots for the characteristic equation of four-order differential equation with constant coefficients, two kinds of modal shape functions are obtained, and the general solutions for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section are presented. An exact approach to solve the natural frequencies and modal shapes of multistep beam with variable cross section is presented by using transfer matrix method, the exact general solutions of one-step beam, and iterative method. Numerical examples reveal that the calculated frequencies and modal shapes are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates the solutions of present method are exact ones.

  18. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  19. Terrestrial carbon cycle affected by non-uniform climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyang Xia; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Shilong Piao; Ciais, Philippe; Shiqiang Wan

    2014-01-01

    Feedbacks between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate change could affect many ecosystem functions and services, such as food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation. The rate of climate warming varies on diurnal and seasonal timescales. A synthesis of global air temperature data reveals a greater rate of warming in winter than in summer in northern mid and high latitudes, and the inverse pattern in some tropical regions. The data also reveal a decline in the diurnal temperature range over 51% of the global land area and an increase over only 13%, because night-time temperatures in most locations have risen faster than daytime temperatures. Analyses of satellite data, model simulations and in situ observations suggest that the impact of seasonal warming varies between regions. For example, spring warming has largely stimulated ecosystem productivity at latitudes between 30 degrees and 90 degrees N, but suppressed productivity in other regions. Contrasting impacts of day- and night-time warming on plant carbon gain and loss are apparent in many regions. We argue that ascertaining the effects of non-uniform climate warming on terrestrial ecosystems is a key challenge in carbon cycle research. (authors)

  20. Resource reflecting functor and its application to non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Priyaa Varshinee; Sanders, Barry C.; Cockett, Robin

    In this work, we formulate an abstract approach to translate one resource theory to another. We adopt the notion of resource theories as partitioned symmetric monoidal categories and extend this notion by considering resource-reflecting functors between resource theories. A functor F is a structure preserving map and F is said to be resource-reflecting if F (g) being a free transformation implies that the transformation g is also free. Thus, a resource-reflecting functor demonstrates that the existence of a free transformation between two resources in the domain resource theory can be inferred from the existence of a free transformation in the codomain theory. As an example, we construct one such functor from the resource theory of non-uniformity to a resource theory of majorization. Thus, our work lays a foundation for expressing similarities between resource theories and for applying results achieved in one resource theory to another. An abstract approach to the translation between theories enables common patterns to be identified between resource theories thereby reducing the effort of solving the same problem for different theories. BCS appreciates financial support from Alberta Innovates, NSERC, China's 1000 Talent Plan and the IQIM, which is an NSF Physics Frontiers Centre (NSF Grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF-2644).

  1. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  2. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  3. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  4. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pei Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  5. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  6. Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.

    1996-11-01

    The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations

  7. Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use

  8. Automatic target alignment of the Helios laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, I.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Klein, M.; Seery, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic target-alignment technique for the Helios laser facility is reported and verified experimentally. The desired alignment condition is completely described by an autocollimation test. A computer program examines the autocollimated return pattern from the surrogate target and correctly describes any changes required in mirror orientation to yield optimum targe alignment with either aberrated or misaligned beams. Automated on-line target alignment is thus shown to be feasible

  9. Centrifugal pumping during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1996-08-01

    Centrifugal pumping flows are produced in the melt by the rotations of crystal and crucible during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals. This paper treats the centrifugal pumping effects with a steady, strong, non-uniform axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields ranging from a uniform axial field to a "cusp" field, which has a purely radial field at the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We present the numerical solutions for the centrifugal pumping flows as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp one, and for arbitrary Hartmann number. Since the perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not likely, we also investigate the effects of a slight misalignment.

  10. Buoyant convection during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.

  11. Nonunique and nonuniform mapping in few-body Coulomb-explosion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, A. M.; Eckner, E.; McKenna, J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Paulus, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    Much of our knowledge of molecular geometry and interaction dynamics comes from indirect measurements of the molecular fragments following breakup. This technique—Coulomb-explosion imaging (CEI), i.e., determining the initial molecular configuration of a system from the momenta of the resulting fragments using knowledge of the particle interactions—is one of the fundamental tools of molecular physics. Moreover, CEI has been a staple of molecular studies for decades. Here we show that one often cannot assign a unique initial configuration to the few-body breakup of a polyatomic molecule given the measurement of the resulting fragments' momenta. Specifically, multiple initial configurations can result in identical momenta for a molecule breaking into three or more parts. Further, the nonunique and nonuniform mapping from the initial configuration to the measured momenta also significantly complicates the determination of molecular alignment at the time of breakup.

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  14. Improving the quality factor of an RF spiral inductor with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform coil spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun

    2011-01-01

    An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  16. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    fast alignment algorithm, called 'Alignment By Scanning' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the 'GAP' (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  18. LDPC Code Design for Nonuniform Power-Line Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaei Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate low-density parity-check code design for discrete multitone channels over power lines. Discrete multitone channels are well modeled as nonuniform channels, that is, different bits experience various channel parameters. We propose a coding system for discrete multitone channels that allows for using a single code over a nonuniform channel. The number of code parameters for the proposed system is much greater than the number of code parameters in conventional channel. Therefore, search-based optimization methods are impractical. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the rate of an irregular low-density parity-check code, with guaranteed convergence over a general nonuniform channel, as an iterative linear programming which is significantly more efficient than search-based methods. Then we use this technique for a typical power-line channel. The methodology of this paper is directly applicable to all decoding algorithms for which a density evolution analysis is possible.

  19. Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)

  20. Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied

  1. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  2. Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  4. Relation between film character and wafer alignment: critical alignment issues on HV device for VLSI manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Lin, Hsun-Peng; Peng, Chiou-Shian

    1998-06-01

    Several continuous splits for wafer alignment target topography conditions to improve epitaxy film alignment were applied. The alignment evaluation among former layer pad oxide thickness (250 angstrom - 500 angstrom), drive oxide thickness (6000 angstrom - 10000 angstrom), nitride film thickness (600 angstrom - 1500 angstrom), initial oxide etch (fully wet etch, fully dry etch and dry plus wet etch) will be split to this experiment. Also various epitaxy deposition recipe such as: epitaxy source (SiHCl2 or SiCHCl3) and growth rate (1.3 micrometer/min approximately 2.0 micrometer/min) will be used to optimize the process window for alignment issue. All the reflectance signal and cross section photography of alignment target during NIKON stepper alignment process will be examined. Experimental results show epitaxy recipe plays an important role to wafer alignment. Low growth rate with good performance conformity epitaxy lead to alignment target avoid washout, pattern shift and distortion. All the results (signal monitor and film character) combined with NIKON's stepper standard laser scanning alignment system will be discussed in this paper.

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  6. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  7. Shape Preserving Interpolatory Subdivision Schemes for Nonuniform Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, F.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with a class of shape preserving four-point subdivision schemes which are stationary and which interpolate nonuniform univariate data {(xi, fi)}. These data are functional data, i.e., xi≠xj if i≠j. Subdivision for the strictly monotone x-values is performed by a subdivision

  8. Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...

  9. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  10. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  11. Instruction sequences and non-uniform complexity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop theory concerning non-uniform complexity in a setting in which the notion of single-pass instruction sequence considered in program algebra is the central notion. We define counterparts of the complexity classes P/poly and NP/poly and formulate a counterpart of the complexity theoretic

  12. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  13. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  17. A method for real time detecting of non-uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The principle of measuring magnetic signatures for observing diverse objects is widely used in Near Surface work (unexploded ordnance (UXO); engineering & environmental; archaeology) and security and vehicle detection systems as well. As a rule, the magnitude of the signals to be measured is much lower than that of the quasi-uniform Earth magnetic field. Usually magnetometers for these purposes contain two or more spatially separated sensors to estimate the full tensor gradient of the magnetic field or, more frequently, only partial gradient components. The both types (scalar and vector) of magnetic sensors could be used. The identity of the scale factors and proper alignment of the sensitivity axes of the vector sensors are very important for deep suppression of the ambient field and detection of weak target signals. As a rule, the periodical calibration procedure is used to keep matching sensors' parameters as close as possible. In the present report we propose the technique for detection magnetic anomalies, which is almost insensitive to imperfect matching of the sensors. This method based on the idea that the difference signals between two sensors are considerably different when the instrument is rotated or moved in uniform and non-uniform fields. Due to the misfit of calibration parameters the difference signal observed at the rotation in the uniform field is similar to the total signal - the sum of the signals of both sensors. Zero change of the difference and total signals is expected, if the instrument moves in the uniform field along a straight line. In contrast, the same move in the non-uniform field produces some response of each of the sensors. In case one measures dB/dx and moves along x direction, the sensors signals is shifted in time with the lag proportional to the distance between sensors and the speed of move. It means that the difference signal looks like derivative of the total signal at move in the non-uniform field. So, using quite simple

  18. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  20. Correction method and software for image distortion and nonuniform response in charge-coupled device-based x-ray detectors utilizing x-ray image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Kamikubo, Hironari; Yagi, Naoto; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    An on-site method of correcting the image distortion and nonuniform response of a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based X-ray detector was developed using the response of the imaging plate as a reference. The CCD-based X-ray detector consists of a beryllium-windowed X-ray image intensifier (Be-XRII) and a CCD as the image sensor. An image distortion of 29% was improved to less than 1% after the correction. In the correction of nonuniform response due to image distortion, subpixel approximation was performed for the redistribution of pixel values. The optimal number of subpixels was also discussed. In an experiment with polystyrene (PS) latex, it was verified that the correction of both image distortion and nonuniform response worked properly. The correction for the 'contrast reduction' problem was also demonstrated for an isotropic X-ray scattering pattern from the PS latex. (author)

  1. Evaluation of alignment marks using ASML ATHENA alignment system in 90nm BEOL process

    CERN Document Server

    Tan Chin Boon; Koh Hui Peng; Koo Chee, Kiong; Siew Yong Kong; Yeo Swee Hock

    2003-01-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) in integrated circuit (IC) device reduces, the total overlay budget needs to be more stringent. Typically, the allowable overlay error is 1/3 of the CD in the IC device. In this case, robustness of alignment mark is critical, as accurate signal is required by the scanner's alignment system to precisely align a layer of pattern to the previous layer. Alignment issue is more severe in back-end process partly due to the influenced of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), which contribute to the asymmetric or total destruction of the alignment marks. Alignment marks on the wafer can be placed along the scribe-line of the IC pattern. ASML scanner allows such type of wafer alignment using phase grating mark, known as Scribe-line Primary Mark (SPM) which can be fit into a standard 80um scribe-line. In this paper, we have studied the feasibility of introducing Narrow SPM (NSPM) to enable a smaller scribe-line. The width of NSPM has been shrunk down to 70% of the SPM and the length remain...

  2. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  3. Spatiotemporal alignment of in utero BOLD-MRI series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Esra Abaci; Luo, Jie; Gagoski, Borjan; Pascau, Javier; Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N; Grant, P Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Golland, Polina; Malpica, Norberto

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for spatiotemporal alignment of in-utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) time series acquired during maternal hyperoxia for enabling improved quantitative tracking of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes that characterize oxygen transport through the placenta to fetal organs. The proposed pipeline for spatiotemporal alignment of images acquired with a single-shot gradient echo echo-planar imaging includes 1) signal nonuniformity correction, 2) intravolume motion correction based on nonrigid registration, 3) correction of motion and nonrigid deformations across volumes, and 4) detection of the outlier volumes to be discarded from subsequent analysis. BOLD MRI time series collected from 10 pregnant women during 3T scans were analyzed using this pipeline. To assess pipeline performance, signal fluctuations between consecutive timepoints were examined. In addition, volume overlap and distance between manual region of interest (ROI) delineations in a subset of frames and the delineations obtained through propagation of the ROIs from the reference frame were used to quantify alignment accuracy. A previously demonstrated rigid registration approach was used for comparison. The proposed pipeline improved anatomical alignment of placenta and fetal organs over the state-of-the-art rigid motion correction methods. In particular, unexpected temporal signal fluctuations during the first normoxia period were significantly decreased (P quantitative studies of placental function by improving spatiotemporal alignment across placenta and fetal organs. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:403-412. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Light extraction in planar light-emitting diode with nonuniform current injection: model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmyrova, Irina; Watanabe, Norikazu; Kholopova, Julia; Kovalchuk, Anatoly; Shapoval, Sergei

    2014-07-20

    We develop an analytical and numerical model for performing simulation of light extraction through the planar output interface of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with nonuniform current injection. Spatial nonuniformity of injected current is a peculiar feature of the LEDs in which top metal electrode is patterned as a mesh in order to enhance the output power of light extracted through the top surface. Basic features of the model are the bi-plane computation domain, related to other areas of numerical grid (NG) cells in these two planes, representation of light-generating layer by an ensemble of point light sources, numerical "collection" of light photons from the area limited by acceptance circle and adjustment of NG-cell areas in the computation procedure by the angle-tuned aperture function. The developed model and procedure are used to simulate spatial distributions of the output optical power as well as the total output power at different mesh pitches. The proposed model and simulation strategy can be very efficient in evaluation of the output optical performance of LEDs with periodical or symmetrical configuration of the electrodes.

  5. Highly Anisotropic Adhesive Film Made from Upside-Down, Flat, and Uniform Vertically Aligned CNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Lundstrom, Troy; Ghosh, Ranajay; Abdi, Hamed; Hao, Ji; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Su, Paul; Suhr, Jonghwan; Vaziri, Ashkan; Jalili, Nader; Jung, Yung Joon

    2016-12-14

    We have created a multifunctional dry adhesive film with transferred vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). This unique VA-CNT film was fabricated by a multistep transfer process, converting the flat and uniform bottom of VA-CNTs grown on atomically flat silicon wafer substrates into the top surface of an adhesive layer. Unlike as-grown VA-CNTs, which have a nonuniform surface, randomly entangled CNT arrays, and a weak interface between the CNTs and substrates, this transferred VA-CNT film shows an extremely high coefficient of static friction (COF) of up to 60 and a shear adhesion force 30 times higher (12 N/cm 2 ) than that of the as-grown VA-CNTs under a very small preloading of 0.2 N/cm 2 . Moreover, a near-zero normal adhesion force was observed with 20 mN/cm 2 preloading and a maximum 100-μm displacement in a piezo scanner, demonstrating ideal properties for an artificial gecko foot. Using this unique structural feature and anisotropic adhesion properties, we also demonstrate effective removal and assembly of nanoparticles into organized micrometer-scale circular and line patterns by a single brushing of this flat and uniform VA-CNT film.

  6. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  7. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  8. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  9. Alignment for CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujin; Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Cai Guozhu; Guo Yuhui

    2002-01-01

    Cooled Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR) belongs to China great scientific project in China. The alignment for it is very difficult because of very large area and very high accuracy. For the special case in HIRFL-CSR, some new methods and new instruments are used, including the construction of survey control network, the usage of laser tracker, and CSR alignment database system with applications developed to store and analyze data. The author describes the whole procedure of CSR alignment

  10. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  11. Measurement of reactivity effect caused by nonuniform fuel distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Nishina, Kojiro; Shiroya, Seiji

    1991-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem in a reprocessing plant. To estimate this reactivity effect theoretically, the ''Goertzel's necessary condition, and th Fuel Importance'' theory have been proposed. In order to verify these theories, we have performed systematic measurements of reactivity effect due to the nonuniformity in the fuel distribution within the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. Neutron flux distribution and Fuel Importance distribution were also determined. A nonuniform assembly whose fuel concentration in the center region was 40% higher than the uniform one was found to have an excess reactivity of 0.3%Δk/k, with the same total uranium mass for which the uniform assembly was just critical. Moreover, its spatial distribution of thermal neutron flux and of Fuel Importance were more flat than those of the uniform assembly, as expected by the Goertzel's condition and the Fuel Importance theory. (Author)

  12. POSSOL, 2-D Poisson Equation Solver for Nonuniform Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: POSSOL is a two-dimensional Poisson equation solver for problems with arbitrary non-uniform gridding in Cartesian coordinates. It is an adaptation of the uniform grid PWSCRT routine developed by Schwarztrauber and Sweet at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). 2 - Method of solution: POSSOL will solve the Helmholtz equation on an arbitrary, non-uniform grid on a rectangular domain allowing only one type of boundary condition on any one side. It can also be used to handle more than one type of boundary condition on a side by means of a capacitance matrix technique. There are three types of boundary conditions that can be applied: fixed, derivative, or periodic

  13. Numerical simulation of effect of laser nonuniformity in interior interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaojin; Wu Junfeng; Ye Wenhua

    2007-01-01

    Using the LARED-S code and referring to the NIF direct-drive DT ignition target, the effect of laser nonuniformity on the interior interface in direct-drive spherical implosion with high convergence ratio was numerically studied. The two-dimensional results show that the implosion with high convergence ratio is sensitive to the nonuniformity of driving laser, and the growth of hydrodynamic instability on interior interface destroys the symmetric-drive and reduces the volume of central hot spot observably. Taking the limit that perturbation amplitude is equal to 1/3 radius of central hot spot, the simulation also gives that the requirements for the laser uniformity for different mode number(less than 12) on simple physical model are between 2.5% -0.25%, and the modes between 8-10 have the most rigorous requirement which is about 0.25%. (authors)

  14. Protostellar formation in rotating interstellar clouds. VI. Nonuniform initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The collapse and fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds is explored, starting from nonuniform density and nonuniform rotation initial conditions. Whether binary fragmentation occurs during the first dynamic collapse phase depends strongly on the initial density profile. Exponential clouds are only somewhat more resistant to fragmentation than uniform-density clouds, but power-law clouds do not undergo fragmentation for likely values of a relevant parameter. Because binary fragments start from profiles intermediate between uniform density and exponential clouds, minimum protostellar mass for population I stars should be increased to approximately 0.02 solar mass. The axisymmetric Terey et al. (1984) model should be stable with respect to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. Considering the observed binary frequency, collapse from power-law initial conditions appears to be less common than collapse from more uniform initial conditions. 34 references

  15. Computation of nonuniform transmission lines using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, G.C.; Paulino, J.O.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). School of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Calculation of lightning overvoltages on transmission lines has been described. Lightning induced overvoltages are of great significance under certain conditions because of the main characteristics of the phenomena. The lightning channel model is one of the most important parameters essential to obtaining the generated electromagnetic fields. In this study, nonuniform transmission line equations were solved using the finite difference method and the leap-frog scheme, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The subroutine was interfaced with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Two models were used to represent the characteristic impedance of the nonuniform lines used to model the transmission line towers and the lightning main channel. The advantages of the FDTD method was the much smaller code and faster processing time. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Non-uniformity measurements of PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depasse, P.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Ille, B.; Martin, F.; Rosset, C.; Zach, F.

    1998-11-01

    Two independent methods have been used to measure the longitudinal non-uniformity scintillation response of 3 different (23-cm long) PbWO 4 crystals. The first one is the classical 60 Co source method. The source is collimated along the crystal, each 1,5-cm, and the scintillation signal is measured with a photomultiplier (a hybrid photomultiplier in our case). The second one is the use of cosmic particles (Minimum Ionizing Particles). A cosmic bench allows reconstructing the track of the MIP's and thus the energy deposit with the help of a full GEANT simulation of the setup. Variations of E along the crystal artificially cut in 1,5-cm divisions, leads to determine the non-uniformity. The conclusion is that both methods agree quite well. Furthermore, a good estimation of crystal light yield can be obtained. (author)

  17. Non-uniformity of phase structure in immiscible polymer blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Lapčíková, Monika; Lednický, František; Starý, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2008), s. 564-571 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729; GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * melt mixing * non-uniform morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.245, year: 2008

  18. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  19. Linearization of Nonautonomous Impulsive System with Nonuniform Exponential Dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a version of Hartman-Grobman theorem for the impulsive differential equations. We assume that the linear impulsive system has a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. Under some suitable conditions, we proved that the nonlinear impulsive system is topologically conjugated to its linear system. Indeed, we do construct the topologically equivalent function (the transformation. Moreover, the method to prove the topological conjugacy is quite different from those in previous works (e.g., see Barreira and Valls, 2006.

