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Sample records for nonstructural protein 5a

  1. Pim Kinase Interacts with Nonstructural 5A Protein and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chorong; Min, Saehong; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook; Kang, Sangmin; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Hwang, Soon B.

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on host cellular proteins for virus propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assay using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of ∼9,000 human cellular proteins immobilized in a microarray, approximately 90 cellular proteins were identified as NS5A interactors. Of these candidates, Pim1, a member of serine/threonine kinase family composed of th...

  2. Nonstructural 5A protein of hepatitis C virus regulates heat shock protein 72 for its own propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y S; Shin, K S; Oh, S H; Kang, S M; Won, S J; Hwang, S B

    2012-05-01

    We identified heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) as a host factor that was differentially expressed in cells expressing nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein. To investigate how NS5A modulates Hsp72 in hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, we examined the role of Hsp72 in HCV replication and virus production. NS5A specifically interacted with Hsp72. Both Hsp72 and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) levels were increased in cells expressing NS5A protein. Treatments of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione markedly reduced protein levels of both NFAT5 and Hsp72. Knockdown of NFAT5 resulted in decrease in Hsp72 level in cells expressing NS5A. Importantly, silencing of Hsp72 expression resulted in decrease in both RNA replication and virus production in HCV-infected cells. These data indicate that NS5A modulates Hsp72 via NFAT5 and reactive oxygen species activation for HCV propagation.

  3. Polyclonal antibody preparation and expression in liver tissues of transactivated protein 5 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prepare polyclonal antibody of transactivated protein 5 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A (NA5ATP5) and to explore its expression in the liver tissues. Methods In Escherichia coli BL21,the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a(+)-NS5ATP5 was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG),and it was analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. And the purified protein was used to immunize the rabbit to prepare polyclonal antibody,wi...

  4. Polyclonal antibody preparation and expression in liver tissues of transactivated protein 5 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-quan Li; Shu-lin Zhang; Li-hua Zhong; Jun Cheng; Yuan Hong; Meng-dong Lan; Xiao-bin Chen; Cheng-fu Sun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prepare polyclonal antibody of transactivated protein 5 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A (NA5ATP5) and to explore its expression in the liver tissues. Methods In Escherichia coil BL21, the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a(+)-NS5ATP5 was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and it was analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaerylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. And the purified protein was used to immunize the rabbit to prepare polyelonai antibody, with which we studied the function of NSSATP5 by determining the different liver tissues with the streptavidin-perosidase (SP) immunohistochemistry method. Results Recombinant NS5ATP5 (molecular weight: 65 kD) and polyclonal antibody were successfully prepared. NS5ATP5 expression in the liver of patients with chronic HCV infection was much higher than that of a normal person, and it was detected mainly in the cytoplasm. Conclusion The findings of the expression difference between HCV patients and normal people led to a novel diagnostic marker to detect HCV infection.

  5. Small-molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A): a patent review (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Aladinskiy, Vladimir A; Bushkov, Nikolay A; Ayginin, Andrey A; Majouga, Alexander G; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V

    2017-04-01

    Non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein has achieved a considerable attention as an attractive target for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). A number of novel NS5A inhibitors have been reported to date. Several drugs having favorable ADME properties and mild side effects were launched into the pharmaceutical market. For instance, daclatasvir was launched in 2014, elbasvir is currently undergoing registration, ledipasvir was launched in 2014 as a fixed-dose combination with sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor). Areas covered: Thomson integrity database and SciFinder database were used as a valuable source to collect the patents on small-molecule NS5A inhibitors. All the structures were ranked by the date of priority. Patent holder and antiviral activity for each scaffold claimed were summarized and presented in a convenient manner. A particular focus was placed on the best-in-class bis-pyrrolidine-containing NS5A inhibitors. Expert opinion: Several first generation NS5A inhibitors have recently progressed into advanced clinical trials and showed superior efficacy in reducing viral load in infected subjects. Therapy schemes of using these agents in combination with other established antiviral drugs with complementary mechanisms of action can address the emergence of resistance and poor therapeutic outcome frequently attributed to antiviral drugs.

  6. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada); Babiuk, Lorne A. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  7. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 5A by yeast two-hybrid analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengcheng Zhang; Lei He; Kai Kang; Heng Chen; Lei Xu; Yanming Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the pathogen of classical swine fever (CSF), causes severe hemorrhagic fever and vascular necrosis in domestic pigs and wild boar. A large number of evidence has proven that non-structural 5A (NS5A) is not only a very important part of viral replication complex, but also can regulate host cell’s function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A’s function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database revealed 16 interactive proteins: DDX5, PSMC3, NAV1, PHF5A, GNB2L1, CSDE1, HSPA8, BRMS1, PPP2R3C, AIP, TMED10, POLR1C, TMEM70, METAP2, CHORDC1 and COPS6. These proteins are mostly related to gene transcription, protein folding, protein degradation and metabolism. The interactions detected by the Y2H system should be considered as preliminary results. Since identifying novel pathways and host targets, which play essential roles during infection, may provide potential targets for therapeutic development. The finding of proteins obtained from the SUVEC cDNA library that interact with the CSFV NS5A protein provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between this viral protein and the host target proteins.

  8. Cloning and identification of NS5ATP2 gene and its spliced variant transactivated by hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Jun Cheng; Yan Liu; Yuan Hong; Jian-Jun Wang; Shu-Lin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clone, identify and study new NS5ATP2 gene and its spliced variant transactivated by hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A.METHODS: On the basis of subtractive cDNA library of genes transactivated by NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus, the coding sequence of new gene and its spliced variant were obtained by bioinformatics method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)was conducted to amplify NS5ATP2 gene.RESUJLTS: The coding sequence of a new gene and its spliced variant were cloned and identified successfully.CONCLUSION: A new gene has been recognized as the new target transactivated by HCV NS5A protein. These results brought some new clues for studying the biological functions of new genes and pathogenesis of the viral proteins.

  9. A cell-permeable hairpin peptide inhibits hepatitis C viral nonstructural protein 5A-mediated translation and virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Ruchala, Piotr; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Maloney, Eden M; Miao, Edna; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W

    2012-06-01

    NS5A is a key regulator of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle including RNA replication, assembly, and translation. We and others have shown that NS5A augments HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. Furthermore, Quercetin treatment and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 knockdown inhibit the NS5A-driven augmentation of IRES-mediated translation and infectious virus production. We have also coimmunoprecipitated HSP70 with NS5A and demonstrated cellular colocalization, leading to the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex formation is important for IRES-mediated translation. Here, we have identified the NS5A region responsible for complex formation through in vitro deletion analyses. Deletion of NS5A domains II and III failed to reduce HSP70 binding, whereas domain I deletion eliminated complex formation. NS5A domain I alone also bound HSP70. Deletion mapping of domain I identified the C-terminal 34 amino acids (C34) as the interaction site. Furthermore, addition of C34 to domains II and III restored complex formation. C34 expression significantly reduced intracellular viral protein levels, in contrast to same-size control peptides from other NS5A domains. C34 also competitively inhibited NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation, whereas controls did not. Triple-alanine scan mutagenesis determined that an exposed beta-sheet hairpin in C34 was primarily responsible for NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation. Moreover, treatment with a 10-amino acid peptide derivative of C34 suppressed NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation and significantly inhibited intracellular viral protein synthesis, with no associated cytotoxicity. These results support the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex augments viral IRES-mediated translation, identify a sequence-specific hairpin element in NS5A responsible for complex formation, and demonstrate the functional significance of C34 hairpin-mediated NS5A/HSP70 interaction. Identification of this element may allow

  10. Dissimilar expression of multidrug resistance mdr1 and bcrp by the replication of hepatitis C virus: role of the nonstructural 5A protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Rivero, C; Rosso, N; Gentile, E; Cuestas, M; Tiribelli, C; Oubiña, J R; Mathet, V L

    2013-04-01

    Multidrug resistance associated with the overexpression of ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC) proteins is widely accepted as an important cause of treatment failure in patients with neoplastic or infectious diseases. Some of them play also a pivotal role in detoxification processes. Herein, we investigated the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein on the expression and functional activity of two ABC transport proteins: MDR1 and BCRP. RT-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out for mdr1 and bcrp mRNAs in both Huh7 cells expressing NS5A and Huh7.5 cells containing either full-length- or subgenomic-HCV replicon systems. The functional activity of these pumps was studied by performing a dye efflux assay with DiOC2 and Rhodamine 123. A dose-dependent down-regulation of mdr1 expression was documented in Huh7 cells expressing the NS5A protein, as well as in both replicon systems. In contrast, a significant increase of bcrp expression in both systems was recorded, which were in full agreement with the dye efflux assay results. These results warrant further in vivo studies in HCV patients with cholestasis and/or patients that are refractive to the pharmacotherapy due to the activity of these pumps. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Interferes with Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Suppresses the Interferon Response in Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushin, Kazuya; Enooku, Kenichiro; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Moriya, Kyoji; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Aizaki, Hideki; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A is involved in resistance to the host immune response, as well as the viral lifecycle such as replication and maturation. Here, we established transgenic mice expressing NS5A protein in the liver and examined innate immune responses against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo. Intrahepatic gene expression levels of cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were significantly suppressed after LPS injection in the transgenic mouse liver. Induction of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, 4, and 5 was also suppressed. Phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is activated by cytokines, was also reduced, and expression levels of interferon-stimulated genes, 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthase, interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, and myxovirus resistance 1 were similarly suppressed. Since LPS binds to toll-like receptor 4 and stimulates the downstream pathway leading to induction of these genes, we examined the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and IκB-α. The phosphorylation levels of these molecules were reduced in transgenic mouse liver, indicating that the pathway upstream of the molecules was disrupted by NS5A. Further analyses revealed that the interaction between interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor-6 was dispersed in transgenic mice, suggesting that NS5A may interfere with this interaction via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, which was shown to interact with NS5A. Since the gut microbiota, a source of LPS, is known to be associated with pathological conditions in liver diseases, our results suggest the involvement of NS5A in the pathogenesis of HCV infected-liver via the suppression of innate immunity. PMID:28107512

  12. NS5ATP9 Contributes to Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Nonstructural Protein 5A (NS5A via MEK/Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Gao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A is a remarkable protein as it clearly plays multiple roles in mediating viral replication, host-cell interactions and viral pathogenesis. However, on the impact of cell growth, there have been different study results. NS5ATP9, also known as KIAA0101, p15PAF, L5, and OEACT-1, was first identified as a proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding protein. Earlier studies have shown that NS5ATP9 might play an important role in HCV infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of NS5ATP9 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines proliferation under HCV NS5A expression. The results showed that overexpression of NS5ATP9 inhibited the proliferation of Bel7402 cells, whereas knockdown of NS5ATP9 by interfering RNA promoted the growth of HepG2 cells. Under HCV NS5A expression, RNA interference (RNAi targeting of NS5ATP9 could reverse the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation, suggesting that NS5ATP9 might be an anti-proliferation gene that plays an important role in the suppression of cell growth mediated by HCV NS5A via MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings might provide new insights into HCV NS5A and NS5ATP9.

  13. Mapping interactions of Chikungunya virus nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, R; Rana, Jyoti; Dudha, Namrata; Kumar, Kapila; Gabrani, Reema; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Gupta, Amita; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Chaudhary, Vijay K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2012-10-01

    The four nonstructural proteins (nsPs1-4) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) play important roles involving enzymatic activities and specific interactions with both viral and host components, during different stages of viral pathogenesis. Elucidation of the presence and/or absence of interactions among nsPs in a systematic manner is thus of scientific interest. In the current study, each pair-wise combination among the four nonstructural proteins of CHIKV was systematically analyzed for possible interactions. Six novel protein interactions were identified for CHIKV, using systems such as yeast two-hybrid, GST pull down and ELISA, three of which have not been previously reported for the genus Alphavirus. These interactions form a network of organized associations that suggest the spatial arrangement of nonstructural proteins in the late replicase complex. The study identified novel interactions as well as concurred with previously described associations in related alphaviruses.

  14. Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas El Sahili

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS proteins. The envelope, membrane and capsid proteins form the viral particle while NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B and NS5 assemble inside a cellular replication complex, which is embedded in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-derived vesicles. In addition to their roles in RNA replication within the infected cell, NS proteins help the virus escape the host innate immunity and reshape the host-cell inner structure. This review focuses on recent progress in characterizing the structure and functions of NS5, a protein responsible for the replication and capping of viral RNA that represents a promising drug target.

  15. Development and application of hepatitis C reporter viruses with genotype 1 to 7 core-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) expressing fluorescent proteins or luciferase in modified JFH1 NS5A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Tanja B; Mathiesen, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate genotype-specific high-throughput studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we have developed reporter viruses using JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of genotype 1 to 7 prototype isolates. We introduced enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into NS5A...... domain III of the genotype 2a virus J6/JFH1 [2a(J6)]. During Huh7.5 cell culture adaptation, 2a(J6)-EGFP acquired a 40-amino-acid (aa) (¿40) or 25-aa (¿25) deletion in NS5A domain II, rescuing the impairment of viral assembly caused by the EGFP insertion. ¿40 conferred efficient growth characteristics...... deletions in EGFP, while 2a(J6)¿40 did not show an impaired viability. We further developed panels of JFH1-based genotype 1 to 7 core-NS2 recombinants expressing EGFP- or RLuc-NS5A¿40 fusion proteins. In cell culture, the different EGFP recombinants showed growth characteristics comparable to those...

  16. Development and application of hepatitis C reporter viruses with genotype 1 to 7 core-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) expressing fluorescent proteins or luciferase in modified JFH1 NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Tanja B; Mathiesen, Christian K; Meuleman, Philip; Serre, Stephanie B N; Lademann, Jacob B; Ghanem, Lubna; Scheel, Troels K H; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Bukh, Jens

    2011-09-01

    To facilitate genotype-specific high-throughput studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we have developed reporter viruses using JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of genotype 1 to 7 prototype isolates. We introduced enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into NS5A domain III of the genotype 2a virus J6/JFH1 [2a(J6)]. During Huh7.5 cell culture adaptation, 2a(J6)-EGFP acquired a 40-amino-acid (aa) (Δ40) or 25-aa (Δ25) deletion in NS5A domain II, rescuing the impairment of viral assembly caused by the EGFP insertion. Δ40 conferred efficient growth characteristics to 2a(J6) tagged with EGFP, DsRed-Express2, mCherry, or Renilla luciferase (RLuc), yielding peak supernatant infectivity titers of 4 to 5 log(10) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. 2a(J6) with Δ40 or Δ25 was fully viable in Huh7.5 cells. In human liver chimeric mice, 2a(J6)-EGFPΔ40 acquired various deletions in EGFP, while 2a(J6)Δ40 did not show an impaired viability. We further developed panels of JFH1-based genotype 1 to 7 core-NS2 recombinants expressing EGFP- or RLuc-NS5AΔ40 fusion proteins. In cell culture, the different EGFP recombinants showed growth characteristics comparable to those of the nontagged recombinants, with peak infectivity titers of 4 to 5 log(10) FFU/ml. RLuc recombinants showed slightly less efficient growth characteristics, with peak infectivity titers up to 10-fold lower. Overall, the EGFP and RLuc recombinants were genetically stable after one viral passage. The usefulness of these reporter viruses for high-throughput fluorescence- and luminescence-based studies of HCV-receptor interactions and serum-neutralizing antibodies was demonstrated. Finally, using RLuc viruses, we showed that the genotype-specific core-NS2 sequence did not influence the response to alfa-2b interferon (IFN-alfa-2b) and that genotype 1 to 7 viruses all responded to treatment with p7 ion channel inhibitors.

  17. Role of nonstructural protein NS2A in flavivirus assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, J.Y.; Pijlman, G.P.; Kondratieva, N.; Hyde, J.; Mackenzie, J.M.; Khromykh, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Flavivirus nonstructural (NS) proteins are involved in RNA replication and modulation of the host antiviral response; however, evidence is mounting that some NS proteins also have essential roles in virus assembly. Kunjin virus (KUN) NS2A is a small, hydrophobic, transmembrane protein that is part o

  18. MAVS protein is attenuated by rotavirus nonstructural protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satabdi Nandi

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the single, most important agent of infantile gastroenteritis in many animal species, including humans. In developing countries, rotavirus infection attributes approximately 500,000 deaths annually. Like other viruses it establishes an intimate and complex interaction with the host cell to counteract the antiviral responses elicited by the cell. Among various pattern recognition receptors (PAMPs of the host, the cytosolic RNA helicases interact with viral RNA to activate the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling protein (MAVS, which regulates cellular interferon response. With an aim to identify the role of different PAMPs in rotavirus infected cell, MAVS was found to degrade in a time dependent and strain independent manner. Rotavirus non-structural protein 1 (NSP1 which is a known IFN antagonist, interacted with MAVS and degraded it in a strain independent manner, resulting in a complete loss of RNA sensing machinery in the infected cell. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on NSP1 functionality where a signaling protein is targeted unanimously in all strains. In addition NSP1 inhibited the formation of detergent resistant MAVS aggregates, thereby averting the antiviral signaling cascade. The present study highlights the multifunctional role of rotavirus NSP1 and reinforces the fact that the virus orchestrates the cellular antiviral response to its own benefit by various back up strategies.

  19. Functional Analyses of Mammalian Reovirus Nonstructural Protein μNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao FAN; Qin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Genome replication of reovirus occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called viral factories or viroplasms. The viral nonstructural protein μNS, encoded by genome segment M3, is not a component of mature virions, but is expressed to high levels in infected cells and is concentrated in the infected cell factory matrix. Recent studies have demonstrated that μNS plays a central role in forming the matrix of these structures, as well as in recruiting other components to them for putative roles in genome replication and particle assembly.

  20. Detection of a fourth orbivirus non-structural protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Belhouchet

    Full Text Available The genus Orbivirus includes both insect and tick-borne viruses. The orbivirus genome, composed of 10 segments of dsRNA, encodes 7 structural proteins (VP1-VP7 and 3 non-structural proteins (NS1-NS3. An open reading frame (ORF that spans almost the entire length of genome segment-9 (Seg-9 encodes VP6 (the viral helicase. However, bioinformatic analysis recently identified an overlapping ORF (ORFX in Seg-9. We show that ORFX encodes a new non-structural protein, identified here as NS4. Western blotting and confocal fluorescence microscopy, using antibodies raised against recombinant NS4 from Bluetongue virus (BTV, which is insect-borne, or Great Island virus (GIV, which is tick-borne, demonstrate that these proteins are synthesised in BTV or GIV infected mammalian cells, respectively. BTV NS4 is also expressed in Culicoides insect cells. NS4 forms aggregates throughout the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, consistent with identification of nuclear localisation signals within the NS4 sequence. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that NS4 contains coiled-coils, is related to proteins that bind nucleic acids, or are associated with membranes and shows similarities to nucleolar protein UTP20 (a processome subunit. Recombinant NS4 of GIV protects dsRNA from degradation by endoribonucleases of the RNAse III family, indicating that it interacts with dsRNA. However, BTV NS4, which is only half the putative size of the GIV NS4, did not protect dsRNA from RNAse III cleavage. NS4 of both GIV and BTV protect DNA from degradation by DNAse. NS4 was found to associate with lipid droplets in cells infected with BTV or GIV or transfected with a plasmid expressing NS4.

  1. Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Jonathan C; Sokoloski, Kevin J; Gebhart, Natasha N; Hardy, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    The members of the genus Alphavirus are positive-sense RNA viruses, which are predominantly transmitted to vertebrates by a mosquito vector. Alphavirus disease in humans can be severely debilitating, and depending on the particular viral species, infection may result in encephalitis and possibly death. In recent years, alphaviruses have received significant attention from public health authorities as a consequence of the dramatic emergence of chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean islands and the Caribbean. Currently, no safe, approved or effective vaccine or antiviral intervention exists for human alphavirus infection. The molecular biology of alphavirus RNA synthesis has been well studied in a few species of the genus and represents a general target for antiviral drug development. This review describes what is currently understood about the regulation of alphavirus RNA synthesis, the roles of the viral non-structural proteins in this process and the functions of cis-acting RNA elements in replication, and points to open questions within the field.

  2. Functional investigation of grass carp reovirus nonstructural protein NS80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Ling

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV, a highly virulent agent of aquatic animals, has an eleven segmented dsRNA genome encased in a multilayered capsid shell, which encodes twelve proteins including seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7, and five nonstructural proteins (NS80, NS38, NS31, NS26, and NS16. It has been suggested that the protein NS80 plays an important role in the viral replication cycle that is similar to that of its homologous protein μNS in the genus of Orthoreovirus. Results As a step to understanding the basis of the part played by NS80 in GCRV replication and particle assembly, we used the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system to identify NS80 interactions with proteins NS38, VP4, and VP6 as well as NS80 and NS38 self-interactions, while no interactions appeared in the four protein pairs NS38-VP4, NS38-VP6, VP4-VP4, and VP4-VP6. Bioinformatic analyses of NS80 with its corresponding proteins were performed with all currently available homologous protein sequences in ARVs (avian reoviruses and MRVs (mammalian reoviruses to predict further potential functional domains of NS80 that are related to VFLS (viral factory-like structures formation and other roles in viral replication. Two conserved regions spanning from aa (amino acid residues of 388 to 433, and 562 to 580 were discovered in this study. The second conserved region with corresponding conserved residues Tyr565, His569, Cys571, Asn573, and Glu576 located between the two coiled-coils regions (aa ~513-550 and aa ~615-690 in carboxyl-proximal terminus were supposed to be essential to form VFLS, so that aa residues ranging from 513 to 742 of NS80 was inferred to be the smallest region that is necessary for forming VFLS. The function of the first conserved region including Ala395, Gly419, Asp421, Pro422, Leu438, and Leu443 residues is unclear, but one-third of the amino-terminal region might be species specific, dominating interactions with other viral components. Conclusions Our

  3. Mutations Conferring a Noncytotoxic Phenotype on Chikungunya Virus Replicons Compromise Enzymatic Properties of Nonstructural Protein 2

    OpenAIRE

    Utt, Age; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Varjak, Margus; Lulla, Valeria; Lulla, Aleksei; Merits, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (genus Alphavirus) has a positive-sense RNA genome. CHIKV nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) proteolytically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein, possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), RNA triphosphatase, and RNA helicase activities, and induces cytopathic effects in vertebrate cells. Although alphaviral nsP2 mutations can result in a noncytotoxic phenotype, the effects of such mutations on nsP2 enzymatic activities are not well understood. In this study...

  4. Ribosomal protein S6 associates with alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 and mediates expression from alphavirus messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephanie A; Berglund, Peter; Beard, Clayton W; Johnston, Robert E

    2006-08-01

    Although alphaviruses dramatically alter cellular function within hours of infection, interactions between alphaviruses and specific host cellular proteins are poorly understood. Although the alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is an essential component of the viral replication complex, it also has critical auxiliary functions that determine the outcome of infection in the host. To gain a better understanding of nsP2 function, we sought to identify cellular proteins with which Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 interacted. We demonstrate here that nsP2 associates with ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6) and that nsP2 is present in the ribosome-containing fractions of a polysome gradient, suggesting that nsP2 associates with RpS6 in the context of the whole ribosome. This result was noteworthy, since viral replicase proteins have seldom been described in direct association with components of the ribosome. The association of RpS6 with nsP2 was detected throughout the course of infection, and neither the synthesis of the viral structural proteins nor the presence of the other nonstructural proteins was required for RpS6 interaction with nsP2. nsP1 also was associated with RpS6, but other nonstructural proteins were not. RpS6 phosphorylation was dramatically diminished within hours after infection with alphaviruses. Furthermore, a reduction in the level of RpS6 protein expression led to diminished expression from alphavirus subgenomic messages, whereas no dramatic diminution in cellular translation was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that alphaviruses alter the ribosome during infection and that this alteration may contribute to differential translation of host and viral messages.

  5. Architects of assembly: roles of Flaviviridae non-structural proteins in virion morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Catherine L; Jones, Christopher T; Rice, Charles M

    2008-09-01

    Viruses of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C, dengue and bovine viral diarrhoea, are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in our understanding of virion assembly have uncovered commonalities among distantly related members of this family. We discuss the emerging hypothesis that physical virion components are not alone in forming the infectious particle, but that non-structural proteins are intimately involved in orchestrating morphogenesis. Pinpointing the roles of Flaviviridae proteins in virion production could reveal new avenues for antiviral therapeutics.

  6. [Nonstructural protein 1 of tick-borne encephalitis virus activates the expression of immunoproteasome subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Y V; Starodubova, E S; Karganova, G G; Timofeev, A V; Karpov, V L

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of viral proteins with host cell components plays an important role in antiviral immune response. One of the key steps of antiviral defense is the formation of immunoproteasomes. The effect of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of tick-borne encephalitis virus on the immunoproteasome formation was studied. It was shown that cell expression of NS1 does not reduce the efficacy of the immunoproteasome generation in response to interferon-γ stimulation and even increases the content of the immunoproteasome subunits without the interferon-γ treatment. Thus, NS1 of tick-borne encephalitis virus activates, rather than blocks the mechanisms of immune defense in the cell.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Non-Structural Protein NS1 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dan; TONG Guang-zhi; QIU Hua-ji; XUE Qiang; ZHOU Yan-jun; LI Jing-peng

    2003-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the major agents causing swine reproductive failure. NS1protein is a non-structural protein of PPV and can be used as a reagent for differentiation of vaccinated ani-mals and infected ones. In present study, a recombinant plasmid pET28a/NS1 was constructed by cloning thecoding sequence for NS1 of PPV into pET28a, a bacterial expression vector. The NS1 protein was expressed inE. coli BL21 (DE3) after induced by IPTG and the recombinant fusion protein was purified with affinity chro-matography. Expression amount of NS1 protein was improved by optimizing the inducing parameters. The re-combinant NS1 protein is reactive to PPV positive sera in Western blot and ELISA test and therefore can beapplicable in differential diagnosis of PPV infections.

  8. [Advances in Parvovirus Non-structural Protein NS1 Induced Apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mengyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-11-01

    Until now, more than seventeen parvovirus have been reported which can infect mammals and poultries. The infected cells appeared different properties of apoptosis and death, present a typical cytopathic effect. NS1 is a major nonstructural protein of parvovirus, with a conservative structure and function, which plays an important role in the viral life cycle. In addition to the influence on viral replication, the NS1 also participates in apoptosis induced by viruses. Parvovirus induced apoptosis which is mainly mediated by mitochondrial pathway, this review summarized the latest research progresses of parvovirus induced apoptosis.

  9. The nonstructural protein 1 papain-like cysteine protease was necessary for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1 to inhibit interferon-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xibao; Zhang, Gaiping; Wang, Li; Li, Xuewu; Zhi, Yubao; Wang, Fangyu; Fan, Jianming; Deng, Ruiguang

    2011-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) could be auto-cleaved into nsp1α and nsp1β, both of which had the papain-like cysteine protease activities. Previous studies have shown that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 was an interferon (IFN) antagonist. However, the mechanism by which nsp1 inhibited IFN-β production was unclear. Here, we used site-directed mutagenesis that inactivated the papain-like cysteine protease activities of nsp1 to explore whether the papain-like cysteine protease activities were required for nsp1 to disrupt IFN-β production. The results showed that mutations that inactivated papain-like cysteine protease activity of nsp1α made nsp1 lose its IFN antagonism activity, whereas mutations that inactivated papain-like cysteine protease activity of nsp1β did not influence the IFN antagonism activity of nsp1. In conclusion, our present work indicated that the papain-like cysteine protease activity of nsp1α was necessary for nsp1 to inhibit IFN-β induction.