  20. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  1. Modelling of HVDC wall bushing flashover in nonuniform rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, F.A.M.; Kamel, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first mathematical model to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for flashover of an HVDC wall bushing under nonuniform rain. The suggested mechanism is initiated by streamer bridging of the dry zone enhanced by nonuniform voltage distribution along the bushing and within the dry zone. Fast voltage collapse across the dry zone die to energy stored in the bushing stray capacitance to ground leads to impulsive stressing of the wet part of the bushing. The nonuniform distribution of the impulse stress and the process of streamer bridging, fast voltage collapse as well as subsequent recharging of the bushing capacitances can lead to continued discharge propagation and flashover of the complete bushing. The findings of the model have been satisfactorily compared with previous experiments and field observations and can, for the first time, account for the following aspects of the flashover mechanism: critical dry zone length, polarity effect, specific leakage path, wet layer conductance per unit leakage length as well as the DC system voltage

  2. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  4. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  5. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  6. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  7. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  8. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  9. Genomic multiple sequence alignments: refinement using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefkowitz Elliot J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic sequence data cannot be fully appreciated in isolation. Comparative genomics – the practice of comparing genomic sequences from different species – plays an increasingly important role in understanding the genotypic differences between species that result in phenotypic differences as well as in revealing patterns of evolutionary relationships. One of the major challenges in comparative genomics is producing a high-quality alignment between two or more related genomic sequences. In recent years, a number of tools have been developed for aligning large genomic sequences. Most utilize heuristic strategies to identify a series of strong sequence similarities, which are then used as anchors to align the regions between the anchor points. The resulting alignment is globally correct, but in many cases is suboptimal locally. We describe a new program, GenAlignRefine, which improves the overall quality of global multiple alignments by using a genetic algorithm to improve local regions of alignment. Regions of low quality are identified, realigned using the program T-Coffee, and then refined using a genetic algorithm. Because a better COFFEE (Consistency based Objective Function For alignmEnt Evaluation score generally reflects greater alignment quality, the algorithm searches for an alignment that yields a better COFFEE score. To improve the intrinsic slowness of the genetic algorithm, GenAlignRefine was implemented as a parallel, cluster-based program. Results We tested the GenAlignRefine algorithm by running it on a Linux cluster to refine sequences from a simulation, as well as refine a multiple alignment of 15 Orthopoxvirus genomic sequences approximately 260,000 nucleotides in length that initially had been aligned by Multi-LAGAN. It took approximately 150 minutes for a 40-processor Linux cluster to optimize some 200 fuzzy (poorly aligned regions of the orthopoxvirus alignment. Overall sequence identity increased only

  10. Photoionization microscopy of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a non-uniform electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shao-Hao; Wang De-Hua; Chen Zhao-Hang; Chen Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg hydrogen atom in a gradient electric field for the first time. The observed oscillatory patterns in the photoionization microscopy are explained within the framework of the semiclassical theory, which can be considered as a manifestation of interference between various electron trajectories arriving at a given point on the detector plane. In contrast with the photoionization microscopy in the uniform electric field, the trajectories of the ionized electron in the gradient electric field will become chaotic. An infinite set of different electron trajectories can arrive at a given point on the detector plane, which makes the interference pattern of the electron probability density distribution extremely complicated. Our calculation results suggest that the oscillatory pattern in the electron probability density distribution depends sensitively on the electric field gradient, the scaled energy and the position of the detector plane. Through our research, we predict that the interference pattern in the electron probability density distribution can be observed in an actual photoionization microscopy experiment once the external electric field strength and the position of the electron detector plane are reasonable. This study provides some references for the future experimental research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the non-uniform external fields. (paper)

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  14. Probabilistic biological network alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between molecules are probabilistic events. An interaction may or may not happen with some probability, depending on a variety of factors such as the size, abundance, or proximity of the interacting molecules. In this paper, we consider the problem of aligning two biological networks. Unlike existing methods, we allow one of the two networks to contain probabilistic interactions. Allowing interaction probabilities makes the alignment more biologically relevant at the expense of explosive growth in the number of alternative topologies that may arise from different subsets of interactions that take place. We develop a novel method that efficiently and precisely characterizes this massive search space. We represent the topological similarity between pairs of aligned molecules (i.e., proteins) with the help of random variables and compute their expected values. We validate our method showing that, without sacrificing the running time performance, it can produce novel alignments. Our results also demonstrate that our method identifies biologically meaningful mappings under a comprehensive set of criteria used in the literature as well as the statistical coherence measure that we developed to analyze the statistical significance of the similarity of the functions of the aligned protein pairs.

  15. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  16. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls t...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized.......This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... to manage them comprehensively. A communities of practice theoretical lens suggests that intentional effort would be needed to bridge meaning between the relevant managers and practices in order to achieve alignment. The findings call attention to the important role played by employees who broker...

  17. FMIT alignment cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance

  18. Alignment of whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, A L; Kasif, S; Fleischmann, R D; Peterson, J; White, O; Salzberg, S L

    1999-01-01

    A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 6. In each case it found an alignment of the input sequences, using between 30 s and 2 min of computation time. From the system output, information on single nucleotide changes, translocations and homologous genes can easily be extracted. Use of the algorithm should facilitate analysis of syntenic chromosomal regions, strain-to-strain comparisons, evolutionary comparisons and genomic duplications. PMID:10325427

  19. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  20. Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called “pasta”. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.

  1. Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotani, Hajime [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called 'pasta'. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.

  2. Linear kinetic enlightenment of a slab of nonuniform plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenchuk, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenon of linear kinetic regeneration of a harmonic electric-field perturbation beyond the nonuniform opacity barrier due to electrons trapped by a potential well is investigated. Such electrons are reflected by the well walls without loss of phase memory about the external perturbation, which is rehabilitated on the other side of the barrier. The incidence of the electromagnetic wave polarized in the plane of incidence on a plasma slab. Analytic expressions for the regenerated electric field and regeneration coefficient are obtained in the ballistic approximation. The dependence of the regeneration coefficient on shape of the electrostatic potential confining the wave barrier is discussed

  3. Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikin, V.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.

  4. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G.

    1999-01-01

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  5. Experimental image alignment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  6. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  7. A non-uniform expansion mechanical safety model of the stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Huang, N; Du, Q

    2009-01-01

    Stents have a serial unstable structure that readily leads to non-uniform expansion. Non-uniform expansion in turn creates a stent safety problem. We explain how a stent may be simplified to a serial unstable structure, and present a method to calculate the non-uniform expansion of the stent on the basis of the serial unstable structure. We propose a safety criterion based on the expansion displacement instead of the strain, and explain that the parameter Rd, the ratio of the maximum displacement of the elements to normal displacement, is meaningful to assess the safety level of the stent. We also examine how laser cutting influences non-uniform expansion. The examples illustrate how to calculate the parameter Rd to assess non-uniform expansion of the stent, and demonstrate how the laser cutting offset and strengthening coefficient of the material influence the stent expansion behaviour. The methods are valuable for assessing stent safety due to non-uniform expansion.

  8. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  9. Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)

  10. Potential coherent structures in nonuniform streaming dusty magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, Jovo [Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Shukla, Padma Kant [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Bochum (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we study linear and nonlinear behaviour of modified convective cells and vortices in nonuniform dusty magnetoplasmas with perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field plasma flows, and in basically two different physical systems, with stationary (corresponding to the case of ShuklaVarma mode) and nonstationary (i.e. taking part in perturbations) dust particles. For the case of stationary dust, by choosing some specific profiles for the sheared plasma flow and the dust density, we analyze the eigenvalue equation in order to deduce the growth rate. A threshold is also obtained for the wavenumber separating spatially damped and convective modes (growing in space) due to its interaction with the sheared plasma flow. In the nonlinear regime, for both stationary and nonstationary dust particles, and in the presence of various plasma flows perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field lines, a variety of possible nonlinear solutions, driven by the nonuniform shear flow and dust density is presented, i.e., single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, and tripolar and global vortices. (author)

  11. Going from microscopic to macroscopic on nonuniform growing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Baker, Ruth E; Erban, Radek; Maini, Philip K

    2012-08-01

    Throughout development, chemical cues are employed to guide the functional specification of underlying tissues while the spatiotemporal distributions of such chemicals can be influenced by the growth of the tissue itself. These chemicals, termed morphogens, are often modeled using partial differential equations (PDEs). The connection between discrete stochastic and deterministic continuum models of particle migration on growing domains was elucidated by Baker, Yates, and Erban [Bull. Math. Biol. 72, 719 (2010)] in which the migration of individual particles was modeled as an on-lattice position-jump process. We build on this work by incorporating a more physically reasonable description of domain growth. Instead of allowing underlying lattice elements to instantaneously double in size and divide, we allow incremental element growth and splitting upon reaching a predefined threshold size. Such a description of domain growth necessitates a nonuniform partition of the domain. We first demonstrate that an individual-based stochastic model for particle diffusion on such a nonuniform domain partition is equivalent to a PDE model of the same phenomenon on a nongrowing domain, providing the transition rates (which we derive) are chosen correctly and we partition the domain in the correct manner. We extend this analysis to the case where the domain is allowed to change in size, altering the transition rates as necessary. Through application of the master equation formalism we derive a PDE for particle density on this growing domain and corroborate our findings with numerical simulations.

  12. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, S.L.; D'Angelo, N.; Merlino, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f> or approx. =f/sub c/i, where f/sub c/i is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism

  13. Non-Uniform Cathode Emission Studies of a MIG Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, C. D.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present the initial results of the modeling of the effect of emission non-uniformity in 96 kV, 40 A Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) of a 1.5 MW 110 GHz gyrotron using a 3D gun simulation code. The azimuthal emission nonuniformity can lead to increased mode competition and an overall decreased efficiency of the device [1]. The electron beam is modeled from the cathode to a downstream position where the velocity spread saturates using the AMAZE 3D suite of codes. After bench marking the results of the 3D code with 2D codes such as TRAK2D and EGUN, the emitter was modified to simulate asymmetric emission from the cathode to gain an understanding into the effects of inhomogeneous beam current density on the velocity spread and pitch factor of the electron beam. [1] G. S. Nusinovich, A.N. Vlasov, M. Botton, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., S. Cauffman, K. Felch, ``Effect of the azimuthal inhomogeneity of electron emission on gyrotron operation,'' Phys. Plasmas, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3473-3479, 2001

  14. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  15. Laterally excited flexible tanks with nonuniform density liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu

    1996-01-01

    A study of the dynamic responses of flexible tanks containing nonuniform liquid under horizontal base excitations is presented. The system considered is an upright, circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid in which the density increases with the liquid depth. Only the impulsive components of response are considered in this study since the convective components can be computed by considering the tank to be rigid. It is shown in this study that for tanks with height-to-radius ratios between 0.3 and 1.2, the response quantities may be estimated utilizing the rigid tank solutions. Also, it is found that the pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the liquid density, and that the base shear and moments for the tank with nonuniform liquid can be estimated conservatively by assuming that the tank is filled with an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. Finally, a simple equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency of the system is proposed

  16. Identification of the material properties in nonuniform nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Gang; Xu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing two significant challenges arising from quantifying mechanical properties of nanomaterials, namely nonuniformity of the nanomaterial and the high noise level of measurements. For nonuniformity, an explicit solution is derived for the general Euler–Bernoulli equation in terms of the Green function for the Poisson equation. Then, by examining a stochastic source, the systematic error may be removed from measurements, which leads to more accurate estimation of mechanical properties. Based on Itô integral properties, three deterministic Fredholm integral equations can be deduced to extract the stiffness and the structure of the random source from measured data. To overcome ill-posedness and high nonlinearity in solving the Fredholm equations, a Tikhonov regularization method is developed with an a priori strategy of choosing the regularization parameter. Moreover, under a regularity assumption for the stiffness coefficient and structures of the random source, the convergence rate can be obtained in the sense of probability. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the novel model and regularization method. (paper)

  17. Nonuniform code concatenation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikahd, Eesa; Sedighi, Mehdi; Saheb Zamani, Morteza

    2017-09-01

    Using transversal gates is a straightforward and efficient technique for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Since transversal gates alone cannot be computationally universal, they must be combined with other approaches such as magic state distillation, code switching, or code concatenation to achieve universality. In this paper we propose an alternative approach for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing, mainly based on the code concatenation approach proposed in [T. Jochym-O'Connor and R. Laflamme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 010505 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.010505], but in a nonuniform fashion. The proposed approach is described based on nonuniform concatenation of the 7-qubit Steane code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, as well as the 5-qubit code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, which lead to two 49-qubit and 47-qubit codes, respectively. These codes can correct any arbitrary single physical error with the ability to perform a universal set of fault-tolerant gates, without using magic state distillation.

  18. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  20. Community Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Martin; Bicarregui, Juan; Anglada, Lluis; Duranti, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  1. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  2. Resource Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Grindley, Neil; Cramer, Tom; Schrimpf, Sabine; Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  3. Capacity Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Joy; Whitehead, Martha; Molloy, Laura; Molinaro, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  4. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Fluxon dynamics in long Josephson junctions in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1997-01-01

    Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...

  8. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  9. Three wavelength optical alignment of the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Nova laser, presently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will be capable of delivering more than 100 kJ of focused energy to an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. Operation at the fundamental wavelength of the laser (1.05 μm) and at the second and third harmonic will be possible. This paper will discuss the optical alignment systems and techniques being implemented to align the laser output to the target at these wavelengths prior to each target irradiation. When experiments require conversion of the laser light to wavelengths of 0.53 μm and 0.35 μm prior to target irradiation, this will be accomplished in harmonic conversion crystals located at the beam entrances to the target chamber. The harmonic alignment system will be capable of introducing colinear alignment beams of all three wavelengths into the laser chains at the final spatial filter. The alignment beam at 1.05 μm will be about three cm in diameter and intense enough to align the conversion crystals. Beams at 0.53 μm and 0.35 μm will be expanded by the spatial filter to full aperture (74 cm) and used to illuminate the target and other alignment aids at the target chamber focus. This harmonic illumination system will include viewing capability as well. A final alignment sensor will be located at the target chamber. It will view images of the chamber focal plane at all three wavelengths. In this way, each beam can be aligned at the desired wavelength to produce the focal pattern required for each target irradiation. The design of the major components in the harmonic alignment system will be described, and a typical alignment sequence for alignment to a target will be presented

  10. Temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping and hardware implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.

  11. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  12. Electron Beam Dose Distribution in the Presence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Tahmasebi-Birgani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Magnetic fields are capable of altering the trajectory of electron beams andcan be used in radiation therapy.Theaim of this study was to produce regions with dose enhancement and reduction in the medium. Materials and Methods The NdFeB permanent magnets were arranged on the electron applicator in several configurations. Then, after the passage of the electron beams (9 and 15 MeV Varian 2100C/D through the non-uniform magnetic field, the Percentage Depth Dose(PDDs on central axis and dose profiles in three depths for each energy were measured in a 3D water phantom. Results For all magnet arrangements and for two different energies, the surface dose increment and shift in depth of maximum dose (dmax were observed. In addition, the pattern of dose distribution in buildup region was changed. Measurement of dose profile showed dose localization and spreading in some other regions. Conclusion The results of this study confirms that using magnetic field can alter the dose deposition patterns and as a result can produce dose enhancement as well as dose reduction in the medium using high-energy electron beams. These effects provide dose distribution with arbitrary shapes for use in radiation therapy.

  13. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Wolf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array’s temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.

  14. Effective electrodiffusion equation for non-uniform nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Melchionna, Simone; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2013-06-28

    We derive a one-dimensional formulation of the Planck-Nernst-Poisson equation to describe the dynamics of a symmetric binary electrolyte in channels whose section is nanometric and varies along the axial direction. The approach is in the spirit of the Fick-Jacobs diffusion equation and leads to a system of coupled equations for the partial densities which depends on the charge sitting at the walls in a non-trivial fashion. We consider two kinds of non-uniformities, those due to the spatial variation of charge distribution and those due to the shape variation of the pore and report one- and three-dimensional solutions of the electrokinetic equations.

  15. Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calucci, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum.

  16. Gamma camera system with improved means for correcting nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Jeppesen, J.

    1979-01-01

    In a gamma camera system, means are provided for correcting nonuniformity or lack of correspondence between the positions of scintillations and their calculated and displayed by x-y coordinates. In an accumulation mode, pulse counts corresponding with scintillations in various areas of the radiation field are stored in memory locations corresponding with their locations in the radiation field. A uniform radiation source is presented to the detectors during the accumulation is interrupted at which time other locations have fewer counts in them. In the run mode, counts are stored in corresponding locations of a memory and these counts are compared continuously with those stored in the accumulation mode. Means are provided for injecting a number of counts during the run mode proportional to the difference between the counts accumulated during the accumulation mode in a given area increment and the counts that should have been obtained from a uniform source

  17. Non-uniform plastic deformation of micron scale objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Significant increases in apparent flow strength are observed when non-uniform plastic deformation of metals occurs at the scale ranging from roughly one to ten microns. Several basic plane strain problems are analyzed numerically in this paper based on a new formulation of strain gradient...... plasticity. The problems are the tangential and normal loading of a finite rectangular block of material bonded to rigid platens and having traction-free ends, and the normal loading of a half-space by a flat, rigid punch. The solutions illustrate fundamental features of plasticity at the micron scale...... that are not captured by conventional plasticity theory. These include the role of material length parameters in establishing the size dependence of strength and the elevation of resistance to plastic flow resulting from constraint on plastic flow at boundaries. Details of the finite element method employed...

  18. Non-Uniform Heat Transfer in Thermal Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch

    , a numerical model, which simulates a single-blow operation in a parallel-plate regenerator, was developed and used to model the heat transfer under various conditions. In addition to the modeling of the heat transfer, a series of experiments on passive regenerators with non-uniform, but precisely controlled....... Additionally, the experiments gave real comparative results, whereas the model to a certain degree more served to provide insight to the heat transfer processes taking place inside the regenera- tors, something that would be - if not impossible - then highly impractical to do experimentally. It has been found......This thesis presents investigations on the heat transfer in complex heat ex- changers in general and in regenerative heat exchangers (regenerators) in par- ticular. The motivation for this work is a result of inconsistencies obeserved in the results from a series of experiments on active magnetic...

  19. A tuning method for nonuniform traveling-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Cunkui; Zheng Shuxin; Shao Jiahang; Jia Xiaoyu; Chen Huaibi

    2013-01-01

    The tuning method of uniform traveling-wave structures based on non-resonant perturbation field distribution measurement has been widely used in tuning both constant-impedance and constant-gradient structures. In this paper, the method of tuning nonuniform structures is proposed on the basis of the above theory. The internal reflection coefficient of each cell is obtained from analyzing the normalized voltage distribution. A numerical simulation of tuning process according to the coupled cavity chain theory has been done and the result shows each cell is in right phase advance after tuning. The method will be used in the tuning of a disk-loaded traveling-wave structure being developed at the Accelerator Laboratory, Tsinghua University. (authors)

  20. Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calucci, G.

    1995-11-01

    Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum

  1. Alignment at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Levet, N.; Gatta, G.

    1999-01-01

    The ESRF Survey and Alignment group is responsible for the installation, control and periodic realignment of the accelerators and experiments which produce high quality x-rays used by scientists from Europe and around the world. Alignment tolerances are typically less than one millimetre and often in the order of several micrometers. The group is composed of one engineer, five highly trained survey technicians, one electronic and one computer technician. This team is fortified during peak periods by technicians from an external survey company. First an overview and comparative study of the main large-scale survey instrumentation and methods used by the group is made. Secondly a discussion of long term deformation on the ESRF site is presented. This is followed by presentation of the methods used in the realignment of the various machines. Two important aspects of our work, beamline and front-end alignment, and the so-called machine exotic devices are briefly discussed. Finally, the ESRF calibration bench is presented. (authors)

  2. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  3. Analyte preconcentration in nanofluidic channels with nonuniform zeta potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, A.; McCallum, C.; Storey, B. D.; Pennathur, S.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that charged analytes in the presence of nonuniform electric fields concentrate at locations where the relevant driving forces balance, and a wide range of ionic stacking and focusing methods are commonly employed to leverage these physical mechanisms in order to improve signal levels in biosensing applications. In particular, nanofluidic channels with spatially varying conductivity distributions have been shown to provide increased preconcentration of charged analytes due to the existence of a finite electric double layer (EDL), in which electrostatic attraction and repulsion from charged surfaces produce nonuniform transverse ion distributions. In this work, we use numerical simulations to show that one can achieve greater levels of sample accumulation by using field-effect control via wall-embedded electrodes to tailor the surface potential heterogeneity in a nanochannel with overlapped EDLs. In addition to previously demonstrated stacking and focusing mechanisms, we find that the coupling between two-dimensional ion distributions and the axial electric field under overlapped EDL conditions can generate an ion concentration polarization interface in the middle of the channel. Under an applied electric field, this interface can be used to concentrate sample ions between two stationary regions of different surface potential and charge density. Our numerical model uses the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations coupled with the Stokes equation to demonstrate the phenomenon, and we discuss in detail the driving forces behind the predicted sample enhancement. The numerical velocity and salt concentration profiles exhibit good agreement with analytical results from a simplified one-dimensional area-averaged model for several limiting cases, and we show predicted amplification ratios of up to 105.

  4. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF NONUNIFORM CLOUD COVER ON TRANSIT TRANSMISSION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Parmentier, Vivien, E-mail: mrline@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California–Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We model the impact of nonuniform cloud cover on transit transmission spectra. Patchy clouds exist in nearly every solar system atmosphere, brown dwarfs, and transiting exoplanets. Our major findings suggest that fractional cloud coverage can exactly mimic high mean molecular weight atmospheres and vice versa over certain wavelength regions, in particular, over the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) bandpass (1.1–1.7 μm). We also find that patchy cloud coverage exhibits a signature that is different from uniform global clouds. Furthermore, we explain analytically why the “patchy cloud-high mean molecular weight” degeneracy exists. We also explore the degeneracy of nonuniform cloud coverage in atmospheric retrievals on both synthetic and real planets. We find from retrievals on a synthetic solar composition hot Jupiter with patchy clouds and a cloud-free high mean molecular weight warm Neptune that both cloud-free high mean molecular weight atmospheres and partially cloudy atmospheres can explain the data equally well. Another key finding is that the HST WFC3 transit transmission spectra of two well-observed objects, the hot Jupiter HD 189733b and the warm Neptune HAT-P-11b, can be explained well by solar composition atmospheres with patchy clouds without the need to invoke high mean molecular weight or global clouds. The degeneracy between high molecular weight and solar composition partially cloudy atmospheres can be broken by observing the molecular Rayleigh scattering differences between the two. Furthermore, the signature of partially cloudy limbs also appears as a ∼100 ppm residual in the ingress and egress of the transit light curves, provided that the transit timing is known to seconds.

  6. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...

  7. To the problem of spatial focusing of ultracold neutrons by nonuniform magnetic field. Eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T

    2002-01-01

    Motion of the ultracold neutrons in the nonuniform magnetic field with a square nonuniformity by two coordinates is considered. The Schroedinger equation is solved with application of the quasi-classical (eikonal) approach. The theoretical possibility of the neutrons spatial focusing with formation of the point focus and also the neutrons bunches is shown

  8. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  9. Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids

  10. PARTIAL ERUPTION OF A FILAMENT WITH TWISTING NON-UNIFORM FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Xiang, Yongyuan; Cai, Yunfang; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of a filament in a kinklike fashion is often regarded as a signature of kink instability. However, the kink instability threshold for the filament’s magnetic structure is not widely understood. Using Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present a partial eruptive filament. During the eruption, the filament thread appeared to split from its middle and to break out in a kinklike fashion. In this period, the remaining filament material stayed below and erupted without the kinking motion later on. The coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament are obtained from nonlinear force-free field extrapolations using the twelve-minute-cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We studied the extrapolated field lines passing through the magnetic dips which are in good agreement with the observed filament. The field lines are non-uniformly twisted and appear to be composed of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. One of them has a higher twist than the other, and the flux rope with the higher twist has its dips aligned with the kinking eruptive thread at the beginning of its eruption. Before the eruption, moreover, the flux rope with the higher twist was found to expand with an approximately constant field twist. In addition, the helicity flux maps deduced from the HMI magnetograms show that some helicity is injected into the overlying magnetic arcade, but no significant helicity is injected into the flux ropes. Accordingly, we suggest that the highly twisted flux rope became kink unstable when the instability threshold declined with the expansion of the flux rope

  11. Non-uniformity calibration for MWIR polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Zheng; Shi, Ze-Lin; Feng, Bin; Hui, Bin; Zhao, Yao-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Integrating microgrid polarimeters on focal plane array (FPA) of an infrared detector causes non-uniformity of polarization response. In order to reduce the effect of polarization non-uniformity, this paper constructs an experimental setup for capturing raw flat-field images and proposes a procedure for acquiring non-uniform calibration (NUC) matrix and calibrating raw polarization images. The proposed procedure takes the incident radiation as a polarization vector and offers a calibration matrix for each pixel. Both our matrix calibration and two-point calibration are applied to our mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) polarization imaging system with integrated microgrid polarimeters. Compared with two point calibration, our matrix calibration reduces non-uniformity by 30 40% under condition of flat-field data test with polarization. The ourdoor scene observation experiment indicates that our calibration can effectively reduce polarization non-uniformity and improve the image quality of our MWIR polarization imaging system.

  12. Wastewater diffusive dilution and sedimentation of the fine contaminated particles for nonuniform flow in open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniformity factor to the calculation of diffusion dilution of wastewater and prediction of river processes. So the effect of the flow non-uniformity on the diffusion model of pollutants dilution and diffusion coefficient have been investigated. Formulas for the concentration profiles calculating and the average concentration of fine particulate matter in nonuniform gradually varied flow were presented. The deposition length of suspended contaminants were received, based on the hydraulic resistance laws of nonuniform gradually varied flow.

  13. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  14. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Precise rotational alignment of x-ray transmission diffraction gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Gold transmission diffraction gratings used for x-ray spectroscopy must sometimes be rotationally aligned to the axis of a diagnostic instrument to within sub-milliradian accuracy. We have fabricated transmission diffraction gratings with high line-densities (grating period of 200 and 300 nm) using uv holographic and x-ray lithography. Since the submicron features of the gratings are not optically visible, precision alignment is time consuming and difficult to verify in situ. We have developed a technique to write an optically visible alignment pattern onto these gratings using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). At high magnification (15000 X) several submicron lines of the grating are observable in the SEM, making it possible to write an alignment pattern parallel to the grating lines in an electron-beam-sensitive coating that overlays the grating. We create an alignment pattern by following a 1-cm-long grating line using the SEM's joystick-controlled translation stage. By following the same grating line we are assured the traveled direction of the SEM electron beam is parallel to the grating to better than 10 μradian. The electron-beam-exposed line-width can be large (5 to 15 μm wide) depending on the SEM magnification, and is therefore optically visible. The exposed pattern is eventually made a permanent feature of the grating by ion beam etching or gold electroplating. The pattern can be used to accurately align the grating to the axis of a diagnostic instrument. More importantly, the alignment of the grating can be quickly verified in situ

  16. AlignNemo: a local network alignment method to integrate homology and topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ciriello

    Full Text Available Local network alignment is an important component of the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks that may lead to the identification of evolutionary related complexes. We present AlignNemo, a new algorithm that, given the networks of two organisms, uncovers subnetworks of proteins that relate in biological function and topology of interactions. The discovered conserved subnetworks have a general topology and need not to correspond to specific interaction patterns, so that they more closely fit the models of functional complexes proposed in the literature. The algorithm is able to handle sparse interaction data with an expansion process that at each step explores the local topology of the networks beyond the proteins directly interacting with the current solution. To assess the performance of AlignNemo, we ran a series of benchmarks using statistical measures as well as biological knowledge. Based on reference datasets of protein complexes, AlignNemo shows better performance than other methods in terms of both precision and recall. We show our solutions to be biologically sound using the concept of semantic similarity applied to Gene Ontology vocabularies. The binaries of AlignNemo and supplementary details about the algorithms and the experiments are available at: sourceforge.net/p/alignnemo.

  17. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  18. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers - The radially symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    tests in nonuniform aquifers. The relative diffusivity of material on either side of a discontinuity is shown to be the major factor in controlling flow behavior during the period in which the front of the cone of depression is moving across the discontinuity. Though resulting from an analysis of flow in an idealized configuration, the insights of this work into flow behavior during a pumping test are applicable to a wide class of nonuniform units. ?? 1988.

  19. Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua

    2016-08-01

    The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this

  20. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  1. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tansel; Çökeliler, Dilek; Doğan, Mustafa; Koçum, Ismail Cengiz; Karatay, Okan; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used as a base acrylic denture material with benefits of rapid and easy handling, however, when it is used in prosthetic dentistry, fracturing or cracking problems can be seen due to the relatively low strength issues. Besides, acrylic resin is the still prominent material for denture fabrication due to its handy and low cost features. Numerous proposed fillers that are used to produce PMMA composites, however electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofiber fillers for production of PMMA composite resins are not studied as much as the others. The other focus of the practice is to compare both mechanical properties and efficiency of aligned fibers versus non-aligned PVA nanofibers in PMMA based dental composites. Field-controlled electrospinning system is manufactured and provided good alignment in lab scale as one of contributions. Some novel auxiliary electrodes in controlled structure are augmented to obtain different patterns of alignment with a certain range of fiber diameters. Scanning electron microscopy is used for physical characterization to determine the range of fiber diameters. Non-woven fiber has no unique pattern due to chaotic nature of electrospinning process, but aligned fibers have round pattern or crossed lines. These produced fibers are structured as layer-by-layer form with different features, and these features are used in producing PMMA dental composites with different volume ratios. The maximum flexural strength figure shows that fiber load by weight of 0.25% w/w and above improves in the maximum level. As a result, mechanical properties of PMMA dental composites are improved by using PVA nanofibers as a filler, however the improvement was higher when aligned PVA nanofibers are used. The maximum values were 5.1 MPa (flexural strength), 0.8 GPa (elastic modulus), and 170 kJ/m 3 (toughness) in three-point bending test. In addition to the positive results of aligned and non-aligned nanofibers it was found

  2. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tansel [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Çökeliler, Dilek, E-mail: cokeliler@baskent.edu.tr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Doğan, Mustafa [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Başkent University, Ankara 06180 (Turkey); Koçum, Ismail Cengiz [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Karatay, Okan [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Başkent University, Ankara 06180 (Turkey); Denkbaş, Emir Baki [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-05-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used as a base acrylic denture material with benefits of rapid and easy handling, however, when it is used in prosthetic dentistry, fracturing or cracking problems can be seen due to the relatively low strength issues. Besides, acrylic resin is the still prominent material for denture fabrication due to its handy and low cost features. Numerous proposed fillers that are used to produce PMMA composites, however electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofiber fillers for production of PMMA composite resins are not studied as much as the others. The other focus of the practice is to compare both mechanical properties and efficiency of aligned fibers versus non-aligned PVA nanofibers in PMMA based dental composites. Field-controlled electrospinning system is manufactured and provided good alignment in lab scale as one of contributions. Some novel auxiliary electrodes in controlled structure are augmented to obtain different patterns of alignment with a certain range of fiber diameters. Scanning electron microscopy is used for physical characterization to determine the range of fiber diameters. Non-woven fiber has no unique pattern due to chaotic nature of electrospinning process, but aligned fibers have round pattern or crossed lines. These produced fibers are structured as layer-by-layer form with different features, and these features are used in producing PMMA dental composites with different volume ratios. The maximum flexural strength figure shows that fiber load by weight of 0.25% w/w and above improves in the maximum level. As a result, mechanical properties of PMMA dental composites are improved by using PVA nanofibers as a filler, however the improvement was higher when aligned PVA nanofibers are used. The maximum values were 5.1 MPa (flexural strength), 0.8 GPa (elastic modulus), and 170 kJ/m{sup 3} (toughness) in three-point bending test. In addition to the positive results of aligned and non-aligned nanofibers it was

  3. Further Development of Ko Displacement Theory for Deformed Shape Predictions of Nonuniform Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2009-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory previously formulated for deformed shape predictions of nonuniform beam structures is further developed mathematically. The further-developed displacement equations are expressed explicitly in terms of geometrical parameters of the beam and bending strains at equally spaced strain-sensing stations along the multiplexed fiber-optic sensor line installed on the bottom surface of the beam. The bending strain data can then be input into the displacement equations for calculations of local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles for generating the overall deformed shapes of the nonuniform beam. The further-developed displacement theory can also be applied to the deformed shape predictions of nonuniform two-point supported beams, nonuniform panels, nonuniform aircraft wings and fuselages, and so forth. The high degree of accuracy of the further-developed displacement theory for nonuniform beams is validated by finite-element analysis of various nonuniform beam structures. Such structures include tapered tubular beams, depth-tapered unswept and swept wing boxes, width-tapered wing boxes, and double-tapered wing boxes, all under combined bending and torsional loads. The Ko displacement theory, combined with the fiber-optic strain-sensing system, provide a powerful tool for in-flight deformed shape monitoring of unmanned aerospace vehicles by ground-based pilots to maintain safe flights.

  4. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  5. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  6. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  7. Coronal heating by Alfven waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi

    1996-01-01

    The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin

  8. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)

  9. The Influence of nonuniform activity distribution on cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naling, Song; Yuan, Tian; Liangan, Zhang; Guangfu, Dai

    2008-01-01

    S value is an important parameter in determination of absorbed dose in nuclear medicine and radiobiology. The distribution of radioactivity shows significant influence on the S value especially in microdosimetry. In present work, a semi Monte Carlo Model is developed to calculate the microdosimetric cellular S value for different micro-distributions of radioactivity, i.e. uniform, linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase, exponential decrease and centroid distribution. Emission of alpha particles is simulated by Monte Carlo model and the energy imparted to the target volume is calculated by the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model and the spline interpolation of range-energy relationship. We calculate tables of S values for 213 Po and 210 Po with various dimensions and most important with various possible micro-distributions of radioactivity, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Then we compare the S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution with the Hamacher's results to test the feasibility of our model. S values of some nonuniform micro-distributions are compared to the corresponding data of the uniform distribution. The possible sources of these differences are theoretical analyzed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  11. Processing and properties of pressable ceramic with non-uniform reinforcement for selective-toughening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Wei [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hu, Xiaozhi, E-mail: xiao.zhi.hu@uwa.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Ichim, Paul [School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Sun, Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Brittle low-strength and low-toughness pressable dental ceramic can be reinforced by ductile elongated gold-particles (GP). A customized crown structure can be adequately strengthened by distributing GP only in critical sections of the crown, where high tensile stresses are experienced. In the present study, a non-uniformly structured ceramic-matrix composite with excellent interfacial bonding, twofold fracture toughness and strength at desired locations, is fabricated using pressable dental ceramic and GP. The layout pattern and sequence of different GP/ceramic powder mixtures, high-temperature flow properties of these mixtures during hot-pressing and the sample mold geometry are used to control the distribution and locations of GP for selective toughening and strengthening. Nano-crystalline structures of the pressable ceramic-matrix and the nano-scaled interfacial region around GP have been revealed by high-magnification field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Toughening and strengthening mechanisms of the elongated GP including residual stresses from composite processing and ductile fracture of GP are discussed together with SEM observations. Bulk flexural strength and local micro-indentation fracture and deformation characteristics of the selective-toughened ceramic/metal composite have been compared to those of the monolithic pressable ceramic to validate the toughening and strengthening mechanisms.

  12. Processing and properties of pressable ceramic with non-uniform reinforcement for selective-toughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Wei; Hu, Xiaozhi; Ichim, Paul; Sun, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Brittle low-strength and low-toughness pressable dental ceramic can be reinforced by ductile elongated gold-particles (GP). A customized crown structure can be adequately strengthened by distributing GP only in critical sections of the crown, where high tensile stresses are experienced. In the present study, a non-uniformly structured ceramic–matrix composite with excellent interfacial bonding, twofold fracture toughness and strength at desired locations, is fabricated using pressable dental ceramic and GP. The layout pattern and sequence of different GP/ceramic powder mixtures, high-temperature flow properties of these mixtures during hot-pressing and the sample mold geometry are used to control the distribution and locations of GP for selective toughening and strengthening. Nano-crystalline structures of the pressable ceramic–matrix and the nano-scaled interfacial region around GP have been revealed by high-magnification field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Toughening and strengthening mechanisms of the elongated GP including residual stresses from composite processing and ductile fracture of GP are discussed together with SEM observations. Bulk flexural strength and local micro-indentation fracture and deformation characteristics of the selective-toughened ceramic/metal composite have been compared to those of the monolithic pressable ceramic to validate the toughening and strengthening mechanisms.

  13. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  14. Alternative methods for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasaneh, S.; Rajabi, H.; Hajizadeh, E.

    2005-01-01

    Non-uniformity test is the most essential in daily quality control procedures of nuclear medicine equipment's. However, the calculation of non-uniformity is hindered due to high level of noise in nuclear medicine data. Non-uniformity may be considered as a type of systematic error while noise is certainly a random error. The present methods of uniformity evaluation are not able to distinguish between systematic and random error and therefore produce incorrect results when noise is significant. In the present study, two hypothetical methods have been tested for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: Using the Monte Carlo method, uniform and non-uniform flood images of different matrix sizes and different counts were generated. The uniformity of the images was calculated using the conventional method and proposed methods. The results were compared with the known non-uniformity data of simulated images. Results: It was observed that the value of integral uniformity never went below the recommended values except in small matrix size of high counts (more than 80 millions counts). The differential uniformity was quite insensitive to the degree of non-uniformity in large matrix size. Matrix size of 64*64 was only found to be suitable for the calculation of differential uniformity. It was observed that in uniform images, a small amount of non-uniformity changes the p-value of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and noise amplitude of fast fourier transformation test significantly while the conventional methods failed to detect the nonuniformity. Conclusion: The conventional methods do not distinguish noise, which is always present in the data and occasional non-uniformity at low count density. In a uniform intact flood image, the difference between maximum and minimum pixel count (the value of integral uniformity) is much more than the recommended values for non-uniformity. After filtration of image, this difference decreases, but remains high

  15. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-08-15

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.

  16. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane

  17. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  18. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Align. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also...

  19. Capillary Self-Alignment of Microchips on Soft Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft micro devices and stretchable electronics have attracted great interest for their potential applications in sensory skins and wearable bio-integrated devices. One of the most important steps in building printed circuits is the alignment of assembled micro objects. Previously, the capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects has been shown to be able to achieve high-throughput and high-precision in the integration of micro parts on rigid hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces. In this paper, the self-alignment of microchips on a patterned soft and stretchable substrate, which consists of hydrophilic pads surrounded by a superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS background, is demonstrated for the first time. A simple process has been developed for making superhydrophobic soft surface by replicating nanostructures of black silicon onto a PDMS surface. Different kinds of PDMS have been investigated, and the parameters for fabricating superhydrophobic PDMS have been optimized. A self-alignment strategy has been proposed that can result in reliable self-alignment on a soft PDMS substrate. Our results show that capillary self-alignment has great potential for building soft printed circuits.

  20. Gas dynamic improvement of the axial compressor design for reduction of the flow non-uniformity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. N.; Baturin, O. V.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Popov, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Circumferential nonuniformity of gas flow is one of the main problems in the gas turbine engine. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity appears near the annular frame located in the flow passage of the engine. The presence of circumferential nonuniformity leads to the increased dynamic stresses in the blade rows and the blade damage. The goal of this research was to find the ways of the flow non-uniformity reduction, which would not require a fundamental changing of the engine design. A new method for reducing the circumferential nonuniformity of the gas flow was proposed that allows the prediction of the pressure peak values of the rotor blades without computationally expensive CFD calculations.

  1. Improving scanner wafer alignment performance by target optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Socha, Robert; Menchtchikov, Boris; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Kent, Eric; Schoonewelle, Hielke; Tinnemans, Patrick; Tuffy, Paul; Belen, Jun; Wise, Rich

    2016-03-01

    In the process nodes of 10nm and below, the patterning complexity along with the processing and materials required has resulted in a need to optimize alignment targets in order to achieve the required precision, accuracy and throughput performance. Recent industry publications on the metrology target optimization process have shown a move from the expensive and time consuming empirical methodologies, towards a faster computational approach. ASML's Design for Control (D4C) application, which is currently used to optimize YieldStar diffraction based overlay (DBO) metrology targets, has been extended to support the optimization of scanner wafer alignment targets. This allows the necessary process information and design methodology, used for DBO target designs, to be leveraged for the optimization of alignment targets. In this paper, we show how we applied this computational approach to wafer alignment target design. We verify the correlation between predictions and measurements for the key alignment performance metrics and finally show the potential alignment and overlay performance improvements that an optimized alignment target could achieve.

  2. How genome complexity can explain the difficulty of aligning reads to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Vinhthuy; Gao, Shanshan; Tran, Quang; Vo, Nam S

    2015-01-01

    Although it is frequently observed that aligning short reads to genomes becomes harder if they contain complex repeat patterns, there has not been much effort to quantify the relationship between complexity of genomes and difficulty of short-read alignment. Existing measures of sequence complexity seem unsuitable for the understanding and quantification of this relationship. We investigated several measures of complexity and found that length-sensitive measures of complexity had the highest correlation to accuracy of alignment. In particular, the rate of distinct substrings of length k, where k is similar to the read length, correlated very highly to alignment performance in terms of precision and recall. We showed how to compute this measure efficiently in linear time, making it useful in practice to estimate quickly the difficulty of alignment for new genomes without having to align reads to them first. We showed how the length-sensitive measures could provide additional information for choosing aligners that would align consistently accurately on new genomes. We formally established a connection between genome complexity and the accuracy of short-read aligners. The relationship between genome complexity and alignment accuracy provides additional useful information for selecting suitable aligners for new genomes. Further, this work suggests that the complexity of genomes sometimes should be thought of in terms of specific computational problems, such as the alignment of short reads to genomes.

  3. Angle alignment evokes perceived depth and illusory surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Robert; Maertens, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    There is a distinct visual process that triggers the perception of illusory surfaces and contours along the intersections of aligned, zigzag line patterns. Such illusory contours and surfaces are qualitatively different from illusory contours of the Kanizsa type. The illusory contours and surfaces in this case are not the product of occlusion and do not imply occlusion of one surface by another. Rather, the aligned angles in the patterns are combined by the visual system into the perception of a fold or a 3-D corner, as of stairs on a staircase or a wall ending on a floor. The depth impression is ambiguous and reversible like the Necker cube. Such patterns were used by American Indian artists of the Akimel O'odham (Pima) tribe in basketry, and also by modern European and American artists like Josef Albers, Bridget Riley, Victor Vasarely, and Frank Stella. Our research aims to find out what manipulations of the visual image affect perceived depth in such patterns in order to learn about the perceptual mechanisms. Using paired comparisons, we find that human observers perceive depth in such patterns if, and only if, lines in adjacent regions of the patterns join to form angles, and also if, and only if, the angles are aligned precisely to be consistent with a fold or 3-D corner. The amount of perceived depth is graded, depending on the steepness and the density of angles in the aligned-angle pattern. The required precision of the alignment implies that early retinotopic visual cortical areas may be involved in this perceptual behavior, but the linkage of form with perceived depth suggests involvement of higher cortical areas as well.

  4. Mechanism and scaling for convection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale radial advection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas is investigated. The underlying mechanism considered is due to the nonlinear evolution of interchange motions, without any presumption of plasma sheaths. Theoretical arguments supported by numerical simulations...

  5. Reduction of gas flow nonuniformity in gas turbine engines by means of gas-dynamic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V.; Baturin, O.; Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.

    2017-08-01

    Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and as a consequence to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity as the source of dynamic stresses in the rotor blades. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. On the basis of existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.

  6. Analysis of Quantum Effects in Non-Uniformly Doped MOS Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiegna, Claudio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations obtained in one-dimensional non-uniformly doped MOS structures suitable for the fabrication of very short transistors...