  10. Proteomic analysis of endothelial cell autoantigens recognized by anti-dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed the occurrence of autoimmune responses in dengue virus (DV) infection, which has potential implications for the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic syndrome. In the present study, we have used a proteomic analysis to identify several candidate proteins on HMEC-1 endothelial cells recognized by anti-DV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibodies. The target proteins, including ATP synthase beta chain, protein disulfide isomerase, vimentin, and heat shock protein 60, co-localize with anti-NS1 binding sites on nonfixed HMEC-1 cells using immunohistochemical double staining and confocal microscopy. The cross-reactivity of anti-target protein antibodies with HMEC-1 cells was inhibited by NS1 protein pre-absorption. Furthermore, a cross-reactive epitope on NS1 amino acid residues 311-330 (P311-330) was predicted using homologous sequence alignment. The reactivity of dengue hemorrhagic patient sera with HMEC-1 cells was blocked by synthetic peptide P311-330 pre-absorption. Taken together, our results identify putative targets on endothelial cells recognized by anti-DV NS1 antibodies, where NS1 P311-330 possesses the shared epitope.

  11. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Femke; Drolet, B.S.; Boonstra, Jan; Rijn, Van P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. Howe

  12. Detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 may distinguish between vaccinated and infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Eva Smedegaard; Madsen, Knud Gert; Nielsen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    was inserted into the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome resulting in two recombinant baculoviruses AcNPV-NS1 and AcNPV-VP2, respectively. Sf9 cells (Spodoptora frugidiperda) inoculated with AcNPV-NS1 producing recombinant nonstructural protein (rNS1) and AcNPV-VP2...

  13. Nuclear localization of Sindbis virus nonstructural protein nsP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOZHONG; MINGXIAODING

    1993-01-01

    In early infection, approximately 10% of nonstructural protein nsP2 of Sindbis virus was transported into the nuclei of virus-infected BHK-21 cells. Nuclear asP2 was dominantly associated with nuclear matrix. During the course of infection, increasing amounts of nsP2 accumulated in the nuclear fraction. A prominent accumulation of nuclear nsP2 occurred early in infection, from 1 h to 3 h postinfection. Meanwhile. a weak NTPase activity was found to be associated with the immunocomplexed nsP2. Nuclear localization of nsP2 and its possible role were diseussed in relation to the inhibition of host macromolecular synthesis.

  14. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali D Saxton-Shaw

    Full Text Available O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are two closely related alphaviruses with very different infection patterns in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector specificity remain unidentified. Fifteen distinct chimeric viruses were constructed to evaluate both structural and non-structural regions of the genome and infection patterns were determined through artificial infectious feeds in An. gambiae with each of these chimeras. Only one region, non-structural protein 3 (nsP3, was sufficient to up-regulate infection to rates similar to those seen with parental ONNV. When ONNV non-structural protein 3 (nsP3 replaced nsP3 from CHIKV virus in one of the chimeric viruses, infection rates in An. gambiae went from 0% to 63.5%. No other single gene or viral region addition was able to restore infection rates. Thus, we have shown that a non-structural genome element involved in viral replication is a major element involved in ONNV's unique vector specificity.

  15. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Borland, Erin M; Stovall, Janae L; Mossel, Eric C; Singh, Amber J; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Powers, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are two closely related alphaviruses with very different infection patterns in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector specificity remain unidentified. Fifteen distinct chimeric viruses were constructed to evaluate both structural and non-structural regions of the genome and infection patterns were determined through artificial infectious feeds in An. gambiae with each of these chimeras. Only one region, non-structural protein 3 (nsP3), was sufficient to up-regulate infection to rates similar to those seen with parental ONNV. When ONNV non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) replaced nsP3 from CHIKV virus in one of the chimeric viruses, infection rates in An. gambiae went from 0% to 63.5%. No other single gene or viral region addition was able to restore infection rates. Thus, we have shown that a non-structural genome element involved in viral replication is a major element involved in ONNV's unique vector specificity.

  16. Elicitation of T-cell responses by structural and non-structural proteins of coxsackievirus B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Suvi; Marttila, Jane; Susi, Petri; Ilonen, Jorma

    2015-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) belongs to the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. To investigate target proteins recognized by T-cells in human enterovirus B infections, virus-encoded structural [VP0 (VP4 and VP2), VP1, VP3] and non-structural (2A, 2B, 2C, 3C and 3D) proteins were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Peripheral blood of 19 healthy adult donors was used to create enterovirus-specific T-cell lines by repeated stimulation with CV-B4 cell lysate antigen. T-cell lines responded in individual patterns, and responses to all purified proteins were observed. The most often recognized enteroviral protein was VP0, which is the fusion between the most conserved structural proteins, VP4 and VP2. T-cell responses to VP0 were detected in 15 of the 19 (79 %) donor lines. Non-structural 2C protein was recognized in 11 of the 19 (58 %) lines, and 11 of the 19 (58 %) lines also had a response to 3D protein. Furthermore, responses to other non-structural proteins (2A, 2B and 3C) were also detected. T-cell responses did not correlate clearly to the individual HLA-DR-DQ phenotype or the history of past coxsackie B virus infections of the donors.

  17. High affinity human antibody fragments to dengue virus non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J Moreland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enzyme activities catalysed by flavivirus non-structural protein 3 (NS3 are essential for virus replication. They are distributed between the N-terminal protease domain in the first one-third and the C-terminal ATPase/helicase and nucleoside 5' triphosphatase domain which forms the remainder of the 618-aa long protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, dengue full-length NS3 protein with residues 49 to 66 of NS2B covalently attached via a flexible linker, was used as bait in biopanning with a naïve human Fab phage-display library. Using a range of truncated constructs spanning the NS2B cofactor region and the full-length NS3, 10 unique Fab were identified and characterized. Of these, monoclonal Fab 3F8 was shown to bind α3″ (residues 526 through 531 within subdomain III of the helicase domain. The antibody inhibits the ATPase and helicase activites of NS3 in biochemical assays and reduces DENV replication in HEK293 cells that were previously transfected with Fab 3F8 compared with mock transfected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies such as 3F8 are valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of flaviviral replication and for the monospecific detection of replicating dengue virus in vivo.

  18. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  19. Nonstructural protein 1 characteristic peak from NS1-saliva mixture with Surface-Enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W

    2013-01-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an enhanced technique of Raman spectroscopy, which amplifies the intensity of Raman scattering to a practical range with adsorption of analyte onto nano-size plasmonic material such as gold, silver or copper. This feature of SERS has given it a niche in tracing molecular structure, especially useful for marking diseases specific biomarker. NS1 protein has been clinically accepted as an alternative biomarker for diseases caused by flavivirus. Detection of Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) will allow early diagnosis of the diseases. Its presence in the blood serum has been reported as early as first day of infection. With gold substrate, our work here intends to explore if SERS is suitable to detect NS1 from saliva, with saliva becoming the most favored alternative to blood as diagnostic fluid due to its advantages in sample collection. Our experimental results find both gold coated slide (GS) and saliva being Raman inactive, but the molecular fingerprint of NS1 protein at Raman shift 1012 cm(-1), which has never been reported before. The distinct peak is discovered to be attributed by breathing vibration of the benzene ring structure of NS1 side chain molecule. The characteristic peak is also found to vary in direct proportion to concentration of the NS1-saliva mixture, with a correlation coefficient of +0.96118 and a standard error estimation of 0.11382.

  20. Semen from boars infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains antibodies against structural as well as nonstructural viral proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M. B.; Bøtner, Anette; Normann, Preben

    2001-01-01

    antigen, we were able to separately and specifically assay antibody responses against structural and nonstructural viral proteins. Antibodies against structural as well as nonstructural viral proteins were consistently found in the semen of all boars, beginning from 1-4 weeks postinfection....... This is the first report documenting the presence of anti-PRRSV antibodies in boar semen, Seminal antiviral IgA was also detected, and we observed a correlation between seminal IgA responses against nonstructural viral proteins, and the duration of PRRSV RNA excretion in semen. The implications of these findings...

  1. A phenotypic assay to identify Chikungunya virus inhibitors targeting the nonstructural protein nsP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Lupan, Alexandru; Desprès, Philippe; Thoret, Sylviane; Pamlard, Olivier; Dubois, Joëlle; Guillou, Catherine; Tangy, Frédéric; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen responsible for an acute infection of abrupt onset, characterized by high fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, headaches, chills, and rash. In 2006, CHIKV was responsible for an epidemic outbreak of unprecedented magnitude in the Indian Ocean, stressing the need for therapeutic approaches. Since then, we have acquired a better understanding of CHIKV biology, but we are still missing active molecules against this reemerging pathogen. We recently reported that the nonstructural nsP2 protein of CHIKV induces a transcriptional shutoff that allows the virus to block cellular antiviral response. This was demonstrated using various luciferase-based reporter gene assays, including a trans-reporter system where Gal4 DNA binding domain is fused to Fos transcription factor. Here, we turned this assay into a high-throughput screening system to identify small molecules targeting nsP2-mediated shutoff. Among 3040 molecules tested, we identified one natural compound that partially blocks nsP2 activity and inhibits CHIKV replication in vitro. This proof of concept suggests that similar functional assays could be developed to target other viral proteins mediating a cellular shutoff and identify innovative therapeutic molecules.

  2. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B is involved in virus morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouklani, Hamed; Bull, Rowena A; Beyer, Claudia; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Gowans, Eric J; Drummer, Heidi E; Netter, Hans J; White, Peter A; Haqshenas, Gholamreza

    2012-05-01

    The p7 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viroporin that is dispensable for viral genome replication but plays a critical role in virus morphogenesis. In this study, we generated a JFH1-based intergenotypic chimeric genome that encoded a heterologous genotype 1b (GT1b) p7. The parental intergenotypic chimeric genome was nonviable in human hepatoma cells, and infectious chimeric virions were produced only when cells transfected with the chimeric genomes were passaged several times. Sequence analysis of the entire polyprotein-coding region of the recovered chimeric virus revealed one predominant amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), T23N, and one in NS5B, K151R. Forward genetic analysis demonstrated that each of these mutations per se restored the infectivity of the parental chimeric genome, suggesting that interactions between p7, NS2, and NS5B were required for virion assembly/maturation. p7 and NS5B colocalized in cellular compartments, and the NS5B mutation did not affect the colocalization pattern. The NS5B K151R mutation neither increased viral RNA replication in human hepatoma cells nor altered the polymerase activity of NS5B in an in vitro assay. In conclusion, this study suggests that HCV NS5B is involved in virus morphogenesis.

  3. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  4. Nonstructural Proteins Are Preferential Positive Selection Targets in Zika Virus and Related Flaviviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Manuela; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Cagliani, Rachele

    2016-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus comprises several human pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Although ZIKV usually causes mild symptoms, growing evidence is linking it to congenital birth defects and to increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV encodes a polyprotein that is processed to produce three structural and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins. We investigated the evolution of the viral polyprotein in ZIKV and in related flaviviruses (DENV, Spondweni virus, and Kedougou virus). After accounting for saturation issues, alignment uncertainties, and recombination, we found evidence of episodic positive selection on the branch that separates DENV from the other flaviviruses. NS1 emerged as the major selection target, and selected sites were located in immune epitopes or in functionally important protein regions. Three of these sites are located in an NS1 region that interacts with structural proteins and is essential for virion biogenesis. Analysis of the more recent evolutionary history of ZIKV lineages indicated that positive selection acted on NS5 and NS4B, this latter representing the preferential target. All selected sites were located in the N-terminal portion of NS4B, which inhibits interferon response. One of the positively selected sites (26M/I/T/V) in ZIKV also represents a selection target in sylvatic DENV2 isolates, and a nearby residue evolves adaptively in JEV. Two additional positively selected sites are within a protein region that interacts with host (e.g. STING) and viral (i.e. NS1, NS4A) proteins. Notably, mutations in the NS4B region of other flaviviruses modulate neurovirulence and/or neuroinvasiveness. These results suggest that the positively selected sites we identified modulate viral replication and contribute to immune evasion. These sites should be prioritized in future experimental studies. However, analyses herein detected no selective events associated to the spread of the Asian

  5. Interaction of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 with Daxx modulates RANTES production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khunchai, Sasiprapa [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Junking, Mutita [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Yasamut, Umpa [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Chaowalit, Prapaipit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Medical Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); and others

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time how DENV NS5 increases RANTES production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DENV NS5 physically interacts with human Daxx. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of NS5 is required for Daxx interaction and RANTES production. -- Abstract: Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection, are important public health problems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Abnormal hemostasis and plasma leakage are the main patho-physiological changes in DHF/DSS. A remarkably increased production of cytokines, the so called 'cytokine storm', is observed in the patients with DHF/DSS. A complex interaction between DENV proteins and the host immune response contributes to cytokine production. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates these responses has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to identify host proteins interacting with DENV NS5 and a death-domain-associate protein (Daxx) was identified. The in vivo relevance of this interaction was suggested by co-immunoprecipitation and nuclear co-localization of these two proteins in HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5. HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5-K/A, which were mutated at the nuclear localization sequences (NLS), were created to assess its functional roles in nuclear translocation, Daxx interaction, and cytokine production. In the absence of NLS, DENV NS5 could neither translocate into the nucleus nor interact with Daxx to increase the DHF-associated cytokine, RANTES (CCL5) production. This work demonstrates the interaction between DENV NS5 and Daxx and the role of the interaction on the modulation of RANTES production.

  6. Structure and Function of the Non-Structural Protein of Dengue Virus and its Applications in Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Yu, JianHai; Wu, Qinghua; Yang, Fangji; Cao, Hong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever, a type of global and tropical infectious disease, and its prevention has become a challenging issue worldwide. Antibody-dependent enhancement effects and the virus pathogenic mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated, hindering the development of dengue fever prevention and suitable drug treatment. There is currently no specific prevention and therapy in clinical trials, however, in recent years, studies have focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of dengue. Research focusing on dengue virus nonstructural protein in special drugs for the prevention and control of dengue fever is a new progress leading to improved understanding regarding the prevention and control of dengue fever and suitable drugs for the treatment. The main challenges regarding the structure of dengue virus nonstructural protein and the drugs for antiviral therapy are summarized in this paper.

  7. Nonstructural protein p39 of feline calicivirus suppresses host innate immune response by preventing IRF-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumiketa, Yo; Narita, Takanori; Inoue, Yosuke; Sato, Go; Kamitani, Wataru; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Tohya, Yukinobu

    2016-03-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important veterinary pathogen that causes acute upper respiratory tract diseases and, occasionally, highly contagious febrile hemorrhagic syndrome in cats. Many viruses have adopted mechanisms for evading IFN-α/β signaling, particularly by directly or indirectly suppressing activation of IRF-3. In this study, we investigated whether nonstructural proteins of FCV possess these mechanisms. When p39, a nonstructural protein of FCV, was transiently expressed in 293T cells, it suppressed IFN-β and ISG15 mRNA production induced by dsRNA. Expression of p39 also suppressed phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3 induced by dsRNA. These results suggest that p39 suppresses type 1 IFN production by preventing IRF-3 activation. This may become an important factor in understanding the pathogenesis and virulence of FCV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonstructural Protein L* Species Specificity Supports a Mouse Origin for Vilyuisk Human Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drappier, Melissa; Opperdoes, Fred R; Michiels, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV) is a picornavirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). VHEV was isolated from human material passaged in mice. Whether this VHEV is of human or mouse origin is therefore unclear. We took advantage of the species-specific activity of the nonstructural L* protein of theiloviruses to track the origin of TMEV isolates. TMEV L* inhibits RNase L, the effector enzyme of the interferon pathway. By using coimmunoprecipitation and functional RNase L assays, the species specificity of RNase L antagonism was tested for L* from mouse (DA) and rat (RTV-1) TMEV strains as well as for VHEV. Coimmunoprecipitation and functional assay data confirmed the species specificity of L* activity and showed that L* from rat strain RTV-1 inhibited rat but not mouse or human RNase L. Next, we showed that the VHEV L* protein was phylogenetically related to L* of mouse viruses and that it failed to inhibit human RNase L but readily antagonized mouse RNase L, unambiguously showing the mouse origin of VHEV.IMPORTANCE Defining the natural host of a virus can be a thorny issue, especially when the virus was isolated only once or when the isolation story is complex. The species Theilovirus includes Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), infecting mice and rats, and Saffold virus (SAFV), infecting humans. One TMEV strain, Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), however, was isolated from mice that were inoculated with cerebrospinal fluid of a patient presenting with chronic encephalitis. It is therefore unclear whether VHEV was derived from the human sample or from the inoculated mouse. The L* protein encoded by TMEV inhibits RNase L, a cellular enzyme involved in innate immunity, in a species-specific manner. Using binding and functional assays, we show that this species specificity even allows discrimination between TMEV strains of mouse and of rat origins. The VHEV L* protein clearly inhibited mouse but not human RNase L

  9. Recombinant Production of the Amino Terminal Cytoplasmic Region of Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 4A for Structural Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fu Hung; Olga Valdau; Sven Schünke; Omer Stern; Koenig, Bernd W.; Dieter Willbold; Silke Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted positive single strand RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. DENV causes dengue fever, currently the world's fastest-spreading tropical disease. Severe forms of the disease like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are life-threatening. There is no specific treatment and no anti-DENV vaccines. Our recent data suggests that the amino terminal cytoplasmic region of the dengue virus non-structural protein 4A (NS4A)...

  10. Identification of antigenic domains in the non-structural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Li, Ming; Yan, Bing; Shao, Shu-Li; Fan, Xing-Dong; Wang, Jia; Wang, Dan-Na

    2016-08-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is widespread in many Muscovy-duck-farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. By means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot, antigenic domains on the non-structural protein (NSP) of MDPV were identified for the first time. On the Western blot, the fragments NS(481-510), NS (501-530), NS (521-550), NS (541-570), NS (561-590), NS (581-610) and NS (601-627) were positive (the numbers in parentheses indicate the location of amino acids), and other fragments were negative. These seven fragments were also reactive in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). We therefore conclude that a linear antigenic domain of the NSP is located at its C-terminal end (amino acid residues 481-627). These results may facilitate future investigations into the function of NSP of MDPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of MDPV infection.

  11. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

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    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses.

  13. The Role of Interferon Antagonist, Non-Structural Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Emergence of Arboviruses

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    Samantha S. Soldan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of factors favor the emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including migration, climate change, intensified livestock production, an increasing volume of international trade and transportation, and changes to ecosystems (e.g., deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, arboviruses are distributed worldwide and represent over 30% of all emerging infectious diseases identified in the past decade. Although some arboviral infections go undetected or are associated with mild, flu-like symptoms, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illnesses such as arthritis, gastroenteritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever and devastating economic loss as a consequence of lost productivity and high mortality rates among livestock. One of the most consistent molecular features of emerging arboviruses, in addition to their near exclusive use of RNA genomes, is the inclusion of viral, non-structural proteins that act as interferon antagonists. In this review, we describe these interferon antagonists and common strategies that arboviruses use to counter the host innate immune response. In addition, we discuss the complex interplay between host factors and viral determinants that are associated with virus emergence and re-emergence, and identify potential targets for vaccine and anti-viral therapies.

  14. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV.

  15. Network mapping among the functional domains of Chikungunya virus nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Jyoti; Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Gulati, Sahil; Dudha, Namrata; Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Formation of virus specific replicase complex is among the most important steps that determines the fate of viral transcription and replication during Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. In the present study, the authors have computationally generated a 3D structure of CHIKV late replicase complex on the basis of the interactions identified among the domains of CHIKV nonstructural proteins (nsPs) which make up the late replicase complex. The interactions among the domains of CHIKV nsPs were identified using systems such as pull down, protein interaction ELISA, and yeast two-hybrid. The structures of nsPs were generated using I-TASSER and the biological assembly of the replicase complex was determined using ZRANK and RDOCK. A total of 36 interactions among the domains and full length proteins were tested and 12 novel interactions have been identified. These interactions included the homodimerization of nsP1 and nsP4 through their respective C-ter domains; the associations of nsP2 helicase domain and C-ter domain of nsP4 with methyltransferase and membrane binding domains of nsP1; the interaction of nsP2 protease domain with C-ter domain of nsP4; and the interaction of nsP3 macro and alphavirus unique domains with the C-ter domain of nsP1. The novel interactions identified in the current study form a network of organized associations that suggest the spatial arrangement of nsPs in the late replicase complex of CHIKV.

  16. Protection against dengue virus infection in mice by administration of antibodies against modified nonstructural protein 1.

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    Shu-Wen Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue virus (DENV may cause life-threatening disease with thrombocytopenia and vascular leakage which are related to dysfunction of platelets and endothelial cells. We previously showed that antibodies (Abs against DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 cross-react with human platelets and endothelial cells, leading to functional disturbances. Based on sequence homology analysis, the C-terminal region of DENV NS1 protein contains cross-reactive epitopes. For safety in vaccine development, the cross-reactive epitopes of DENV NS1 protein should be deleted or modified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the protective effects of Abs against full-length DENV NS1, NS1 lacking the C-terminal amino acids (a.a. 271-352 (designated ΔC NS1, and chimeric DJ NS1 consisting of N-terminal DENV NS1 (a.a. 1-270 and C-terminal Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 (a.a. 271-352. The anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs showed a lower binding activity to endothelial cells and platelets than that of anti-DENV NS1 Abs. Passive immunization with anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced DENV-induced prolonged mouse tail bleeding time. Treatment with anti-DENV NS1, anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced local skin hemorrhage, controlled the viral load of DENV infection in vivo, synergized with complement to inhibit viral replication in vitro, as well as abolished DENV-induced macrophage infiltration to the site of skin inoculation. Moreover, active immunization with modified NS1 protein, but not with unmodified DENV NS1 protein, reduced DENV-induced prolonged bleeding time, local skin hemorrhage, and viral load. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the idea that modified NS1 proteins may represent an improved strategy for safe and effective vaccine development against DENV infection.

  17. Kobuviral Non-structural 3A Proteins Act as Molecular Harnesses to Hijack the Host ACBD3 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Martin; Chalupska, Dominika; Różycki, Bartosz; Humpolickova, Jana; Rezabkova, Lenka; Silhan, Jan; Baumlova, Adriana; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen

    2017-02-07

    Picornaviruses are small positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that include many important human pathogens. Within the host cell, they replicate at specific replication sites called replication organelles. To create this membrane platform, they hijack several host factors including the acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein-3 (ACBD3). Here, we present a structural characterization of the molecular complexes formed by the non-structural 3A proteins from two species of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and the 3A-binding domain of the host ACBD3 protein. Specifically, we present a series of crystal structures as well as a molecular dynamics simulation of the 3A:ACBD3 complex at the membrane, which reveals that the viral 3A proteins act as molecular harnesses to enslave the ACBD3 protein leading to its stabilization at target membranes. Our data provide a structural rationale for understanding how these viral-host protein complexes assemble at the atomic level and identify new potential targets for antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of a nonstructural DNA-binding protein (DBP as an antigen with diagnostic potential for human adenovirus.

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    Li Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs have been implicated as important agents in a wide range of human illnesses. To date, 58 distinct HAdV serotypes have been identified and can be grouped into six species. For the immunological diagnosis of adenoviruses, the hexon protein, a structural protein, has been used. The potential of other HAdV proteins has not been fully addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a nonstructural antigenic protein, the DNA binding protein (DBP of human adenovirus 5 and 35 (Ad5, Ad35 - was identified using immunoproteomic technology. The expression of Ad5 and Ad35 DBP in insect cells could be detected by rhesus monkey serum antibodies and healthy adult human serum positive for Ad5 and Ad35. Recombinant DBPs elicited high titer antibodies in mice. Their conserved domain displayed immunological cross-reactions with heterologous DBP antibodies in Western blot assays. DBP-IgM ELISA showed higher sensitivity adenovirus IgM detection than the commercial Adenovirus IgM Human ELISA Kit. A Western blot method developed based on Ad5 DBP was highly consistent with (χ(2 = 44.9, P<0.01 the Western blot assay for the hexon protein in the detection of IgG, but proved even more sensitive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HAdV nonstructural protein DBP is an antigenic protein that could serve as an alternative common antigen for adenovirus diagnosis.

  19. Pharmacoinformatics approach for investigation of alternative potential hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B inhibitors

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    Mirza MU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Usman Mirza,1 Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori,2 Nazia Ikram,3 Abdur Rehman Adil,4 Sadia Manzoor3 1Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine (CRiMM, The University of Lahore, Lahore, 2Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, 3Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan; 4Centre for Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB, The University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the major viruses affecting the world today. It is a highly variable virus, having a rapid reproduction and evolution rate. The variability of genomes is due to hasty replication catalyzed by nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B which is also a potential target site for the development of anti-HCV agents. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sofosbuvir as a novel oral NS5B inhibitor for the treatment of HCV. Unfortunately, it is much highlighted for its pricing issues. Hence, there is an urgent need to scrutinize alternate therapies against HCV that are available at affordable price and do not have associated side effects. Such a need is crucial especially in underdeveloped countries. The search for various new bioactive compounds from plants is a key part of pharmaceutical research. In the current study, we applied a pharmacoinformatics-based approach for the identification of active plant-derived compounds against NS5B. The results were compared to docking results of sofosbuvir. The lead compounds with high-binding ligands were further analyzed for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters based on in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET profile. The results showed the potential alternative lead compounds that can be developed into commercial drugs having high binding energy and promising ADMET properties. Keywords: hepatitis C, NS5B inhibitors, molecular docking, Auto

  20. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fros, Jelke J; Major, Lee D; Scholte, Florine E M; Gardner, Joy; van Hemert, Martijn J; Suhrbier, Andreas; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-03-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1α become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2α leading to a general inhibition of cellular translation, whilst the expression of transcription factor ATF4 is upregulated. Active IRE1α splices out an intron from XBP1 mRNA, to produce a potent transcription factor. Activation of the UPR increases the production of several proteins involved in protein folding, degradation and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrated that transient expression of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) envelope glycoproteins induced the UPR and that CHIKV infection resulted in the phosphorylation of eIF2α and partial splicing of XBP1 mRNA. However, infection with CHIKV did not increase the expression of ATF4 and known UPR target genes (GRP78/BiP, GRP94 and CHOP). Moreover, nuclear XBP1 was not observed during CHIKV infection. Even upon stimulation with tunicamycin, the UPR was efficiently inhibited in CHIKV-infected cells. Individual expression of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs) revealed that nsP2 alone was sufficient to inhibit the UPR. Mutations that rendered nsP2 unable to cause host-cell shut-off prevented nsP2-mediated inhibition of the UPR. This indicates that initial UPR induction takes place in the ER but that expression of functional UPR transcription factors and target genes is efficiently inhibited by CHIKV nsP2.

  1. Identification of potential molecular associations between chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2 and human host proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, J; Gulati, S; Rajasekharan, S; Gupta, A; Chaudhary, V; Gupta, S

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is considered to be the master regulator of viral RNA replication and host responses generated during viral infection. This protein has two main functional domains: an N-terminal domain which exhibits NTPase, RNA triphosphatase and helicase activities and a C-terminal protease domain. Understanding how CHIKV nsP2 interacts with its host proteins is essential for elucidating all the required processes for viral replication and pathogenesis along with the identification of potential targets for antiviral therapy. In current study yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of a human fetal brain cDNA library was performed using nsP2 protein as bait. The analysis identified seven host proteins (CCDC130, CPNE6, POLR2C, MAPK9, EIF4A2, EEF1A1 and EIF3I) as putative interactors of CHIKV nsP2 which were selected for further analysis based on their roles in host cellular machinery. The gene ontology analysis indicates that these proteins are mainly involved in apoptosis, transcription and translational mechanism of host cell. Domain mapping of nsP2 revealed that these associations are not random connections but instead they have functional significance. Further studies to identify the amino acid residues and their chemical interactions that may help in opening new possibilities for preventing these interactions, thus reducing chances of chikungunya infection were performed. This study expands the understanding of CHIKV-host interactions and is important for rational approaches of discovering new antiviral agents.