  7. The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.

  8. Factorization method for difference equations of hypergeometric type on nonuniform lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Nodarse, R. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Costas-Santos, R.S. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2001-07-13

    We study the factorization of the hypergeometric-type difference equation of Nikiforov and Uvarov on nonuniform lattices. An explicit form of the raising and lowering operators is derived and some relevant examples are given. (author)

  9. Weighted backprojection implemented with a non-uniform attenuation map for improved SPECT quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed to improve quantitation in SPECT imaging by using an attenuation compensation method which includes the correct non-uniform attenuation spatial distribution (''map''). The method is based on the technique of weighted back projection, previously developed for uniform attenuation. The method is tested by imaging a non-uniform phantom, reconstructing with the known attenuation map, and quantitatively comparing the resultant image with the known activity distribution. Reconstructed image profiles are dramatically improved in comparison to reconstructions without compensation or with an assumed uniform attenuation map. Contrast measurements further quantify the improvement. Line spread function distortions seen previously in non-uniform geometries are essentially eliminated by the method. Therefore, the method appears to be appropriate for these geometries, if the non-uniform map can be determined. Some additional image distortions introduced by the compensation method are noted and will require further study

  10. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  11. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_...

  12. Liquid jets injected into non-uniform crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Samir

    An experimental study has been conducted with liquid jets injected transversely into a crossflow to study the effect of non-uniformities in the crossflow velocity distribution to the jet behavior. Two different non-uniform crossflows were created during this work, a shear-laden crossflow and a swirling crossflow. The shear-laden crossflow was generated by merging two independent, co-directional, parallel airstreams creating a shear mixing layer at the interface between them. The crossflow exhibited a quasi-linear velocity gradient across the height of the test chamber. By varying the velocities of the two airstreams, the sense and the slope of the crossflow velocity gradient could be changed. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to characterize the crossflow. The parameter, UR, is defined as the ratio of the velocities of the two streams and governs the velocity gradient. A positive velocity gradient was observed for UR > 1 and a negative velocity gradient for UR Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) studies were conducted to study the penetration and atomization of 0.5 mm diameter water jets injected into this crossflow. The crossflow velocity gradient was observed to have a significant effect on jet penetration as well as the post breakup spray. For high UR (> 1), jet penetration increased and the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution became more uniform. For low UR (Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the crossflow velocities. The axial (Ux) and the tangential (Utheta) components of the crossflow velocity were observed to decrease with increasing radial distance away from the centerbody. The flow angle of the crossflow was smaller than the vane exit angle, with the difference increasing with the vane exit angle. Water jets were injected from a 0.5 mm diameter orifice located on a cylindrical centerbody. Multi-plane PIV measurements were conducted to study the penetration and droplet velocity distribution of the jets. The jets were

  13. Clinical implications of alternative TCP models for nonuniform dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J. O.

    1995-01-01

    Several tumor control probability (TCP) models for nonuniform dose distributions were compared, including: (a) a logistic/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (b) a probit/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (c) a Poisson/radioresistant-strain/identical-patients model, (d) a Poisson/inter-patient-heterogeneity model and (e) a Poisson/intra-tumor- and inter-patient-heterogeneity model. The models were analyzed in terms of the probability of controlling a single tumor voxel (the voxel control probability, or VCP), as a function of voxel volume and dose. Alternatively, the VCP surface can be thought of as the effect of a small cold spot. The models based on the Poisson equation which include inter-patient heterogeneity ((d) and (e)) have VCP surfaces (VCP as a function of dose and volume) which have a threshold 'waterfall' shape: below the waterfall (in dose), VCP is nearly zero. The threshold dose decreases with decreasing voxel volume. However, models (a), (b), and (c) all show a high probability of controlling a voxel (VCP>50%) with very low dose (e.g., 1 Gy) if the voxel is small (smaller than about 10 -3 of the tumor volume). Model (c) does not have the waterfall shape at low volumes due to the assumption of patient uniformity and a neglect of the effect of the clonogens which are more radiosensitive (and more numerous). Models (a) and (b) deviate from the waterfall shape at low volumes due to numerical differences between the functions used and the Poisson function. Hence, the Possion models which include inter-patient heterogeneities ((d) and (e)) are more sensitive to the effects of small cold spots than the other models considered

  14. Variational theory of cyclotron emission from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V.F.; Swanson, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas direct calculations of emission from a source model in both homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous media have been previously executed, there are no previous theories of the source distribution function from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas where mode conversion phenomena must be taken into account. Whenever the emitting layer is localized due to gradients of the external magnetic field, mode conversion leads to the Generalized Kirchhoff's Law (GKL) E 1 /A 1 = E 2 /A 2 = E 3 /A 3 , where A j represents the absorbed fraction on the j-th wave branch and E j is the corresponding emitted energy along j-th branch. Recently integral expressions for A j and E j in terms of arbitrary localized sink and source distributions have been obtained. The GKL relating absorption to emission along each branch of coexisting in the inhomogeneous mode conversion layer affects the shape of source distribution through a functional of the emissivity. Moreover, E j /A j ≡ I bb , where I bb is a black body radiated power. Accordingly, the distributed emission source function should be an extremal of the emissivity functional. The authors have developed the corresponding variational analysis with nontrivial GKL constraints. As a result they have discovered the correct representation of the ratio of source and sink distributions in the form of an expansion in linearly independent adjoint wave solutions of the absorption problem. Finally, unknown coefficients have been found numerically by further maximization taking account of both source boundedness and the GKL constraints. Calculations performed for a broad variety of plasma parameters will be presented

  15. Intimal cushions and endothelial nuclear elongation around mouse aortic branches and their spatial correspondence with patterns of lipid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew R.; Ni, Chih-Wen; Jo, Hanjoong

    2010-01-01

    Spatial variation in hemodynamic stresses acting on the arterial wall may explain the nonuniform distribution of atherosclerosis. In thoracic aortas of LDL receptor/apolipoprotein E double knockout mice, lesions develop preferentially around the entire circumference of intercostal branch ostia, regardless of age, with the highest prevalence occurring upstream. Additional chevron-shaped lesions occur further upstream of the ostia. This pattern differs from the age-related ones occurring in people and rabbits. In the present study, patterns of near-wall blood flow around intercostal ostia in wild-type mice were estimated from the morphology of endothelial nuclei, which were shown in vitro to elongate in response to elevated shear stress and to align with the flow, and wall structure was assessed from confocal and scanning electron microscopy. A triangular intimal cushion surrounded the upstream part of most ostia. Nuclear length-to-width ratios were lowest over this cushion and highest at the sides of branches, regardless of age. Nuclear orientations were consistent with flow diverging around the branch. The pattern of nuclear morphology differed from the age-related ones observed in rabbits. The intimal cushion and the distribution of shear stress inferred from these observations can partly account for the pattern of lesions observed in knockout mice. Nuclear elongation in nonbranch regions was approximately constant across animals of different size, demonstrating the existence of a mechanism by which endothelial cells compensate for the dependence of mean aortic wall shear stress on body mass. PMID:19933414

  16. Emittance growth caused by nonuniform charge distribution of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Zhang Zhenhai

    1993-09-01

    The nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac is one of the important reasons that induces the emittance growth because of the conversion of the field energy to kinetic energy. The authors have worked out the internal field energies associated with some nonuniform space change distributions of a bunched beam, such as Gaussian distribution, waterbag distribution and parabolic distribution. And the emittance growths caused by these nonuniformities are obtained

  17. Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.

  18. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, R

    2008-01-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision.\\\\ Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15\\% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first \\emph{p-p} collisions.

  19. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. The Effects of Nonuniform Illumination on the Electrical Performance of a Single Conventional Photovoltaic Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV concentrators are a promising approach for lowering PV electricity costs in the near future. However, most of the concentrators that are currently used for PV applications yield nonuniform flux profiles on the surface of a PV module which in turn reduces its electrical performance if the cells are serially connected. One way of overcoming this effect is the use of PV modules with isolated cells so that each cell generates current that is proportional to the energy flux absorbed. However, there are some cases where nonuniform illumination also exists in a single cell in an isolated cells PV module. This paper systematically studied the effect of nonuniform illumination on various cell performance parameters of a single monocrystalline standard PV cell at low and medium energy concentration ratios. Furthermore, the effect of orientation, size, and geometrical shapes of nonuniform illumination was also investigated. It was found that the effect of nonuniform illumination on various PV cell performance parameters of a single standard PV cell becomes noticeable at medium energy flux concentration whilst the location, size, and geometrical shape of nonuniform illumination have no effect on the performance parameters of the cell.

  1. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators

  3. Thermal Performance for Wet Cooling Tower with Different Layout Patterns of Fillings under Typical Crosswind Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing a uniform layout pattern and one kind of optimal non-uniform layout pattern when the environmental crosswind speed is 0 m/s and 0.4 m/s. The experimental results proved that under windless conditions, the heat transfer coefficient and total heat rejection of circulating water for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern can enhance by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with the uniform layout pattern. It was also discovered that the optimal non-uniform pattern can dramatically relieve the influence of crosswind on the thermal performance of the tower when the crosswind speed is equal to 0.4 m/s. For the uniform layout pattern, the heat transfer coefficient under 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions decreased by 9.5% compared with the windless conditions, while that value lowered only by 2.0% for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern. It has been demonstrated that the optimal non-uniform layout pattern has the better thermal performance under 0.4 m/s crosswind condition.

  4. Intradomain Textures in Block Copolymers: Multizone Alignment and Biaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ishan; Seo, Youngmi; Hall, Lisa M.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2017-06-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) melt assembly has been studied for decades, focusing largely on self-organized spatial patterns of periodically ordered segment density. Here, we demonstrate that underlying the well-known composition profiles (i.e., ordered lamella, cylinders, spheres, and networks) are generic and heterogeneous patterns of segment orientation that couple strongly to morphology, even in the absence of specific factors that promote intra or interchain segment alignment. We employ both self-consistent field theory and coarse-grained simulation methods to measure polar and nematic order parameters of segments in a freely jointed chain model of diblock melts. We show that BCP morphologies have a multizone texture, with segments predominantly aligned normal and parallel to interdomain interfaces in the respective brush and interfacial regions of the microdomain. Further, morphologies with anisotropically curved interfaces (i.e., cylinders and networks) exhibit biaxial order that is aligned to the principal curvature axes of the interface.

  5. Tunnel Face Stability and the Effectiveness of Advance Drainage Measures in Water-Bearing Ground of Non-uniform Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Sara; Anagnostou, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Non-uniform permeability may result in complex hydraulic head fields with potentially very high hydraulic gradients close to the tunnel face, which may be adverse for stability depending on the ground strength. Pore pressure relief by drainage measures in advance of the tunnel excavation improves stability, but the effectiveness of drainage boreholes may be low in the case of alternating aquifers and aquitards. This paper analyses the effects of hydraulic heterogeneity and advance drainage quantitatively by means of limit equilibrium computations that take account of the seepage forces acting upon the ground in the vicinity the tunnel face. The piezometric field is determined numerically by means of steady-state, three-dimensional seepage flow analyses considering the heterogeneous structure of the ground and a typical advance drainage scheme consisting of six axial boreholes drilled from the tunnel face. A suite of stability analyses was carried out covering a wide range of heterogeneity scales. The computational results show the effect of the orientation, thickness, location, number and permeability ratio of aquifers and aquitards and provide valuable indications about potentially critical situations, the effectiveness of advance drainage and the adequate arrangement of drainage boreholes. The paper shows that hydraulic heterogeneity results in highly variable face behaviour, even if the shear strength of the ground is constant along the alignment, but ground behaviour is considerably less variable in the presence of advance drainage measures.

  6. Alignment of the TFTR bumper limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.W.; Owens, D.K.; Loesser, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The TFTR Bumper Limiter (BL) is an axisymmetric toroidal limiter mounted on the inner wall of the vacuum vessel. It subtends 120 degree poloidally and has a surface area of 22 m 2 . The plasma facing surface consists of 1,000 kg of graphite tiles mounted on watercooled Inconel backing plates. During the initial installation in the Spring of 1985, the limiter surface was aligned to the toroidal magnetic field by mechanical and magnetic measurements to an estimated accuracy of ±2 mm. During subsequent operation, especially in the 1988 run period in which 30 MW of Neutral Beam Injection routinely occurred, several tiles at points on the limiter which protruded slightly into the plasma were severely damaged. The damage, cracked and spalled tiles, is believed to be initiated by high energy disruptions and aggravated by normal high power operation. The damage pattern and temperature rise during normal operation are consistent with this interpretation. A vacuum vessel opening to replace the damaged tiles and realign the limiter was required. The bumper limiter was reshaped to be circular to ±0.5 mm at the midplane by means of mechanical measurements in order to better distribute the heat loads and eliminate hot spots. The ±0.5 mm accuracy is determined by the variation in individual tile thickness which is ±0.5 mm. This paper describes the methods used to mechanically align the limiter and presents evidence based on machine operation with plasma that the limiter is reasonably well aligned with the toroidal field. Future work dealing with the alignment of the total limiter to the toroidal field using mechanical and magnetic measurements and the replacement of a subset of the carbon tiles with carbon-carbon composite material is also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  7. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  8. Galaxy Alignments: Theory, Modelling & Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Cacciato, Marcello; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L.; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in the large-scale structure tend to align nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of both the shapes and angular momenta of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the field, providing a solid basis for future work.

  9. Non-Uniformity Correction Using Nonlinear Characteristic Performance Curves for Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, McKenna Roberts

    Infrared imaging is an expansive field with many applications. Advances in infrared technology have lead to a greater demand from both commercial and military sectors. However, a known problem with infrared imaging is its non-uniformity. This non-uniformity stems from the fact that each pixel in an infrared focal plane array has its own photoresponse. Many factors such as exposure time, temperature, and amplifier choice affect how the pixels respond to incoming illumination and thus impact image uniformity. To improve performance non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration based techniques commonly use a linear model to approximate the nonlinear response. This often leaves unacceptable levels of residual non-uniformity. Calibration techniques often have to be repeated during use to continually correct the image. In this dissertation alternates to linear NUC algorithms are investigated. The goal of this dissertation is to determine and compare nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Ideally the results will provide better NUC performance resulting in less residual non-uniformity as well as reduce the need for recalibration. This dissertation will consider new approaches to nonlinear NUC such as higher order polynomials and exponentials. More specifically, a new gain equalization algorithm has been developed. The various nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms will be compared with common linear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Performance will be compared based on RMS errors, residual non-uniformity, and the impact quantization has on correction. Performance will be improved by identifying and replacing bad pixels prior to correction. Two bad pixel identification and replacement techniques will be investigated and compared. Performance will be presented in the form of simulation results as well as before and after images taken with short wave infrared cameras. The initial results show, using a third order

  10. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  11. A technique for aligning sextupole systems using beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiu.

    1992-03-01

    A technique for beam based alignment of sextupole system is developed exploiting the enhancement effect of orbit differences by the sextupoles. This technique can in principle be applied to sextupole or sextupole strings with controlled orbit pattern and BPM configurations. This paper will discuss the theoretical basis, special optimization considerations and expected accuracy. Application to the SLC final focus is also discussed

  12. Alignment control of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Ward, H; Casey, M M; Strain, K A; Robertson, D I; Hough, J; Danzmannx, K

    2004-01-01

    We give an overview of the automatic mirror alignment system of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600. In order to achieve the required sensitivity of the Michelson interferometer, the axes of interfering beams have to be superimposed with a residual angle of the order 10 -8 rad. The beam spots have to be centred on the mirrors to minimize coupling of alignment noise into longitudinal signals. We present the actual control topology and results from the system in operation, which controls all alignment degrees of the power-recycled Michelson. With this system continuous lock stretches of more than 121 h duration were achieved

  13. Control rod housing alignment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses an alignment device for precisely locating the position of the top of a control rod drive housing from an overlying and corresponding hole and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor. It includes a shaft, the shaft having a length sufficient to extend from the vicinity of the top of the control rod drive housing up to and through the hole in the core plate; means for registering the top of the shaft to the hole in the core plate, the registering means including means for registering with an alignment pin in the core plate adjacent the hole

  14. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Petersen, Michael; Girard, Frederic; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor spanned out by the phosphodiester atoms. The rhombicity is well predicted over its full range from 0 to 0.66, while the alignment tensor orientation is predicted correctly for rhombicities up to ca. 0.4, for larger rhombicities it appears to deviate somewhat more than expected based on structural noise and measurement error. This simple analytical approach is based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the electrostatic interaction potential, valid at distances sufficiently far away from a poly-ionic charged surface, a condition naturally enforced when the charge of alignment medium and solute are of equal sign, as for nucleic acids in a Pf1-phage medium. For the usual salt strengths and nucleic acid sizes, the Debye-Huckel screening length is smaller than the nucleic acid size, but large enough for the collective of Debye-Huckel spheres to encompass the whole molecule. The molecular alignment is then purely electrostatic, but it's functional form is under these conditions similar to that for steric alignment. The proposed analytical expression allows for very fast calculation of the alignment tensor and hence RDCs from the conformation of the nucleic acid molecule. This information provides opportunities for improved structure determination of nucleic acids, including better assessment of dynamics in (multi-domain) nucleic acids and the possibility to incorporate alignment tensor prediction from shape directly into the structure calculation process. The procedures are incorporated into MATLAB scripts, which are available on request

  15. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  16. Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

    2014-01-01

    Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  18. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  19. Aligning with New Digital Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Adrian; Soh, Christina; Hansen, Rina

    2018-01-01

    Prior IS research has not fully addressed the aligning process in the highly dynamic context of digital strategy. To address this gap, we conduct a longitudinal analysis of a B2B company's journey to enact its B2C digital strategy, using the dynamic capabilities approach. We found...... that as an organization shifts towards a digital strategy, misalignments between the emergent strategy and resources give rise to tension. Our study resulted in the development of an aligning process model that is comprised of three phases (exploratory, building, and extending) and generalizable organizational aligning...... actions that form the organization's sensing, seizing, and transforming capacities. These aligning actions iteratively reconfigured organizational resources and refined strategy in order to respond to both changes in the environment and internal tensions. We also recognized that there are challenges...

  20. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...... is so high that it took more than a decade before the first implementation of a Sankoff style algorithm was published. However, with the faster computers available today and the improved heuristics used in the implementations the Sankoff-based methods have become practical. This chapter describes...... the methods based on the Sankoff algorithm. All the practical implementations of the algorithm use heuristics to make them run in reasonable time and memory. These heuristics are also described in this chapter....

  1. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database...... and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster......: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...

  2. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  3. Compressor Performance Scaling in the Presence of Non-Uniform Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David Jarrod

    Fuselage-embedded engines in future aircraft will see increased flow distortions due to the ingestion of airframe boundary layers. This reduces the required propulsive power compared to podded engines. Inlet flow distortions mean that localized regions of flow within the fan and first stage compressor are operating at off-design conditions. It is important to weigh the benefit of increased vehicle propulsive efficiency against the resultant reduction in engine efficiency. High computational cost has limited most past research to single distortion studies. The objective of this thesis is to extract scaling laws for transonic compressor performance in the presence of various distortion patterns and intensities. The machine studied is the NASA R67 transonic compressor. Volumetric source terms are used to model rotor and stator blade rows. The modelling approach is an innovative combination of existing flow turning and loss models, combined with a compressible flow correction. This approach allows for a steady calculation to capture distortion transfer; as a result, the computational cost is reduced by two orders of magnitude. At peak efficiency, the rotor work coefficient and isentropic efficiency are matched within 1.4% of previously published experimental results. A key finding of this thesis is that, in non-uniform flow, the state-of-the-art loss model employed is unable to capture the impact of variations in local flow coefficient, limiting the analysis of local entropy generation. New insight explains the mechanism governing the interaction between a total temperature distortion and a compressor rotor. A parametric study comprising 16 inlet distortions reveals that for total temperature distortions, upstream flow redistribution and rotor diffusion factor changes are shown to scale linearly with distortion severity. Linear diffusion factor scaling does not hold true for total pressure distortions. For combined total temperature and total pressure distortions, the

  4. Applying controlled non-uniform deformation for in vitro studies of cell mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Skorinko, Jeremy K; Hera, Adriana; Gaudette, Glenn R; Billiar, Kristen L

    2010-06-01

    Cells within connective tissues routinely experience a wide range of non-uniform mechanical loads that regulate many cell behaviors. In this study, we developed an experimental system to produce complex strain patterns for the study of strain magnitude, anisotropy, and gradient effects on cells in culture. A standard equibiaxial cell stretching system was modified by affixing glass coverslips (5, 10, or 15 mm diameter) to the center of 35 mm diameter flexible-bottomed culture wells. Ring inserts were utilized to limit applied strain to different levels in each individual well at a given vacuum pressure thus enabling parallel experiments at different strain levels. Deformation fields were measured using high-density mapping for up to 6% applied strain. The addition of the rigid inclusion creates strong circumferential and radial strain gradients, with a continuous range of stretch anisotropy ranging from strip biaxial to equibiaxial strain and radial strains up to 24% near the inclusion. Dermal fibroblasts seeded within our 2D system (5 mm inclusions; 2% applied strain for 2 days at 0.2 Hz) demonstrated the characteristic orientation perpendicular to the direction of principal strain. Dermal fibroblasts seeded within fibrin gels (5 mm inclusions; 6% applied strain for 8 days at 0.2 Hz) oriented themselves similarly and compacted their surrounding matrix to an increasing extent with local strain magnitude. This study verifies how inhomogeneous strain fields can be produced in a tunable and simply constructed system and demonstrates the potential utility for studying gradients with a continuous spectrum of strain magnitudes and anisotropies.

  5. Sensing Characteristics of A Precision Aligner Using Moire Gratings for Precision Alignment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lizhong; Hideo Furuhashi; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2001-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of a precision aligner using moire gratings for precision alignment sysem has been investigated. A differential moire alignment system and a modified alignment system were used. The influence of the setting accuracy of the gap length and inclination of gratings on the alignment accuracy has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Setting accuracy of the gap length less than 2.5μm is required in modified moire alignment. There is no influence of the gap length on the alignment accuracy in the differential alignment system. The inclination affects alignment accuracies in both differential and modified moire alignment systems.

  6. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and continuously communicating goals and goal...which is vital to highlight the importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and...result of the 2004 organizational restructure, and as defined in the CONOPS, NAVFAC now operates as a matrix organization with integrated “vertical

  7. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  8. Performance enhancement of photovoltaic array through string and central based MPPT system under non-uniform irradiance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syafaruddin; Karatepe, Engin; Hiyama, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose MPPT method for tracking global MPP of PV arrays under non-uniform irradiance conditions. ► We compare the performance of string and central based MPPT. ► Intelligent control method is utilized to identify the global operating voltage in string and central based MPPT system. ► The performance of proposed method is tested on different size of PV. - Abstract: Mismatching losses reduction of photovoltaic (PV) array has been intensively discussed through the increasing penetration of residential and commercial PV systems. Many causes of mismatching losses have been identified and plenty of proposed methods to solve this problem have been recently proposed. This paper deals with reducing method of mismatching losses due to the non-uniform irradiance conditions. It is well-known that a certain number of multiple peaks occur on the power–voltage curve as the number of PV modules in one-string increases under non-uniform operating conditions. Since the conventional control method only drives the operating points of PV system to the local maxima close to open circuit voltage, only small portion of power can be extracted from the PV system. In this study, a radial basis function neural network (RBF-ANN) based intelligent control method is utilized to map the global operating voltage and non-irradiance operating condition in string and central based MPPT systems. The proposed method has been tested on 10 × 3 (2.2 kW), 15 × 3 (2.5 kW) and 20 × 3 (3.3 kW) of series–parallel PV array configuration under random-shaded and continuous-shaded patterns. The proposed method is compared with the ideal case and conventional method through a simple power–voltage curve of PV arrays. The simulation results show that there are significant increases of about 30–60% of the extracted power in one operating condition when the proposed method is able to shift the operating voltage of modules to their optimum voltages.

  9. SPA: a probabilistic algorithm for spliced alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale cDNA sequencing efforts show that elaborate patterns of splice variation are responsible for much of the proteome diversity in higher eukaryotes. To obtain an accurate account of the repertoire of splice variants, and to gain insight into the mechanisms of alternative splicing, it is essential that cDNAs are very accurately mapped to their respective genomes. Currently available algorithms for cDNA-to-genome alignment do not reach the necessary level of accuracy because they use ad hoc scoring models that cannot correctly trade off the likelihoods of various sequencing errors against the probabilities of different gene structures. Here we develop a Bayesian probabilistic approach to cDNA-to-genome alignment. Gene structures are assigned prior probabilities based on the lengths of their introns and exons, and based on the sequences at their splice boundaries. A likelihood model for sequencing errors takes into account the rates at which misincorporation, as well as insertions and deletions of different lengths, occurs during sequencing. The parameters of both the prior and likelihood model can be automatically estimated from a set of cDNAs, thus enabling our method to adapt itself to different organisms and experimental procedures. We implemented our method in a fast cDNA-to-genome alignment program, SPA, and applied it to the FANTOM3 dataset of over 100,000 full-length mouse cDNAs and a dataset of over 20,000 full-length human cDNAs. Comparison with the results of four other mapping programs shows that SPA produces alignments of significantly higher quality. In particular, the quality of the SPA alignments near splice boundaries and SPA's mapping of the 5' and 3' ends of the cDNAs are highly improved, allowing for more accurate identification of transcript starts and ends, and accurate identification of subtle splice variations. Finally, our splice boundary analysis on the human dataset suggests the existence of a novel non

  10. Effects of Nonuniform Incident Illumination on the Thermal Performance of a Concentrating Triple Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Amri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical heat transfer model was developed to investigate the temperature of a triple junction solar cell and the thermal characteristics of the airflow in a channel behind the solar cell assembly using nonuniform incident illumination. The effects of nonuniformity parameters, emissivity of the two channel walls, and Reynolds number were studied. The maximum solar cell temperature sharply increased in the presence of nonuniform light profiles, causing a drastic reduction in overall efficiency. This resulted in two possible solutions for solar cells to operate in optimum efficiency level: (i adding new receiver plate with higher surface area or (ii using forced cooling techniques to reduce the solar cell temperature. Thus, surface radiation exchanges inside the duct and Re significantly reduced the maximum solar cell temperature, but a conventional plain channel cooling system was inefficient for cooling the solar cell at medium concentrations when the system was subjected to a nonuniform light distribution. Nonuniformity of the incident light and surface radiation in the duct had negligible effects on the collected thermal energy.

  11. On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanlong; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Wang, Longqi; Peng, Fujun; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.

  12. Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.

  13. On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanlong, E-mail: xuyanlong@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Zhou, Xiaoling [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Longqi [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Peng, Fujun [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Li, Bin [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-09-23

    It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.

  14. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Alignment of symmetric top molecules by short laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Edward; Seideman, Tamar; Ejdrup, Tine

    2005-01-01

    -resolved photofragment imaging. Using methyliodide and tert-butyliodide as examples, we calculate and measure the alignment dynamics, focusing on the temporal structure and intensity of the revival patterns, including their dependence on the pulse duration, and their behavior at long times, where centrifugal distortion......Nonadiabatic alignment of symmetric top molecules induced by a linearly polarized, moderately intense picosecond laser pulse is studied theoretically and experimentally. Our studies are based on the combination of a nonperturbative solution of the Schrodinger equation with femtosecond time...

  16. Evaluation of the dose uniformity for double-plane high dose rate interstitial breast implants with the use of dose reference points and dose non-uniformity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAjor, T.; Polgar, C.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dwell time optimizations on dose uniformity characterized by dose values in dose points and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR) and analyzed which implant parameters have influence on the DNR. Double-plane breast implants with catheters arranged in triangular pattern were used for the calculations. At a typical breast implant, dose values in dose reference points inside the target volume and volumes enclosed by given isodose surfaces were calculated and compared for non-optimized and optimized implants. The same 6-cm treatment length was used for the comparisons. Using different optimizations plots of dose non-uniformity ratio as a function of catheter separation, source step size, number of catheters, length of active sections were drawn and the minimum DNR values were determined. Optimization resulted in less variation in dose values over dose points through the whole volume and in the central plane only compared to the non-optimized case. At implant configurations consisting of seven catheters with 15-mm separation, 5-mm source step size and various active lengths adapted according to the type of optimization, the no optimization, geometrical (volume mode) and dose point (on dose points and geometry) optimization resulted in similar treatment volumes, but an increased high dose volume was observed due to the optimization. The dose non-uniformity ratio always had the minimum at average dose over dose normalization points, defined in the midpoints between the catheters through the implant volume. The minimum value of DNR depended on catheter separation, source step size, active length and number of catheters. The optimization had only a small influence on DNR. In addition to the reference points in the central plane only, dose points positioned in the whole implant volume can be used for evaluating the dose uniformity of interstitial implants. The dose optimization increases not only the dose uniformity within the implant but

  17. Laser beam alignment and profilometry using diagnostic fluorescent safety mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    There are a wide range of laser beam delivery systems in use for various purposes; including industrial and medical applications. Virtually all such beam delivery systems for practical purposes employ optical systems comprised of mirrors and lenses to shape, focus and guide the laser beam down to the material being processed. The goal of the laser beam delivery is to set the optimum parameters and to "fold" the beam path to reduce the mechanical length of the optical system, thereby allowing a physically compact system. In many cases, even a compact system can incorporate upwards of six mirrors and a comparable number of lenses all needing alignment so they are collinear. One of the major requirements for use of such systems in industry is a method of safe alignment. The alignment process requires that the aligner determine where the beam strikes each element. The aligner should also preferably be able to determine the shape or pattern of the laser beam at that point and its relative power. These alignments are further compounded in that the laser beams generated are not visible to the unaided human eye. Such beams are also often of relatively high power levels, and are thereby a significant hazard to the eyes of the aligner. Obvious an invisible beam makes it nearly impossible to align laser system without some form of optical assistance. The predominant method of visually aligning the laser beam delivery is the use of thermal paper, paper cards or fluorescing card material. The use of paper products which have limited power handling capability or coated plastics can produce significant debris and contaminants within the beam line that ultimately damage the optics. The use of the cards can also create significant laser light scatter jeopardizing the safety of the person aligning the system. This paper covers a new safety mirror design for use with at various UV and Near IR wavelengths (193 nm to 1064 nm) within laser beam delivery systems and how its use can

  18. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune

    2012-01-01

    IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...... it an invaluable tool for explorative research based on ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles and the CATCH algorithm run on all platforms and is available for free through the CATCH website: http://catch.cmbi.ru.nl/. User support is available by subscribing to the mailing list catch-users@bioinformatics.org....

  19. Geodetic alignment of laser power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtorm, V.V.; Gostev, A.M.; Drobikov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Main problems occuring in applied geodesy under initial alignment of laser power installation optical channel are considered. Attention is paid to alignment of lens beamguide telescopic pairs and alignment quality control. Methods and means of geodetic measurements under alignment are indicated. Conclusions are made about the degree of working through certain aspects of the problem

  20. Macroscopic Ensembles of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in Bubble Imprints Studied by Polarized Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Ushiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the alignment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in bubble imprints through polarized Raman microscopy. A hemispherical bubble containing SWCNTs is pressed against a glass substrate, resulting in an imprint of the bubble membrane with a coffee ring on the substrate. We find that macroscopic ensembles of aligned SWCNTs are obtained in the imprints, in which there are three patterns of orientations: (i azimuthal alignment on the coffee ring, (ii radial alignment at the edge of the membrane, and (iii random orientation at the center of the membrane. We also find that the alignment of SWCNTs in the imprints can be manipulated by spinning bubbles. The orientation of SWCNTs on the coffee ring is directed radially, which is orthogonal to the case of unspun bubbles. This approach enables one to align SWCNTs in large quantities and in a short time, potentially opening up a wide range of CNT-based electronic and optical applications.

  1. Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae

    2006-01-01

    The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length

  2. Experimental observation of the inductive electric field and related plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. K.; Chang, H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharges, Langmuir probe and B-dot probe measurements were carried out in the radial direction in a cylindrical capacitive discharge driven at 90 MHz with argon pressures of 50 and 400 mTorr. Through the measurements, a significant inductive electric field (i.e., time-varying magnetic field) was observed at the radial edge, and it was found that the inductive electric field creates strong plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation. The plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation is physically similar to the E-H mode transition typically observed in inductive discharges. This result agrees well with the theories of electromagnetic effects in large area and/or high frequency capacitive discharges

  3. Vibration of nonuniform carbon nanotube with attached mass via nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hai Li; Shen, Zhi Bin; Li, Dao Kui

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the vibrational behavior of nonuniform single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carrying a nanoparticle. A nonuniform cantilever beam with a concentrated mass at the free end is analyzed according to the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. A governing equation of a nonuniform SWCNT with attached mass is established. The transfer function method incorporating with the perturbation method is utilized to obtain the resonant frequencies of a vibrating nonlocal cantilever-mass system. The effects of the nonlocal parameter, taper ratio and attached mass on the natural frequencies and frequency shifts are discussed. Obtained results indicate that the sensitivity of the frequency shifts on the attached mass increases when the length-to-diameter ratio decreases. Tapered SWCNT possesses higher fundamental frequencies if the taper ratio becomes larger.

  4. Computer Simulation of Nonuniform MTLs via Implicit Wendroff and State-Variable Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brancik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with techniques for a computer simulation of nonuniform multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs based on the implicit Wendroff and the statevariable methods. The techniques fall into a class of finitedifference time-domain (FDTD methods useful to solve various electromagnetic systems. Their basic variants are extended and modified to enable solving both voltage and current distributions along nonuniform MTL’s wires and their sensitivities with respect to lumped and distributed parameters. An experimental error analysis is performed based on the Thomson cable whose analytical solutions are known, and some examples of simulation of both uniform and nonuniform MTLs are presented. Based on the Matlab language programme, CPU times are analyzed to compare efficiency of the methods. Some results for nonlinear MTLs simulation are presented as well.

  5. A poloidal non-uniformity of the collisionless parallel current in a tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romannikov, A.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C

    2005-07-01

    The collisionless distortion of the ion (electron) distribution function at certain points on a magnetic surface is studied in the framework of a simple model of a large aspect ratio tokamak plasma. The flow velocity driven by this distortion is calculated. The possibility of an additional non-uniform collisionless parallel current density on a magnetic surface, other than the known neo-classical non-uniformity is shown. The difference between the parallel current density on the low and high field side of a magnetic surface is close to the neoclassical bootstrap current density. The first Tore-Supra experimental test indicates the possibility of the poloidal non-uniformity of the parallel current density. (authors)

  6. Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.

  7. Derivation of nonlinear wave equations for ultrasound beam in nonuniform bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Yano, Takeru; Kawahara, Junya; Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Masao; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    Weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted ultrasound beams in a nonuniform bubbly liquid is theoretically studied based on the method of multiple scales with the set of scaling relations of some physical parameters. It is assumed that the spatial distribution of the number density of bubbles in an initial state at rest is a slowly varying function of space coordinates and the amplitude of its variation is small compared with a mean number density. As a result, a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation with dispersion and nonuniform effects for a low frequency case and a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for a high frequency case, are derived from the basic equations of bubbly flows.

  8. Nonuniform transformation field analysis of multiphase elasto viscoplastic materials: application to MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussette, S.

    2005-05-01

    The description of the overall behavior of nonlinear materials with nonlinear dissipative phases requires an infinity of internal variables. An approximate model involving only a finite number of internal variables, Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis, is obtained by considering a decomposition of these variables on a finite set of nonuniform transformation fields, called plastic modes. The method is initially developed for incompressible elasto viscoplastic materials. Karhunen-Loeve expansion is proposed to optimize the plastic modes. Then the method is extended to porous elasto viscoplastic materials. Finally the transformation field analysis, developed by Dvorak, is applied to nuclear fuels MOX. This method enables to make sensitivity studies to determine the role of some microstructural parameters on the fuel behaviour. Moreover the adequacy of the nonuniform method for fuels MOX is shown, the final objective being to be able to apply the model to the MOX in 3D. (author)

  9. Circumferential nonuniformity of cladding radiation swelling of fast reactor peripheral fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.; Farkhutdinov, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of the investigation into the perimeter radiation swelling of Kh18N10T stainless steel cladding in different cross sections of a peripheral fuel element of the BR-5 reactor. The fluence on the cladding is 1.8-2.9 x 10 22 fast neutr/cm 2 , the operating temperatures in different parts of the fuel element being 430 deg to 585 deg C. There has been observed circumferential non-uniformity of the distribution, concentration, and of the total volume of radiation cavities, which is due to temperature non-uniformity along the cladding perimeter. It is shown that such non-uniformity of radiation swelling of the cladding material may result in bending of the peripheral fuel element with regard to the fuel assembly sheath walls

  10. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  11. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment...... of NPD performance indicators. Strategic planning and innovativeness appear to affect technological, market, and NPD-marketing alignment positively. Environmental munificence is negatively associated with NPD-marketing alignment, but has no effect on the two other forms of alignment. Technological change...... has a positive effect on technological alignment, a negative effect on NPD-marketing alignment, but no effect on market alignment. These findings suggest that internal capabilities are more likely to be associated with the development of strategic alignment than environmental factors are. Furthermore...

  12. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  13. Sales Territory Alignment: A Review and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1983-01-01

    The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...

  14. Photocathode non-uniformity contribution to the energy resolution of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghian, M.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Etaati, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basics of the light transport simulation in scintillators and the wavelength-dependencies in the process. The non-uniformity measurement of the photocathode surface is undertaken, showing that for the photocathode used in this study the quantum efficiency falls to about 4% of its maximum value, especially in areas far from the centre. The wavelength-and position-dependent quantum efficiency is implemented in the Monte Carlo light transport code, showing that, the contribution of the photocathode non-uniformity to the energy resolution is estimated to be around 18%, when all position-and wavelength-dependencies are included. (authors)

  15. Effects of non-uniformities on electrical conduction in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, M.; Murakami, Y.; Nitta, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of non-uniformities on the flow of electric current in weakly ionized plasmas is investigated by taking into account the ion slip as well as the Hall current. An Ohm's law for a non-uniform plasma is derived, from which the formula previously obtained by Numano, i.e. an extension of Rosa's equation, is obtainable as a special case. Making use of this new Ohm's law, the effective electrical conductivity and the effective Hall parameter are determined for isotropically turbulent plasmas. It is found that when the ion-slip effect is absent they are in good agreement with the results obtained previously. (author)

  16. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.

  17. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)

  19. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.

  20. A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.

    1979-08-01

    A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)

  1. Wastewater diffusive dilution and sedimentation of the fine contaminated particles for nonuniform flow in open channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lyapin Anton; Lyapin Valery

    2018-01-01

    The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniform...

  2. Magnetic-field-aligned characteristics of plasma bubbles in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of both incoherent-scatter (IS) and backscatter from field-aligned irregularities (FAI) were made in 1978 with ALTAIR, a fully-steerable high-power radar, to investigate the magnetic-field-aligned characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles. By operating the radar in a latitude-scan IS mode it was possible to map the location and percentage depletion of plasma bubbles as a function of altitude. By showing that backscatter from FAI is spatially collocated with the upper wall of plasma bubbles it was possible to use the spatial displacement of a field aligned backscatter region to estimate the upward bubble velocity. Besides showing that plasma bubbles are indeed aligned along magnetic field lines, this data set is used to show that a plasma bubble with a percentage depletion of as much as 90% does not have as large an upward velocity as predicted by two-dimensional models. Instead, the inferred bubble velocity is shown to be in better agreement with the bubble velocity predicted by theoretical models using flux-integrated values of electron density and Pedersen conductivity. The need to use flux-tube-integrated values when comparing theory and observation is further stressed by the presence of a non-uniform latitudinal distribution of electron density (i.e. the equatorial anomaly) that was found in the latitude-scan data. (author)

  3. ClustalXeed: a GUI-based grid computation version for high performance and terabyte size multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Taeho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing demand to assemble and align large-scale biological sequence data sets. The commonly used multiple sequence alignment programs are still limited in their ability to handle very large amounts of sequences because the system lacks a scalable high-performance computing (HPC environment with a greatly extended data storage capacity. Results We designed ClustalXeed, a software system for multiple sequence alignment with incremental improvements over previous versions of the ClustalX and ClustalW-MPI software. The primary advantage of ClustalXeed over other multiple sequence alignment software is its ability to align a large family of protein or nucleic acid sequences. To solve the conventional memory-dependency problem, ClustalXeed uses both physical random access memory (RAM and a distributed file-allocation system for distance matrix construction and pair-align computation. The computation efficiency of disk-storage system was markedly improved by implementing an efficient load-balancing algorithm, called "idle node-seeking task algorithm" (INSTA. The new editing option and the graphical user interface (GUI provide ready access to a parallel-computing environment for users who seek fast and easy alignment of large DNA and protein sequence sets. Conclusions ClustalXeed can now compute a large volume of biological sequence data sets, which were not tractable in any other parallel or single MSA program. The main developments include: 1 the ability to tackle larger sequence alignment problems than possible with previous systems through markedly improved storage-handling capabilities. 2 Implementing an efficient task load-balancing algorithm, INSTA, which improves overall processing times for multiple sequence alignment with input sequences of non-uniform length. 3 Support for both single PC and distributed cluster systems.

  4. Optical alignment using a CGH and an autostigmatic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.

    2017-08-01

    We show how custom computer generated holograms (CGH) are used along with an autostigmatic microscope (ASM) to align both optical and mechanical components relative to the CGH. The patterns in the CGHs define points and lines in space when interrogated with the focus of the ASM. Once the ASM is aligned to the CGH, an optical or mechanical component such as a lens, a well-polished ball or a cylinder can be aligned to the ASM in 3 or 4 degrees of freedom and thus to the CGH. In this case we show how a CGH is used to make a fixture for cementing a doublet lens without the need for a rotary table or a precision vertical stage.

  5. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  6. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  7. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  8. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  9. L-GRAAL: Lagrangian graphlet-based network aligner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-07-01

    Discovering and understanding patterns in networks of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a central problem in systems biology. Alignments between these networks aid functional understanding as they uncover important information, such as evolutionary conserved pathways, protein complexes and functional orthologs. A few methods have been proposed for global PPI network alignments, but because of NP-completeness of underlying sub-graph isomorphism problem, producing topologically and biologically accurate alignments remains a challenge. We introduce a novel global network alignment tool, Lagrangian GRAphlet-based ALigner (L-GRAAL), which directly optimizes both the protein and the interaction functional conservations, using a novel alignment search heuristic based on integer programming and Lagrangian relaxation. We compare L-GRAAL with the state-of-the-art network aligners on the largest available PPI networks from BioGRID and observe that L-GRAAL uncovers the largest common sub-graphs between the networks, as measured by edge-correctness and symmetric sub-structures scores, which allow transferring more functional information across networks. We assess the biological quality of the protein mappings using the semantic similarity of their Gene Ontology annotations and observe that L-GRAAL best uncovers functionally conserved proteins. Furthermore, we introduce for the first time a measure of the semantic similarity of the mapped interactions and show that L-GRAAL also uncovers best functionally conserved interactions. In addition, we illustrate on the PPI networks of baker's yeast and human the ability of L-GRAAL to predict new PPIs. Finally, L-GRAAL's results are the first to show that topological information is more important than sequence information for uncovering functionally conserved interactions. L-GRAAL is coded in C++. Software is available at: http://bio-nets.doc.ic.ac.uk/L-GRAAL/. n.malod-dognin@imperial.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at

  10. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  11. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  12. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  13. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  14. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO 2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  15. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mismatch scores.