  2. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  3. Heat shock cognate protein 70 controls Borna disease virus replication via interaction with the viral non-structural protein X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yohei; Horie, Masayuki; Daito, Takuji; Honda, Tomoyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2009-03-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-segmented, negative-sense RNA virus and has the property of persistently infecting the cell nucleus. BDV encodes a 10-kDa non-structural protein, X, which is a negative regulator of viral polymerase activity but is essential for virus propagation. Recently, we have demonstrated that interaction of X with the viral polymerase cofactor, phosphoprotein (P), facilitates translocation of P from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. However, the mechanism by which the intracellular localization of X is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that BDV X interacts with the 71kDa molecular chaperon protein, Hsc70. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Hsc70 associates with the same region of X as P and, interestingly, that expression of P interferes competitively with the interaction between X and Hsc70. A heat shock experiment revealed that BDV X translocates into the nucleus, dependent upon the nuclear accumulation of Hsc70. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of Hsc70 by short interfering RNA decreases the nuclear localization of both X and P and markedly reduces the expression of viral genomic RNA in persistently infected cells. These data indicate that Hsc70 may be involved in viral replication by regulating the intracellular distribution of X.

  4. Potential effect of hepatitis C Virus non-structural protein 4B on liver carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Chen; Changping Li; Zhongqiong Wang; Guanghong DU

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4B(HCV NS4B) on c-Myc, P53,ras gene expression' and apoptosis in hepatic cells and study the possible role that NS4B played in the carcinogenesis of hepatoma. Methods: The recombinant plasmid(PCXN2-NS4B, PCXN2-P53) and the empty vector were transfected or co-transfected into Chang liver cells with liposome. Screening was performed with G418. Plasmid mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The pro tein expressions of c-Myc and ras genes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The expressions of wild-type P53 (wtp53) gene were detected by in situ hybridization. TUNEL(flow cytometry) was used for assessing the rate of apoptosis. Results :No expression of c-Myc gene was found in PCXN2 group. The expression of c-Myc gene in NS4B group was 21.3% ± 1.2%. The ex pression of ras gene in PCXN2 group was lower than that in NS4B group. Compared with PCXN2 group, the expression of P53mRNA was not promoted or inhibited in NS4B group. But the expression of P53 mRNA in NS4B-P53 group was lower than that in P53 group. In PCXN2, NS4B, P53 and NS4B-P53 group, the rates of apoptosis were 17.02% ± 1.24%, 11.94% ± 2.24%,25.84% ± 3.49% and 18.34% ± 1.55% respectively. Conclusion:HCV NS4B induces the expression of c-Myc and ras gene. HCV NS4B may play a role in the inhibition of cell death through P53-dependent manner. Results from this study suggested that HCV NS4B might conuibute to the viral carcinogenesis.

  5. Dengue Virus Non-structural Protein 1 Modulates Infectious Particle Production via Interaction with the Structural Proteins.

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    Pietro Scaturro

    Full Text Available Non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is one of the most enigmatic proteins of the Dengue virus (DENV, playing distinct functions in immune evasion, pathogenesis and viral replication. The recently reported crystal structure of DENV NS1 revealed its peculiar three-dimensional fold; however, detailed information on NS1 function at different steps of the viral replication cycle is still missing. By using the recently reported crystal structure, as well as amino acid sequence conservation, as a guide for a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we discovered that in addition to being essential for RNA replication, DENV NS1 is also critically required for the production of infectious virus particles. Taking advantage of a trans-complementation approach based on fully functional epitope-tagged NS1 variants, we identified previously unreported interactions between NS1 and the structural proteins Envelope (E and precursor Membrane (prM. Interestingly, coimmunoprecipitation revealed an additional association with capsid, arguing that NS1 interacts via the structural glycoproteins with DENV particles. Results obtained with mutations residing either in the NS1 Wing domain or in the β-ladder domain suggest that NS1 might have two distinct functions in the assembly of DENV particles. By using a trans-complementation approach with a C-terminally KDEL-tagged ER-resident NS1, we demonstrate that the secretion of NS1 is dispensable for both RNA replication and infectious particle production. In conclusion, our results provide an extensive genetic map of NS1 determinants essential for viral RNA replication and identify a novel role of NS1 in virion production that is mediated via interaction with the structural proteins. These studies extend the list of NS1 functions and argue for a central role in coordinating replication and assembly/release of infectious DENV particles.

  6. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK–STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses. PMID:28373913

  7. Functional expression, purification, characterization, and membrane reconstitution of non-structural protein 2 from hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogeron, Marie-Laure; Paul, David; Jirasko, Vlastimil; Montserret, Roland; Lacabanne, Denis; Molle, Jennifer; Badillo, Aurélie; Boukadida, Célia; Georgeault, Sonia; Roingeard, Philippe; Martin, Annette; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Non-structural protein 2 (NS2) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an integral membrane protein that contains a cysteine protease and that plays a central organizing role in assembly of infectious progeny virions. While the crystal structure of the protease domain has been solved, the NS2 full-length form remains biochemically and structurally uncharacterized because recombinant NS2 could not be prepared in sufficient quantities from cell-based systems. We show here that functional NS2 in the context of the NS2-NS3pro precursor protein, ensuring NS2-NS3 cleavage, can be efficiently expressed by using a wheat germ cell-free expression system. In this same system, we subsequently successfully produce and purify milligram amounts of a detergent-solubilized form of full-length NS2 exhibiting the expected secondary structure content. Furthermore, immuno-electron microscopy analyses of reconstituted proteoliposomes demonstrate NS2 association with model membranes.

  8. Multiplex Detection of IgG and IgM to Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleoprotein, Nonstructural Proteins, and Glycoprotein in Ovine and Bovine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) was used to detect bovine and ovine IgM and IgG antibodies to several Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) proteins, including the major surface glycoprotein, Gn; the nonstructural proteins, NSs and NSm; and the nucleoprotein, N. Target antigens were...

  9. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is an emerging bunyavirus that causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The virus is likely tick-borne and replicates primarily in hemopoietic cells, which may lead to disregulation of proinflammatory cytokine induction and loss of leukocytes and platelets. The viral genome contains L, M, and S segments encoding a viral RNA polymerase, glycoproteins G(n) and G(c), nucleoprotein (NP), and a nonstructural S segment (NSs) protein. NSs protein is involved in the regulation of host innate immune responses and suppression of IFNβ-promoter activities. In this article, we demonstrate that NSs protein can form viroplasm-like structures (VLSs) in infected and transfected cells. NSs protein molecules interact with one another, interact with NP, and were associated with viral RNA in infected cells, suggesting that NSs protein may be involved in viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that NSs-formed VLS colocalized with lipid droplets and that inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis decreased VLS formation or viral replication in transfected and infected cells. Finally, we have demonstrated that viral dsRNAs were also localized in VLS in infected cells, suggesting that NSs-formed VLS may be implicated in the replication of SFTS bunyavirus. These findings identify a novel function of nonstructural NSs in SFTSV-infected cells where it is a scaffolding component in a VLS functioning as a virus replication factory. This function is in addition to the role of NSs protein in modulating host responses that will broaden our understanding of viral pathogenesis of phleboviruses.

  10. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  11. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibody against non-structural protein-2 of Chikungunya virus and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Kumar, Abhishek; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Das, Indrani; Chhatai, Jagamohan; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-04-01

    The recent epidemics of Chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) with unprecedented magnitude and unusual clinical severity have raised a great public health concern worldwide, especially due to unavailability of vaccine or specific therapy. This emphasizes the need to understand the biological processes of this virus in details. Although CHIKV associated research has been initiated, the availability of CHIKV specific reagents for in-depth investigation of viral infection and replication are scanty. For Alphavirus replication, non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is known to play a key regulatory role among all other non-structural proteins. The current study describes the development and characterization of nsP2 specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a synthetic peptide of CHIKV. Reactivity and efficacy of this mAb have been demonstrated by ELISA, Western blot, Flow cytometry and Immunofluorescence assay. Time kinetic study confirms that this mAb is highly sensitive to CHIKV-nsP2 as this protein has been detected very early during viral replication in infected cells. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequence reveals that it is conserved among all the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while analysis with other Alphavirus sequences shows that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequence. Moreover, using the mAb, three isoforms of CHIKV-nsP2 have been detected in 2D blot analysis during infection in mammalian cells. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the mAb reported in this study can be a sensitive and specific tool for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  12. Expression and Identification of Inclusion Forming-related Domain of NS80 Nonstructural Protein of Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao FAN; Lan-lan ZHANG; Cheng-feng LEI; Qin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a double stranded RNA virus that infects aquatic animals, often with disastrous effects, belongs to the genus Aquareovirus and family Reoviridea. Similar to other reoviruses, genome replication of GCRV in infected cells occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, also called viral factories. Sequences analysis revealed the nonstructural protein NS80, encoded by GCRV segment 4, has a high similarity with uNS in MRV(Mammalian orthoreoviruses), which may be associated with viral factory formation. To understand the function of the uNS80 protein in virus replication, the initial expression and identification of the immunogenicity of the GCRV NS80 protein inclusion forming-related region (335.742) was investigated in this study. It is shown that the over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG at 28oC. In addition, serum specific rabbit antibody was obtained by using super purified recombinant NS80(335.742) protein as antigen. Moreover, the expressed protein was able to bind to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and NS80(335-742) specific rabbit antibody. Further western blot analysis indicates that the antiserum could detect NS80 or NS80C protein expression in GCRV infected cells. This data provides a foundation for further investigation of the role of NS80 in viral inclusion formation and virion assembly.

  13. Comparative evaluation of six ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocchi, E.; Bergmann, I.E.; Dekker, A.;

    2006-01-01

    To validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of FMD virus. The sera came...

  14. Prediction of the ligands having the inhibitory activity against the HCV non-structural protein 5B polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Lebbad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find similar compounds of rhodanine inhibitors of HCV non-structural protein 5B (NS5B through exploring the PubChem database. Methods: We used the data mining of these ligands and we studied molecular docking of these ligands with the enzyme HCV NS5B for knowing inhibitory activity. We used the the Knime software for the data mining and the USCF Chimera and Molecular Operating Environment for study the molecular docking. Results: As a result, the discovery was two new inhibitors of NS5B HCV, namely CID 211702 and CID 13752. Conclusions: Two new ligands, CID 211702 and CID 13752, were discovered for the inhibition of the HCV and can be used to invent new medicines against the cancerous diseases.

  15. Rice grassy stunt virus nonstructural protein p5 serves as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing and interacts with nonstructural protein p3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao-juan; Wu, Kang-cheng; Zheng, Lu-Ping; Ding, Zuo-mei; Li, Fei; Zou, Peng; Yang, Liang; Wu, Jian-guo; Wu, Zu-jian

    2015-11-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), a member of the genus Tenuivirus, causes serious rice disease in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based transient expression assay was conducted to show that p5, encoded on RNA5 in the viral sense, is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between p5 and all RGSV proteins except pC1 and pC2 were investigated using Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) experiments. The results demonstrated that p5 interacts with itself and with p3 encoded on RNA3 in the viral sense. p5-p5 and p5-p3 interactions were detected by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, and the p5-p3 interaction was confirmed by subcellular co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Using the Y2H system, we demonstrated that the p5-p3 interaction requires both the N-terminal (amino acid residues 1 to 99) and C-terminal (amino acid residues 94 to 191) domains of p5. In addition, either p5 or p3 could enhance the pathogenicity of potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. A much more significant enhancement of PVX pathogenicity and accumulation was observed when p5 and p3 were expressed together. Our data also showed that RGSV p3 does not function as a VSR, and it had no effect on the VSR activity of p5 or the subcellular localization pattern of p5 in plant cells from Nicotiana benthamiana.

  16. Cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubroth, J; López, A; Ramalho, A K; Meyer, R F; Brown, F; Darsie, G C

    1998-05-01

    Abstract Four groups of ten nine-month-old Nelore heifers were used for this study. Each group received one of four foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) trivalent vaccines for the duration of the experiment. The four vaccine formulations (Normal, 2X, 4X and 8X) differed in 140S content to determine the serological reactivities to FMD virus (FMDV) nonstructural proteins 2C, 3ABC and 3D. Vaccination was by the intramuscular administration of vaccine on day 0, 180 and 360. Bleedings were done at 30 days post vaccination (dpv), 90 dpv, 30 days post revaccination (dpr), 90 dpr, and 30 days post third administration (dprr). There was a general tendency to have higher mean 3D responses with increased vaccine application but not with increased concentration of antigen. With 2C and 3ABC this tendency was not seen, neither with repeated application of vaccine nor with increased antigen concentration. All individual animal observations to 2C and 3ABC remained within three standard deviations of the average observed for naive bovids. Percent of positive (PP) reactions was determined using an ELISA for nonstructural proteins 2C, 3ABC and 3D expressed in baculovirus as previously described. A value of >25 PP to 2C or 3ABC could be considered as an indication of previous infection or of the presence of viral activity. PP results between 18 and 25 PP suggest viral activity and animals should be retested. Those responses below 15 PP are suggestive of vaccination or naive status. As diagnosis in the laboratory is not divorced from the field epidemiological scene, the intermediate zone between 10 and 20 PP should be considered and acted upon according to the overall zoosanitary situation of that country or region and the purposes of the ongoing FMD control efforts.

  17. The shift from low to high non-structural protein 1 expression in rotavirus-infected MA-104 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martinez-Alvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of group/species A rotavirus (RVA replication in MA-104 cells is the logarithmic increase in viral mRNAs that occurs four-12 h post-infection. Viral protein synthesis typically lags closely behind mRNA synthesis but continues after mRNA levels plateau. However, RVA non-structural protein 1 (NSP1 is present at very low levels throughout viral replication despite showing robust protein synthesis. NSP1 has the contrasting properties of being susceptible to proteasomal degradation, but being stabilised against proteasomal degradation by viral proteins and/or viral mRNAs. We aimed to determine the kinetics of the accumulation and intracellular distribution of NSP1 in MA-104 cells infected with rhesus rotavirus (RRV. NSP1 preferentially localises to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm of infected cells, forming abundant granules that are heterogeneous in size. Late in infection, large NSP1 granules predominate, coincident with a shift from low to high NSP1 expression levels. Our results indicate that rotavirus NSP1 is a late viral protein in MA-104 cells infected with RRV, presumably as a result of altered protein turnover.

  18. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Tyler M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. Findings All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. Conclusions These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  19. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Crawford, Sue E; Ajami, Nadim J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Utama, Budi; Estes, Mary K

    2012-09-03

    Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES) motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  20. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC. Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein than against nsp (nsp2. In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.

  1. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Hernández-Lugo, Andrés; Hernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp) and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC). Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein) than against nsp (nsp2). In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed. PMID:26633527

  2. Antigenicity of envelop and non-structural proteins of dengue serotypes and their potentiality to elicit specifi antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatachalam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the antigenic nature of envelop (E and non-structural (NS proteins and their ability to induce specific antibodies, and to investigate specific antibody produced by specific dengue virus (DENV serotypes. Methods: Amino acid sequences of E and NS proteins of dengue serotypes were analysed by using VaxiJen antigen predicition server. The transmembrane of topology analyses were conducted by using transmembrane prediction using hidden markov models. The Hex dock server was used for docking. Results: The antigenicity score and exomembrane potentiality of E and NS proteins were calculated. All those proteins were antigenic; these antigens were made to interact with antibodies such as immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. Higher energy values of immunoglobulin M were found in DENV-1 and DENV-2, and more energy values were found in immunoglobulin G of DENV-3, DENV-4, NS-1, NS-3 and NS-5. Conclusions: In the present study, DENV-1 and DENV-2 are positive to immunoglobulin M and involved in the primary infection. DENV 3, DENV 4 and all the NS proteins (NS-1, NS-3, NS-5 which elicit immunoglobulin G are involved in the secondary infection.

  3. Hepatitis C virus non-structural 5B protein interacts with cyclin A2 and regulates viral propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long; Ngo, HT; Lim, YS

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires host cellular proteins for its own propagation. To identify the cellular factors necessary for HCV propagation, we have recently screened the small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc......, in vitro and in vivo protein binding assays, luciferase reporter gene assay, and immunoblot assay. Results We showed that siRNA-mediated depletion of CycA2 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. Furthermore, HCV non-structural 5B (NS5B......) specifically interacted with CycA2 in vitro and in vivo. Protein interaction was mediated through the cyclin box of CycA2 and the palm domain of NS5B. We further showed that R/HxL motif in the palm domain of HCV NS5B mediated protein interaction with CycA2 and this interaction was necessary for HCV replication...

  4. Construction of recombinant Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 to express dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein 1 (NS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Caio Roberto Soares; Colombo, Lívia Tavares; Roberti, Alvaro Soares; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Cardoso, Silvia Almeida; Reis, Kledna Constancio Portes; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flavia Maria Lopes

    2015-02-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is a convenient host for industrial synthesis of biomolecules. However, despite its potential, there are few studies reporting the expression of heterologous proteins using this yeast. Here, we report expression of a dengue virus protein in K. marxianus for the first time. The dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) was integrated into the K. marxianus UFV-3 genome at the LAC4 locus using an adapted integrative vector designed for high-level expression of recombinant protein in Kluyveromyces lactis. The NS1 gene sequence was codon-optimized to increase the level of protein expression in yeast. The synthetic gene was cloned in frame with K. lactis α-mating factor signal peptide, and the recombinant plasmid obtained was used to transform K. marxianus UFV-3 by electroporation. The transformed cells, selected in yeast extract peptone dextrose containing 200 μg mL(-1) Geneticin, were mitotically stable. Analysis of recombinant strains by RT-PCR and protein detection using blot analysis confirmed both transcription and expression of extracellular NS1 polypeptide. After induction with galactose, the NS1 protein was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and immunogenic detection. Protein production was investigated under two conditions: with galactose and biotin pulses at 24-h intervals during 96 h of induction and without galactose and biotin supplementation. Protease activity was not detected in post-growth medium. Our results indicate that recombinant K. marxianus is a good host for the production of dengue virus NS1 protein, which has potential for diagnostic applications.

  5. Determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsamba, P; de Beer, T A P; Chitray, M; Scott, K; Vosloo, W; Maree, F F

    2015-05-15

    The non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are responsible for RNA replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. Investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine FMDV isolates of SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, A and O serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. The Leader protease (L(pro)) and 3A proteins were the most variable whilst the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) the most conserved. Phylogeny based on the non-structural protein-coding regions showed separate clusters for southern African viruses for both the L(pro) and 3C protease (3C(pro)) and sequences unique to this group of viruses, e.g. in the 2C and 3C(pro) proteins. These groupings were unlike serotype groupings based on structural protein-coding regions. The amino acid substitutions and the nature of the naturally occurring substitutions provide insight into the functional domains and regions of the non-structural proteins that are critical for structure-function. The L(pro) of southern African SAT type isolates differed from A, O and SAT isolates in northern Africa, particularly in the auto-processing region. Three-dimensional structures of the 3C protease (3C(pro)) and 3D(pol) showed that the observed variation does not affect the enzymatic active sites or substrate binding sites. Variation in the 3C(pro) cleavage sites demonstrates broad substrate specificity.

  6. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Non-structural Protein 3AB of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lin; Junjun Shao; Huiyun Chang; Shandian Gao; Guozheng Cong; Junzheng Du

    2012-01-01

    To identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3AB of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV),BABL/c mice were immunized with the 3AB protein and splenocytes of BALB/c mice were fused with myeloma Sp2/0 cells.Two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cell lines against the 3AB protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were obtained,named C6 and E7 respectively.The microneutralization titer was 1∶1024 for mAb C6,and 1∶512 for E7.Both mAbs contain kappa light chains,and were of subclass IgG2b.In order to define the mAbs binding epitopes,the reactivity of these mAbs against FMDV were examined by indirect ELISA.The results showed that both mAbs can react with FMDV,but had no cross-reactivity with Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) antigens.The titers in abdomen liquor were 1∶5×106 for C6 and 1∶2×106 for E7.In conclusion,the mAbs obtained from this study are specific for the detection of FMDV,can be used for etiological and immunological researches on FMDV,and have potential use in diagnosis and future vaccine designs.

  7. The Influenza A Virus Non-structural Protein NS1 Upregulates The Expression of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Peng, G; Yi, W; Song, H; Liu, F; Liu, X

    2016-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection induces a strong immune response and regulates the expression of many host proteins. The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) protein is a secreted protein that exhibits increased expression during the viral infection process. However, the regulatory function of IAV on CTHRC1 expression is obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of IAV on CTHRC1 expression and its regulatory mechanism. A total of 106 serum specimens from healthy people and 80 serum specimens from patients infected with IAV were collected. The CTHRC1 levels in the sera from the IVA patients and healthy individuals were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the differences were statistically analysed. A549 cells were infected with the IAV or delNS1 virus. Additionally, A549 cells were cotransfected with a eukaryotic non-structural NS1 protein gene expression plasmid and the CTHRC1 gene promoter reporter plasmid (pCTHRC1-Luc), and, the luciferase activities were assessed. The CTHRC1 mRNA and protein expression were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The serum CTHRC1 level was significantly higher in the IAV patients than in the healthy individuals. IAV upregulated the CTHRC1 mRNA and protein expression. The non-structural NS1 protein specifically activated CTHRC1 gene promoter activity and upregulated CTHRC1 mRNA and protein expression. The activation function had a dose-dependent effect, indicating that influenza virus upregulated CTHRC1 expression through its NS1 protein.

  8. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3: different antigenic determinants from human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, P; Chiang, B L; Hwang, L H; Chen, Y G; Yang, P M; Chi, W K; Chen, P J; Chen, D S

    1999-04-01

    The nonstructural (NS3) region protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses major B-cell epitopes that induce antibodies after infection. To elucidate further the characteristics of these B cells and their role in the immune regulation of HCV infection, T9 (portion of NS3 region, amino acids [a.a.] 1188-1493)-specific monoclonal antibodies were derived and mapped for B-cell antigenic determinants with recombinant proteins. A total of 10 T9-specific hybridomas were generated and tested for B-cell antigenic determinants. To analyze the B-cell antigenic determinants, eight recombinant proteins including NS3-e (a.a. 1175-1334), NS3-a' (a.a. 1175-1250), NS3-a (a.a. 1251-1334), NS3-b (a.a. 1323-1412), NS3-c (a.a. 1407-1499), NS3-a/b (a.a. 1251-1412), NS3-bc (a.a. 1323-1499), and NS3-abc (a.a. 1251-1499) encoded by NS3-region internal clones were expressed and tested for immunoblotting. The data suggested IgG hybridomas recognized NS3-a, NS3-a', or NS3-b protein by immunoblotting. By contrast, the NS3-e protein bears the major antigenic determinant recognized by human sera. Half of the hybridomas were found to react with protein NS3-a', which is not a major B-cell antigenic determinant in humans. These data suggested that conformational epitopes in vivo may be important for B-cell recognition.

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1beta modulates host innate immune response by antagonizing IRF3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Lalit K; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Kwon, Byungjoon; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Jones, Clinton; Pattnaik, Asit K; Osorio, Fernando A

    2010-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine leads to a serious disease characterized by a delayed and defective adaptive immune response. It is hypothesized that a suboptimal innate immune response is responsible for the disease pathogenesis. In the study presented here we tested this hypothesis and identified several nonstructural proteins (NSPs) with innate immune evasion properties encoded by the PRRS viral genome. Four of the total ten PRRSV NSPs tested were found to have strong to moderate inhibitory effects on beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter activation. The strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited by NSP1 followed by, NSP2, NSP11, and NSP4. We focused on NSP1alpha and NSP1beta (self-cleavage products of NSP1 during virus infection) and NSP11, three NSPs with strong inhibitory activity. All of three proteins, when expressed stably in cell lines, strongly inhibited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) signaling pathways. NSP1beta was found to inhibit both IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction by dsRNA and Sendai virus. Mechanistically, the dsRNA-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were strongly inhibited by NSP1beta. Moreover, when tested in a porcine myelomonocytic cell line, NSP1beta inhibited Sendai virus-mediated activation of porcine IFN-beta promoter activity. We propose that this NSP1beta-mediated subversion of the host innate immune response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis.

  10. Construction of infectious cDNA clones of PRRSV: Separation of coding regions for nonstructural and structural proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of the ongoing "porcine high fever syndrome" in China, is capable of genetic and antigenic mutations at high fre- quency. How to design vaccine rationally to keep up with the ever-changing prevalent PRRSV variant is of great interest. We developed an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated strain of Type II PRRSV, and further manipulated the infectious cDNA clone by inserting polylinker between ORF1 and ORF2, en- coding for nonstructural- or structural-protein, respectively. The cDNA was generated from the cell-attenuated virus strain, APRRS, via RT-PCR, and followed by nucleotide sequencing and molecular cloning. The full-length of the APRRS genomic RNA was determined as 15521 nucleotides in length excluding poly(A) tail, which has a 99.7% nucleotide identity with that of PRRSV Nsp strain, also a vac- cine strain. Based on the nucleotide sequencing results, the full-length cDNA clone was assembled in pBlueScript vector, under the control of T7 promoter at the immediate 5′ terminus of genome. To dis- cern the rescued viruses from that of parental virus, a Mlu I restriction site was engineered into ORF5 coding region. Upon transfection of the in vitro transcripts of both the original and Mlu I-tagged cDNAs into MA-104 cells, typical PRRSV cytopathic effects were observed. The rescued viruses from the full-length cDNA clones displayed the same virological and molecular properties. Subsequently, PCR-based mutagenesis was conducted to separate the coding regions between PRRSV nonstructural genes, ORF1, and structural proteins, ORF2-ORF7. The synthetic RNA of such mutant clone, pCSA, was infectious and the rescued virus shared similar properties with that of the parental virus. This study provided a valuable tool for development of chimeric PRRSV as vaccine candidate offering cross-protection to various genetically diversified PRRSV strains, and a platform for further develop- ment of

  11. Construction of infectious cDNA clones of PRRSV:Separation of coding regions for nonstructural and structural proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN ShiShan; WEI ZuZhang

    2008-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of the ongoing"porcine high fever syndrome" in China, is capable of genetic and antigenic mutations at high frequency. How to design vaccine rationally to keep up with the ever-changing prevalent PRRSV variant is of great Interest. We developed an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated strain of Type Ⅱ PRRSV, and further manipulated the infectious cDNA clone by inserting polylinker between ORF1 and ORF2, encoding for nonstructural- or structural-protein, respectively. The cDNA was generated from the cell-attenuated virus strain, APRRS, via RT-PCR, and followed by nucleotide sequencing and molecular cloning. The full-length of the APRRS genomic RNA was determined as 15521 nucleotides in length excluding poly(A) tail, which has a 99.7% nucleotide identity with that of PRRSV Nsp strain, also a vaccine strain. Based on the nucleotide sequencing results, the full-length cDNA clone was assembled in pBlueScript vector, under the control of T7 promoter at the immediate 5' terminus of genome. To discern the rescued viruses from that of parental virus, a Mlu I restriction site was engineered into ORF5 coding region. Upon trensfection of the in vitro transcripts of both the original and MIu I-tagged cDNAs into MA-104 cells, typical PRRSV cytopathic effects were observed. The rescued viruses from the full-length cDNA clones displayed the same virological and molecular properties. Subsequently,PCR-based mutagenesis was conducted to separate the coding regions between PRRSV nonstructural genes, ORF1, and structural proteins, ORF2-ORF7. The synthetic RNA of such mutant clone, pCSA,was infectious and the rescued virus shared similar properties with that of the parental virus. This study provided a valuable tool for development of chimeric PRRSV as vaccine candidate offering crose-protection to various genetically diversified PRRSV strains, and a platform for further development of PRRSV as a gene

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nucleic acid-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Buchmeier, Michael J; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand beta-sheet holding two alpha-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the beta-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand beta-sheets and two 3(10)-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold.