  16. Acoustic holography for piston sound radiation with non-uniform velocity profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of orthogonal (Zernike) expansions of functions on a disk, as used in the diffraction theory of optical aberrations, is applied to obtain (semi-) analytical results for the radiation of sound due to a non-uniformly moving, baffled, circular piston. For this particular case, a scheme for

  17. CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities

  18. Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, J.

    2017-01-01

    The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail

  19. Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of TA15 titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pengfei; Zhan, Mei, E-mail: zhanmei@nwpu.edu.cn; Fan, Xiaoguang; Lei, Zhenni; Cai, Yang

    2017-03-24

    The flow behavior and microstructure evolution of a near α titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure during hot deformation were studied by isothermal compression test and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It is found that the nonuniform microstructure prior to deformation consists of equiaxed α, lamellar α in the colony form and β phase, and the α colony keeps the Burgers orientation relationship with β phase. The flow stress of nonuniform microstructure exhibits significant flow softening after reaching the peak stress at a low strain, which is similar to the lamellar microstructure. Nevertheless, the existence of equiaxed α in nonuniform microstructure makes its flow stress and softening rate be lower than the lamellar microstructure. During deformation, the lamellar α undertakes most of the deformation and turns to be rotated, bended and globularized. Moreover, these phenomena exhibit significant heterogeneity due to the orientation dependence of the deformation of lamellar α. The continuous dynamic recrystallization and bending of lamellar α lead to the “fragmentation” during globularization of lamellar α. The bending of lamellar α is speculated as a form of plastic buckling, because the bending of lamellar α almost proceed in the manner of “rigid rotation” and presents opposite bending directions for the adjacent colonies.

  20. Deep convolutional neural networks for dense non-uniform motion deblurring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available to form a dense non-uniform motion estimation map. Furthermore, a second CNN is trained to perform deblurring given a blurry image patch and the estimated motion vector. Combining the two trained networks result in a deep learning approach that can enhance...

  1. Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC ` Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K A

    1998-03-01

    An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)

  2. Maximum Likelihood DOA Estimation of Multiple Wideband Sources in the Presence of Nonuniform Sensor Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in the presence of unknown nonuniform sensor noise. New closed-form expression for the direction estimation Cramér-Rao-Bound (CRB has been derived. The performance of the conventional wideband uniform ML estimator under nonuniform noise has been studied. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the nonuniformity of the noise, a new deterministic wideband nonuniform ML DOA estimator is derived and two associated processing algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is based on an iterative procedure which stepwise concentrates the log-likelihood function with respect to the DOAs and the noise nuisance parameters, while the second is a noniterative algorithm that maximizes the derived approximately concentrated log-likelihood function. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested through extensive computer simulations. Simulation results show the stepwise-concentrated ML algorithm (SC-ML requires only a few iterations to converge and both the SC-ML and the approximately-concentrated ML algorithm (AC-ML attain a solution close to the derived CRB at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Dynamic behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the dynamics behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected to concentrated loads ravelling at variable velocities. The solution technique is based on the Generalized Galerkin Method and the use of the generating function of the Bessel function type. The results show that, for all the ...

  4. On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams Under Uniformly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-uniform continuous beam was replaced by a non-continuous (discrete) system made up of beam elements. The modified elemental and overall stiffness, and mass matrices, the elemental and overall centripetal acceleration matrices as well as the load vector were derived. Next, the Newmark's direct integration ...

  5. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...

  6. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift ...

  7. Sharp lower bounds on the extractable randomness from non-uniform sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Obi, C.; Verbitskiy, E.A.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uniform randomness from (noisy) non-uniform sources is an important primitive in many security applications, e.g. (pseudo-)random number generators, privacy-preserving biometrics, and key storage based on Physical Unclonable Functions. Generic extraction methods exist, using universal

  8. Physical correction model for automatic correction of intensity non-uniformity in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leger

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The proposed PCM algorithm led to a significantly improved image quality compared to the originally acquired images, suggesting that it is applicable to the correction of MRI data. Thus it may help to reduce intensity non-uniformity which is an important step for advanced image analysis.

  9. Nonuniform Illumination Correction Algorithm for Underwater Images Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sachin Sankpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering and absorption of light is main reason for limited visibility in water. The suspended particles and dissolved chemical compounds in water are also responsible for scattering and absorption of light in water. The limited visibility in water results in degradation of underwater images. The visibility can be increased by using artificial light source in underwater imaging system. But the artificial light illuminates the scene in a nonuniform fashion. It produces bright spot at the center with the dark region at surroundings. In some cases imaging system itself creates dark region in the image by producing shadow on the objects. The problem of nonuniform illumination is neglected by the researchers in most of the image enhancement techniques of underwater images. Also very few methods are discussed showing the results on color images. This paper suggests a method for nonuniform illumination correction for underwater images. The method assumes that natural underwater images are Rayleigh distributed. This paper used maximum likelihood estimation of scale parameter to map distribution of image to Rayleigh distribution. The method is compared with traditional methods for nonuniform illumination correction using no-reference image quality metrics like average luminance, average information entropy, normalized neighborhood function, average contrast, and comprehensive assessment function.

  10. Scaled nonuniform Fourier transform for image reconstruction in swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-02-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an important imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferograms measured in the frequency domain (k-space). This inverse DFT is typically implemented as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) that requires the data samples to be equidistant in k-space. As the frequency of light produced by a typical wavelength-swept laser is nonlinear in time, the recorded interferogram samples will not be uniformly spaced in k-space. Many image reconstruction methods have been proposed to overcome this problem. Most such methods rely on oversampling the measured interferogram then use either hardware, e.g., Mach-Zhender interferometer as a frequency clock module, or software, e.g., interpolation in k-space, to obtain equally spaced samples that are suitable for the FFT. To overcome the problem of nonuniform sampling in k-space without any need for interferogram oversampling, an earlier method demonstrated the use of the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) for image reconstruction in SS-OCT. In this paper, we present a more accurate method for SS-OCT image reconstruction from nonuniform samples in k-space using a scaled nonuniform Fourier transform. The result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  11. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  12. An improved non-uniformity correction algorithm and its GPU parallel implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuanhong; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Zhao, Dong; Qian, Kun; Rong, Shenghui

    2018-05-01

    The performance of SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction algorithm is seriously affected by the result of SLP filter, which always leads to image blurring and ghosting artifacts. To address this problem, an improved SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction method with curvature constraint was proposed. Here we put forward a new way to estimate spatial low frequency component. First, the details and contours of input image were obtained respectively by minimizing local Gaussian curvature and mean curvature of image surface. Then, the guided filter was utilized to combine these two parts together to get the estimate of spatial low frequency component. Finally, we brought this SLP component into SLP-THP method to achieve non-uniformity correction. The performance of proposed algorithm was verified by several real and simulated infrared image sequences. The experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm can reduce the non-uniformity without detail losing. After that, a GPU based parallel implementation that runs 150 times faster than CPU was presented, which showed the proposed algorithm has great potential for real time application.

  13. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  14. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations

  15. Effect of disjoining pressure in a thin film equation with non-uniform forcing

    KAUST Repository

    MOULTON, D. E.; LEGA, J.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effect of disjoining pressure on a thin film equation in the presence of a non-uniform body force, motivated by a model describing the reverse draining of a magnetic film. To this end, we use a combination of numerical investigations

  16. Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.

  17. Effect of non-uniform mean flow field on acoustic propagation problems in computational aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...

  18. Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning by Item-Focused Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…

  19. Modelling non-uniform strain distributions in aerospace composites using fibre Bragg gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabzadehdizaji, Aydin; Groves, R.M.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Chung, Y.; Jin, W.; Lee, B.; Canning, J.; Nakamura, K.; Yuan, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the behaviour of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors under non-uniform strain distributions was analysed. Using the fundamental matrix approach, the length of the FBG sensor was discretised, with each segment undergoing different strain values. FBG sensors that are embedded inside

  20. Critical opalescence of neutrons in nonuniform liquid in the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakov, V.I.; Chalyj, A.V.; Chernenko, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The altitude dependence of the refractive index and refractive angle of the neutron beam in a nonuniform liquid near the critical point is investigated. The neutron wave function in a passing beam as well as monochromatic transmission and reflection coefficients of neutrons are found

  1. Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...

  2. A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.

  3. Below-threshold harmonic generation from strong non-uniform fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, I.

    2017-10-01

    Strong-field photoemission below the ionization threshold is a rich/complex region where atomic emission and harmonic generation may coexist. We studied the mechanism of below-threshold harmonics (BTH) from spatially non-uniform local fields near the metallic nanostructures. Discrete harmonics are generated due to the broken inversion symmetry, suggesting enriched coherent emission in the vuv frequency range. Through the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we investigate wavelength and intensity dependence of BTH. Wavelength dependence identifies counter-regular resonances; individual contributions from the multi-photon emission and channel-closing effects due to quantum path interferences. In order to understand the underlying mechanism of BTH, we devised a generalized semi-classical model, including the influence of Coulomb and non-uniform field interactions. As in uniform fields, Coulomb potential in non-uniform fields is the determinant of BTH; we observed that the generation of BTH are due to returning trajectories with negative energies. Due to large distance effectiveness of the non-uniformity, only long trajectories are noticeably affected.

  4. New fundamental insights into capacitance modeling of laterally nonuniform MOS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Hout, van der R.; Paasschens, J.C.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Willemsen, M.B.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In compact transistor modeling for circuit simulation, the capacitances of conventional MOS devices are commonly determined as the derivatives of terminal charges, which in their turn are obtained from the so-called Ward-Dutton charge partitioning scheme. For devices with a laterally nonuniform

  5. A Method of Sky Ripple Residual Nonuniformity Reduction for a Cooled Infrared Imager and Hardware Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin

    2017-05-08

    Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired ripple residual nonuniformity (RNU) in sky scene observations. The ripple residual nonuniformity seriously affects the imaging quality, especially for small target detection. It is difficult to eliminate it using the calibration-based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using fuzzy scene classification. The fuzzy scene classification is designed to control the correction threshold so that the algorithm can remove ripple RNU without degrading the scene details. We test the algorithm on a real infrared sequence by comparing it to several well-established methods. The result shows that the algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the tested methods in terms of detail conservation and convergence speed for ripple RNU correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption; and (2) small hardware delay (less than 10 image rows). It has been successfully applied in an actual system.

  6. Photo polymerization-induced vertical phase separation and homeotropic alignment in liquid crystal and polymer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyo; Joo, Sangwoo; Kang, Daeseung

    2012-01-01

    We presented a novel method for the homeotropic alignment of LC by using the irradiation of UV light on the LC/NOA65 mixture cell, in which the photo-initiated-polymerization-induced phase separation lowers the surface energy. When the amount of polymer content is sufficiently small, the gravel and network patterns were formed at the substrates via the vertical phase separation. We found that surface roughness plays an important role in the formation of the homeotropic alignment of LC. We also observed the alignment transition of the cells by varying the mixing ratio of LC/NOA65 or the UV radiation time. Furthermore, the present proposed method has great potential for application in display devices. For decades, studies on the alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules have been of significant interest due to their immediate applications for display devices and the intriguing physiochemical properties they exhibit at the surface of mixtures. Usually, homeotropic (or vertical) alignment, in which the long axes of the LC molecules are oriented in a direction perpendicular to the surface, is achieved by using surfactants such as lecithin, silanes or polyimide. Recently homeotropic alignment of liquid crystal molecules was achieved by irradiating photosensitive polymers, by doping nanoparticles into LC, by utilizing nano/micro patterns, or by incorporating self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). However, a clear understanding about the alignment mechanism is still elusive. In this paper, we report a novel method for homeotropic alignment of LC by utilizing the phase separation of LC/polymer mixtures

  7. A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, Michael; Hornegger, Joachim; Zheng Yefeng; Comaniciu, Dorin; Huber, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average

  8. Alignment of diabetic feet images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Slump, Cornelis H.; Uyl, M.J.; Philips, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of aligning the images of feet taken at different instances in time. We propose to use SIFT keypoints to find the geometric deformation between two photo’s. We then have a set of landmarks for each image. By finding the corresponding landmarks (i.e. matching the

  9. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  10. Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1996-01-01

    An approach to college-level instructional design that incorporates the principles of constructivism, termed "constructive alignment," is described. The process is then illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model is viewed as generalizable to most units or programs in higher…

  11. Global alignment algorithms implementations | Fatumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we implemented the two routes for sequence comparison, that is; the dotplot and Needleman-wunsch algorithm for global sequence alignment. Our algorithms were implemented in python programming language and were tested on Linux platform 1.60GHz, 512 MB of RAM SUSE 9.2 and 10.1 versions.

  12. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  13. Rapid detection, classification and accurate alignment of up to a million or more related protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Andrew F

    2009-08-01

    The patterns of sequence similarity and divergence present within functionally diverse, evolutionarily related proteins contain implicit information about corresponding biochemical similarities and differences. A first step toward accessing such information is to statistically analyze these patterns, which, in turn, requires that one first identify and accurately align a very large set of protein sequences. Ideally, the set should include many distantly related, functionally divergent subgroups. Because it is extremely difficult, if not impossible for fully automated methods to align such sequences correctly, researchers often resort to manual curation based on detailed structural and biochemical information. However, multiply-aligning vast numbers of sequences in this way is clearly impractical. This problem is addressed using Multiply-Aligned Profiles for Global Alignment of Protein Sequences (MAPGAPS). The MAPGAPS program uses a set of multiply-aligned profiles both as a query to detect and classify related sequences and as a template to multiply-align the sequences. It relies on Karlin-Altschul statistics for sensitivity and on PSI-BLAST (and other) heuristics for speed. Using as input a carefully curated multiple-profile alignment for P-loop GTPases, MAPGAPS correctly aligned weakly conserved sequence motifs within 33 distantly related GTPases of known structure. By comparison, the sequence- and structurally based alignment methods hmmalign and PROMALS3D misaligned at least 11 and 23 of these regions, respectively. When applied to a dataset of 65 million protein sequences, MAPGAPS identified, classified and aligned (with comparable accuracy) nearly half a million putative P-loop GTPase sequences. A C++ implementation of MAPGAPS is available at http://mapgaps.igs.umaryland.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. An improved model to predict nonuniform deformation of Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Q.M.; Fan, H.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Present circular pressure-tube ballooning models in most fuel channel codes assume that the pressure tube remains circular during ballooning. This model provides adequate predictions of pressure-tube ballooning behaviour when the pressure tube (PT) and the calandria tube (CT) are concentric and when a small (<100 degrees C) top-to-bottom circumferential temperature gradient is present on the pressure tube. However, nonconcentric ballooning is expected to occur under certain postulated CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) accident conditions. This circular geometry assumption prevents the model from accurately predicting nonuniform pressure-tube straining and local PT/CT contact when the pressure tube is subjected to a large circumferential temperature gradient and consequently deforms in a noncircular pattern. This paper describes an improved model that predicts noncircular pressure-tube deformation. Use of this model (once fully validated) will reduce uncertainties in the prediction of pressure-tube ballooning during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a CANDU reactor. The noncircular deformation model considers a ring or cross-section of a pressure tube with unit axial length to calculate deformation in the radial and circumferential directions. The model keeps track of the thinning of the pressure-tube wall as well as the shape deviation from a reference circle. Such deviation is expressed in a cosine Fourier series for the lateral symmetry case. The coefficients of the series for the first m terms are calculated by solving a set of algebraic equations at each time step. The model also takes into account the effects of pressure-tube sag or bow on ballooning, using an input value of the offset distance between the centre of the calandria tube and the initial centre of the pressure tube for determining the position radius of the pressure tube. One significant improvement realized in using the noncircular deformation model is a more accurate prediction in

  15. Improving model construction of profile HMMs for remote homology detection through structural alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaverucha Gerson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remote homology detection is a challenging problem in Bioinformatics. Arguably, profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMMs are one of the most successful approaches in addressing this important problem. pHMM packages present a relatively small computational cost, and perform particularly well at recognizing remote homologies. This raises the question of whether structural alignments could impact the performance of pHMMs trained from proteins in the Twilight Zone, as structural alignments are often more accurate than sequence alignments at identifying motifs and functional residues. Next, we assess the impact of using structural alignments in pHMM performance. Results We used the SCOP database to perform our experiments. Structural alignments were obtained using the 3DCOFFEE and MAMMOTH-mult tools; sequence alignments were obtained using CLUSTALW, TCOFFEE, MAFFT and PROBCONS. We performed leave-one-family-out cross-validation over super-families. Performance was evaluated through ROC curves and paired two tailed t-test. Conclusion We observed that pHMMs derived from structural alignments performed significantly better than pHMMs derived from sequence alignment in low-identity regions, mainly below 20%. We believe this is because structural alignment tools are better at focusing on the important patterns that are more often conserved through evolution, resulting in higher quality pHMMs. On the other hand, sensitivity of these tools is still quite low for these low-identity regions. Our results suggest a number of possible directions for improvements in this area.

  16. Improving model construction of profile HMMs for remote homology detection through structural alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Dávila, Alberto M R; Costa, Vítor S; Zaverucha, Gerson

    2007-11-09

    Remote homology detection is a challenging problem in Bioinformatics. Arguably, profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMMs) are one of the most successful approaches in addressing this important problem. pHMM packages present a relatively small computational cost, and perform particularly well at recognizing remote homologies. This raises the question of whether structural alignments could impact the performance of pHMMs trained from proteins in the Twilight Zone, as structural alignments are often more accurate than sequence alignments at identifying motifs and functional residues. Next, we assess the impact of using structural alignments in pHMM performance. We used the SCOP database to perform our experiments. Structural alignments were obtained using the 3DCOFFEE and MAMMOTH-mult tools; sequence alignments were obtained using CLUSTALW, TCOFFEE, MAFFT and PROBCONS. We performed leave-one-family-out cross-validation over super-families. Performance was evaluated through ROC curves and paired two tailed t-test. We observed that pHMMs derived from structural alignments performed significantly better than pHMMs derived from sequence alignment in low-identity regions, mainly below 20%. We believe this is because structural alignment tools are better at focusing on the important patterns that are more often conserved through evolution, resulting in higher quality pHMMs. On the other hand, sensitivity of these tools is still quite low for these low-identity regions. Our results suggest a number of possible directions for improvements in this area.

  17. Vertically aligned patterned peptide nanowires for cellulars studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskin, Mehmet; Sasso, Luigi; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, scientific studies have shown that one crucial point when designing biological platforms is the strict environmental conditions required for cell and tissue culturing, such as pH, temperature, medium content and other parameters which affect the system’s biocompatibility. Because ...

  18. Ancestral sequence alignment under optimal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Daniel G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple genome alignment is an important problem in bioinformatics. An important subproblem used by many multiple alignment approaches is that of aligning two multiple alignments. Many popular alignment algorithms for DNA use the sum-of-pairs heuristic, where the score of a multiple alignment is the sum of its induced pairwise alignment scores. However, the biological meaning of the sum-of-pairs of pairs heuristic is not obvious. Additionally, many algorithms based on the sum-of-pairs heuristic are complicated and slow, compared to pairwise alignment algorithms. An alternative approach to aligning alignments is to first infer ancestral sequences for each alignment, and then align the two ancestral sequences. In addition to being fast, this method has a clear biological basis that takes into account the evolution implied by an underlying phylogenetic tree. In this study we explore the accuracy of aligning alignments by ancestral sequence alignment. We examine the use of both maximum likelihood and parsimony to infer ancestral sequences. Additionally, we investigate the effect on accuracy of allowing ambiguity in our ancestral sequences. Results We use synthetic sequence data that we generate by simulating evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We use two different types of phylogenetic trees: trees with a period of rapid growth followed by a period of slow growth, and trees with a period of slow growth followed by a period of rapid growth. We examine the alignment accuracy of four ancestral sequence reconstruction and alignment methods: parsimony, maximum likelihood, ambiguous parsimony, and ambiguous maximum likelihood. Additionally, we compare against the alignment accuracy of two sum-of-pairs algorithms: ClustalW and the heuristic of Ma, Zhang, and Wang. Conclusion We find that allowing ambiguity in ancestral sequences does not lead to better multiple alignments. Regardless of whether we use parsimony or maximum likelihood, the

  19. ALIGNMENT OF PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS DURING THE EMBEDDED PHASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.

    2014-01-01

    Star formation proceeds via the collapse of a molecular cloud core over multiple dynamical timescales. Turbulence within cores results in a spatially non-uniform angular momentum of the cloud, causing a stochastic variation in the orientation of the disk forming from the collapsing material. In the absence of star-disk angular momentum coupling, such disk-tilting would provide a natural mechanism for the production of primordial spin-orbit misalignments in the resulting planetary systems. However, owing to high accretion rates in the embedded phase of star formation, the inner edge of the circumstellar disk extends down to the stellar surface, resulting in efficient gravitational and accretional angular momentum transfer between the star and the disk. Here, we demonstrate that the resulting gravitational coupling is sufficient to suppress any significant star-disk misalignment, with accretion playing a secondary role. The joint tilting of the star-disk system leads to a stochastic wandering of star-aligned bipolar outflows. Such wandering widens the effective opening angle of stellar outflows, allowing for more efficient clearing of the remainder of the protostar's gaseous envelope. Accordingly, the processes described in this work provide an additional mechanism responsible for sculpting the stellar initial mass function

  20. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Michal; Meier, J.; Mustonen, V.; Lässig, M.; Berg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, November 21 (2012) ISSN 1752-0509 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 680; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB-TR12; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) BE 2478/2-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Graph alignment * Biological networks * Parameter estimation * Bioconductor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.982, year: 2012

  1. Precision crystal alignment for high-resolution electron microscope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.J.; Beeching, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more difficult tasks involved in obtaining quality high-resolution electron micrographs is the precise alignment of a specimen into the required zone. The current accepted procedure, which involves changing to diffraction mode and searching for symmetric point diffraction pattern, is insensitive to small amounts of misalignment and at best qualitative. On-line analysis of the fourier space representation of the image, both for determining and correcting crystal tilt, is investigated. 8 refs., 42 figs

  2. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotube; arc discharge; characterization; alignment; nanoscratch. 1. Introduction ... During arc discharge, when the gap between the electrodes is ∼ 1 mm, ..... increase in the D band intensity in the aligned region may not be possibly ...