  13. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim A.; Tuplin, Andrew; Gritsun, Dmitri J.; Slovak, Mirko; Kazimirova, Maria; Lickova, Martina; Havlikova, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Gould, Ernest A.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras. PMID:27341437

  14. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.

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    Maxim A Khasnatinov

    Full Text Available Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS, Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

  15. Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fros, Jelke J; Liu, Wen Jun; Prow, Natalie A; Geertsema, Corinne; Ligtenberg, Maarten; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Schnettler, Esther; Vlak, Just M; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2010-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. Like that of other alphaviruses, CHIKV replication causes general host shutoff, leading to severe cytopathicity in mammalian cells, and inhibits the ability of infected cells to respond to interferon (IFN). Recent research, however, suggests that alphaviruses may have additional mechanisms to circumvent the host's antiviral IFN response. Here we show that CHIKV replication is resistant to inhibition by interferon once RNA replication has been established and that CHIKV actively suppresses the antiviral IFN response by preventing IFN-induced gene expression. Both CHIKV infection and CHIKV replicon RNA replication efficiently blocked STAT1 phosphorylation and/or nuclear translocation in mammalian cells induced by either type I or type II IFN. Expression of individual CHIKV nonstructural proteins (nsPs) showed that nsP2 was a potent inhibitor of IFN-induced JAK-STAT signaling. In addition, mutations in CHIKV-nsP2 (P718S) and Sindbis virus (SINV)-nsP2 (P726S) that render alphavirus replicons noncytopathic significantly reduced JAK-STAT inhibition. This host shutoff-independent inhibition of IFN signaling by CHIKV is likely to have an important role in viral pathogenesis.

  16. Non-Structural protein 1 (NS1) gene of Canine Parvovirus-2 regresses chemically induced skin tumors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Lakshman; Rajmani, R S; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi; Saxena, Shikha; Dhara, Sujoy K; Kumar, Amit; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Desai, G S; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Kumar, Sudesh; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    The Non-Structural protein 1 of Canine Parvovirus-2 (CPV2.NS1) plays a major role in viral cytotoxicity and pathogenicity. CPV2.NS1 has been proven to cause apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro in our laboratory. Here we report that CPV2.NS1 has no toxic side effects on healthy cells but regresses skin tumors in Wistar rats. Histopathological examination of tumor tissue from CPV2.NS1 treated group revealed infiltration of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells with increased extra cellular matrix, indicating signs of regression. Tumor regression was also evidenced by significant decrease in mitotic index, AgNOR count and PCNA index, and increase in TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in CPV2.NS1 treated group. Further, CPV2.NS1 induced anti-tumor immune response through significant increase in CD8(+) and NK cell population in CPV2.NS1 treated group. These findings suggest that CPV2.NS1 can be a possible therapeutic candidate as an alternative to chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

  17. Coronavirus non-structural protein 1 is a major pathogenicity factor: implications for the rational design of coronavirus vaccines.

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    Roland Züst

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated viral vaccines can be generated by targeting essential pathogenicity factors. We report here the rational design of an attenuated recombinant coronavirus vaccine based on a deletion in the coding sequence of the non-structural protein 1 (nsp1. In cell culture, nsp1 of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV, like its SARS-coronavirus homolog, strongly reduced cellular gene expression. The effect of nsp1 on MHV replication in vitro and in vivo was analyzed using a recombinant MHV encoding a deletion in the nsp1-coding sequence. The recombinant MHV nsp1 mutant grew normally in tissue culture, but was severely attenuated in vivo. Replication and spread of the nsp1 mutant virus was restored almost to wild-type levels in type I interferon (IFN receptor-deficient mice, indicating that nsp1 interferes efficiently with the type I IFN system. Importantly, replication of nsp1 mutant virus in professional antigen-presenting cells such as conventional dendritic cells and macrophages, and induction of type I IFN in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was not impaired. Furthermore, even low doses of nsp1 mutant MHV elicited potent cytotoxic T cell responses and protected mice against homologous and heterologous virus challenge. Taken together, the presented attenuation strategy provides a paradigm for the development of highly efficient coronavirus vaccines.

  18. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

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    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  19. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

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    Hongjie Xia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71, which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16, another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings

  20. Prokaryotical expression of structural and non-structural proteins of hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Shao Xia; Hai-Jie Yang; Jun Zhang; Chang-Qing Lin; Ying-Bin Wang; Juan Wang; Mei-YunZhan; MH Ng

    2001-01-01

    AIM To study the epitope distribution of hepatitis G virus (HGV) and to seek for the potential recombinant antigens for the development of HGV diagnositic reagents.METHODS Fourteen clones encompassing HGV gene fragments from core to NS3 and NS5 were constructed using prokaryotic expression vector pRSET and (or)pGEX. and expressed in E. coli. Western blotting and ELISA were used to detect the immunoreactivity of these recombinant proteins.``RESULTS One clone with HGV fragment from core to El(Gl). one from E2 (G31), three from NS3 (G6, G61, G7),one from NS5B (G821) and one chimeric fragment from NS3and NS5B (G61 821) could be expressed well and showed obvious immunoreactivity by Western blotting.One clone with I-KGV framment from NS5B (G82) was also well expressed, but could not show immunoreactivity by Western blotting. No obvious expression was found in the other six clones. All the expressed recombinant proteins were in inclusion body form, except the protein G61 which could be expressed in soluble form. Further purified recombinant proteins Gl, G,31, G61, G821 and G61 821were detected in indirected ELISA as coating antigen respectively. Only recombinant Gl could still show immunoreactivity, and the other four recombinant proteins failed to react to the HGV antibody positive sera.Western blotting results indicated that the immunoactivity of these four recombinant proteins were lost during purification.``CONCLUSION Core to El, E2. NS3 and NS5 fragment of HGV contain antigenic epitopes, which could be produced in prokaryotically expressed recombinant proteins. A high. yield recombinant protein (Gl) located in HGV core to E1 could remain its epitope after purification, which showed the potential that G1 could be used as a coating antigen to develop an ELISA kit for HGV specific antibody diagnosis.``

  1. Expression of non-structural protein NS3 gene of Bombyx mori densovirus (China isolate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Qin Yao; Zhongjian Guo; Fang Bao; Wei Yu; Jun Li; Keping Chen

    2008-01-01

    The invertebrate parvovirus Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus type 3 (China isolate),named BmDNV-3,is a kind of bidensovirus.It is a new type of virus with unique replication mechanisms.To investigate the effects of the NS3 gene during viral DNA replication,a pair of primers was designed for amplifying NS3 gene of Bombyx mori densovirus (China isolate).Gene NS3 amplified was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a and the donor plasmid pFastBacHTe,respectively.The NS3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21.The pFastBacHTe-NS3 was transformed to E.coli DH10Bac.The recombinant bacmid baculoviruses (rBacmid-EGFP-NS3)isolated from the white colonies were transfected into BraN-4 cells using a transfection reagent.BmN-4 cells were infected with recom-binant virus to express fusion proteins.The expression of fusion protein around 30 kDa in E.coli BL21 was identified by SDS-PAGE,Western blotting,and mass spectrometry.The expressed NS3 protein by B.mor/nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid system was confirmed byWestern blotting using an anti-NS3 polyclonal antibody.And about 45 kDa protein was found.The expressed fusion protein was smalleithan the expected size of EGFP-NS3,55 kDa.Western blotting analysis indicated that EGFP-NS3 protein was expressed in infected lar-vae with smaller molecular size.

  2. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-1 Localizes Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein to Lipid Droplets and Enhances NS5A Interaction with the Viral Capsid Core*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Gregory; Herker, Eva; Modi, Ankit A.; Haas, Joel T.; Ramage, Holly R.; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs). Here we find a new interaction between the non-structural protein NS5A and DGAT1 and show that the trafficking of NS5A to LDs depends on DGAT1 activity. DGAT1 forms a complex with NS5A and core and facilitates the interaction between both viral proteins. A catalytically inactive mutant of DGAT1 (H426A) blocks the localization of NS5A, but not core, to LDs in a dominant-negative manner and impairs the release of infectious viral particles, underscoring the importance of DGAT1-mediated translocation of NS5A to LDs in viral particle production. We propose a model whereby DGAT1 serves as a cellular hub for HCV core and NS5A proteins, guiding both onto the surface of the same subset of LDs, those generated by DGAT1. These results highlight the critical role of DGAT1 as a host factor for HCV infection and as a potential drug target for antiviral therapy. PMID:23420847

  3. Complementation for an essential ancillary non-structural protein function across parvovirus genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Parvoviruses encode a small number of ancillary proteins that differ substantially between genera. Within the genus Protoparvovirus, minute virus of mice (MVM) encodes three isoforms of its ancillary protein NS2, while human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), in the genus Bocaparvovirus, encodes an NP1 protein that is unrelated in primary sequence to MVM NS2. To search for functional overlap between NS2 and NP1, we generated murine A9 cell populations that inducibly express HBoV1 NP1. These were used to test whether NP1 expression could complement specific defects resulting from depletion of MVM NS2 isoforms. NP1 induction had little impact on cell viability or cell cycle progression in uninfected cells, and was unable to complement late defects in MVM virion production associated with low NS2 levels. However, NP1 did relocate to MVM replication centers, and supports both the normal expansion of these foci and overcomes the early paralysis of DNA replication in NS2-null infections.

  4. Significance of monoclonal antibodies against the conserved epitopes within non-structural protein 3 helicase of hepatitis C virus.

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    Yixin Bian

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV, codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459. Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231PTGSGKSTK(1239 (EP05 or core motif (1373IPFYGKAI(1380 (EP21, respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.

  5. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1-Induced Antibodies Cross-React with Human Plasminogen and Enhance Its Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chun; Lin, Jessica; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Shuying; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease, and it can cause life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Abnormal activation of the coagulation and fibrinolysis system is one of the hallmarks of DHF/DSS. However, the mechanism underlying hemorrhage in DHF/DSS remains elusive. In previous studies, plasminogen (Plg) cross-reactive Abs, which can recognize DENV nonstructural protein (NS) 1, have been found in dengue patients. However, it is unclear whether these Abs are indeed induced by DENV NS1. Thus, we immunized mice with recombinant NS1 from both bacteria and drosophila to determine whether NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs. The results from the NS1-immunized mouse sera indicated that NS1 immunization induced Abs that could cross-react with Plg. To study the effects of these NS1-induced Plg cross-reactive Abs on fibrinolysis, we isolated several Plg cross-reactive anti-NS1 mAbs from these mice and found that some of them could enhance Plg activation. In addition, epitope mapping with a phage-displayed random peptide library revealed that one of these mAbs (2A5) could recognize NS1 C-terminal residues 305-311, which share sequence homology with Plg residues 590-597. A synthetic peptide of NS1 residues 305-311 could inhibit the binding of both 2A5 and its Fab to Plg and its enhanced activation. Thus, our results suggest that DENV NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs through molecular mimicry, which can enhance Plg activation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS.

  6. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

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    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  7. Lipid droplet-binding protein TIP47 regulates hepatitis C Virus RNA replication through interaction with the viral NS5A protein.

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    Dorothee A Vogt

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection. NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs. To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1-31, a well-studied α-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47 as a novel NS5A interaction partner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments in Huh7 hepatoma cells confirmed the interaction of TIP47 with full-length NS5A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of TIP47 caused a more than 10-fold decrease in the propagation of full-length infectious HCV in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. A similar reduction was observed when TIP47 was knocked down in cells harboring an autonomously replicating HCV RNA (subgenomic replicon, indicating that TIP47 is required for efficient HCV RNA replication. A single point mutation (W9A in NS5A that disrupts the interaction with TIP47 but preserves proper subcellular localization severely decreased HCV RNA replication. In biochemical membrane flotation assays, TIP47 cofractionated with HCV NS3, NS5A, NS5B proteins, and viral RNA, and together with nonstructural viral proteins was uniquely distributed to lower-density LD-rich membrane fractions in cells actively replicating HCV RNA. Collectively, our data support a model where TIP47--via its interaction with NS5A--serves as a novel cofactor for HCV infection possibly by integrating LD membranes into the membranous web.

  8. Induction of Apoptosis by the Nonstructural Protein 4 and 10 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

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    Shuaizhen Yuan

    Full Text Available Infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis in host cells, and viruses manipulate this cell response to promote viral replication, virus spread, and cell killing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV has been shown to induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, while the regulatory roles of PRRSV-encoded products in apoptosis are not fully understood. In the present study, we first showed a biphasic apoptosis regulation by a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06. It was indicated that PRRSV infection delays apoptosis at early infection but activates apoptosis at late infection in MARC-145 cells. In PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were activated at late infection, demonstrating the involvements of death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway in inducing apoptosis. PRRSV was also shown to induce a similar apoptosis process in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs with an early initiation. Next, the PRRSV-encoded apoptosis inducers were screened, indicating that the nonstructural protein (Nsp 4 and Nsp10 of PRRSV are pro-apoptotic. In the presence of Nsp4, it was confirmed that procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were cleaved, and Nsp4 facilitates the cleavage of procaspase-9 by activating B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein. In addition, Nsp4 was shown to induce the degradation of an anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL. Nsp10 was shown to activate procaspase-8 and -9 but procaspase-12 and to upregulate the expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid and its active form, truncated Bid (tBid. Clearly, the participation of both activated caspase-8 and Bid is required for Nsp10-induced apoptosis, indicating a crosstalk between extrinsic- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Together, our findings suggest that PRRSV infection regulates apoptosis in a two

  9. Unique nonstructural proteins of Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) promote degradation of interferon (IFN) pathway components and IFN-stimulated gene proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Barik, Sailen

    2016-12-01

    Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) is the only virus that shares the Pneumovirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). A deadly mouse pathogen, PVM has the potential to serve as a robust animal model of RSV infection, since human RSV does not fully replicate the human pathology in mice. Like RSV, PVM also encodes two nonstructural proteins that have been implicated to suppress the IFN pathway, but surprisingly, they exhibit no sequence similarity with their RSV equivalents. The molecular mechanism of PVM NS function, therefore, remains unknown. Here, we show that recombinant PVM NS proteins degrade the mouse counterparts of the IFN pathway components. Proteasomal degradation appears to be mediated by ubiquitination promoted by PVM NS proteins. Interestingly, NS proteins of PVM lowered the levels of several ISG (IFN-stimulated gene) proteins as well. These results provide a molecular foundation for the mechanisms by which PVM efficiently subverts the IFN response of the murine cell. They also reveal that in spite of their high sequence dissimilarity, the two pneumoviral NS proteins are functionally and mechanistically similar.

  10. Screening of Proteins Interacting with Nonstructural 1 Protein of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus from T7-phage Display Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chun-yu; WU Jian-guo; LIU Hong-sheng; SUN Ting-ting; ZHAO Jian; WANG Ning; ZHENG Fang-liang; AI Hai-xin; ZHU Jun-feng; WANG Xiao-ying; ZHU Ying

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus(AIV) nonstructural 1(NS1) gene was amplified by real-time polymerse chain reaction(RT-PCR) and inserted into pET28a,then transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) competent cell.With the induction of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside(IPTG) and the purification of Ni-NTA column,we finally obtained purified NS1 protein.T7-phage display system was used to screen the proteins that interacted with NS1 from lung cell cDNA library.The selected positive clones were identified by DNA sequencing and analyzed by BLAST program in GeneBank.Two proteins were obtained as NS 1 binding proteins,Homo sapiens nucleolar and coiled-body phosphoprotein 1(NOLC1) and Homo sapiens similar to colon cancer-associated antigen.By co-immunoprecipitation and other methods,Homo sapiens NOLC1 was found to interact with the NS1 protein,the results would provide the basis for further studying biological function of NS1 protein.

  11. In silico mutation analysis of non-structural protein-5 (NS5) dengue virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, R. D.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is a world disease. It is endemic in more than 100 countries. Information about the effect of mutations in the virus is important in drug design and development. In this research, we studied the effect of mutation on NS5 dengue virus. NS5 is the large protein containing 67% amino acid similarity in DENV 1-4 and has multifunctional enzymatic activities. Dengue virus is an RNA virus that has very high mutation frequency with an average of 100 times higher than DNA mutations, and the accumulation of mutations will be possible to generate the new serotype. In this study, we report that mutation occurs in NS5 of DENV serotype 3, glutamine mutates into methionine at position 10 and threonine mutates into isoleucine at position 55. These residues are part of the domain named S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine-Dependent Methyltransferase (IPR029063).

  12. Resistance to cyclosporin A derives from mutations in hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masaaki; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Takagi, Asako; Tobita, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kazuaki; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-05-23

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug that targets cyclophilins, cellular cofactors that regulate the immune system. Replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is suppressed by CsA, but the molecular basis of this suppression is still not fully understood. To investigate this suppression, we cultured HCV replicon cells (Con1, HCV genotype 1b, FLR-N cell) in the presence of CsA and obtained nine CsA-resistant FLR-N cell lines. We determined full-length HCV sequences for all nine clones, and chose two (clones #6 and #7) of the nine clones that have high replication activity in the presence of CsA for further analysis. Both clones showed two consensus mutations, one in NS3 (T1280V) and the other in NS5A (D2292E). Characterization of various mutants indicated that the D2292E mutation conferred resistance to high concentrations of CsA (up to 2 μM). In addition, the missense mutation T1280V contributed to the recovery of colony formation activity. The effects of these mutations are also evident in two established HCV replicon cell lines-HCV-RMT ([1], genotype 1a) and JFH1 (genotype 2a). Moreover, three other missense mutations in NS5A-D2303H, S2362G, and E2414K-enhanced the resistance to CsA conferred by D2292E; these double or all quadruple mutants could resist approximately 8- to 25-fold higher concentrations of CsA than could wild-type Con1. These four mutations, either as single or combinations, also made Con1 strain resistant to two other cyclophilin inhibitors, N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin (NIM811) or Debio-025. Interestingly, the changes in IC50 values that resulted from each of these mutations were the lowest in the Debio-025-treated cells, indicating its highest resistant activity against the adaptive mutation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of chikungunya virus proteins reveals that non-structural proteins nsP2 and nsP3 exhibit RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Kalika; Anand, Abhishek; Dubey, Sunil Kumar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-30

    RNAi pathway is an antiviral defence mechanism employed by insects that result in degradation of viral RNA thereby curbing infection. Several viruses including flaviviruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract the antiviral RNAi pathway. Till date, no VSR has been reported in alphaviruses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chikungunya virus (CHIKV) proteins for RNAi suppressor activity. We systematically analyzed all nine CHIKV proteins for RNAi suppressor activity using Sf21 RNAi sensor cell line based assay. Two non-structural proteins, namely, nsP2 and nsP3 were found to exhibit RNAi suppressor activity. We further validated the findings in natural hosts, namely in Aedes and in mammalian cell lines and further through EMSA and Agrobacterium infiltration in GFP silenced transgenic tobacco plants. Domains responsible for maximum RNAi suppressor activity were also identified within these proteins. RNA binding motifs in these domains were identified and their participation in RNAi suppression evaluated using site directed mutagenesis. Sequence alignment of these motifs across all species of known alphaviruses revealed conservation of these motifs emphasizing on a similar role of action in other species of alphaviruses as well. Further validation of RNAi suppressor activity of these proteins awaits establishment of specific virus infection models.

  14. Structural features of Zika virus non-structural proteins 3 and -5 and its individual domains in solution as well as insights into NS3 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Wuan Geok; Pan, Ankita; Subramanian Manimekalai, Malathy Sony; Grüber, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a pathogen of major health concern. The virus relies on its non-structural protein 5 (NS5) including a methyl-transferase (MTase) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for capping and synthesis of the viral RNA and the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) with its protease and helicase domain for polyprotein possessing, unwinding dsRNA proceeding replication, and NTPase/RTPase activities. In this study we present for the first time insights into the overall structure of the entire French Polynesia ZIKV NS3 in solution. The protein is elongated and flexible in solution. Solution studies of the individual protease- and helicase domains show the compactness of the two monomeric enzymes as well as the contribution of the 10-residues linker region to the flexibility of the entire NS3. We show also the solution X-ray scattering data of the French Polynesia ZIKV NS5, which is dimeric in solution and switches to oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. The solution shapes of the MTase and RdRp domains are described. The dimer arrangement of ZIKV NS5 is discussed in terms of its importance for MTase-RdRp communication and concerted interaction with its flexible and monomeric counterpart NS3 during viral replication and capping. The comparison of ZIKV NS3 and -NS5 solution data with the related DENV nonstructural proteins shed light into the similarities and diversities of these classes of enzymes. Finally, the effect of ATPase inhibitors to the enzymatic active ZIKV NS3 and the individual helicase are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of protective efficacy using a nonstructural protein NS1 in DNA vaccine–loaded microspheres against dengue 2 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang SS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shih-shiung Huang,1 I-Hsun Li,2,3 Po-da Hong,1 Ming-kung Yeh1,2 1Biomedical Engineering Program, Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan; 2School of Pharmacy, National Defence Medical Center and Bureau of Pharmaceutical Affairs, Military of National Defence Medical Affairs Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Dengue virus results in dengue fever or severe dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome in humans. The purpose of this work was to develop an effective antidengue virus delivery system, by designing poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid/polyethylene glycol (PLGA/PEG microspheres using a double-emulsion solvent extraction method, for vaccination therapy based on locally and continuously sustained biological activity. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccine–loaded PLGA/PEG microspheres exhibited a high loading capacity (4.5% w/w, yield (85.2%, and entrapment efficiency (39%, the mean particle size 4.8 µm, and a controlled in vitro release profile with a low initial burst (18.5%, lag time (4 days, and continued released protein over 70 days. The distribution of protein on the microspheres surface, outer layer, and core were 3.0%, 28.5%, and 60.7%, respectively. A release rate was noticed to be 1.07 µg protein/mg microspheres/day of protein release, maintained for 42 days. The cumulative release amount at Days 1, 28, and 42 was 18.5, 53.7, and 62.66 µg protein/mg microspheres, respectively. The dengue virus challenge in mice test, in which mice received one dose of 20 µg NS1 protein content of microspheres, in comparison with NS1 protein in Al(OH3 or PBS solution, was evaluated after intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice. The study results show that the greatest survival was

  16. Searching for cellular partners of hantaviral nonstructural protein NSs: Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library and analysis of cellular interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Rönnberg

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs. The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

  17. Searching for cellular partners of hantaviral nonstructural protein NSs: Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library and analysis of cellular interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Tuomas; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi; Blot, Guillaume; Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

  18. Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 requires a mimic of an endoplasmic reticulum export signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    Full Text Available Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence and function. However, unlike normal ER export signals, the ER export signal mimic of p22 is necessary for apparent inhibition of normal COPII vesicle trafficking, which leads to Golgi disassembly and antagonism of Golgi-dependent cellular protein secretion. This is the first reported function for p22. Disassembly of the Golgi apparatus was also observed in cells replicating Norwalk virus, which may contribute to pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes that are dependent on an intact secretory pathway. These results indicate that the ER export signal mimic is critical to the antagonistic function of p22, shown herein to be a novel antagonist of ER/Golgi trafficking. This unique and well-conserved human norovirus motif is therefore an appealing target for antiviral drug development.

  19. Non-structural proteins P17 and P33 are involved in the assembly of the internal membrane-containing virus PRD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, Jenni; Mäntynen, Sari [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Ihalainen, Teemu O. [Stem Cells in Neurological Applications Group, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Bamford, Jaana K.H. [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Oksanen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.oksanen@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Biocenter 2, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5), FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    Bacteriophage PRD1, which has been studied intensively at the structural and functional levels, still has some gene products with unknown functions and certain aspects of the PRD1 assembly process have remained unsolved. In this study, we demonstrate that the phage-encoded non-structural proteins P17 and P33, either individually or together, complement the defect in a temperature-sensitive GroES mutant of Escherichia coli for host growth and PRD1 propagation. Confocal microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins revealed co-localisation between P33 and P17 as well as between P33 and the host chaperonin GroEL. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay demonstrated that the diffusion of the P33 fluorescent fusion protein was substantially slower in E. coli than theoretically calculated, presumably resulting from intermolecular interactions. Our results indicate that P33 and P17 function in procapsid assembly, possibly in association with the host chaperonin complex GroEL/GroES. - Highlights: • Two non-structural proteins of PRD1 are involved in the virus assembly. • P17 and P33 complement the defect in GroES of Escherichia coli. • P33 co-localises with GroEL and P17 in the bacterium. • Slow motion of P33 in the bacterium suggests association with cellular components.

  20. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Major, L.D.; Scholte, F.E.; Gardner, J.; Hemert, van M.J.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1a become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2a leading to a general inh

  1. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Major, L.D.; Scholte, F.E.; Gardner, J.; Hemert, van M.J.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1a become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2a leading to a general inh

  2. Recombinant production of the amino terminal cytoplasmic region of dengue virus non-structural protein 4A for structural studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fu Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-transmitted positive single strand RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. DENV causes dengue fever, currently the world's fastest-spreading tropical disease. Severe forms of the disease like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are life-threatening. There is no specific treatment and no anti-DENV vaccines. Our recent data suggests that the amino terminal cytoplasmic region of the dengue virus non-structural protein 4A (NS4A comprising amino acid residues 1 to 48 forms an amphipathic helix in the presence of membranes. Its amphipathic character was shown to be essential for viral replication. NMR-based structure-function analysis of the NS4A amino terminal region depends on its milligram-scale production and labeling with NMR active isotopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report describes the optimization of a uniform procedure for the expression and purification of the wild type NS4A(1-48 peptide and a peptide derived from a replication-deficient mutant NS4A(1-48; L6E, M10E with disrupted amphipathic nature. A codon-optimized, synthetic gene for NS4A(1-48 was expressed as a fusion with a GST-GB1 dual tag in E. coli. Tobacco etch virus (TEV protease mediated cleavage generated NS4A(1-48 peptides without any artificial overhang. Using the described protocol up to 4 milligrams of the wild type or up to 5 milligrams of the mutant peptide were obtained from a one-liter culture. Isotopic labeling of the peptides was achieved and initial NMR spectra were recorded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Small molecules targeting amphipathic helices in the related Hepatitis C virus were shown to inhibit viral replication, representing a new class of antiviral drugs. These findings highlight the need for an efficient procedure that provides large quantities of the amphipathic helix containing NS4A peptides. The double tag strategy presented in this manuscript answers these needs yielding

  3. Biogenesis of non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) and nsp1-mediated type I interferon modulation in arteriviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mingyuan; Kim, Chi Yong [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Rowland, Raymond R.R.; Fang, Ying [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Daewoo [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) play a key role for the antiviral state of host, and the porcine arterivirus; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), has been shown to down-regulate the production of IFNs during infection. Non-structural protein (nsp) 1 of PRRSV has been identified as a viral IFN antagonist, and the nsp1α subunit of nsp1 has been shown to degrade the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and to inhibit the formation of enhanceosome thus resulting in the suppression of IFN production. The study was expanded to other member viruses in the family Arteriviridae: equine arteritis virus (EAV), murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). While PRRSV–nsp1 and LDV–nsp1 were auto-cleaved to produce the nsp1α and nsp1β subunits, EAV–nsp1 remained uncleaved. SHFV–nsp1 was initially predicted to be cleaved to generate three subunits (nsp1α, nsp1β, and nsp1γ), but only two subunits were generated as SHFV–nsp1αβ and SHFV–nsp1γ. The papain-like cysteine protease (PLP) 1α motif in nsp1α remained inactive for SHFV, and only the PLP1β motif of nsp1β was functional to generate SHFV–nsp1γ subunit. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 were localized in the both nucleus and cytoplasm, but PRRSV–nsp1β, LDV–nsp1β, EAV–nsp1, and SHFV–nsp1γ were predominantly found in the nucleus. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 contained the IFN suppressive activity and inhibited both interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB mediated IFN promoter activities. Similar to PRRSV–nsp1α, CBP degradation was evident in cells expressing LDV–nsp1α and SHFV–nsp1γ, but no such degradation was observed for EAV–nsp1. Regardless of CBP degradation, all subunits of arterivirus nsp1 suppressed the IFN-sensitive response element (ISRE)-promoter activities. Our data show that the nsp1-mediated IFN modulation is a common strategy for all arteriviruses but their mechanism of action may differ

  4. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P < 0·05). The adoption of this positive-negative threshold value for this i-ELISA assay resulted in specificity of 98·0%. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Further evaluation of an ELISA kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Tatsuya; Morioka, Kazuki; Yamada, Manabu; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kitano, Rie; Yamazoe, Reiko; Kanno, Toru

    2016-03-01

    An ELISA kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV) was further evaluated using sequentially collected serum samples of experimentally infected animals, because the sensitivity of the kit used in a previous study was significantly low in field animals. The kit fully detected antibodies in infected animals without vaccination; however, the first detections of antibodies by the kit were later than those by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA that is used for serological surveillance in the aftermath of outbreaks in Japan, for detection of antibodies to structural proteins of FMDV. Additionally, although the kit effectively detected antibodies in infected cattle with vaccination, there were several infected pigs with vaccination for which the kit did not detect antibodies during the experimental period. Taken together, the kit may not be suitable for serological surveillance after an FMD outbreak either with or without emergency vaccination in FMD-free countries.