  3. Using ESTs for phylogenomics: Can one accurately infer a phylogenetic tree from a gappy alignment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Stefanie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While full genome sequences are still only available for a handful of taxa, large collections of partial gene sequences are available for many more. The alignment of partial gene sequences results in a multiple sequence alignment containing large gaps that are arranged in a staggered pattern. The consequences of this pattern of missing data on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis are not well understood. We conducted a simulation study to determine the accuracy of phylogenetic trees obtained from gappy alignments using three commonly used phylogenetic reconstruction methods (Neighbor Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood and studied ways to improve the accuracy of trees obtained from such datasets. Results We found that the pattern of gappiness in multiple sequence alignments derived from partial gene sequences substantially compromised phylogenetic accuracy even in the absence of alignment error. The decline in accuracy was beyond what would be expected based on the amount of missing data. The decline was particularly dramatic for Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony, where the majority of gappy alignments contained 25% to 40% incorrect quartets. To improve the accuracy of the trees obtained from a gappy multiple sequence alignment, we examined two approaches. In the first approach, alignment masking, potentially problematic columns and input sequences are excluded from from the dataset. Even in the absence of alignment error, masking improved phylogenetic accuracy up to 100-fold. However, masking retained, on average, only 83% of the input sequences. In the second approach, alignment subdivision, the missing data is statistically modelled in order to retain as many sequences as possible in the phylogenetic analysis. Subdivision resulted in more modest improvements to alignment accuracy, but succeeded in including almost all of the input sequences. Conclusion These results demonstrate that partial gene

  4. Using ESTs for phylogenomics: can one accurately infer a phylogenetic tree from a gappy alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Vision, Todd J

    2008-03-26

    While full genome sequences are still only available for a handful of taxa, large collections of partial gene sequences are available for many more. The alignment of partial gene sequences results in a multiple sequence alignment containing large gaps that are arranged in a staggered pattern. The consequences of this pattern of missing data on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis are not well understood. We conducted a simulation study to determine the accuracy of phylogenetic trees obtained from gappy alignments using three commonly used phylogenetic reconstruction methods (Neighbor Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood) and studied ways to improve the accuracy of trees obtained from such datasets. We found that the pattern of gappiness in multiple sequence alignments derived from partial gene sequences substantially compromised phylogenetic accuracy even in the absence of alignment error. The decline in accuracy was beyond what would be expected based on the amount of missing data. The decline was particularly dramatic for Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony, where the majority of gappy alignments contained 25% to 40% incorrect quartets. To improve the accuracy of the trees obtained from a gappy multiple sequence alignment, we examined two approaches. In the first approach, alignment masking, potentially problematic columns and input sequences are excluded from from the dataset. Even in the absence of alignment error, masking improved phylogenetic accuracy up to 100-fold. However, masking retained, on average, only 83% of the input sequences. In the second approach, alignment subdivision, the missing data is statistically modelled in order to retain as many sequences as possible in the phylogenetic analysis. Subdivision resulted in more modest improvements to alignment accuracy, but succeeded in including almost all of the input sequences. These results demonstrate that partial gene sequences and gappy multiple sequence alignments can pose a

  5. Assessing strategic alignment to improve IT effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.T.; Fairchild, A.M.; Ribbers, P.M.A.; Milis, K.; van Geel, E.; Markus, M.L.; Hampe, J.F.; Gricar, J.; Pucihar, A.; Lenart, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long running challenge in both large and small organizations has been aligning information systems services with business needs. Good alignment is assumed to lead to good business results, but there is a need for good instruments to assess strategic alignment and business success in practice.

  6. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Curricular Alignment: A Re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines key differences among content coverage, opportunity to learn, and curriculum alignment, suggesting that the revised Taxonomy provides a framework for analyzing curriculum alignment and illustrating how the Taxonomy Table can be used to estimate curriculum alignment. The paper notes that the revised Taxonomy enables educators to probe…

  8. Alignment of the VISA Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the R and D program towards a fourth generation light source, a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) demonstration is being prepared. The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator is being installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VISA undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator is constructed of 99 cm long segments. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 pm rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the magnetic centerline determination, and the fiducialization and alignment processes, which were performed to meet the tolerance goal

  9. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...... bitmaps and, at the same time, offer an even better CPU efficiency. The results are verified by theoretical estimates and extensive experiments on large amounts of both synthetic and real-world data....

  10. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  11. The rigors of aligning performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrew; Lucas, James

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This Joint Applied Project addresses what can be done within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Northwest community to better align its goals among competing interests from various stakeholders, while balancing the operational and regulatory constraints that often conflict with stakeholder goals and objectives. As a cross-functional organization, competing interests among the various business lines, support lines, and other stake...

  12. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  13. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  14. Interest alignment and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalg, Oliver; Zollo, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context-specificity and casual ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic and hedonic intrinsic), under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider mitivational processes as a complem...

  15. International Business And Aligning CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miret

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The labor relationship between the employer and the workers is evaluated and directed by the labor rights which is a group of legal rights that are derived from human rights. Labor rights are more precisely relative to CSR as CSR are based on perspective and point of view of a given corporation. In this perspective implementing the workers and labor rights becomes more difficult compared to the implementation of the CSR. If an international corporation can be able to align CSR with the labor laws the friction between the employees and the corporation and the employee is likely to reduce. There is need to explore whether multinational corporations can be able to align CSR with the labor rights and employee initiatives global market. In this case the analysis focuses on China Brazil and India as the reference countries with cross-sectional secondary data obtained from a survey of the existing sources on the internet. The pertinent question is whether multinational corporations be successful while aligning CSR Corporate Social Responsibility with labor rights and employee initiatives in a competitive global market based on that cross-sectional data. The findings reveal that the uphold of labor rights largely determines morale of the employees and the will to participate in the growth and development of a given business both locally and international. Notably the continued change of CSR has resulted in the replacement of management and government dominated trade unions with more democratic unions of workers that pay attention to the initiatives of the workers. The combination of the internal code of conduct with the workers association labor associations and movements is one of the credible routes that show CSR can be aligned with labor rights.

  16. Capillary self-alignment dynamics for R2R manufacturing of mesoscopic system-in-foil devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Quintero, A.V.; Smits, E.C.P.; Remoortere, B. van; Brand, J. van den; Schoo, H.F.M.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N.F. de; Dietzel, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the dynamics of foil-based functional component self-alignment onto patterned test substrates and its demonstration when integrating a flexible sensor onto a printed circuitry. We investigate the dependence of alignment time and final precision of stacking of mm- and

  17. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  18. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  19. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  20. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  1. Investigating conversational dynamics: Interactive alignment, Interpersonal synergy, and collective task performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, interactive alignment and interpersonal synergy, and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between...... and their impact on collective performance in a corpus of task-oriented conversations. The results show statistical presence of patterns relevant for both approaches. However, synergetic aspects of dialog provide the best statistical predictors of collective performance and adding aspects of the alignment approach...... does not improve the model. This suggests that structural organization at the level of the interaction plays a crucial role in task-oriented conversations, possibly constraining and integrating processes related to alignment....

  2. From conventional averages to individual dose painting in radiotherapy for human tumors: challenge to non-uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.; Rodney Withers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The exploitation of a number of current clinical trials and reports on outcomes after radiation therapy (i.e. breast, head and neck, prostate) in clinical practice reflects many limitations for conventional techniques and dose-fractionation schedules and for 'average' conclusions. Even after decades of evolution of radiation therapy we still do not know how to optimize treatment for the individual patient and only have 'averages' and ill-defined 'probabilities' to guide treatment prescription. Wide clinical and biological heterogeneity within the groups of patients recruited into clinical trials with a few-fold variation in tumour volume within one stage of disease is obvious. Basic radiobiological guidelines concerning average cell killing of uniformly distributed and equally radiosensitive tumour cells arose from elegant but idealistic in vitro experiments and seem to be of uncertain validity. Therefore, we are confronted with more dilemmas than dogmas. Nonlinearity and in homogeneity of human tumour pattern and response to irradiation are discussed. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss various aspects of non-uniform tumour cell targeted radiotherapy using conformal and dose intensity modulated techniques. (author)

  3. Current-induced nonuniform enhancement of sheet resistance in A r+ -irradiated SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debangsu; Frenkel, Yiftach; Davidovitch, Sagi; Persky, Eylon; Haham, Noam; Gabay, Marc; Kalisky, Beena; Klein, Lior

    2017-06-01

    The sheet resistance Rs of A r+ irradiated SrTi O3 in patterns with a length scale of several microns increases significantly below ˜40 K in connection with driving currents exceeding a certain threshold. The initial lower Rs is recovered upon warming with accelerated recovery around 70 and 160 K. Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy shows local irreversible changes in the spatial distribution of the current with a length scale of several microns. We attribute the observed nonuniform enhancement of Rs to the attraction of the charged single-oxygen and dioxygen vacancies by the crystallographic domain boundaries in SrTi O3 . The boundaries, which are nearly ferroelectric below 40 K, are polarized by the local electrical field associated with the driven current and the clustered vacancies which suppress conductivity in their vicinity and yield a noticeable enhancement in the device resistance when the current path width is on the order of the boundary extension. The temperatures of accelerated conductivity recovery are associated with the energy barriers for the diffusion of the two types of vacancies.

  4. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to significantly reduce the probability of a non-uniform crack pattern - such as closely spaced cracks, meandering, and Y-cracks - by only slightly adjusting the amount of longitudinal steel. Non-unifor...

  5. Challenges in process integration of catalytic DC plasma synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melechko, Anatoli V; Pearce, Ryan C; Hensley, Dale K; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to synthesize free-standing, individual carbon nanofibres (CNFs) aligned perpendicularly to a substrate has enabled fabrication of a large array of devices with nanoscale functional elements, including electron field emission sources, electrochemical probes, neural interface arrays, scanning probes, gene delivery arrays and many others. This was made possible by development of a catalytic plasma process, with DC bias directing the alignment of nanofibres. Successful implementation of prototypical devices has uncovered numerous challenges in the integration of this synthesis process as one of the steps in device fabrication. This paper is dedicated to these engineering and fundamental difficulties that hinder further device development. Relatively high temperature for catalytic synthesis, electrical conductivity of the substrate to maintain DC discharge and other difficulties place restrictions on substrate material. Balancing non-catalytic carbon film deposition and substrate etching, non-uniformity of plasma due to growth of the high aspect ratio structures, plasma instabilities and other factors lead to challenges in controlling the plasma. Ultimately, controlling the atomistic processes at the catalyst nanoparticle (NP) and the behaviour of the NP is the central challenge of plasma nanosynthesis of vertically aligned CNFs.

  6. Self-aligning and compressed autosophy video databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Klaus E.

    1993-04-01

    Autosophy, an emerging new science, explains `self-assembling structures,' such as crystals or living trees, in mathematical terms. This research provides a new mathematical theory of `learning' and a new `information theory' which permits the growing of self-assembling data network in a computer memory similar to the growing of `data crystals' or `data trees' without data processing or programming. Autosophy databases are educated very much like a human child to organize their own internal data storage. Input patterns, such as written questions or images, are converted to points in a mathematical omni dimensional hyperspace. The input patterns are then associated with output patterns, such as written answers or images. Omni dimensional information storage will result in enormous data compression because each pattern fragment is only stored once. Pattern recognition in the text or image files is greatly simplified by the peculiar omni dimensional storage method. Video databases will absorb input images from a TV camera and associate them with textual information. The `black box' operations are totally self-aligning where the input data will determine their own hyperspace storage locations. Self-aligning autosophy databases may lead to a new generation of brain-like devices.

  7. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  8. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. Stable and efficient retrospective 4D-MRI using non-uniformly distributed quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Kathrin; Meyer, Cord B.; Breuer, Felix A.; Richter, Anne; Exner, Florian; Weng, Andreas M.; Ströhle, Serge; Polat, Bülent; Jakob, Peter M.; Sauer, Otto A.; Flentje, Michael; Weick, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective 4D abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (k y –k z ) lines was incorporated into 3D Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space. Respiratory self-gating in combination with SPIRiT-reconstruction is used for the reconstruction of abdominal data sets in different respiratory phases (4D-MRI). Six volunteers and three patients were examined at 1.5 T during free breathing. Additionally, data sets with conventional two-dimensional (2D) linear and 2D quasi random phase encoding order were acquired for the volunteers for comparison. A quantitative evaluation of image quality versus scan times (from 70 s to 626 s) for the given sampling schemes was obtained by calculating the normalized mutual information (NMI) for all volunteers. Motion estimation was accomplished by calculating the maximum derivative of a signal intensity profile of a transition (e.g. tumor or diaphragm). The 2D non-uniform quasi-random distribution of phase encoding lines in Cartesian 3D MRI yields more efficient undersampling patterns for parallel imaging compared to conventional uniform quasi-random and linear sampling. Median NMI values of NU-QR sampling are the highest for all scan times. Therefore, within the same scan time 4D imaging could be performed with improved image quality. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of motion artifact reduced 4D data sets with isotropic spatial resolution of 2.1  ×  2.1  ×  2.1 mm3 in a short scan time, e.g. 10 respiratory phases in only 3 min. Cranio-caudal tumor displacements between 23 and 46 mm could be observed. NU-QR sampling enables for stable 4D

  10. Smoothing and instability with magnetic field in a non-uniformly laser-irradiated planar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Epperlein, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the magneto-hydrodynamic response of a planar target to non-uniformities in energy deposition by a laser. The amplitude of the non-uniformities are assumed small and the equations are linearised in small perturbations about the solution for steady planar ablation driven by uniform laser energy deposition. The grad(n)xgrad(T) magnetic field source is included, along with Nernst convection and the Righi-Leduc heat flow. The magnetic field is shown to give a small increase in smoothing. A source term for magnetic field is included to simulate the effects of the Weibel instability. The instability is not strong enough to overcome the smoothing processes under the present assumptions. (author)

  11. Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.

  12. Non-Uniform Dose Mapping Controlled by Modulated Vertical and Horizontal Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, S.; Kimura, Y.; Kudo, T.; Ochi, A.; Toda, R.; Tsukihara, M.; Sato, F.; Fuse, G.; Ueno, K.; Sugitani, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since geometries of semi-conductor devices continue to shrink, the requirement for each process becomes severer to keep uniformity of electrical parameters of the semi-conductor devices. A larger wafer also causes larger variations. Thus it has been strongly required for ion implantation process to compensate for the variations from other processes because of its good dose controllability. A newly developed mapping of intentional non-uniform dosage system, which is named 'MIND system', is implemented in SEN's single-wafer-type implanters. The MIND system controls both horizontal and vertical scan speed simultaneously. Intentional two-dimensional non-uniform profiles of sheet resistance, such as concentric and eccentric profiles, are obtained only by single-step ion implantation.

  13. Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.

    2010-01-01

    to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...

  14. Nonuniform Sparse Data Clustering Cascade Algorithm Based on Dynamic Cumulative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A small amount of prior knowledge and randomly chosen initial cluster centers have a direct impact on the accuracy of the performance of iterative clustering algorithm. In this paper we propose a new algorithm to compute initial cluster centers for k-means clustering and the best number of the clusters with little prior knowledge and optimize clustering result. It constructs the Euclidean distance control factor based on aggregation density sparse degree to select the initial cluster center of nonuniform sparse data and obtains initial data clusters by multidimensional diffusion density distribution. Multiobjective clustering approach based on dynamic cumulative entropy is adopted to optimize the initial data clusters and the best number of the clusters. The experimental results show that the newly proposed algorithm has good performance to obtain the initial cluster centers for the k-means algorithm and it effectively improves the clustering accuracy of nonuniform sparse data by about 5%.

  15. Effects of non-uniform embedments on earthquake responses of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Yoshida, K.; Inove, H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear reactor buildings have the portion embedded in soil. In the seismic design of such structures, it is essential to consider the effects of the embedment on the earthquake response. Most studies on these effects, however, assume the uniform embedment, i.e. the depth of the embedment is constant, which is convenient for the design and analysis. The behavior of the earthquake response considering the three-dimensional aspects of non-uniform embedment has not been made clear yet. In this paper, the authors evaluate the effects of the non-uniform embedment in an inclined ground surface on the earthquake response of a nuclear reactor building as illustrated. A typical PWR type reactor building is chosen as an analysis structure model. Four different types of embedment are set up for the comparison study. The three-dimensional analysis is carried out considering the geometry of embedment

  16. Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with Electromagnetic Effects and Nonuniform Heat Source/Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with electric and magnetic dissipation and nonuniform heat source/sink has been studied. The buoyant effect and the electric number E1 couple with magnetic parameter M to represent the dominance of the electric and magnetic effects, and adding the specific item of nonuniform heat source/sink is presented in governing equations which are the main contribution of this study. The similarity transformation, the finite-difference method, Newton method, and Gauss elimination method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, and the important wall unknown values of f''(0 and θ'(0 have been carried out. The parameter Pr, E1, or Ec can increase the heat transfer effects, but the parameter M or A* may decrease the heat transfer effects.

  17. Selective catalytic reduction converter design: The effect of ammonia nonuniformity at inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramadayalan, Thiyagarajan; Pant, Atul

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model of SCR converter with detailed chemistry is developed. The model is used to study the effects of radial variation in inlet ammonia profile on SCR emission performance at different temperatures. The model shows that radial variation in inlet ammonia concentration affects the SCR performance in the operating range of 200-400 .deg. C. In automotive SCR systems, ammonia is non-uniformly distributed due to evaporation/reaction of injected urea, and using a 1D model or a 3D model with flat ammonia profile at inlet for these conditions can result in erroneous emission prediction. The 3D SCR model is also used to study the effect of converter design parameters like inlet cone angle and monolith cell density on the SCR performance for a non-uniform ammonia concentration profile at the inlet. The performance of SCR is evaluated using DeNO x efficiency and ammonia slip

  18. A new purely growing instability in a strongly magnetized nonuniform pair plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a strongly magnetized nonuniform electron-positron (hereafter referred to as e-p or pair) plasma is unstable against low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) electrostatic oscillations. For this purpose, a dispersion relation is derived by using the Poisson equation as well as the electron and positron continuity equations with the guiding center drifts for the electron and positron fluids. The dispersion relation admits a purely growing instability in the presence of the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities. Physically, instability arises because of the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced differential electron and positron density fluctuations, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the charge separation in our nonuniform pair plasmas

  19. Tunable pinning effects produced by non-uniform antidot arrays in YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.; Jones, A.; Al-Qurainy, M. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Fedoseev, S.A. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Rosenfeld, A. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Pan, A.V. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Uniform, graded and spaced arrays of 3 μm triangular antidots in pulsed laser deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) superconducting thin films are compared by examining the improvements in the critical current density J{sub c} they produced. The comparison is made to establish the role of their lithographically defined (non-)uniformity and the effectiveness to control and/or enhance the critical current density. It is found that almost all types of non-uniform arrays, including graded ones enhance J{sub c} over the broad applied magnetic field and temperature range due to the modified critical state. Whereas uniform arrays of antidots either reduce or produce no effect on J{sub c} compared to the original (as-deposited) thin films. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)

  1. Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case

  2. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  3. Many-junction photovoltaic device performance under non-uniform high-concentration illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wilkins, Matthew M.; Chahal, Sanmeet S.; Proulx, Francine; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-09-01

    A parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxial vertically-stacked pn junctions. PPC devices are designed with many pn junctions to realize higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. Performance impacts of non-uniform illumination were greatly reduced with increasing number of junctions, with simulations comparing PPC devices with 3 to 20 junctions. Experimental results using Azastra Opto's 12- and 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser show high performance even with a small gap between the PPC and optical fiber output, until the local tunnel junction limit is reached.

  4. Nonuniform Overlapping Method in Designing Microstrip Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Jeevani W. Jayasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA has been a popular optimization technique used for performance improvement of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs. When using GA, the patch geometry is optimized by dividing the patch area into small rectangular cells. This has an inherent problem of adjacent cells being connected to each other with infinitesimal connections, which may not be achievable in practice due to fabrication tolerances in chemical etching. As a solution, this paper presents a novel method of dividing the patch area into cells with nonuniform overlaps. The optimized design, which is obtained by using fixed overlap sizes, shows a quad-band performance covering GSM1800, GSM1900, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bands. In contrast, use of nonuniform overlap sizes leads to obtaining a pentaband design covering GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bandswith fractional bands with of 38% due to the extra design flexibility.