  6. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Biffar, Lucia; Hammer, Sabine E.; Kvisgaard, Lise K.; Larsen, Lars E.; Stewart, Graham R.; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Steinbach, Falko; Graham, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress toward market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralizing antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell-mediated immunity plays a key role. Therefore, we hypothesized that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely related (subtype 1) or divergent (subtype 3) PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5), and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M) protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by coexpression of TNF-α and mobilization of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved among strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus, M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens, which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development. PMID:26909080

  7. The non-structural protein 5 and matrix protein are antigenic targets of T cell immunity to genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eMokhtar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focussed on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralising antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress towards market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell mediated immunity plays a key role. We therefore hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely-related (subtype 1 or divergent (subtype 3 PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5, and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by co-expression of TNF-α and mobilisation of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved amongst strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development.

  8. Hepatitis C virus NS5A and core proteins induce oxidative stress-mediated calcium signalling alterations in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Natalia; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Majano, Pedro L; Benedicto, Ignacio; Rosado, Juan A; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2009-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural core and non-structural NS5A proteins induce in liver cells a series of intracellular events, including elevation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Since oxidative stress is associated to altered intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, we aimed to investigate the effect of these proteins on Ca(2+) mobilization in human hepatocyte-derived transfected cells, and the protective effect of quercetin treatment. Ca(2+) mobilization and actin reorganization were determined by spectrofluorimetry. Production of ROS/RNS was determined by flow cytometry. Cells transfected with NS5A and core proteins showed enhanced ROS/RNS production and resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and reduced Ca(2+) concentration into the stores. Phenylephrine-evoked Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+) entry and extrusion by the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly reduced in transfected cells. Similar effects were observed in cytokine-activated cells. Phenylephrine-evoked actin reorganization was reduced in the presence of core and NS5A proteins. These effects were significantly prevented by quercetin. Altered Ca(2+) mobilization and increased calpain activation were observed in replicon-containing cells. NS5A and core proteins induce oxidative stress-mediated Ca(2+) homeostasis alterations in human hepatocyte-derived cells, which might underlie the effects of both proteins in the pathogenesis of liver disorders associated to HCV infection.

  9. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paton, D.J.; de Clercq, K.; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding...... herds, reducing the need for large-scale pre-emptive culling of at-risk animals. Since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with FMDV following challenge exposure, it is necessary to either remove all vaccinates (vaccinate-to-kill) or to detect and remove vaccinates in which virus...... is circulating or has established persistent infections (vaccinate-to-live), in order to rapidly regain the most favoured trading status of FMD-free without vaccination. The latter approach can be supported by testing vaccinated animals for the presence of antibodies to certain non-structural proteins (NSP...

  10. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  11. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David J; de Clercq, Kris; Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo; Brocchi, Emiliana; Bergmann, Ingrid; Sammin, Donal J; Gubbins, Simon; Parida, Satya

    2006-10-30

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding herds, reducing the need for large-scale preemptive culling of at-risk animals. Since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with FMDV following challenge exposure, it is necessary to either remove all vaccinates (vaccinate-to-kill) or to detect and remove vaccinates in which virus is circulating or has established persistent infections (vaccinate-to-live), in order to rapidly regain the most favoured trading status of FMD-free without vaccination. The latter approach can be supported by testing vaccinated animals for the presence of antibodies to certain non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMDV, which are induced by infection with the virus, but not by vaccination with purified FMD vaccines. Using test sensitivity and specificity data established at a recent workshop on NSP assays [Brocchi E, Bergmann I, Dekker A, Paton DJ, Sammin DJ, Greiner M, et al. Comparative performance of six ELISAs for antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease. Vaccine, in press], this paper examines the ways in which serological testing with NSP ELISAs can be used and interpreted and the effect that this will have on the confidence with which freedom from infection can be demonstrated within guidelines specified by the World Animal Health Organisation and the European Commission.

  12. Mutations in the 5' NTR and the Non-Structural Protein 3A of the Coxsackievirus B3 Selectively Attenuate Myocarditogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandirasegaran Massilamany

    Full Text Available The 5' non-translated region (NTR is an important molecular determinant that controls replication and virulence of coxsackievirus B (CVB3. Previous studies have reported many nucleotide (nt sequence differences in the Nancy strain of the virus, including changes in the 5' NTR with varying degrees of disease severity. In our studies of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we sought to generate an infectious clone of the virus for routine in vivo experimentation. By determining the viral nt sequence, we identified three new nt substitutions in the clone that differed from the parental virus strain: C97U in the 5' NTR; a silent mutation, A4327G, in non-structural protein 2C; and C5088U (resulting in P1449L amino acid change in non-structural protein 3A of the virus leading us to evaluate the role of these changes in the virulence properties of the virus. We noted that the disease-inducing ability of the infectious clone-derived virus in three mouse strains was restricted to pancreatitis alone, and the incidence and severity of myocarditis were significantly reduced. We then reversed the mutations by creating three new clones, representing 1 U97C; 2 G4327A and U5088C; and 3 their combination together in the third clone. The viral titers obtained from all the clones were comparable, but the virions derived from the third clone induced myocarditis comparable to that induced by wild type virus; however, the pancreatitis-inducing ability remained unaltered, suggesting that the mutations described above selectively influence myocarditogenicity. Because the accumulation of mutations during passages is a continuous process in RNA viruses, it is possible that CVB3 viruses containing such altered nts may evolve naturally, thus favoring their survival in the environment.

  13. Antigen production using heterologous expression of dengue virus-2 non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in Nicotiana tabacum (Havana) for immunodiagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Marilane O F; Xisto, Mariana F; Dias, Ana Carolina F; Versiani, Alice F; Cardoso, Silvia A; Otoni, Wagner C; da Silva, Cynthia C; De Paula, Sérgio O

    2015-06-01

    Expression of dengue-2 virus NS1 protein in Nicotiana tabacum plants for development of dengue immunodiagnostic kits. Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. A significant increase in its geographical distribution has been noticed over the last 20 years, with continuous transmission of several serotypes and emergence of the hemorrhagic fever in areas where the disease was previously not prevalent. Although the methodological processes for dengue diagnosis are in deep development and improvement, a limitation for the realization of dengue diagnostic tests is the difficulty of large-scale production of the antigen to be used in diagnostic tests. Due to this demand, the purpose of this study was to obtain the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from dengue-2 serotype by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum (Havana). After confirmation of the NS1 protein gene integration in the plant genome, the heterologous protein was characterized using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. In an immunoenzymatic test, the recombinant NS1 protein presents an antigen potential for development of dengue immunodiagnostic kits.

  14. A novel immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry strategy for protein-protein interaction profiling reveals that LATS kinases regulate HCV replication through NS5A phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistermann, Hélène; Gao, Junjun; Golling, Sabrina; Lamerz, Jens; Le Pogam, Sophie; Tzouros, Manuel; Sankabathula, Sailaja; Gruenbaum, Lore; Nájera, Isabel; Langen, Hanno; Klumpp, Klaus; Augustin, Angélique

    2014-11-01

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is essential to fully characterize the biological function of a protein and improve our understanding of diseases. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) using selective antibodies against a target protein has been commonly applied to study protein complexes. However, one major limitation is a lack of specificity as a substantial part of the proposed binders is due to nonspecific interactions. Here, we describe an innovative immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry (ICC-MS) method to allow systematic investigation of protein-protein interactions. ICC-MS markedly increases the specificity of classical immunoprecipitation (IP) by introducing a competition step between free and capturing antibody prior to IP. Instead of comparing only one experimental sample with a control, the methodology generates a 12-concentration antibody competition profile. Label-free quantitation followed by a robust statistical analysis of the data is then used to extract the cellular interactome of a protein of interest and to filter out background proteins. We applied this new approach to specifically map the interactome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) in a cellular HCV replication system and uncovered eight new NS5A-interacting protein candidates along with two previously validated binding partners. Follow-up biological validation experiments revealed that large tumor suppressor homolog 1 and 2 (LATS1 and LATS2, respectively), two closely related human protein kinases, are novel host kinases responsible for NS5A phosphorylation at a highly conserved position required for optimal HCV genome replication. These results are the first illustration of the value of ICC-MS for the analysis of endogenous protein complexes to identify biologically relevant protein-protein interactions with high specificity.

  15. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  16. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  17. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotmore, S.F.; McKie, V.C.; Anderson, L.J.; Astell, C.R.; Tattersall, P.

    1986-11-01

    Plasma from a child with homozygous sickle-cell disease, sampled during the early phase of an aplastic crisis, contained human parvovirus B19 virions. Plasma taken 10 days later (during the convalescent phase) contained both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against two viral polypeptides with apparent molecular weights for 83,000 and 58,000 which were present exclusively in the particulate fraction of the plasma taken during the acute phase. These two protein species comigrated at 110S on neutral sucrose velocity gradients with the B19 viral DNA and thus appear to constitute the viral capsid polypeptides. The B19 genome was molecularly cloned into a bacterial plasmid vector. Two expression constructs containing B19 sequences from different halves of the viral genome were obtained, which directed the synthesis, in bacteria, of segments of virally encoded protein. These polypeptide fragments were then purified and used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies against a protein sequence specified between nucleotides 2897 and 3749 recognized both the 83- and 58-kilodalton capsid polypeptides in aplastic plasma taken during the acute phase and detected similar proteins in the similar proteins in the tissues of a stillborn fetus which had been infected transplacentally with B19. Antibodies against a protein sequence encoded in the other half of the B19 genome (nucleotides 1072 through 2044) did not react specifically with any protein in plasma taken during the acute phase but recognized three nonstructural polypeptides of 71, 63, and 52 kilodaltons present in the liver and, at lower levels, in some other tissues of the transplacentally infected fetus.

  18. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3 in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Moushimi; Brooks-Faulconer, Taryn; Lark, Tyler; Keck, Forrest; Bailey, Charles; Raman, Venu; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2016-07-01

    The mosquito-borne New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a Category B select agent with no approved vaccines or therapies to treat infected humans. Therefore it is imperative to identify novel targets that can be targeted for effective therapeutic intervention. We aimed to identify and validate interactions of VEEV nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) with host proteins and determine the consequences of these interactions to viral multiplication. We used a HA tagged nsP3 infectious clone (rTC-83-nsP3-HA) to identify and validate two RNA helicases: DDX1 and DDX3 that interacted with VEEV-nsP3. In addition, DDX1 and DDX3 knockdown resulted in a decrease in infectious viral titers. Furthermore, we propose a functional model where the nsP3:DDX3 complex interacts with the host translational machinery and is essential in the viral life cycle. This study will lead to future investigations in understanding the importance of VEEV-nsP3 to viral multiplication and apply the information for the discovery of novel host targets as therapeutic options.

  19. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

  20. Host translation shutoff mediated by non-structural protein 2 is a critical factor in the antiviral state resistance of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nishank; Sun, Chengqun; Metthew Lam, L K; Gardner, Christina L; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2016-09-01

    Most previous studies of interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) response antagonism by alphaviruses have focused upon interruption of IFN-α/β induction and/or receptor signaling cascades. Infection of mice with Venezuelan equine encephalitis alphavirus (VEEV) or Sindbis virus (SINV) induces serum IFN-α/β, that elicits a systemic antiviral state in uninfected cells successfully controlling SINV but not VEEV replication. Furthermore, VEEV replication is more resistant than that of SINV to a pre-existing antiviral state in vitro. While host macromolecular shutoff is proposed as a major antagonist of IFN-α/β induction, the underlying mechanisms of alphavirus resistance to a pre-existing antiviral state are not fully defined, nor is the mechanism for the greater resistance of VEEV. Here, we have separated viral transcription and translation shutoff with multiple alphaviruses, identified the viral proteins that induce each activity, and demonstrated that VEEV nonstructural protein 2-induced translation shutoff is likely a critical factor in enhanced antiviral state resistance of this alphavirus.

  1. Multiple Functional Domains and Complexes of the Two Nonstructural Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Contribute to Interferon Suppression and Cellular Location▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedan, Samer; Andrews, Joel; Majumdar, Tanmay; Musiyenko, Alla; Barik, Sailen

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, efficiently suppresses cellular innate immunity, represented by type I interferon (IFN), using its two unique nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2. In a search for their mechanism, NS1 was previously shown to decrease levels of TRAF3 and IKKε, whereas NS2 interacted with RIG-I and decreased TRAF3 and STAT2. Here, we report on the interaction, cellular localization, and functional domains of these two proteins. We show that recombinant NS1 and NS2, expressed in lung epithelial A549 cells, can form homo- as well as heteromers. Interestingly, when expressed alone, substantial amounts of NS1 and NS2 localized to the nuclei and to the mitochondria, respectively. However, when coexpressed with NS2, as in RSV infection, NS1 could be detected in the mitochondria as well, suggesting that the NS1-NS2 heteromer localizes to the mitochondria. The C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence, DLNP, common to both NS1 and NS2, was required for some functions, but not all, whereas only the NS1 N-terminal region was important for IKKε reduction. Finally, NS1 and NS2 both interacted specifically with host microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). The contribution of MAP1B in NS1 function was not tested, but in NS2 it was essential for STAT2 destruction, suggesting a role of the novel DLNP motif in protein-protein interaction and IFN suppression. PMID:21795342

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the Nucleic Acid-Binding Domain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 3▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A.; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand β-sheet holding two α-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the β-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand β-sheets and two 310-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold. PMID:19828617

  3. Functional cross-talk between distant domains of chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2 is decisive for its RNA-modulating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pratyush Kumar; Merits, Andres; Lulla, Aleksei

    2014-02-28

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is a multifunctional protein that is considered a master regulator of the viral life cycle and a main viral factor responsible for cytopathic effects and subversion of antiviral defense. The C-terminal part of nsP2 possesses protease activity, whereas the N-terminal part exhibits NTPase and RNA triphosphatase activity and is proposed to have helicase activity. Bioinformatics analysis classified CHIKV nsP2 into helicase superfamily 1. However, the biochemical significance of a coexistence of two functionally unrelated modules in this single protein remains unknown. In this study, recombinant nsP2 demonstrated unwinding of double-stranded RNA in a 5'-3' directionally biased manner and RNA strand annealing activity. Comparative analysis of NTPase and helicase activities of wild type nsP2 with enzymatic capabilities of different truncated or N-terminally extended variants of nsP2 revealed that the C-terminal part of the protein is indispensable for helicase functionality and presumably provides a platform for RNA binding, whereas the N-terminal-most region is apparently involved in obtaining a conformation of nsP2 that allows for its maximal enzymatic activities. The establishment of the protocols for the production of biochemically active CHIKV nsP2 and optimization of the parameters for helicase and NTPase assays are expected to provide the starting point for a further search of possibilities for therapeutic interventions to suppress alphaviral infections.

  4. Construction of a dengue virus type 4 reporter replicon and analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations in non-structural proteins 3 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Manzano, Mark Irvin M; Del Angel, Rosa M; Levis, Robin; Padmanabhan, R

    2010-11-01

    Replicon systems have been useful to study mechanisms of translation and replication of flavivirus RNAs. In this study, we constructed a dengue virus 4 replicon encoding a Renilla luciferase (R(luc)) reporter, and six single-residue substitution mutants were generated: L128F and S158P in the non-structural protein (NS) 3 protease domain gene, and N96I, N390A, K437R and M805I in the NS5 gene. The effects of these substitutions on viral RNA translation and/or replication were examined by measuring R(luc) activities in wild-type and mutant replicon RNA-transfected Vero cells incubated at 35, 37 and 39 °C. Our results show that none of the mutations affected translation of replicon RNAs; however, L128F and S158P of NS3 at 39°C, and N96I of NS5 at 37 and 39°C, presented temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotypes for replication. Furthermore, using in vitro methyltransferase assays, we identified that the N96I mutation in NS5 exhibited a ts phenotype for N7-methylation, but not for 2'-O-methylation.

  5. Predicted Peptides from Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Are Able to Induce IFN-γ and IL-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Díaz, Ivan; Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M.; Essler, Sabine E.; Hernández, Jesús; Mateu, Enric

    2013-01-01

    This work describes peptides from non-structural proteins (nsp) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) predicted as potential T cell epitopes by bioinfornatics and tested for their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 responses. Pigs immunized with either genotype 1 or genotype 2 PRRSV attenuated vaccines (n=5/group) and unvaccinated pigs (n = 4) were used to test the peptides. Swine leukocyte antigen haplotype of each pig was also determined. Pigs were initially screened for IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT) and three peptides were identified; two of them in non-conserved segments of nsp2 and nsp5 and the other in a conserved region of nsp5 peptide. Then, peptides were screened for IL-10 inducing properties. Six peptides were found to induce IL-10 release in PBMC and some of them were also able to inhibit IFN-γ responses on PHA-stimulated cells. Interestingly, the IFN-γ low responder pigs against PRRSV were mostly homozygous for their SLA haplotypes. In conclusion, these results indicate that nsp of PRRSV contain T-cell epitopes inducing IFN-γ responses as well as IL-10 inducing segments with inhibitory capabilities. PMID:23435238

  6. Predicted Peptides from Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Are Able to Induce IFN-γ and IL-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mateu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes peptides from non-structural proteins (nsp of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV predicted as potential T cell epitopes by bioinfornatics and tested for their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 responses. Pigs immunized with either genotype 1 or genotype 2 PRRSV attenuated vaccines (n=5/group and unvaccinated pigs (n = 4 were used to test the peptides. Swine leukocyte antigen haplotype of each pig was also determined. Pigs were initially screened for IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT and three peptides were identified; two of them in non-conserved segments of nsp2 and nsp5 and the other in a conserved region of nsp5 peptide. Then, peptides were screened for IL-10 inducing properties. Six peptides were found to induce IL-10 release in PBMC and some of them were also able to inhibit IFN-γ responses on PHA-stimulated cells. Interestingly, the IFN-γ low responder pigs against PRRSV were mostly homozygous for their SLA haplotypes. In conclusion, these results indicate that nsp of PRRSV contain T-cell epitopes inducing IFN-γ responses as well as IL-10 inducing segments with inhibitory capabilities.

  7. Patient and Mouse Antibodies against Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Cross-React with Platelets and Cause Their Dysfunction or Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Feng Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a clinical manifestation in dengue virus (DV infection, yet its pathogenic mechanisms are unresolved. We previously showed that dengue patient sera contained antibodies cross-reactive with platelets. In this study, we demonstrated that the anti-platelet activity of dengue patient sera was due to the antibodies against DV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1. Studies using DV-infected or recombinant NS1-immunized mouse sera showed that anti-NS1 antibodies cross-reacted with human platelets. The platelet-binding activity of dengue patient sera or anti-NS1 antibodies was inhibited by treatment of platelets with anti-NS1 or patient sera. Further investigation showed that anti-NS1 antibodies were able to inhibit platelet aggregation and cause platelet lysis in the presence of complement. The platelet-binding activity and the induction of platelet lysis mediated by dengue patient sera or anti-NS1 antibodies were increased when platelets were activated by ADP or thrombin. Taken together, anti-NS1 antibodies account for the cross-reactivity with platelets and cause platelet dysfunction or depletion, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue diseases.

  8. Short peptides derived from the interaction domain of SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp10 can suppress the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of nsp10/nsp16 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Min; Chen, Yu; Wu, Andong; Sun, Ying; Su, Ceyang; Wu, Hao; Jin, Xu; Tao, Jiali; Wang, Yi; Ma, Xiao; Pan, Ji-An; Guo, Deyin

    2012-08-01

    Coronaviruses are the etiological agents of respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and livestock, exemplified by the life-threatening severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, effective means for combating coronaviruses are still lacking. The interaction between nonstructural protein (nsp) 10 and nsp16 has been demonstrated and the crystal structure of SARS-CoV nsp16/10 complex has been revealed. As nsp10 acts as an essential trigger to activate the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of nsp16, short peptides derived from nsp10 may have inhibitory effect on viral 2'-O-methyltransferase activity. In this study, we revealed that the domain of aa 65-107 of nsp10 was sufficient for its interaction with nsp16 and the region of aa 42-120 in nsp10, which is larger than the interaction domain, was needed for stimulating the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activity. We further showed that two short peptides derived from the interaction domain of nsp10 could inhibit the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of SARS-CoV nsp16/10 complex, thus providing a novel strategy and proof-of-principle study for developing peptide inhibitors against SARS-CoV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The conserved macrodomains of the non-structural proteins of Chikungunya virus and other pathogenic positive strand RNA viruses function as mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckei, Laura; Krieg, Sarah; Bütepage, Mareike; Lehmann, Anne; Gross, Annika; Lippok, Barbara; Grimm, Alexander R; Kümmerer, Beate M; Rossetti, Giulia; Lüscher, Bernhard; Verheugd, Patricia

    2017-02-02

    Human pathogenic positive single strand RNA ((+)ssRNA) viruses, including Chikungunya virus, pose severe health problems as for many neither efficient vaccines nor therapeutic strategies exist. To interfere with propagation, viral enzymatic activities are considered potential targets. Here we addressed the function of the viral macrodomains, conserved folds of non-structural proteins of many (+)ssRNA viruses. Macrodomains are closely associated with ADP-ribose function and metabolism. ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification controlling various cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription and stress response. We found that the viral macrodomains possess broad hydrolase activity towards mono-ADP-ribosylated substrates of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases ARTD7, ARTD8 and ARTD10 (aka PARP15, PARP14 and PARP10, respectively), reverting this post-translational modification both in vitro and in cells. In contrast, the viral macrodomains possess only weak activity towards poly-ADP-ribose chains synthesized by ARTD1 (aka PARP1). Unlike poly-ADP-ribosylglycohydrolase, which hydrolyzes poly-ADP-ribose chains to individual ADP-ribose units but cannot cleave the amino acid side chain - ADP-ribose bond, the different viral macrodomains release poly-ADP-ribose chains with distinct efficiency. Mutational and structural analyses identified key amino acids for hydrolase activity of the Chikungunya viral macrodomain. Moreover, ARTD8 and ARTD10 are induced by innate immune mechanisms, suggesting that the control of mono-ADP-ribosylation is part of a host-pathogen conflict.

  10. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-zeng Sun

    Full Text Available Mink enteritis virus (MEV is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81 cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 messenger RNA (mRNA coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  11. HSV neutralization by the microbicidal candidate C5A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, L.; Bobardt, M.D.; Chatterji, U.; van Loenen, F.B.; Verjans, G.M.G.M.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; Gallay, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes is a major risk factor in acquiring human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and is caused by both Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The amphipathic peptide C5A, derived from the non-structural hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein 5A, was shown to prevent HIV-1 in

  12. Diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3A to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-05-01

    Detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of FMD-infected animals in the vaccinated population. Nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to NSPs, the likelihood of screening or confirming the FMD infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple NSPs is considered for diagnosis. In order to develop and evaluate an additional NSP-based diagnostic assay, in this study, the recombinant 3A protein of FMDV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for detection of FMD infection specific antibodies. At the fixed cut-off value of 45 percentage of positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 3A indirect-ELISA (I-ELISA) were found to be 95.7% and 96.3%, respectively. In FMD naturally infected cattle, about 85% of clinically infected and 75% of asymptomatic in-contact populations were found positive at 13 months post-outbreak. The 3A I-ELISA was further evaluated with the bovine serum samples collected randomly from different parts of the country. Furthermore, the performance of newly developed 3A I-ELISA was compared with the extensively used in-house r3AB3 I-ELISA, and the overall concordance in test results was found to be 93.62%. The r3A I-ELISA could be useful as a screening or confirmatory assay in the sero-surveillance of FMD in India irrespective of extensive bi-annual vaccination.

  13. Novel Strategy to Control Transgene Expression Mediated by a Sendai Virus-Based Vector Using a Nonstructural C Protein and Endogenous MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-specific control of gene expression is an invaluable tool for studying various biological processes and medical applications. Efficient regulatory systems have been utilized to control transgene expression in various types of DNA viral or integrating viral vectors. However, existing regulatory systems are difficult to transfer into negative-strand RNA virus vector platforms because of significant differences in their transcriptional machineries. In this study, we developed a novel strategy for regulating transgene expression mediated by a cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp). Because of the capacity of Sendai virus (SeV) nonstructural C proteins to specifically inhibit viral RNA synthesis, overexpression of C protein significantly reduced transgene expression mediated by SeVdp vectors. We found that SeV C overexpression concomitantly reduced SeVdp mRNA levels and genomic RNA synthesis. To control C expression, target sequences for an endogenous microRNA were incorporated into the 3′ untranslated region of the C genes. Incorporation of target sequences for miR-21 into the SeVdp vector restored transgene expression in HeLa cells by decreasing C expression. Furthermore, the SeVdp vector containing target sequences for let-7a enabled cell-specific control of transgene expression in human fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our findings demonstrate that SeV C can be used as an effective regulator for controlling transgene expression. This strategy will contribute to efficient and less toxic SeVdp-mediated gene transfer in various biological applications. PMID:27764162

  14. Systematic analysis of non-structural protein features for the prediction of PTM function potential by artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) provide an extensible framework for regulation of protein behavior beyond the diversity represented within the genome alone. While the rate of identification of PTMs has rapidly increased in recent years, our knowledge of PTM functionality encompasses less than 5% of this data. We previously developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) for the prioritization of eukaryotic PTMs based on function potential of discrete modified alignment positions (MAPs) in a set of 8 protein families. A proteome-wide expansion of the dataset to all families of PTM-bearing, eukaryotic proteins with a representational crystal structure and the application of artificial neural network (ANN) models demonstrated the broader applicability of this approach. Although structural features of proteins have been repeatedly demonstrated to be predictive of PTM functionality, the availability of adequately resolved 3D structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) limits the scope of these methods. In order to bridge this gap and capture the larger set of PTM-bearing proteins without an available, homologous structure, we explored all available MAP features as ANN inputs to identify predictive models that do not rely on 3D protein structural data. This systematic, algorithmic approach explores 8 available input features in exhaustive combinations (247 models; size 2–8). To control for potential bias in random sampling for holdback in training sets, we iterated each model across 100 randomized, sample training and testing sets—yielding 24,700 individual ANNs. The size of the analyzed dataset and iterative generation of ANNs represents the largest and most thorough investigation of predictive models for PTM functionality to date. Comparison of input layer combinations allows us to quantify ANN performance with a high degree of confidence and subsequently select a top-ranked, robust fit model which highlights 3,687 MAPs, including 10,933 PTMs with a

  15. Targeting the non-structural protein 1 from dengue virus to a dendritic cell population confers protective immunity to lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Hugo R; Rampazo, Eline V; Gonçalves, Antonio J S; Vicentin, Elaine C M; Amorim, Jaime H; Panatieri, Raquel H; Amorim, Kelly N S; Yamamoto, Marcio M; Ferreira, Luís C S; Alves, Ada M B; Boscardin, Silvia B

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral infection, affecting millions of people every year. Attempts to control such infection are being made, and the development of a vaccine is a World Health Organization priority. Among the proteins being tested as vaccine candidates in preclinical settings is the non-structural protein 1 (NS1). In the present study, we tested the immune responses generated by targeting the NS1 protein to two different dendritic cell populations. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important antigen presenting cells, and targeting proteins to maturing DCs has proved to be an efficient means of immunization. Antigen targeting is accomplished by the use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against a DC cell surface receptor fused to the protein of interest. We used two mAbs (αDEC205 and αDCIR2) to target two distinct DC populations, expressing either DEC205 or DCIR2 endocytic receptors, respectively, in mice. The fusion mAbs were successfully produced, bound to their respective receptors, and were used to immunize BALB/c mice in the presence of polyriboinosinic: polyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)), as a DC maturation stimulus. We observed induction of strong anti-NS1 antibody responses and similar antigen binding affinity irrespectively of the DC population targeted. Nevertheless, the IgG1/IgG2a ratios were different between mouse groups immunized with αDEC-NS1 and αDCIR2-NS1 mAbs. When we tested the induction of cellular immune responses, the number of IFN-γ producing cells was higher in αDEC-NS1 immunized animals. In addition, mice immunized with the αDEC-NS1 mAb were significantly protected from a lethal intracranial challenge with the DENV2 NGC strain when compared to mice immunized with αDCIR2-NS1 mAb. Protection was partially mediated by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as depletion of these populations reduced both survival and morbidity signs. We conclude that targeting the NS1 protein to the DEC205(+) DC population with poly (I:C) opens

  16. Targeting the non-structural protein 1 from dengue virus to a dendritic cell population confers protective immunity to lethal virus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R Henriques

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral infection, affecting millions of people every year. Attempts to control such infection are being made, and the development of a vaccine is a World Health Organization priority. Among the proteins being tested as vaccine candidates in preclinical settings is the non-structural protein 1 (NS1. In the present study, we tested the immune responses generated by targeting the NS1 protein to two different dendritic cell populations. Dendritic cells (DCs are important antigen presenting cells, and targeting proteins to maturing DCs has proved to be an efficient means of immunization. Antigen targeting is accomplished by the use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb directed against a DC cell surface receptor fused to the protein of interest. We used two mAbs (αDEC205 and αDCIR2 to target two distinct DC populations, expressing either DEC205 or DCIR2 endocytic receptors, respectively, in mice. The fusion mAbs were successfully produced, bound to their respective receptors, and were used to immunize BALB/c mice in the presence of polyriboinosinic: polyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C, as a DC maturation stimulus. We observed induction of strong anti-NS1 antibody responses and similar antigen binding affinity irrespectively of the DC population targeted. Nevertheless, the IgG1/IgG2a ratios were different between mouse groups immunized with αDEC-NS1 and αDCIR2-NS1 mAbs. When we tested the induction of cellular immune responses, the number of IFN-γ producing cells was higher in αDEC-NS1 immunized animals. In addition, mice immunized with the αDEC-NS1 mAb were significantly protected from a lethal intracranial challenge with the DENV2 NGC strain when compared to mice immunized with αDCIR2-NS1 mAb. Protection was partially mediated by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells as depletion of these populations reduced both survival and morbidity signs. We conclude that targeting the NS1 protein to the DEC205(+ DC population with poly (I

  17. Rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment S6-encoded nonstructural protein has a cell-to-cell movement function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Bao, Yi M; Wei, Chun H; Kang, Zhen S; Zhong, Yong W; Mao, Peng; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhang L; Schiemann, Joachim; Nelson, Richard S

    2004-05-01

    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) is a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, which is composed of viruses with segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. Proteins that support the intercellular movement of these viruses in the host have not been identified. Microprojectile bombardment was used to determine which open reading frames (ORFs) support intercellular movement of a heterologous virus. A plasmid containing an infectious clone of Potato virus X (PVX) defective in cell-to-cell movement and expressing either beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used for cobombardment with plasmids containing ORFs from RDV gene segments S1 through S12 onto leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX was restored by cobombardment with a plasmid containing S6. In the absence of S6, no other gene segment supported movement. Identical results were obtained with Nicotiana tabacum, a host that allows fewer viruses to infect and spread within its tissue. S6 supported the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX in sink and source leaves of N. benthamiana. A mutant S6 lacking the translation start codon did not complement the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX. An S6 protein product (Pns6)-enhanced GFP fusion was observed near or within cell walls of epidermal cells from N. tabacum. By immunocytochemistry, unfused Pns6 was localized to plasmodesmata in rice leaves infected with RDV. S6 thus encodes a protein with characteristics identical to those of other viral proteins required for the cell-to-cell movement of their genome and therefore is likely required for the cell-to-cell movement of RDV.

  18. The nonstructural protein NP1 of human bocavirus 1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hela cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin; Cai, Yingyue; Li, Yongshu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Jingjing [College of Life Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, Hubei (China); Liu, Kaiyu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: johnli2668@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Bioengineering Department, Wuhan Bioengineering Institute, Wuhan 430415, Hubei (China); Yang, Yongbo, E-mail: yongboyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)

    2013-05-25

    Human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV1) is a newly identified pathogen associated with human respiratory tract illnesses. Previous studies demonstrated that proteins of HBoV1 failed to cause cell death, which is considered as a possible common feature of bocaviruses. However, our work showed that the NP1 of HBoV1 induced apoptotic cell death in Hela cells in the absence of viral genome replication and expression of other viral proteins. Mitochondria apoptotic pathway was involved in the NP1-induced apoptosis that was confirmed by apoptotic characteristics including morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. We also demonstrated that the cell cycle of NP1-transfected Hela cells was transiently arrested at G2/M phase followed by rapid appearance of apoptosis and that the N terminal domain of NP1 was critical to its nuclear localization and function in apoptosis induction in Hela cells. These findings might provide alternative information for further study of mechanism of HBoV1 pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► NP1 protein of HBoV1 induced apoptosis in Hela cells was first reported. ► NP1 induced-apoptosis followed the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. ► The NP1 induced-apoptosis was mediated by mitochondrion apoptotic pathway. ► N terminal of NP1 was critical for apoptosis induction and nuclear localization.

  19. Modification of -Adenosyl--Homocysteine as Inhibitor of Nonstructural Protein 5 Methyltransferase Dengue Virus Through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is still a major threat worldwide, approximately threatening two-fifths of the world’s population in tropical and subtropical countries. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5 methyltransferase enzyme plays a vital role in the process of messenger RNA capping of dengue by transferring methyl groups from S -adenosyl- l -methionine to N7 atom of the guanine bases of RNA and the RNA ribose group of 2′OH, resulting in S -adenosyl- l -homocysteine (SAH. The modification of SAH compound was screened using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, along with computational ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity test. The 2 simulations were performed using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE 2008.10 software, whereas the ADME-Tox test was performed using various software. The modification of SAH compound was done using several functional groups that possess different polarities and properties, resulting in 3460 ligands to be docked. After conducting docking simulation, we earned 3 best ligands (SAH-M331, SAH-M2696, and SAH-M1356 based on ΔG binding and molecular interactions, which show better results than the standard ligands. Moreover, the results of molecular dynamics simulation show that the best ligands are still able to maintain the active site residue interaction with the binding site until the end of the simulation. After a series of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were performed, we concluded that SAH-M1356 ligand is the most potential SAH-based compound to inhibit NS5 methyltransferase enzyme for treating dengue fever.

  20. Generation of human single-chain variable fragment antibodies specific to dengue virus non-structural protein 1 that interfere with the virus infectious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungpair, Ornnuthchar; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Chaowalit, Prapaipit; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Saokaew, Nichapatr; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2014-01-01

    Severe forms of dengue virus (DENV) infection frequently cause high case fatality rate. Currently, there is no effective vaccine against the infection. Clinical cases are given only palliative treatment as specific anti-DENV immunotherapy is not available and it is urgently required. In this study, human single-chain variable fragment (HuScFv) antibodies that bound specifically to the conserved non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of DENV and interfered with the virus replication cycle were produced by using phage display technology. Recombinant NS1 (rNS1) of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was used as antigen in phage bio-panning to select phage clones that displayed HuScFv from antibody phage display library. HuScFv from two phagemid transformed E. coli clones, i.e., clones 11 and 13, bound to the rNS1 as well as native NS1 in both secreted and intracellular forms. Culture fluids of the HuScFv11/HuScFv13 exposed DENV2 infected cells had significant reduction of the infectious viral particles, implying that the antibody fragments affected the virus morphogenesis or release. HuScFv epitope mapping by phage mimotope searching revealed that HuScFv11 bound to amino acids 1-14 of NS1, while the HuScFv13 bound to conformational epitope at the C-terminal portion of the NS1. Although the functions of the epitopes and the molecular mechanism of the HuScFv11 and HuScFv13 require further investigations, these small antibodies have high potential for development as anti-DENV biomolecules.

  1. Biochemical and structural characterization of the interface mediating interaction between the influenza A virus non-structural protein-1 and a monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Mok, Chee-Keng; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Yuan, Y. Adam; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that a non-structural protein 1 (NS1)-binding monoclonal antibody, termed as 2H6, can significantly reduce influenza A virus (IAV) replication when expressed intracellularly. In this study, we further showed that 2H6 binds stronger to the NS1 of H5N1 than A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) because of an amino acid difference at residue 48. A crystal structure of 2H6 fragment antigen-binding (Fab) has also been solved and docked onto the NS1 structure to reveal the contacts between specific residues at the interface of antibody-antigen complex. In one of the models, the predicted molecular contacts between residues in NS1 and 2H6-Fab correlate well with biochemical results. Taken together, residues N48 and T49 in H5N1 NS1 act cooperatively to maintain a strong interaction with mAb 2H6 by forming hydrogen bonds with residues found in the heavy chain of the antibody. Interestingly, the pandemic H1N1-2009 and the majority of seasonal H3N2 circulating in humans since 1968 has N48 in NS1, suggesting that mAb 2H6 could bind to most of the currently circulating seasonal influenza A virus strains. Consistent with the involvement of residue T49, which is well-conserved, in RNA binding, mAb 2H6 was also found to inhibit the interaction between NS1 and double-stranded RNA. PMID:27633136

  2. Infection of Common Marmosets with GB Virus B Chimeric Virus Encoding the Major Nonstructural Proteins NS2 to NS4A of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaomei; Li, Tingting; Liu, Bochao; Xu, Yuxia; Sun, Yachun; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yuanzhan; Shuai, Lifang; Chen, Zixuan; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2016-09-15

    A lack of immunocompetent-small-primate models has been an obstacle for developing hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccines and affordable antiviral drugs. In this study, HCV/GB virus B (GBV-B) chimeric virus carrying the major nonstructural proteins NS2 to NS4A (HCV NS2 to -4A chimera) was produced and used to infect common marmosets, since HCV NS2 to NS4A proteins are critical proteases and major antigens. Seven marmosets were inoculated intrahepatically with HCV NS2 to -4A chimera RNA for primary infection or intravenously injected with chimera-containing serum for passage infection. Three animals used as controls were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GBV-B, respectively. Six of seven HCV NS2 to -4A chimera-infected marmosets exhibited consistent viremia and one showed transient viremia during the course of follow-up detection. All six infected animals with persistent circulating viremia presented characteristics typical of viral hepatitis, including viral RNA and proteins in hepatocytes and histopathological changes in liver tissue. Viremia was consistently detected for 5 to 54 weeks of follow-up. FK506 immunosuppression facilitated the establishment of persistent chimera infection in marmosets. An animal with chimera infection spontaneously cleared the virus in blood 7 weeks following the first inoculation, but viral-RNA persistence, low-level viral protein, and mild necroinflammation remained in liver tissue. The specific antibody and T-cell response to HCV NS3 in this viremia-resolved marmoset was boosted by rechallenging, but no viremia was detected during 57 weeks of follow-up. The chimera-infected marmosets described can be used as a suitable small-primate animal model for studying novel antiviral drugs and T-cell-based vaccines against HCV infection. HCV infection causes approximately 70% of chronic hepatitis and is frequently associated with primary liver cancer globally. Chimpanzees have been used as a reliable primate model for HCV infection

  3. Variation analysis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus putative non-structural protein 2 gene and construction of three-dimensional model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia-hai; CHEN Wei-qing; LING Wen-hua; YU Xin-bing; ZHONG Nan-shan; ZHANG Ding-mei; WANG Guo-ling; GUO Zhong-min; ZHANG Chuan-hai; TAN Bing-yan; OUYANG Li-ping; LIN Li; LIU Yi-min

    2005-01-01

    Background The rapid transmission and high mortality rate made severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) a global threat for which no efficacious therapy is available now. Without sufficient knowledge about the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), it is impossible to define the candidate for the anti-SARS targets. The putative non-structural protein 2 (nsp2) (3CLpro, following the nomenclature by Gao et al, also known as nsp5 in Snidjer et al) of SARS-CoV plays an important role in viral transcription and replication, and is an attractive target for anti-SARS drug development, so we carried on this study to have an insight into putative polymerase nsp2 of SARS-CoV Guangdong (GD) strain.Methods The SARS-CoV strain was isolated from a SARS patient in Guangdong, China, and cultured in Vero E6 cells. The nsp2 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pCI-neo (pCI-neo/nsp2). Then the recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pCI-neo/nsp2 was transfected into COS-7 cells using lipofectin reagent to express the nsp2 protein. The expressive protein of SARS-CoV nsp2 was analyzed by 7% sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The nucleotide sequence and protein sequence of GD nsp2 were compared with that of other SARS-CoV strains by nucleotide-nucleotide basic local alignment search tool (BLASTN) and protein-protein basic local alignment search tool (BLASTP) to investigate its variance trend during the transmission. The secondary structure of GD strain and that of other strains were predicted by Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson (GOR) Secondary Structure Prediction. Three-dimensional-PSSM Protein Fold Recognition (Threading) Server was employed to construct the three-dimensional model of the nsp2 protein.Results The putative polymerase nsp2 gene of GD strain was amplified by RT-PCR. The eukaryotic expression vector (pCI-neo/nsp2) was constructed and expressed the protein in COS-7

  4. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part I: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Mayaro virus (MAYV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekis, Efstathios; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Chasapis, Christos T; Margiolaki, Irene; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Macro domains are ADP-ribose-binding modules present in all eukaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea. They are also found in non-structural proteins of several positive strand RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the macro domain from New World Mayaro Alphavirus. The recombinant protein was well-folded and in a monomeric state. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure determined by TALOS+.

  5. Yellow fever vaccination elicits broad functional CD4+ T cell responses that recognize structural and nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eddie A; LaFond, Rebecca E; Gates, Theresa J; Mai, Duy T; Malhotra, Uma; Kwok, William W

    2013-12-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) can induce acute, life-threatening disease that is a significant health burden in areas where yellow fever is endemic, but it is preventable through vaccination. The live attenuated 17D YFV strain induces responses characterized by neutralizing antibodies and strong T cell responses. This vaccine provides an excellent model for studying human immunity. While several studies have characterized YFV-specific antibody and CD8(+) T cell responses, less is known about YFV-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here we characterize the epitope specificity, functional attributes, and dynamics of YFV-specific T cell responses in vaccinated subjects by investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using HLA-DR tetramers. A total of 112 epitopes restricted by seven common HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. Epitopes were present within all YFV proteins, but the capsid, envelope, NS2a, and NS3 proteins had the highest epitope density. Antibody blocking demonstrated that the majority of YFV-specific T cells were HLA-DR restricted. Therefore, CD4(+) T cell responses could be effectively characterized with HLA-DR tetramers. Ex vivo tetramer analysis revealed that YFV-specific T cells persisted at frequencies ranging from 0 to 100 cells per million that are detectable years after vaccination. Longitudinal analysis indicated that YFV-specific CD4(+) T cells reached peak frequencies, often exceeding 250 cells per million, approximately 2 weeks after vaccination. As frequencies subsequently declined, YFV-specific cells regained CCR7 expression, indicating a shift from effector to central memory. Cells were typically CXCR3 positive, suggesting Th1 polarization, and produced gamma interferon and other cytokines after reactivation in vitro. Therefore, YFV elicits robust early effector CD4(+) T cell responses that contract, forming a detectable memory population.

  6. Discovery of a novel compound with anti-venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity that targets the nonstructural protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Chung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses present serious health threats as emerging and re-emerging viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, a New World alphavirus, can cause encephalitis in humans and horses, but there are no therapeutics for treatment. To date, compounds reported as anti-VEEV or anti-alphavirus inhibitors have shown moderate activity. To discover new classes of anti-VEEV inhibitors with novel viral targets, we used a high-throughput screen based on the measurement of cell protection from live VEEV TC-83-induced cytopathic effect to screen a 340,000 compound library. Of those, we identified five novel anti-VEEV compounds and chose a quinazolinone compound, CID15997213 (IC50 = 0.84 µM, for further characterization. The antiviral effect of CID15997213 was alphavirus-specific, inhibiting VEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In vitro assays confirmed inhibition of viral RNA, protein, and progeny synthesis. No antiviral activity was detected against a select group of RNA viruses. We found mutations conferring the resistance to the compound in the N-terminal domain of nsP2 and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Time of addition studies showed that the compound inhibits the middle stage of replication when viral genome replication is most active. In mice, the compound showed complete protection from lethal VEEV disease at 50 mg/kg/day. Collectively, these results reveal a potent anti-VEEV compound that uniquely targets the viral nsP2 N-terminal domain. While the function of nsP2 has yet to be characterized, our studies suggest that the protein might play a critical role in viral replication, and further, may represent an innovative opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for alphavirus infection.

  7. Expression and stability of foreign epitopes introduced into 3A nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

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    Pinghua Li

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is an aphthovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. The capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about FMDV. To explore the potential of FMDV as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa HSV epitope and an 8 aa FLAG epitope were introduced into the C-terminal different regions of 3A protein of FMDV full-length infectious cDNA clone. Recombinant viruses expressing the HSV or FLAG epitope were successfully rescued after transfection of both modified constructs. Immunofluorescence assay, Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign epitopes even after 11 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The 3A-tagged viruses shared similar plaque phenotypes and replication kinetics to those of the parental virus. In addition, mice experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged viruses could induce tag-specific antibodies. Our results demonstrate that FMDV can be used effectively as a viral vector for the delivery of foreign tags.

  8. Development of a multiplex Luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Han; Lee, Fan; Lin, Yeou-Liang; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ni; Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xMAP) Luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the FMD virus of structural proteins (SP) and nonstructural proteins (NSP). After the xMAP was optimized, it detected antibodies to SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC of the FMD virus in a single serum sample. These tests were also compared with 3ABC polypeptide blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) methods for the differential diagnosis and assessment of immune status, respectively. To detect SP antibodies in 661 sera from infected naïve pigs and vaccinated pigs, the diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the xMAP were 90.0-98.7% and 93.0-96.5%, respectively. To detect NSP antibodies, the DSn was 90% and the DSp ranged from 93.3% to 99.1%. The xMAP can detect the immune response to SP and NSP as early as 4 days postinfection and 8 days postinfection, respectively. Furthermore, the SP and NSP antibodies in all 15 vaccinated but unprotected pigs were detected by xMAP. A comparison of SP and NSP antibodies detected in the sera of the infected samples indicated that the results from the xMAP had a high positive correlation with results from the VNT and a 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA assay. However, simultaneous quantitation detected that xMAP had no relationship with the VNT. Furthermore, the specificity was 93.3-94.9% with 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA for the FMDV-NSP antibody. The results indicated that xMAP has the potential to detect antibodies to FMDV-SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC and to distinguish FMDV-infected pigs from pigs infected with the swine vesicular disease virus. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mutations in carboxy-terminal part of E2 including PKR/eIF2αphosphorylation homology domain and interferon sensitivity determining region of nonstructural 5A of hepatitis C virus 1b:Their correlation with response to interferon monotherapy and viral load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Ukai; Masatoshi Ishigami; Kentaro Yoshioka; Naoto Kawabe; Yoshiaki Katano; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takashi Honda; Motoyoshi Yano; Hidemi Goto

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the amino acid substitutions in the carboxy (C)-terminal part of E2 protein and in the interferon (IFN) sensitivity determining region (ISDR)and their correlation with response to IFN and viral load in 85 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b-infected patients treated with IFN.METHODS: The C-terminal part of E2 (codons 617-711)including PKR/eIF2α phosphorylation homology domain (PePHD) and ISDR was sequenced in 85 HCV-1b-infected patients treated by IFN monotherapy.RESULTS: The amino acid substitutions in PePHD detected only in 4 of 85 patients were not correlated either with response to IFN or with viral load. The presence of substitutions in a N-terminal variable region (codons 617-641) in the C-terminal part of E2was significantly correlated with both small viral load (33.9% vs 13.8%, P=0.0394) and sustained response to IFN (25.0% vs 6.9%,P=0.0429). Four or more substitutions in ISDR were significantly correlated with both small viral load (78.6% vs 16.2%, P<0.0001) and sustained response to IFN (85.7% vs 2.9%, P<0.0001).In multivariate analysis, ISDR in nonstructural (NS) 5A (OR=0.39, P<0.0001) and N-terminal variable region (OR=0.51, P=0.039) was selected as the independent predictors for small viral load, and ISDR (OR=39.0, P<0.0001) was selected as the only independent predictor for sustained response.CONCLUSION: The N-terminal variable region in the C-terminal part of E2 correlates with both response to IFN monotherapy and viral load and is one of the factors independently associated with a small viral load.

  10. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) enhances protective immunity mediated by a CHIKV envelope protein expressing DNA Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huihui; Ramanathan, Aarti A; Kawalakar, Omkar; Sundaram, Senthil G; Tingey, Colleen; Bian, Charoran B; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Vijayachari, Paluru; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Ugen, Kenneth E; Muthumani, Karuppiah

    2013-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. It can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. The epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. The generation of an efficient vaccine against CHIKV is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. In this report, we studied immune response against a CHIKV-envelope DNA vaccine (pEnv) and the role of the CHIKV nonstructural gene 2 (nsP2) as an adjuvant for the induction of protective immune responses in a relevant mouse challenge model. When injected with the CHIKV pEnv alone, 70% of the immunized mice survived CHIKV challenge, whereas when co-injected with pEnv+pnsP2, 90% of the mice survived viral challenge. Mice also exhibited a delayed onset signs of illness, and a marked decrease in morbidity, suggesting a nsP2 mediated adjuvant effect. Co-injection of the pnsP2 adjuvant with pEnv also qualitatively and quantitatively increased antigen specific neutralizing antibody responses compared to vaccination with pEnv alone. In sum, these novel data imply that the addition of nsP2 to the pEnv vaccine enhances anti-CHIKV-Env immune responses and maybe useful to include in future CHIKV clinical vaccination strategies.

  11. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated pigs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using nonstructural protein 3AB as the antigen and application to an eradication program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Wen Bin; Sørensen, Karl Johan; Liao, Pei Chih

    2002-01-01

    Baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3AB was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This assay allowed the differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs. Serial studies were performed using sera collected from pigs in the field...... correlation coefficient (r = 0.93) was found between the test results from sow sera and those from their offspring. Therefore, piglet serum was a good substitute for sow serum to monitor the infection status of the dam. The application of this assay to serological surveillance in an FMD eradication program...

  12. Green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene visualizes parvovirus B19 non-structural segment 1 (NS1 transfected endothelial modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wurster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 has been associated with myocarditis putative due to endothelial infection. Whether PVB19 infects endothelial cells and causes a modification of endothelial function and inflammation and, thus, disturbance of microcirculation has not been elucidated and could not be visualized so far. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To examine the PVB19-induced endothelial modification, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene in the non-structural segment 1 (NS1 of PVB19. NS1-GFP-PVB19 or GFP plasmid as control were transfected in an endothelial-like cell line (ECV304. The endothelial surface expression of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (CD54/ICAM-1 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147 were evaluated by flow cytometry after NS-1-GFP or control-GFP transfection. To evaluate platelet adhesion on NS-1 transfected ECs, we performed a dynamic adhesion assay (flow chamber. NS-1 transfection causes endothelial activation and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 (CD54: mean ± standard deviation: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 85.3 ± 11.2 vs. 61.6 ± 8.1; P<0.05 and induces endothelial expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 (CD147: mean ± SEM: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 114 ± 15.3 vs. 80 ± 0.91; P<0.05 compared to control-GFP transfected cells. Dynamic adhesion assays showed that adhesion of platelets is significantly enhanced on NS1 transfected ECs when compared to control-GFP (P<0.05. The transfection of ECs was verified simultaneously through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: GFP color reporter gene shows transfection of ECs and may help to visualize NS1-PVB19 induced endothelial activation and platelet adhesion as well as an enhanced monocyte adhesion directly, providing in vitro evidence of possible microcirculatory dysfunction in PVB19-induced myocarditis and, thus, myocardial tissue damage.

  13. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  14. Advance in Nonstructural Protein NS3 of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒非结构蛋白NS3的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佩莉; 孙涛; 何洪彬

    2012-01-01

    非结构蛋白NS3是致细胞病变型牛病毒性腹泻病毒的分子标记蛋白,它具有多种生物学功能.研究结果表明,NS3在病毒非结构蛋白的加工、成熟、基因组复制与转录过程中以及宿主细胞致细胞病变效应的产生中起重要作用.文章总结了NS3的生物学特性及其相关功能,为阐明NS3的致细胞病变作用机理奠定基础.%Nonstructural protein NS3 is considered a molecular marker for the cytopathic biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus and has a variety of biological functions. It has been reported that NS3 played an important role in the processing of other nonstructural proteins, the release of mature particles, viral RNA replication, transcription and the generation of cytopathic effect in the host cell. This paper summarizes the biological properties of NS3 and its related functions, which lays the foundation for further study on the mechanism of NS3-induced cytopathic effect.

  15. 禽流感病毒非结构蛋白NS1在感染和免疫中的作用%Roles of Avian Influenza Virus Non-structural 1 Protein in Infection and Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路冰; 陈化兰; 包红梅; 王秀荣; 张秀英

    2011-01-01

    NS1蛋白(non-structural 1 protein)是目前发现的唯一的禽流感病毒非结构蛋白,它是一种多功能调节蛋白,对病毒的感染、复制和毒力具有重要的作用;该蛋白主要通过颉颃宿主干扰素及肿瘤坏死因子,抑制宿主蛋白的合成及调控感染细胞的凋亡来实现其作用.作者综述了NS1蛋白生物学特性及其在感染和免疫中作用的研究进展,为进一步研究NS1蛋白的特性及临床应用提供了参考.%NS1 (non-structural 1) protein is the unique non-structural protein found in avian influenza virus.It is a kind of multifunctional regulatory protein which plays a vital role in virus infection,replication and virulence.Its main function is antagonizing the host interferon and tumor necrosis factor,production inhibiting host protein synthesis as well as regulating apoptosis of infected cells.This paper reviews the latest research on the biological characteristics of NS1 protein and its role in infection and immunity which provide a reference for further research on NS1 protein's characteristics and clinical application.