  5. Effects of a nonuniform open magnetic field on the plasma presheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a nonuniform magnetic field on the plasma presheath is numerically investigated using the plasma equation for a collisionless plasma with a finite-temperature particle source. The present calculation confirms that analytical solutions previously published by the authors are available over a wide range of mirror ratio. Potential drop in the presheath, which considerably depends on both the magnetic strength profile and the spatial distribution of the particle source, is remarkably increased by applying an expanding magnetic field when plasma particles are generated in the inner part of the plasma. An effect of a nonuniform magnetic field on sheath formation is also discussed by using the calculated ion distribution function. If the plasma equation has no singularity at the sheath edge, its solution satisfies the generalized Bohm criterion with the inequality sign in the expanding magnetic field. (author)

  6. Generation and application of Bessel beam in alignment works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The divergence of a Gaussian laser beam is a limiting factor for optical alignment tasks at large distances. Bessel beams have almost zero divergence but are still not widely used. We discuss the construction of an alignment telescope based on Bessel beam generation using a commercial laser diode module. The Bessel beam is generated with conical or plano-convex lenses, and projected using a commercial CCD camera lens to extend the useful range of the beam. Our Bessel beams have diameters of between 0.5 - 1mm over beam lengths of 15m, representing a six-fold improvement compared to Gaussian beams, while the transverse beam structure (Bessel pattern) provides an excellent alignment aid for use with beam target. Another advantage of Bessel beams is their self-regeneration property, which allows the use of multiple beam targets with minimum beam degradation. We are using our crosshair targets with crosshair targets to align optical components in a large astronomical telescope, and can achieve precisions of tens of microns over distances of 20m using purely visual methods. (Author)

  7. Collective motion of active Brownian particles with polar alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, Aitor; Levis, Demian; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2018-04-04

    We present a comprehensive computational study of the collective behavior emerging from the competition between self-propulsion, excluded volume interactions and velocity-alignment in a two-dimensional model of active particles. We consider an extension of the active brownian particles model where the self-propulsion direction of the particles aligns with the one of their neighbors. We analyze the onset of collective motion (flocking) in a low-density regime (10% surface area) and show that it is mainly controlled by the strength of velocity-alignment interactions: the competition between self-propulsion and crowding effects plays a minor role in the emergence of flocking. However, above the flocking threshold, the system presents a richer pattern formation scenario than analogous models without alignment interactions (active brownian particles) or excluded volume effects (Vicsek-like models). Depending on the parameter regime, the structure of the system is characterized by either a broad distribution of finite-sized polar clusters or the presence of an amorphous, highly fluctuating, large-scale traveling structure which can take a lane-like or band-like form (and usually a hybrid structure which is halfway in between both). We establish a phase diagram that summarizes collective behavior of polar active brownian particles and propose a generic mechanism to describe the complexity of the large-scale structures observed in systems of repulsive self-propelled particles.

  8. Noisy: Identification of problematic columns in multiple sequence alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünewald Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Sequence-based methods for phylogenetic reconstruction from (nucleic acid sequence data are notoriously plagued by two effects: homoplasies and alignment errors. Large evolutionary distances imply a large number of homoplastic sites. As most protein-coding genes show dramatic variations in substitution rates that are not uncorrelated across the sequence, this often leads to a patchwork pattern of (i phylogenetically informative and (ii effectively randomized regions. In highly variable regions, furthermore, alignment errors accumulate resulting in sometimes misleading signals in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We present here a method that, based on assessing the distribution of character states along a cyclic ordering of the taxa, allows the identification of phylogenetically uninformative homoplastic sites in a multiple sequence alignment. Removal of these sites appears to improve the performance of phylogenetic reconstruction algorithms as measured by various indices of "tree quality". In particular, we obtain more stable trees due to the exclusion of phylogenetically incompatible sites that most likely represent strongly randomized characters. Software The computer program noisy implements this approach. It can be employed to improving phylogenetic reconstruction capability with quite a considerable success rate whenever (1 the average bootstrap support obtained from the original alignment is low, and (2 there are sufficiently many taxa in the data set – at least, say, 12 to 15 taxa. The software can be obtained under the GNU Public License from http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/noisy/.

  9. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO 2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO 2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence

  10. Chromatic bifocus alignment system for SR stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    A new alignment system developed for synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray stepper is described. The alignment system has three key elements as follows. The first is a chromatic bifocus optics which observe high contrast bright images of alignment marks printed on a mask and a wafer. The second is broad band light illumination to observe the wafer alignment mark images which is unaffected by resist film coated on a wafer. The third is a new correlation function which is used in measuring of displacement between a mask and a wafer. The alignment system has achieved alignment accuracy on the order of 0.01 μm. The experimental results of this alignment system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Thermomagnetic force acting on an ellipsoidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naletova, V.A.; Kvitantsev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A prolate spheroidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid in an applied magnetic field has been considered. The expressions for the pressure and velocity of the liquid, temperature and magnetic field have been obtained. The formula for a thermomagnetic force acting on the body has been calculated. It has been shown that the body shape needs to be taken into account when we study the thermomagnetic diffusion of the prolate bodies

  12. Research of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners for measuring flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Duanzhong; Zhong Dezhen; Cai Zhuti

    1989-01-01

    Standard throttling flowmeters are widely used in process flow rate measurement. Enough upstream and downstream straight pipe are necessary for it. If not, the error will be increased. Mounting straightener is an effective way for solving this problem. Advantages of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners studied by authors are good results for straighting, simple in Structure, convenient for mounting and low cost. So it can be popularized in many applications

  13. The use of non-uniform drowning terminology: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew C; Sempsrott, Justin R; Szpilman, David; Queiroga, Ana Catarina; Davison, Matt S; Zeigler, Ryan J; McAlister, Sean J

    2017-07-17

    In 2002, the World Congress on Drowning developed a uniform definition for drowning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of "non-uniform drowning terminology" (NUDT) and "non-uniform drowning definitions" (NUDD) in peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2010 to 2016, and compare these findings with those from our unpublished study performing a similar analysis on literature from 2003 to 2010. A systematic review was performed using drowning-specific search terms in Pubmed and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts published between July 2010 and January 2016 were screened for relevance to the study focus. Articles meeting screening criteria were reviewed for exclusion criteria to produce the final group of studies. These articles were reviewed by four reviewers for NUDT and NUDD. The Fisher exact test was used to determine any statistically significant changes. The final group of studies included 167 articles. A total of 53 articles (32%) utilized NUDT, with 100% of these including the term "near drowning". The proportion of articles utilizing NUDT was significantly less than reported by our previous study (p drowning (uniform or non-uniform), with 15% of these utilizing NUDD. Our study reveals a statistically significant improvement over the past thirteen years in the use of uniform drowning terminology in peer-reviewed scientific literature, although year-to-year variability over the current study period does not yield an obvious trend. Of the articles reviewed during the 2010-2016 study period, 32% included outdated and non-uniform drowning terminology and definitions. While this reveals an absolute decrease of 11% as compared with the previous study period (2003-2010), there is still significant room for improvement.

  14. A splitting algorithm for the wavelet transform of cubic splines on a nonuniform grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimanov, Z. M.; Shumilov, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    For cubic splines with nonuniform nodes, splitting with respect to the even and odd nodes is used to obtain a wavelet expansion algorithm in the form of the solution to a three-diagonal system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients. Computations by hand are used to investigate the application of this algorithm for numerical differentiation. The results are illustrated by solving a prediction problem.

  15. Influence of Non-uniform Temperature Field on Spectra of Fibre Bragg Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhou; Xing-Fang, He; Xiao-Yong, Fang; Jie, Yuan; Li-Qun, Yin; Mao-Sheng, Cao

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the spectrum characteristics of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) with non-uniform temperature using the transmission matrix method, and the results are analysed. It is found that firstly the modulated coefficient of average refractive index is a very important parameter that influences the spectrum characteristic of the fibre Bragg grating, and secondly the spectrum curves are different in different temperature fields at the same parameter. Hence, we can determine the metrical temperature by analysing the spectrum of fibre Bragg grating

  16. Experience with nonuniform damping in the seismic analysis of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; Julyk, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Individual components of nuclear power plants may exhibit pronounced differences in damping magnitude. Various methods for accounting for nonuniform damping in a structural model are reviewed and evaluated. The methods are compared by solving a beam/pipe model subjected to a typical seismic ground motion. A two-degree-of-freedom variable damping parameter study is also presented. Based upon the experience of evaluating and applying the available methods, application guidelines are presented

  17. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  18. Elucidation of the Dynamics for Hot-Spot Initiation at Nonuniform Interfaces of Highly Shocked Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    with nonuniform interfaces plays an essential role in the interfacial instabilities in iner- tial confinement fusion (ICF), in shock-induced...involved in interfacial instabilities at the atomic scale, providing insights on such phenomenon. Thus ReaxFF provides the possibility of realistic...on the IPDI and DOA to determine the charges and structures for the binder model. These QM results and model preparation procedure are provided as part

  19. On the Super-Turing Computational Power of Non-Uniform Families of Neuromata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2002), s. 509-516 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2002 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 28.11.2002-29.11.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : neuromata * Turing machines with advice * non-uniform computational complexity * super-Turing computational power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Mixed Non-Uniform Width / Evanescent Mode Ceramic Resonator Waveguide Filter With Wide Spurious Free Bandwidth

    OpenAIRE

    Afridi, S; Sandhu, M; Hunter, I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the spurious performance of integrated ceramic waveguide filters. Nonuniform width ceramic waveguide resonator and evanescent mode ceramic resonators are employed together to the resonant frequencies of higher order modes. The proposed designs give 75% improvement in stop band response when compared to uniform width ceramic waveguide filter. Simulated results of two six pole chebyshev filters are presented here with improved stop band performance.

  1. Numerical modeling of positive streamer in air in nonuniform fields: Efficiency of radicals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated

  2. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valevich, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  3. Enceladus's crust as a non-uniform thin shell: I tidal deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2018-03-01

    The geologic activity at Enceladus's south pole remains unexplained, though tidal deformations are probably the ultimate cause. Recent gravity and libration data indicate that Enceladus's icy crust floats on a global ocean, is rather thin, and has a strongly non-uniform thickness. Tidal effects are enhanced by crustal thinning at the south pole, so that realistic models of tidal tectonics and dissipation should take into account the lateral variations of shell structure. I construct here the theory of non-uniform viscoelastic thin shells, allowing for depth-dependent rheology and large lateral variations of shell thickness and rheology. Coupling to tides yields two 2D linear partial differential equations of the fourth order on the sphere which take into account self-gravity, density stratification below the shell, and core viscoelasticity. If the shell is laterally uniform, the solution agrees with analytical formulas for tidal Love numbers; errors on displacements and stresses are less than 5% and 15%, respectively, if the thickness is less than 10% of the radius. If the shell is non-uniform, the tidal thin shell equations are solved as a system of coupled linear equations in a spherical harmonic basis. Compared to finite element models, thin shell predictions are similar for the deformations due to Enceladus's pressurized ocean, but differ for the tides of Ganymede. If Enceladus's shell is conductive with isostatic thickness variations, surface stresses are approximately inversely proportional to the local shell thickness. The radial tide is only moderately enhanced at the south pole. The combination of crustal thinning and convection below the poles can amplify south polar stresses by a factor of 10, but it cannot explain the apparent time lag between the maximum plume brightness and the opening of tiger stripes. In a second paper, I will study the impact of a non-uniform crust on tidal dissipation.

  4. Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)

  5. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  6. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  7. Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a bridge density functional approximation (BDFA) (J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8079 (2000)) for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa (HCRY) fluid. It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid. A new bridge functional approximation is proposed, which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid. With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input, the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields, and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data. The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase, and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid, which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  8. Characterization of nonuniform chaos in area-preserving nonlinear maps through a continuous archetype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerbelli, S.; Giona, M.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations conducted over a wealth of nonlinear area-preserving smooth maps (e.g. the Standard Map) showed that these systems possess physically relevant features that are not captured by any continuous archetype of two-dimensional conservative dynamics. Among these properties are the dispersive behavior of stretch factor statistics, the multifractal character of the measure associated with invariant foliations, the sign-alternating property, accounting for the nestedly bent structure of invariant foliations, and the strict inequality between the topological entropy, h top , and the Lyapunov exponent, Λ. We refer to systems possessing all of these properties as nonuniformly chaotic. In this article, we present a globally continuous, piecewise-smooth area-preserving transformation, the toral homeomorphism H, as an archetype of nonuniformly chaotic behavior. The relatively simple structure of point set dynamics and the closed-form knowledge of the pointwise expanding and contracting invariant directions associated with H, permits to derive either analytically, or with arbitrary numerical precision, the standard chaotic properties as well as the dynamics of the physically relevant properties that define nonuniform chaos. Potentialities and limitations of the model proposed in representing geometric and statistical properties of physically relevant smooth systems are discussed in detail

  9. Synergistic nonuniform shortening of atrial refractory period induced by autonomic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, M; Furukawa, Y; Narita, M; Ren, L M; Karasawa, Y; Murakami, M; Chiba, S

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the nonuniform effects of autonomic nerve stimulation of the effective refractory period (ERP) of the right atrium in the anesthetized dog. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac sympathetic nerves to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal region uniformly shortened ERPs at three sites in the right atrium after administration of atropine. Right ansa subclavia (RS) stimulation similarly shortened ERPs in the absence of atropine. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac parasympathetic nerves to the SA nodal region (SAP stimulation) shortened ERPs of the right atrium in a nonuniform manner. Simultaneous RS and SAP stimulation additively shortened ERPs at each site and decreased sinus rate much more than SAP stimulation alone. Shortening of ERP induced by SAP stimulation was greater than that induced by RS stimulation at similar absolute changes in heart rate. These results suggest that simultaneous activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves nonuniformly shortens the ERP in the right atrium as the algebraic sum of the individual responses to each stimulation. However, parasympathetics exert the principal neural control over atrial ERP.

  10. Effects of Warmness and Spatial Nonuniformity of the Plasma Waveguide on Periodic Absolute Parametric Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )

  11. Impulsive response of nonuniform density liquid in a laterally excited tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.; Chang, Y.W.

    1994-04-01

    A study on the impulsive component of the dynamic response of a liquid of nonuniform density in a tank undergoing lateral base excitations is presented. The system considered is a circular cylindrical tank containing an incompressible and inviscid liquid whose density increases with the liquid depth. The density distribution along the depth can be of any arbitrary continuous or discontinuous function. In the analysis, the liquid field is divided into n layers. The thickness of the liquid layers can be different, but the density of each liquid layer is considered to be uniform and is equal to the value of the original liquid density at the mid-height of that layer. The problem is solved by the eigenfunction expansion in conjunction with the transfer matrix technique. The effect of the nonuniform liquid density on the impulsive component of the dynamic response is illustrated in a numerical example in which the linear and cosine distributions of the liquid density are assumed. The response quantities examined include the impulsive pressure, base shear and moments. The results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. It is found that the impulsive pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the density, and the base shear and moments for the nonuniform liquid can be estimated by assuming an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. The effect of tank flexibility is assessed by a simple approach in which the response quantities for flexible tanks are evaluated by simplified equations

  12. Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB using canonic signed digit (CSD coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB.

  13. Measurement of fuel importance distribution in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Izima, Kazunori; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem for nuclear criticality safety in a reprocessing plant. As a theory estimating this reactivity effect, the Goertzel and fuel importance theories are well known. It has been shown that the Goertzel's theory is valid in the range of our experiments based on measurements of reactivity effect and thermal neutron flux in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems. On the other hand, there have been no reports concerning systematic experimental studies on the flatness of fuel importance which is a more general index than the Goertzel's theory. It is derived from the perturbation theory that the fuel importance is proportional to the reactivity change resulting from a change of small amount of fuel mass. Using a uniform and three kinds of nonuniform fuel systems consisting of 93.2% enriched uranium plates and polyethylene plates, the fuel importance distributions were measured. As a result, it was found experimentally that the fuel importance distribution became flat, as its reactivity effect became large. Therefore it was concluded that the flatness of fuel importance distribution is the useful index for estimating reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel system. (author)

  14. Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia

    2016-08-01

    The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.

  15. Effects of warmness and spatial nonuniformity of plasma waveguide on periodic absolute parametric instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)

  16. On the burnout in annular channels at non-uniform heat release distribution in length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornatskij, A.P.; Chernobaj, V.A.; Vasil'ev, A.F.; Struts, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of axial heat release non-uniformity on the conditions of the burnout in annular channels is investigated. The investigation is carried out in annular channels with different laws of heat flux density distribution by channel length. The heat release non-uniformity coefficient was varied from 4.4 to 10, the pressure from 9.8 to 17.6 MPa, mass rate from 500 to 1700 kg (m 2 xS), liquid temperature (chemically desalted water) at the channel inlet constituted 30-300 deg C. The experiments have been performed at the test bench with a closed circulation circuit. The data obtained testify to the fact that under non-uniform heat release the influence of main operating parameters on the value of critical power is of the same character as under uniform heat release. The character of wall temperature variation by channel length before the burnout is determined by the form of heat supply temperature profile. The temperature maximum is observed in the region lying behind the cross section with maximum heat flux. The conclusion is drawn that the dominant influence on the position of the cross section in which the burnout arises is exerted by the form of heat flux density distribution by length. Independently of this distribution form the burnout developes when the vapour content near the wall reaches a limiting value

  17. Distributed ISAR Subimage Fusion of Nonuniform Rotating Target Based on Matching Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yaowen; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2018-06-04

    In real applications, the image quality of the conventional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for the maneuvering target is subject to the strong fluctuation of Radar Cross Section (RCS), as the target aspect varies enormously. Meanwhile, the maneuvering target introduces nonuniform rotation after translation motion compensation which degrades the imaging performance of the conventional Fourier Transform (FT)-based method in the cross-range dimension. In this paper, a method which combines the distributed ISAR technique and the Matching Fourier Transform (MFT) is proposed to overcome these problems. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the distributed ISAR, the multiple channel echoes of the nonuniform rotation target from different observation angles can be acquired. Then, by applying the MFT to the echo of each channel, the defocused problem of nonuniform rotation target which is inevitable by using the FT-based imaging method can be avoided. Finally, after preprocessing, scaling and rotation of all subimages, the noncoherent fusion image containing all the RCS information in all channels can be obtained. The accumulation coefficients of all subimages are calculated adaptively according to the their image qualities. Simulation and experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and fusion image with improved recognizability can be obtained. Therefore, by using the distributed ISAR technique and MFT, subimages of high-maneuvering target from different observation angles can be obtained. Meanwhile, by employing the adaptive subimage fusion method, the RCS fluctuation can be alleviated and more recognizable final image can be obtained.

  18. The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-03-01

    When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.

  19. Nonuniform cardiac denervation observed by 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET in 6-OHDA-treated monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joers, Valerie; Seneczko, Kailie; Goecks, Nichole C; Kamp, Timothy J; Hacker, Timothy A; Brunner, Kevin G; Engle, Jonathan W; Barnhart, Todd E; Nickles, R Jerome; Holden, James E; Emborg, Marina E

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease presents nonmotor complications such as autonomic dysfunction that do not respond to traditional anti-parkinsonian therapies. The lack of established preclinical monkey models of Parkinson's disease with cardiac dysfunction hampers development and testing of new treatments to alleviate or prevent this feature. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of developing a model of cardiac dysautonomia in nonhuman primates and preclinical evaluations tools. Five rhesus monkeys received intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (total dose: 50 mg/kg). The animals were evaluated before and after with a battery of tests, including positron emission tomography with the norepinephrine analog (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine. Imaging 1 week after neurotoxin treatment revealed nearly complete loss of specific radioligand uptake. Partial progressive recovery of cardiac uptake found between 1 and 10 weeks remained stable between 10 and 14 weeks. In all five animals, examination of the pattern of uptake (using Logan plot analysis to create distribution volume maps) revealed a persistent region-specific significant loss in the inferior wall of the left ventricle at 10 (P<0.001) and 14 weeks (P<0.01) relative to the anterior wall. Blood levels of dopamine, norepinephrine (P<0.05), epinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.01) were notably decreased after 6-hydroxydopamine at all time points. These results demonstrate that systemic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in nonhuman primates creates a nonuniform but reproducible pattern of cardiac denervation as well as a persistent loss of circulating catecholamines, supporting the use of this method to further develop a monkey model of cardiac dysautonomia.

  20. Nonuniform cardiac denervation observed by 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET in 6-OHDA-treated monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Joers

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease presents nonmotor complications such as autonomic dysfunction that do not respond to traditional anti-parkinsonian therapies. The lack of established preclinical monkey models of Parkinson's disease with cardiac dysfunction hampers development and testing of new treatments to alleviate or prevent this feature. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of developing a model of cardiac dysautonomia in nonhuman primates and preclinical evaluations tools. Five rhesus monkeys received intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (total dose: 50 mg/kg. The animals were evaluated before and after with a battery of tests, including positron emission tomography with the norepinephrine analog (11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine. Imaging 1 week after neurotoxin treatment revealed nearly complete loss of specific radioligand uptake. Partial progressive recovery of cardiac uptake found between 1 and 10 weeks remained stable between 10 and 14 weeks. In all five animals, examination of the pattern of uptake (using Logan plot analysis to create distribution volume maps revealed a persistent region-specific significant loss in the inferior wall of the left ventricle at 10 (P<0.001 and 14 weeks (P<0.01 relative to the anterior wall. Blood levels of dopamine, norepinephrine (P<0.05, epinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.01 were notably decreased after 6-hydroxydopamine at all time points. These results demonstrate that systemic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in nonhuman primates creates a nonuniform but reproducible pattern of cardiac denervation as well as a persistent loss of circulating catecholamines, supporting the use of this method to further develop a monkey model of cardiac dysautonomia.