  16. HCV NS5A protein containing potential ligands for both Src homology 2 and 3 domains enhances autophosphorylation of Src family kinase Fyn in B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakashima

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects B lymphocytes and induces mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of HCV infection-mediated B cell disorders remains obscure. To identify the possible role for HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A protein in B cells, we generated the stable B cell lines expressing Myc-His tagged NS5A. Immunoprecipitation study in the presence or absence of pervanadate (PV implied that NS5A was tyrosine phosphorylated by pervanadate (PV treatment of the cells. Therefore we examined pull-down assay by using glutathione S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins of various Src homology 2 (SH2 domains, which associates with phosphotyrosine within a specific amino acid sequence. The results showed that NS5A specifically bound to SH2 domain of Fyn from PV-treated B cells in addition to Src homology 3 (SH3 domain. Substitution of Arg(176 to Lys in the SH2 domain of Fyn abrogated this interaction. Deletion mutational analysis demonstrated that N-terminal region of NS5A was not required for the interaction with the SH2 domain of Fyn. Tyr(334 was identified as a tyrosine phosphorylation site in NS5A. Far-western analysis revealed that SH2 domain of Fyn directly bound to NS5A. Fyn and NS5A were colocalized in the lipid raft. These results suggest that NS5A directly binds to the SH2 domain of Fyn in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Lastly, we showed that the expression of NS5A in B cells increased phosphorylation of activation loop tyrosine in the kinase domain of Fyn. NS5A containing ligand for both SH2 and SH3 domains enhances an aberrant autophosphorylation and kinase activity of Fyn in B cells.

  17. Hepatitis C virus expressing reporter tagged NS5A protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C reporter viruses containing Core through NS2 of prototype isolates of all major HCV genotypes and the remaining genes of isolate JFH1, by insertion of reporter genes in domain III of HCV NS5A were developed. A deletion upstream of the inserted reporter gene sequence conferred favorable...

  18. Prediction of prognostic biomarkers for Interferon-based therapy to Hepatitis C Virus patients: a metaanalysis of the NS5A protein in subtypes 1a, 1b, and 3a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zada Suher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a worldwide health problem with no vaccine and the only approved therapy is Interferon-based plus Ribavarin. Response prediction to treatment has health and economic impacts, and is a multi-factorial problem including both host and viral factors (e.g: age, sex, ethnicity, pre-treatment viral load, and dynamics of the HCV non-structural protein NS5A quasispecies. We implement a novel approach for extracting features including informative markers from mutations in the non-structural 5A protein (NS5A, specifically its Interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR and V3 regions, and use a novel bioinformatics approach for pattern recognition on the NS5A protein and its motifs to find biomarkers for response prediction using class association rules and comparing the predictability of the different features. Results A total of 58 sequences from sustained responders and 94 from non-responders were downloaded from the HCV LANL database. Site-specific signatures for response prediction from the NS5A protein were extracted from the alignments. Class association rules were generated (e.g.: sustained response is associated with position A2368T in subtype 1a (support 100% and confidence 52.19%; in subtype 1b, response is associated with E2356G/D/K (support 76.3% and confidence 67.3%. Conclusion The V3 region was a more accurate biomarker than the ISDR region. Subtype-specific class association rules gave better support and confidence than profile hidden Markov models HMMs scores, genetic distances or number of variable sites, and would thus aid in the prediction of prognostic biomarkers and improve the accuracy of prognosis. Sites-specific class association rules in the V3 region of the NS5A protein have given the best support and confidence.

  19. Avian reovirus nonstructural protein p17-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and host cellular protein translation shutoff involve activation of p53-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulu, Julius L C; Huang, Wei R; Wang, L; Shih, Wen L; Liu, Hung J

    2010-08-01

    The effects of avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein on cell cycle progression and host cellular protein translation were studied. ARV infection and ARV p17 transfection resulted in the accumulation of infected and/or transfected cells in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. The accumulation of cells in the G(2)/M phase was accompanied by upregulation and phosphorylation of the G(2)/M-phase proteins ATM, p53, p21(cip1/waf1), Cdc2, cyclin B1, Chk1, Chk2, and Cdc25C, suggesting that p17 induces a G(2)/M cell cycle arrest through activation of the ATM/p53/p21(cip1/waf1)/Cdc2/cyclin B1 and ATM/Chk1/Chk2/Cdc25C pathways. The G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted in increased virus replication. In the present study, we also provide evidence demonstrating that p17 protein is responsible for ARV-induced host cellular protein translation shutoff. Increased phosphorylation levels of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and initiation factor eIF2alpha and reduced phosphorylation levels of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4E, eIF4B, and eIF4G, as well as 4E-BP1 and Mnk-1 in p17-transfected cells, demonstrated that ARV p17 suppresses translation initiation factors and translation elongation factors to induce host cellular protein translation shutoff. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin resulted in a decrease in the levels of phosphorylated 4E-BP1, eIF4B, and eIF4G and an increase in the levels eEF2 but did not affect ARV replication, suggesting that ARV replication was not hindered by inhibition of cap-dependent translation. Taken together, our data indicate that ARV p17-induced G(2)/M arrest and host cellular translation shutoff resulted in increased ARV replication.

  20. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  1. Heat Shock Protein 90 Positively Regulates Chikungunya Virus Replication by Stabilizing Viral Non-Structural Protein nsP2 during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Indrani Das; Itishree Basantray; Prabhudutta Mamidi; Tapas K. Nayak; Pratheek B M; Subhasis Chattopadhyay; Soma Chattopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent massive global outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emphasize the need to understand the biology of the virus for developing effective antiviral therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanism involved in Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) mediated regulation of CHIKV infection in mammalian cells using CHIKV prototype strain (S 27) and Indian outbreak strain ...

  2. Specific interaction of the nonstructural protein NS1 of minute virus of mice (MVM) with [ACCA](2) motifs in the centre of the right-end MVM DNA palindrome induces hairpin-primed viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwand, Kurt; Moroianu, Adela; Hörlein, Rita; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Rommelaere, Jean

    2002-07-01

    The linear single-stranded DNA genome of minute virus of mice (MVM) is replicated via a double-stranded replicative form (RF) intermediate DNA. Amplification of viral RF DNA requires the structural transition of the right-end palindrome from a linear duplex into a double-hairpin structure, which serves for the repriming of unidirectional DNA synthesis. This conformational transition was found previously to be induced by the MVM nonstructural protein NS1. Elimination of the cognate NS1-binding sites, [ACCA](2), from the central region of the right-end palindrome next to the axis of symmetry was shown to markedly reduce the efficiency of hairpin-primed DNA replication, as measured in a reconstituted in vitro replication system. Thus, [ACCA](2) sequence motifs are essential as NS1-binding elements in the context of the structural transition of the right-end MVM palindrome.

  3. Heat shock protein 90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing viral non-structural protein nsP2 during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent massive global outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV emphasize the need to understand the biology of the virus for developing effective antiviral therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanism involved in Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 mediated regulation of CHIKV infection in mammalian cells using CHIKV prototype strain (S 27 and Indian outbreak strain of 2006 (DRDE-06. Our results showed that Hsp90 is required at a very early stage of viral replication and Hsp90 inhibitor Geldanamycin (GA can abrogate new virus particle formation more effectively in the case of S 27 than that of DRDE-06. Further analysis revealed that CHIKV nsP2 protein level is specifically reduced by GA treatment as well as HSP90-siRNA transfection; however, viral RNA remains unaltered. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that nsP2 interacts with Hsp90 during infection; however this interaction is reduced in the presence of GA. In addition, our analysis on Hsp90 associated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway demonstrated that CHIKV infection stabilizes Raf1 and activates Hsp90 client protein Akt, which in turn phosphorylates mTOR. Subsequently, this phosphorylation leads to the activation of two important downstream effectors, S6K and 4EBP1, which may facilitate translation of viral as well as cellular mRNAs. Hence, the data suggests that CHIKV infection is regulated by Hsp90 associated Akt phosphorylation and DRDE-06 is more efficient than S 27 in enhancing the activation of host signaling molecules for its efficient replication and virus production. CONCLUSION: Hsp90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing CHIKV-nsP2 through its interaction during infection. The study highlights the possible molecular mechanism of GA mediated inhibition of CHIKV replication and differential effect of this drug on S 27 and DRDE-06

  4. 口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白3AB的原核表达及应用%Expression and utilization of 3AB nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Eschertchia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军军; 常惠芸; 林彤; 丛国正; 独军政; 高闪电

    2011-01-01

    To develop a sensitive and specific ELISA for detection of antibodies to the nonstructural protein of FMDV.We cloned and expressed FMDV nonstructural protein 3AB in Escherichia coil expression system. The recombinant protein 3AB was purified with Ni-NTA His.Bind Resins and characterized by Western blotting. An indirect ELISA based on purified protein 3AB as a coating antigen was established. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay were evaluated by comparison with a commercial 3ABC-ELISA kit in detecion of serum samples. The results showed that the recombinant protein 3AB was expressed as a formation of inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The purified protein could specificially react with FMDV infection antibodies in Western blotting assay, but no reaction with the immune antibodies induced with vaccine. Two assays were no significant differences in specificity and sensitivity for detection of field samples (p>0.05). Therefore, we speculated that the recombinant protein 3AB is a promising molecular marker, which may effectively differentiate FMD-infected fromvaccinated animals in a herd.%旨在建立一种检测口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白抗体的敏感、特异的ELISA方法,克隆、表达了口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白3AB基因,原核表达的重组蛋白经亲和层析法纯化及Western blotting鉴定后作为包被抗原,建立检测口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白抗体的3AB间接ELISA方法,通过与商品化试剂盒3ABC-ELISA的比对试验对其进行评价,结果显示,重组蛋白3AB以包涵体形式表达;能与口蹄疫病毒感染血清发生特异性反应,而不能与疫苗免疫动物血清发生反应;在检测田间样品时,与3ABC-ELISA具有同样的特异性和敏感性(P>0.05).因此,认为重组蛋白3AB是一种十分有用的分子标记物,能有效区分口蹄疫病毒感染动物和疫苗免疫动物.

  5. Differentiation of infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease by the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins 3D, 3AB and 3ABC in ELISA using antigens expressed in baculovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Madsen, K.G.; Madsen, E.S.;

    1998-01-01

    a positive result in both the 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA's. Two cattle that had been both vaccinated and infected also gave, positive results in both tests, suggesting that the 3AB and 3ABC ELISA's, but not the 3D ELISA might represent a reliable means of detecting infection in a vaccinated population.......The baculovirus expression system was found to be efficient at expressing the 3D, the 3AB and the 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as antigens recognised by immune sera in ELISA. ELISA's using 3D, 3AB and 3ABC detected antibodies from day 8 and 10 after...... experimental infection of susceptible cattle and sheep and cattle remained seropositive for more than 395 days. The ELISA's detected antibodies against any of the seven serotypes of FMDV. The 3D ELISA was specific and precise and as sensitive as established ELISA's which measure antibody to structural proteins...

  6. Role of Non-Structural Protein P48 and P22 in Norovirus-Caused In-fection%非结构蛋白P48和P22在诺如病毒感染中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思达; 井申荣; 李利

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus ( Nov) belongs to the family of human Caliciviridae.It is a major causa-tive agent of viral gastroenteritis.The non-structural protein P48 of Nov may interact with the Golgi apparatus, resulting in the destruction of protein transport.The non-structural protein P22 of Nov can inhibit the secretion of cell proteins.The studies on the non-structural proteins P48 and P22 not only lay a foundation for understanding the replication of norovirus and its pathogenesis , but also provide a new direction of developing the antiviral drugs.%诺如病毒(norovirus, Nov)属于人类杯状病毒科,是引起病毒性腹泻的主要病原之一。诺如病毒非结构蛋白P48可能与高尔基体有相互作用,破坏蛋白质的运输。而非结构蛋白P22能抑制细胞的蛋白分泌。这些研究对了解诺如病毒复制和致病机理奠定基础,同时也为抗病毒的药物开发提供方向。

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein is essential for virus viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichang; Li, Yanhua; Liu, Runxia; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Fei; Lin, Tao; Huang, Ting; Yao, Huochun; Tong, Guangzhi; Fan, Hongjie; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that ORF5a protein in EAV is important but not essential for virus infectivity. In this study, we found that RNA changes in the overlapping region (1-104 nucleotide, nt) between ORF5 and ORF5a introduced by codon-optimized GP5 was lethal for virus viability, suggesting that the nt changes or amino acid (aa) mutations in the GP5 or ORF5a protein did not permit the production of infectious virus. Furthermore, inactivation of ORF5a expression in the context of type 1 (pSHE) and type 2 (pAJXM and pAPRRS) full-length PRRSV cDNA clones was lethal for the production of infectious virus, while viable PRRSV could be recovered by expressing ORF5a protein in trans, suggesting that ORF5a protein was essential for virus viability. Finally, ORF5a protein could be putatively extended to 63 aas by inactivation of the downstream stop codon candidates, thereby demonstrating that the C-terminus of ORF5a may be variable.

  8. Development of a Blocking ELISA Using a Monoclonal Antibody to a Dominant Epitope in Non-Structural Protein 3A of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus, as a Matching Test for a Negative-Marker Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanfang; Li, Pinghua; Cao, Yimei; Wang, Na; Sun, Pu; Shi, Qian; Ji, Xincheng; Bao, Huifang; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Xueqing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. Strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) remain very important for controlling disease. Development of an epitope-deleted marker vaccine and accompanying diagnostic method will improve the efficiency of DIVA. Here, a monoclonal antibody (Mab) was found to recognize a conserved “AEKNPLE” epitope spanning amino acids 109–115 of non-structural protein (NSP) 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV; O/Tibet/CHA/99 strain), which could be deleted by a reverse-genetic procedure. In addition, a blocking ELISA was developed based on this Mab against NSP 3A, which could serve as a matching test for a negative-marker vaccine. The criterion of this blocking ELISA was determined by detecting panels of sera from different origins. The serum samples with a percentage inhibition (PI) equal or greater than 50% were considered to be from infected animals, and those with <50% PI were considered to be from non-infected animals. This test showed similar performance when compared with other 2 blocking ELISAs based on an anti-NSP 3B Mab. This is the first report of the DIVA test for an NSP antibody based on an Mab against the conserved and predominant “AEKNPLE” epitope in NSP 3A of FMDV. PMID:28107470

  9. Research Progress in the Structure and Function of Dengue Virus Non-structural 1 Protein%登革病毒非结构蛋白1结构及功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月; 任瑞文; 刘建伟

    2014-01-01

    登革病毒(Dengue virus,DENV)是一种严重威胁我国南方地区公众健康的虫媒病毒,无特异性的治疗方法和疫苗.单纯的登革病毒结构蛋白疫苗不能诱导针对四种血清型DENV的均衡、持久的保护性免疫,可能需要非结构蛋白成分.DENV非结构蛋白1(Non-structural 1 protein,NS1)在登革病毒致病和保护性机制中具有重要的作用,该蛋白诱导的免疫可能在防治登革疾病中具有重要的作用.本文就DENV NS1结构及功能的研究进展作一综述.

  10. HCV NS5A abrogates p53 protein function by interfering with p53-DNA binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhong Gong; Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Li-Ying Lai; Ying-Hua Zhu; Xian-Shi Su

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibition effect of HCV NS5A on p53 transactivation on p21 promoter and explore its possible mechanism for influencing p53 function.METHODS: p53 function of transactivation on p21 promoter was studied with a luciferase reporter system in which the luciferase gene is driven by p21 promoter, and the p53-DNA binding ability was observed with the use of electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Lipofectin mediated p53 or HCV NS5A expression vectors were used to transfect hepatoma cell lines to observe whether HCV NS5A could abrogate the binding ability of p53 to its specific DNA sequence and p53 transactivation on p21 promoter.Western blot experiment was used for detection of HCV NS5A and p53 proteins expression.RESULTS: Relative luciferase activity driven by p21 promoter increased significantly in the presence of endogenous p53 protein. Compared to the control group, exogenous p53 protein also stimulated p21 promoter driven luciferase gene expression in a dose-dependent way. HCV NS5A protein gradually inhibited both endogenous and exogenous p53 transactivation on p21 promoter with increase of the dose of HCV NS5A expression plasmid. By the experiment of EMSA, we could find p53 binding to its specific DNA sequence and, when co-transfected with increased dose of HCV NS5A expression vector, the p53 binding affinity to its DNA gradually decreased and finally disappeared. Between the Huh 7 cells transfected with p53 expression vector alone or co-transfected with HCV NS5A expression vector, there was no difference in the p53 protein expression.CONCLUSION: HCV NS5A inhibits p53 transactivation on p21 promoter through abrogating p53 binding affinity to its specific DNA sequence. It does not affect p53 protein expression.

  11. Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine micelles sustain the activity of Dengue non-structural (NS) protein 3 protease domain fused with the full-length NS2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiwei; Li, Qingxin; Joy, Joma; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Ruiz-Carrillo, David; Hill, Jeffrey; Lescar, Julien; Kang, Congbao

    2013-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the flavivirus genus, affects 50-100 million people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The DENV protease domain is located at the N-terminus of the NS3 protease and requires for its enzymatic activity a hydrophilic segment of the NS2B that acts as a cofactor. The protease is an important antiviral drug target because it plays a crucial role in virus replication by cleaving the genome-coded polypeptide into mature functional proteins. Currently, there are no drugs to inhibit DENV protease activity. Most structural and functional studies have been conducted using protein constructs containing the NS3 protease domain connected to a soluble segment of the NS2B membrane protein via a nine-residue linker. For in vitro structural and functional studies, it would be useful to produce a natural form of the DENV protease containing the NS3 protease domain and the full-length NS2B protein. Herein, we describe the expression and purification of a natural form of DENV protease (NS2BFL-NS3pro) containing the full-length NS2B protein and the protease domain of NS3 (NS3pro). The protease was expressed and purified in detergent micelles necessary for its folding. Our results show that this purified protein was active in detergent micelles such as lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine (LMPC). These findings should facilitate further structural and functional studies of the protease and will facilitate drug discovery targeting DENV.

  12. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  13. Hypusine-containing protein eIF5A promotes translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Preeti; Eyler, Daniel E; Green, Rachel; Dever, Thomas E

    2009-05-07

    Translation elongation factors facilitate protein synthesis by the ribosome. Previous studies identified two universally conserved translation elongation factors, EF-Tu in bacteria (known as eEF1A in eukaryotes) and EF-G (eEF2), which deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome and promote ribosomal translocation, respectively. The factor eIF5A (encoded by HYP2 and ANB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the sole protein in eukaryotes and archaea to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine), was originally identified based on its ability to stimulate the yield (endpoint) of methionyl-puromycin synthesis-a model assay for first peptide bond synthesis thought to report on certain aspects of translation initiation. Hypusine is required for eIF5A to associate with ribosomes and to stimulate methionyl-puromycin synthesis. Because eIF5A did not stimulate earlier steps of translation initiation, and depletion of eIF5A in yeast only modestly impaired protein synthesis, it was proposed that eIF5A function was limited to stimulating synthesis of the first peptide bond or that eIF5A functioned on only a subset of cellular messenger RNAs. However, the precise cellular role of eIF5A is unknown, and the protein has also been linked to mRNA decay, including the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, and to nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here we use molecular genetic and biochemical studies to show that eIF5A promotes translation elongation. Depletion or inactivation of eIF5A in the yeast S. cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of polysomes and an increase in ribosomal transit times. Addition of recombinant eIF5A from yeast, but not a derivative lacking hypusine, enhanced the rate of tripeptide synthesis in vitro. Moreover, inactivation of eIF5A mimicked the effects of the eEF2 inhibitor sordarin, indicating that eIF5A might function together with eEF2 to promote ribosomal translocation. Because eIF5A is a structural homologue of the bacterial

  14. Production of antiserum to a non-structural potyviral protein and its use to detect narcissus yellow stripe and other potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, W P; Dawson, S; Duncan, G H

    1989-08-01

    A protein, of apparent molecular weight 72,000, was purified from experimentally infected narcissus plants with yellow stripe symptoms utilising SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This protein was excised from the gels and used to prepare antiserum, which reacted specifically with cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions in ultra-thin sections of virus-infected cells and, in immunoblots, with the 72 kDa protein in preparations containing cytoplasmic inclusions. The antiserum reacted in ELISA with leaf extracts from yellow stripe diseased plants of four narcissus cultivars but not with extracts from comparable symptomless plants. In tests with extracts of plants infected with seven definitive potyviruses, reactions were obtained with bean yellow mosaic and iris mild mosaic viruses. Virus-specific reactions in dot-blot ELISA were dependent on the presence of Tween 20 in the extraction buffer. In contrast, an antiserum to the putative cytoplasmic inclusion protein of alstroemeria mosaic virus reacted only with SDS-treated leaf extracts of infected plants. In limited tests, the method of purifying cytoplasmic inclusion protein was successfully applied to four definitive potyviruses, suggesting that it may be generally applicable to potyviruses and of use for preparing antisera when purification of virus particles is difficult.

  15. Purification and characterization of Ras related protein, Rab5a from Tinospora cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Wahiduzzaman; Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    Ras related protein (Rab5a) is one of the most important member of the Rab family which regulates the early endosome fusion in endocytosis, and it also helps in the regulation of the budding process. Here, for the first time we report a simple and reproducible method for the purification of the Rab5a from a medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. We have used weak cation-exchange (CM-Sepharose-FF) followed by gel-filtration chromatography. A purified protein of 22-kDa was observed on SDS-PAGE which was identified as Rab5a using MALDI-TOF/MS. Our purification procedure is fast and simple with high yield. The purified protein was characterized using circular dichroism for the measurement of secondary structure followed by GdmCl- and urea-induced denaturation to calculate the values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD), ΔGD°, midpoint of the denaturation Cm, i.e. molar GdmCl [GdmCl] and molar urea [Urea] concentration at which ΔGD=0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[d]) values. Furthermore, thermodynamic properties of Rab5a were also measured by differential scanning calorimeter. Here, using isothermal calorimeteric measurements we further showed that Rab5a binds with the GTP. This is a first report on the purification and biophysical characterization of Rab5a protein from T. cordifolia.

  16. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  17. Development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2C'3AB-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiang-Tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an extremely contagious viral disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and many cloven-hoofed wild animals. FMDV serotypes O and Asia 1 have circulated separately in China during the last fifty years, and eliminating infected animals and vaccination are the main policies to prevent and control FMD. Antibodies to NSPs exist in infected animals, and were utilized to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The reliability of detection of 3AB or 3ABC antibodies is higher than that of other NSPs. The test of 3AB is still credible because 3C protein's immunogenicity is the weakest. The 2C protein, immediately N-terminal of 3AB, was used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The use of the immunochromatographic strip is facile for clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment and for rapid field diagnosis. Results In this study, an immunochromatographic strip with non-structural protein (NSP 2C'3AB was developed and validated to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease infected from vaccinated animals. A part of N-terminal of 2C protein gene and whole 3AB gene were connected and prokaryotically expressed as the antigens labeled with colloidal gold was used as the detector, the 2C'3AB protein and rabbits anti-2C'3AB antibodies were blotted on the nitrocellulose(NC membrane for the test and control lines, respectively. 387 serum samples were collected to evaluate the characteristics of the strip in comparison with existing commercial 3ABC antibody ELISA kit. The coincidence rate of pigs negative serum, pigs vaccinated serum, pigs infected serum was 100%, 97.2%, 95.0%, respectively. The coincidence rate of cattle negative serum, cattle vaccinated serum, cattle infected serum was 100%, 96.7%, 98.0%, respectively. The coincidence rate of sheep negative serum, sheep infected serum was 97.6%, 96.3%, respectively. The strip was shown to be of high specificity and sensitivity

  18. 丙型肝炎病毒非结构蛋白与宿主细胞蛋白相互作用的研究进展%Advances in research of interaction between hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins and host proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 冯国和

    2011-01-01

    丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)是继乙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis B virus,HBV)之后另一个导致慢性肝炎、肝硬化和肝癌的常见原因.目前HCV致病及致癌机制仍不清楚,也缺乏针对HCV有效的治疗方法及疫苗预防.肝炎病毒蛋白与受染细胞蛋白之间相互作用是肝炎发病机制研究的热点内容.近年研究发现HCV非结构蛋白通过与细胞蛋白相互作用对病毒自身复制、致癌、干扰素抵抗、糖及脂代谢异常等产生重要影响.本文就近年来HCV非结构蛋白与细胞蛋白相互作用的系列研究作一综述.%Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is another common cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatitis B virus (HBV). Up to now, the mechanisms by which HCV promotes persistent infection and cancer remain unclear, and there are neither effective drugs nor vaccines against HCV available. Interaction between virus proteins and host proteins is a hot topic in research of the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Recent research shows that interaction between HCV nonstructural proteins and host proteins has an important impact on viral replication, carcinogenesis, interferon resistance,and disorders of glycometabolism and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the recent advances in research of interaction between HCV nonstructural proteins and host proteins.

  19. Increased Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) Gene Expression and Steatosis During Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Subgenome Replication: Role of Nonstructural Component-5A (NS5A) and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein ß (C/EBPß)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, the pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) transcription and associated tra...

  20. Genomic characterization of echovirus 6 causing aseptic meningitis in Hokkaido, Japan: a novel cluster in the nonstructural protein coding region of human enterovirus B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Okano, Motohiko

    2013-04-01

    We determined four complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 6 (E6) isolated from an epidemic of aseptic meningitis (AM) in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding viral capsid protein 1 revealed that the strains were closely related to E6 strains isolated in China in recent years, but they were distantly related to E6 strains isolated from patients with AM in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. The genes encoding the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3CD) were closely related to those of several non-E6 strains of the species Human enterovirus B isolated in China, South Korea, and Australia from 1999 to 2010, resulting in a novel cluster in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that the incidence of AM in Japan in 2011 was caused by at least two lineages of E6 strains, and a lineage of the 3CD gene was interspersed among different serotypic strains isolated in Western Pacific countries.

  1. Loss of Wnt5a and Ror2 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Geng; Yong-Cheng Cao; Ying-Jian Chen; Hui Jiang; Li-Quan Bi; Xiao-Hong Liu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the expression and clinical significance of Wnt member 5a (Wnt5a) and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:In HCC tissues obtained from 85 patients,the protein expressions of Wnt5a,Ror2,β-catenin,and Ki-67 via immunohistochemical staining using the Envision Plus System.The antibody binding was visualized with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) before brief counterstaining with Mayer's hematoxylin.The degree of immunohistochemical staining was recorded using a semiquantitative and subjective grading system.The mRNA expression of Ror2 was examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,including nineteen of the 85 HCC and three normal liver tissues.The ratios of Ror2 to the housekeeping gene GAPDH represented the normalized relative levels of Ror2 expression.To determine the prognostic factor,the outcome of the 82 patients was determined by reviewing their medical charts.The overall and disease-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test.The prognostic analysis was carried out with univariate and multivariate Cox regressions models.RESULTS:Compared to nontumorous (hepatitis or cirrhotic) tissues,Ror2 mRNA expression was clearly decreased in HCC.Ror2 and Wnt5a protein expressions in the majority of HCC patients (63% and 77%,respectively) was significantly less in tumor tissues,as compared to adjacent nontumorous tissues,and this reduction was correlated with increasing serum α-fetoprotein and tumor stage.In 68% (58/85) of the HCC cases,the expression of β-catenin in tumor tissues was either downregulated in the cellular membrane,upregulated in the cytoplasm,or both.Survival analysis indicated that Wnt5a and Ror2 protein expressions could be regarded as independent prognostic factors for HCC; HCC patients with decreased Wnt5a or Ror2 protein expression had a poorer prognosis than those with

  2. Bioinformatics Analysis of Non-structural Protein 2 of PRRSV%猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒非结构蛋白2的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荡; 高歌; 周胜; 鲍梦雅; 茅翔

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to provide theoretical basis for constructing the antagonistic small-peptide and designing the related vaccine in clinic. [ Method] The bioinformaticg analysis was made on amino acid sequences of non-structural protein 2( Nsp 2) of PRRSV strain isolated in China on NCBI website. And its composition, physical and chemical characters, transmembrane domain, secondary structure, glycosylalion site, phosphorylation site and B cell epitope were predicted. [ Result] Nsp2 contained 7 transmembrane regions, 4 glycosy-lation sites and 76 phosphorylation sites. The content of random coil in the secondary structure was the highest (57.64% ). The comprehensive analysis showed that Nsp2 had a great lot of epitopee. [ Conclusion] The bioinformatic analysis of Nsp2 could provide theoretical basis for the vaccine design of PRRSV.%[目的]为临床上构建PRRSV的拮抗性小肽及相关疫苗设计提供理论参考.[方法]对NCBI上国内分离的PRRSV毒株(FJ 175688.1) Nsp2的氨基酸序列进行生物信息学方法分析,并对其组分、理化性质、跨膜结构域、二级结构、糖基化位点、磷酸化位点和B细胞抗原表位进行预测.[结果]Nsp2含有7段的跨膜区域,二级结构中自由卷曲含量最高(57.64%),同时含有4个糖基化位点和76个磷酸化位点.综合分析表明,Nsp2具有大量的抗原决定簇.[结论]通过对Nsp2的生物信息学分析,可为PRRSV疫苗设计提供理论基础.

  3. Bioinformatic analysis of the non-structural protein 1 of type 2 dengue virus%登革2型病毒非结构蛋白NS1的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐一鸣; 黄俊琪

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析登革2型病毒非结构蛋白NS1的结构和功能特征并预测其优势抗原表位.方法:利用NCBI、CBS等生物信息学网站和DNAStar、Vector NTI等软件包,分析登革2型病毒NS1的理化性质和结构与功能特征,及可能的空间结构和抗原表位.结果:NS1基因编码352个氨基酸,含12个保守的半胱氨酸.脂质含量相对较多,理化性质不稳定.无分泌型信号肽及跨膜结构,但存在多个糖基化、磷酸化、酰胺化位点.空间结构为一紧凑球形,N端和C端暴露于球体表面,线性B细胞抗原表位的区域较为密集.中段包埋于分子内部,但含有一些与血小板、血管内皮或纤维蛋白素原高度同源的B细胞表位序列,可能在登革出血热的病理过程中发挥重要作用.结论:NS1不仅是一个极具潜力的诊断性抗原,其抗原表位的预测将为登革病毒表位多肽疫苗的开发提供依据.%Objective Predict the structural and functional characteristics of the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus 2, as well as the predominant antigen epitope, by bioinformatics analysis in order to guide the experimental research on its biological function and application. Methods Utilizing the analysis tools provided by NCBI, CBS bioinformatics web sites and combination of bioinformatics software packages , such as DNAStar, Vector NTI, to identify the characteristics of NS1. Results The NS1 gene coding 352 amino acids which include 12 conservative cysteines. It carries no signal peptide in the N terminus and no transmembrane regions but with instable physico-chemical characteristics.The protein comprises of only one compact globular domain in the protein with both of the N-terminnus and C-terminnus fragment exposed on the surface where linear B cell epitopes are possibly intensive. Although embed internal sterically, it is found that some epitopes are highly cognated with thromboplastid and fibrinogen by blast analysis. Deduced conformational

  4. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein are not essential for virus viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Runxia; Li, Yanhua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Hongjie; Yuan, Shishan; Wei, Zuzhang; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-02-02

    ORF5a protein was recently identified as a novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The ORF5a protein possesses two cysteines at positions 29 and 30 that are highly conserved among type 2 PRRSV. In this study, the significance of the ORF5a protein cysteine residues on virus replication was determined based on a type 2 PRRSV cDNA clone (pAJXM). Each cysteine was substituted by serine or glycine and the mutations were introduced into pAJXM. We found that the replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 was lethal for virus viability, but all serine mutant clones produced infectious progeny viruses. This data indicated that cysteine residues in the ORF5a protein were not essential for replication of type 2 PRRSV. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay were used to study ORF5a protein interacted with other enveloped proteins. These results showed that ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself and interacted with GP4 and 2b protein. The replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 affected the ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself, which may account for the lethal phenotype of mutants carrying substitution of cysteine to glycine at position 30.

  5. Subcellular localization of the hypusine-containing eukaryotic initiation factor 5A by immunofluorescent staining and green fluorescent protein tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, David Li-En; Yu Chen, Kuang

    2002-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is the only protein in nature that contains hypusine, an unusual amino acid residue formed posttranslationally by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. Although the eIF-5A gene is essential for cell survival and proliferation, the precise function and localization of eIF-5A remain unclear. In this study, we have determined the subcellular distribution of eIF-5A by indirect immunofluorescent staining and by direct visualization of green fluorescent protein tagged eIF-5A (GFP-eIF5A). Immunofluorescent staining of the formaldehyde-fixed cells showed that eIF-5A was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Only the nuclear eIF-5A was resistant to Triton extraction. Direct visualization of GFP tagged eIF-5A in living cells revealed the same whole-cell distribution pattern. However, a fusion of an additional pyruvate kinase (PK) moiety into GFP-eIF-5A precluded the nuclear localization of GFP-PK-eIF-5A fusion protein. Fusion of the GFP-PK tag with three different domains of eIF-5A also failed to reveal any nuclear localization of the fusion proteins, suggesting the absence of receptor-mediated nuclear import. Using interspecies heterokaryon fusion assay, we could detect the nuclear export of GFP-Rev, but not of GFP-eIF-5A. The whole-cell distribution pattern of eIF-5A was recalcitrant to the treatments that included energy depletion, heat shock, and inhibition of transcription, translation, polyamine synthesis, or CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Collectively, our data indicate that eIF-5A gains nuclear entry via passive diffusion, but it does not undergo active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein modulates template selection by the RNA polymerase in in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V; Tunitskaya, Vera L; Ivanova, Olga N; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Makarov, Alexander A; Kukhanova, Marina K; Kochetkov, Sergey N

    2009-01-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A phosphoprotein is a component of virus replicase. Here we demonstrate that in vitro unphosphorylated NS5A protein inhibits HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity in polyA-oligoU system but has little effect on synthesis of viral RNA. The phosphorylated casein kinase (CK) II NS5A protein causes the opposite effect on RdRp in each of these systems. The phosphorylation of NS5A protein with CKII does not affect its affinity to the HCV RdRp and RNA. The NS5A phosphorylation with CKI does not change the RdRp activity. Herein we report evidence that the NS5A prevents template binding to the RdRp.

  7. 基孔肯雅病毒非结构蛋白基因合成中多位点缺失突变的校正方法%Correction of Multi-Site Deletions During Synthesis of Chikungunya Virus Non-Structure Protein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范华昊; 王娟; 安小平; 王晓娜; 李建彬; 陈斌; 李存; 米志强; 童贻刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Considering the multi-site deletions during gene synthesis of Chikungnnya vires non-structure protein gene, set up a novel method to correct those mutations simultaneously based on PCR. Methods: The sequence of Chikungnnya vires non-structure protein gene was synthesized based on PCR method. The positions of deletion in different clones were identified through alignment. Then the PCR was performed to amplify the correct part of the correct clone using previously synthesized oligo-nucleotides which overlaps and locates in the constant region. The above obtained fragments were further assembled by PCR using the outer oligonucleotides. The full gene was then sequenced. Results: The results of sequencing showed that the five deletion mutations in Chikungnnya non-structure protein gene synthesized were corrected after two-round PCR reaction. Conclusion: The correct sequence of Chikungnnya vires non-structure protein gene was obtained, and this method could be used to correct the multi-site deletions during gene synthesis effectively and efficiently.%目的:建立一种PCR方法,以快速校正基孔肯雅病毒非结构蛋白基因合成过程中发生的多位点缺失突变.方法:用PCR方法合成基孔肯雅病毒非结构蛋白基因;对测序的克隆进行序列比对,分析不同克隆上缺失突变发生的位置,以保守区域互相重叠的寡核苷酸为上下游引物、以该区域测序正确的克隆为模板进行PCR扩增,得到所需片段,再将这些片段用PCR方法进一步组装成完整的基因序列并进行测序.结果:测序结果表明,经过2次PCR扩增,校正了基孔肯雅病毒非结构蛋白基因合成过程中发生的5个位点缺失突变.结论:得到序列正确的基孔肯雅病毒非结构蛋白基因.在进行基因合成过程中如发生多位点缺失突变,可利用该方法同时对以上突变进行校正,无须再合成引物,降低了实验操作难度,并提高了实验效率.

  8. Cloning and characterization of hypusine-containing protein eIF5A from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Chang Hoon; Do, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2009-07-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in eukaryotic cells that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2(R)-hydroxybutyl)-lysine). We isolated a 1385-bp eIF5A cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 468 bp, which encodes a protein of 155 amino acids with a conserved hypusine modification site, from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Pairwise alignments revealed that flounder eIF5A had a high sequence identity with those of other known species including mammals. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of eIF5A mRNA was constitutively detected in various tissues of healthy flounder. In HINAE cells or flounder kidney infected with the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), the expression of eIF5A mRNA was slightly increased before cells showed cytopathic effects and then decreased when cells showed cytopathic effects. Treatment of N-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC-7), a potent inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, inhibited the expression of VHSV G protein in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a potential role for eIF5A and its hypusination in viral protein expression.

  9. Induced gene expression of the hypusine-containing protein eukaryotic initiation factor 5A in activated human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevec, D; Klier, H; Holter, W; Tschachler, E; Valent, P; Lottspeich, F; Baumruker, T; Hauber, J

    1994-11-08

    The hypusine-containing protein eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is a cellular cofactor critically required for the function of the Rev transactivator protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). eIF-5A localizes in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of mammalian cells, suggesting possible activities on the level of regulated mRNA transport and/or protein translation. In this report we show that eIF-5A gene expression is constitutively low but inducible with T-lymphocyte-specific stimuli in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals. In contrast, eIF-5A is constitutively expressed at high levels in human cell lines as well as in various human organs. Comparison of eIF-5A levels in the PBMCs of uninfected and HIV-1-infected donors shows a significant upregulation of eIF-5A gene expression in the PBMCs of HIV-1 patients, compatible with a possible role of eIF-5A in HIV-1 replication during T-cell activation.

  10. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-04-24

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors.

  11. Genetic diversity of NS5A protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 3a and its relationship to therapy response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahal Paula

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be related to the response to IFN therapy, the standard treatment for infection. In this study we analyzed the quasispecies composition of NS5A protein in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a, before IFN therapy. Methods Viral RNA was isolated from samples of 12 patients: four sustained virological responders (SVR, four non-responders (NR, and four end-of-treatment responders (ETR. cDNA was synthesized, the NS5A region was amplified and the fragments obtained were cloned. Fifteen clones from each patient were sequenced with eight primers, generating 179 contigs. Results Higher values for substitution (either synonymous or non-synonymous and for distance were found in the SVR group. However, the NR group showed relatively more non-synonymous mutations than the other groups, owing to the higher values of dN/dS in complete NS5A and most specific regions. Overall, NS5A protein is undergoing purifying selection, since all dN/dS ratios values are below 0.5. Conclusions Our study provides an overview of the genetic variability of complete NS5A protein in HCV genotype 3a.

  12. Purifying selection in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Abrahante, Juan E; Johnson, Craig R; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3466 type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amino acid substitutions in the non-structural proteins 4A or 4B modulate the induction of autophagy in West Nile virus infected cells independently of the activation of the unfolded protein response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Blazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Whereas the activation of autophagy in cells infected with other flaviviruses is well known, the interaction of WNV with the autophagic pathway still remains unclear and there are reports describing opposite findings obtained even analyzing the same viral strain. To clarify this controversy, we first analyzed the induction of autophagic features in cells infected with a panel of WNV strains. WNV was determined to induce autophagy in a strain dependent manner. We observed that all WNV strains or isolates analyzed, except for the WNV NY99 used, upregulated the autophagic pathway in infected cells. Interestingly, a variant derived from this WNV NY99 isolated from a persistently infected mouse increased LC3 modification and aggregation. Genome sequencing of this variant revealed only two non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions when compared to parental NY99 strain. These nucleotide substitutions introduced one amino acid replacement in NS4A and other in NS4B. Using genetically engineered viruses we showed that introduction of only one of these replacements was sufficient to upregulate the autophagic pathway. Thus, in this work we have shown that naturally occurring point mutations in the viral non structural proteins NS4A and NS4B confer WNV with the ability to induce the hallmarks of autophagy such as LC3 modification and aggregation. Even more, the differences on the induction of an autophagic response observed among WNV variants in infected cells did not correlate with alterations on the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, suggesting an uncoupling of UPR and autophagy during flavivirus infection. The findings here reported could help to improve the knowledge of the cellular processes involved on flavivirus-host cell interactions and contribute to the design of effective strategies to combat these pathogens.

  14. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  15. The archaebacterial hypusine-containing protein. Structural features suggest common ancestry with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartig, D; Lemkemeier, K; Frank, J; Lottspeich, F; Klink, F

    1992-03-01

    The amino acid hypusine is formed by post-translational modification of a lysine residue in eukaryotes and archaebacteria but up to now only the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-5A has been known to contain this unique component. We isolated and purified a hypusine-containing protein from the thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The mainly cytosolic protein comprised about 0.03% of the post-ribosomal supernatant protein. No other hypusine-containing protein could be detected in S. acidocaldarius. The molar ratio of hypusine/hypusine-containing protein was 1:1. SDS/PAGE showed a molecular mass of 16.8 kDa; a pI of 7.8 for the native protein resulted from IEF. The N-terminus was blocked. Four cyanogen bromide fragments were partially sequenced and used to derive two 17-base oligonucleotide probes. A 3-kb HindIII fragment of genomic DNA hybridizing with both probes was cloned. By sequencing of exonuclease III deletion clones an open reading frame of 405 nucleotides was found coding for a protein of 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. It contained all cyanogen bromide sequences analysed. Sequence alignment revealed that seven of eight residues around Lys40 in the Sulfolobus hypusine-containing protein were identical to the nonapeptides centered by hypusine in the three eIF-5A proteins sequenced so far. The Edman procedure gave no phenylthiohydantoin derivative for this position. For a central region of 44 residues a sequence similarity of 54% between the archaebacterial and eukaryotic proteins was calculated; for the total sequence about 33% similarity resulted. In addition, there were a number of conservative changes. The unique lysine modification surrounded by a conserved sequence strongly suggests a common ancestry of archaebacterial hypusine-containing protein and eIF-5A. Together with similarities in molecular mass and intracellular localization, it may point to an analogous biochemical function.

  16. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-06-15

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  17. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A modulates integrin β1-mediated epithelial cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Daria R; Akimov, Yevhen A; Rokka, Anne; Laajala, Teemu D; Aittokallio, Tero; Kouvonen, Petri; Pellinen, Teijo; Kuznetsov, Sergey G

    2016-10-07

    G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin β1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between GPRC5A and a receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, an upstream regulator of FAK, although its contribution to the observed adhesion phenotype is unclear. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role for GPRC5A in regulation of the ITGB1-mediated cell adhesion and it's downstream signaling, thus indicating a potential novel role for GPRC5A in human epithelial cancers.

  18. Regulation of steroid 5-{alpha} reductase type 2 (Srd5a2) by sterol regulatory element binding proteins and statin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Kyo [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 3244 McGaugh Hall, University of California, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Zhu, Bing [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0144 (United States); Jeon, Tae-Il [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 3244 McGaugh Hall, University of California, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Osborne, Timothy F., E-mail: tfosborn@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 3244 McGaugh Hall, University of California, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we show that sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate expression of Srd5a2, an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone in the male reproductive tract and is highly expressed in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate and skin. We show that Srd5a2 is induced in livers and prostate from mice fed a chow diet supplemented with lovastatin plus ezitimibe (L/E), which increases the activity of nuclear SREBP-2. The three fold increase in Srd5a2 mRNA mediated by L/E treatment was accompanied by the induction of SREBP-2 binding to the Srd5a2 promoter detected by a ChIP-chip assay in liver. We identified a SREBP-2 responsive region within the first 300 upstream bases of the mouse Srd5a2 promoter by co-transfection assays which contain a site that bound SREBP-2 in vitro by an EMSA. Srd5a2 protein was also induced in cells over-expressing SREBP-2 in culture. The induction of Srd5a2 through SREBP-2 provides a mechanistic explanation for why even though statin therapy is effective in reducing cholesterol levels in treating hypercholesterolemia it does not compromise androgen production in clinical studies.

  19. Crystal Structure of a Novel Dimeric Form of NS5A Domain I Protein from Hepatitis C Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Robert A.; Brodsky, Oleg; Hickey, Michael J.; Wells, Peter A.; Cronin, Ciarán N.; Pfizer

    2009-07-10

    A new protein expression vector design utilizing an N-terminal six-histidine tag and tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site upstream of the hepatitis C virus NS5A sequence has resulted in a more straightforward purification method and improved yields of purified NS5A domain I protein. High-resolution diffracting crystals of NS5A domain I (amino acids 33 to 202) [NS5A(33-202)] were obtained by using detergent additive crystallization screens, leading to the structure of a homodimer which is organized differently from that published previously (T. L. Tellinghuisen, J. Marcotrigiano, and C. M. Rice, Nature 435:374-379, 2005) yet is consistent with a membrane association model for NS5A. The monomer-monomer interface of NS5A(33-202) features an extensive buried surface area involving the most-highly conserved face of each monomer. The two alternate structural forms of domain I now available may be indicative of the multiple roles emerging for NS5A in viral RNA replication and viral particle assembly.

  20. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Piñeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E. Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis.

  1. The Nuclear Death Domain Protein p84N5; A Candidate Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    maintained in RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS and 0.2 unit/mL of pork insulin. SKBP-3 cells were maintained in McCoy’s 5a medium supplemented with 15... Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long term

  2. Recombinant Trichomonas vaginalis eIF-5A protein expressed from a eukaryotic system binds specifically to mammalian and putative trichomonal eIF-5A response elements (EREs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Carrillo, Laura Vázquez; Torres-Romero, Julio César; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Ponce-Regalado, María Dolores; Camarillo, César López; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2016-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis eIF-5A-like protein (TveIF-5A) belongs to the highly conserved eIF-5A family of proteins that contains a unique polyamine-derived amino acid, hypusine. Recently, we determined that the polyamine putrescine is required for tveif-5a mRNA stability, and it is necessary for stability and maturation of the TveIF-5A protein. Eukaryotic eIF-5A is known to be involved in mRNA turnover and is capable of sequence-specific RNA binding to eIF-5A response elements (EREs). These ERE sequences are present in diverse mammalian mRNAs, including human cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2). Here, we cloned the complete coding sequence of TveIF-5A and overexpressed it in a eukaryotic system. The recombinant protein (rTveIF-5A) was purified in soluble form using size-exclusion chromatography. Because of the polyamine-dependent regulation of TvCP39 (a protease of T. vaginalis) at the protein and RNA messenger (mRNA) levels, we looked for an ERE-like structure in the 3' region of tvcp39 mRNA. In RNA gel-shift assays, rTveIF-5A bound to transcripts at the EREs of cox-2 or tvcp39 mRNAs. This work shows the eIF-5A/ERE-like interaction in T. vaginalis.

  3. Progress on New Hepatitis C Virus Targets: NS2 and NS5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem, affecting about 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The replication machine of HCV is a multi-subunit membrane associated complex, consisting of nonstructural proteins (NS2-5B), which replicate the viral RNA genome. The structures of NS5A and NS2 were recently determined. NS5A is an essential replicase component that also modulates numerous cellular processes ranging from innate immunity to cell growth and survival. The structure reveals a novel protein fold, a new zinc coordination motif, a disulfide bond and a dimer interface. Analysis of molecular surfaces suggests the location of the membrane interaction surface of NS5A, as well as hypothetical protein and RNA binding sites. NS2 is one of two virally encoded proteases that are required for processing the viral polyprotein into the mature nonstructural proteins. NS2 is a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The C-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. The structure also reveals possible sites of membrane interaction, a rare cis-proline residue, and highly conserved dimer contacts. The novel features of both structures have changed the current view of HCV polyprotein replication and present new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  4. Quorum-sensing-directed protein expression in Serratia proteamaculans B5a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Beck; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo

    2003-01-01

    N-Acyl-L-homoserine-lactone-producing Serratia species are frequently encountered in spoiling foods of vegetable and protein origin. The role of quorum sensing in the food spoiling properties of these bacteria is currently being investigated. A set of luxR luxI homologous genes encoding a putative...

  5. Protein expression profile of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5, a sugarcane endophytic plant growth-promoting bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lery, Leticia M S; Coelho, Ana; von Kruger, Wanda M A; Gonçalves, Mayla S M; Santos, Marise F; Valente, Richard H; Santos, Eidy O; Rocha, Surza L G; Perales, Jonas; Domont, Gilberto B; Teixeira, Katia R S; Bertalan, Marcelo; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Bisch, Paulo M

    2008-04-01

    This is the first broad proteomic description of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophytic bacterium, responsible for the major fraction of the atmospheric nitrogen fixed in sugarcane in tropical regions. Proteomic coverage of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 was obtained by two independent approaches: 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF or TOF-TOF MS and 1-DE followed by chromatography in a C18 column online coupled to an ESI-Q-TOF or ESI-IT mass spectrometer. The 583 identified proteins were sorted into functional categories and used to describe potential metabolic pathways for nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, cofactors and energy production, according to the Enzyme Commission of Enzyme Nomenclature (EC) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases. The identification of such proteins and their possible insertion in conserved biochemical routes will allow comparisons between G. diazotrophicus and other bacterial species. Furthermore, the 88 proteins classified as conserved unknown or unknown constitute a potential target for functional genomic studies, aiming at the understanding of protein function and regulation of gene expression. The knowledge of metabolic fundamentals and coordination of these actions are crucial for the rational, safe and sustainable interference on crops. The entire dataset, including peptide sequence information, is available as Supporting Information and is the major contribution of this work.

  6. Differential Expression and Roles of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 5 and the Wingless Homolog Wnt5a in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, T; Kulwattanaporn, P; Hosur, K; Domon, H; Oda, M; Terao, Y; Maeda, T; Hajishengallis, G

    2017-05-01

    The Wingless/integrase-1 (Wnt) family of protein ligands and their functional antagonists, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), regulate various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to immunity and inflammation. Wnt5a and sFRP5 comprise a typical ligand/antagonist pair, and the former molecule was recently detected at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in human periodontitis. The main objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship of expression of Wnt5a and sFRP5 in human periodontitis (as compared to health) and to determine their roles in inflammation and bone loss in an animal model. We detected both Wnt5a and sFRP5 mRNA in human gingiva, with Wnt5a dominating in diseased and sFRP5 in healthy tissue. Wnt5a and sFRP5 protein colocalized in the gingival epithelium, suggesting epithelial cell expression, which was confirmed in cultured human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs). The HGEC expression of Wnt5a and sFRP5 was differentially regulated by a proinflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] from Porphyromonas gingivalis) in a manner consistent with the clinical observations (i.e., LPS upregulated Wnt5a and downregulated sFRP5). In HGECs, exogenously added Wnt5a enhanced whereas sFRP5 inhibited LPS-induced inflammation, as monitored by interleukin 8 production. Consistent with this, local treatment with sFRP5 in mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis inhibited inflammation and bone loss, correlating with decreased numbers of osteoclasts in bone tissue sections. As in humans, mouse periodontitis was associated with high expression of Wnt5a and low expression of sFRP5, although this profile was reversed after treatment with sFRP5. In conclusion, we demonstrated a novel reciprocal relationship between sFRP5 and Wnt5a expression in periodontal health and disease, paving the way to clinical investigation of the possibility of using the Wnt5a/sFRP5 ratio as a periodontitis biomarker. Moreover, we showed that sFRP5

  7. The interaction between the hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H

    2015-01-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B-NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits.

  8. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  9. Non-Structural Subtype Entailment in Automata Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Niehren, Joachim; Priesnitz, Tim

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Decidability of non-structural subtype entailment is a long standing open problem in programming language theory. In this paper, we apply automata theoretic methods to characterize the problem equivalently by using regular expressions and word equations. This characterization induces new results on non-structural subtype entailment, constitutes a promising starting point for further investigations on decidability, and explains for the first time why the problem is so d...

  10. eIF5A-PEAK1 Signaling Regulates YAP1/TAZ Protein Expression and Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadel, Jan; Choi, Sunkyu; Fujimura, Ken; Wang, Huawei; Zhang, Wei; Wyse, Meghan; Wright, Tracy; Gross, Emilie; Peinado, Carlos; Park, Hyun Woo; Bui, Jack; Kelber, Jonathan; Bouvet, Michael; Guan, Kun-Liang; Klemke, Richard L

    2017-04-15

    In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), mutant KRAS stimulates the translation initiation factor eIF5A and upregulates the focal adhesion kinase PEAK1, which transmits integrin and growth factor signals mediated by the tumor microenvironment. Although eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling contributes to multiple aggressive cancer cell phenotypes, the downstream signaling processes that mediate these responses are uncharacterized. Through proteomics and informatic analyses of PEAK1-depleted PDAC cells, we defined protein translation, cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cycle regulatory pathways as major pathways controlled by PEAK1. Biochemical and functional studies revealed that the transcription factors YAP1 and TAZ are key targets of eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling. YAP1/TAZ coimmunoprecipitated with PEAK1. Interfering with eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling in PDAC cells inhibited YAP/TAZ protein expression, decreasing expression of stem cell-associated transcription factors (STF) including Oct4, Nanog, c-Myc, and TEAD, thereby decreasing three-dimensional (3D) tumor sphere growth. Conversely, amplified eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling increased YAP1/TAZ expression, increasing expression of STF and enhancing 3D tumor sphere growth. Informatic interrogation of mRNA sequence databases revealed upregulation of the eIF5A-PEAK1-YAP1-TEAD signaling module in PDAC patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that eIF5A-PEAK1-YAP signaling contributes to PDAC development by regulating an STF program associated with increased tumorigenicity. Cancer Res; 77(8); 1997-2007. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a node protein in diminished tauopathy: a systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Castro-Alvarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. One of the main pathological changes that occurs in AD is the intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein in neurons. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5 is one of the major kinases involved in Tau phosphorylation, directly phosphorylating various residues and simultaneously regulating various substrates such as kinases and phosphatases that influence Tau phosphorylation in a synergistic and antagonistic way. It remains unknown how the interaction between CDK5 and its substrates promotes Tau phosphorylation, and systemic approaches are needed that allow an analysis of all the proteins involved. In this review, the role of the CDK5 signaling pathway in Tau hyperphosphorylation is described, an in silico model of the CDK5 signaling pathway is presented. The relationship among these theoretical and computational models shows that the regulation of Tau phosphorylation by PP2A and GSK3β is essential under basal conditions and also describes the leading role of CDK5 under excitotoxic conditions, where silencing of CDK5 can generate changes in these enzymes to reverse a pathological condition that simulates AD.

  12. 猪沙波病毒CH430株p70基因克隆与生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Porcine Sapovirus CH430 Non-structural Protein p70 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王恩丽; 柳纪省; 杨彬; 兰喜

    2014-01-01

    The non-structural protein p70 gene of PoSaV CH430 strain was cloned by RT-PCR and then se-quenced in our study. The results showed that the full length of p70 gene was 1 995 nt encoding a protein of 665 aa. Homology alignment and evolutionary tree showed that PoSaV CH430 strain belong to GⅢ. The bioinformatics anal-ysis demonstrated that the isoelectric point and molecular weight of non-structural protein p70 were 5 . 96 and 72 876. 6 u. The protein had no signal peptide and transmenbrane domain. There were 25 phosphorylation sites inclu-ding 6 Sers,13 Thrs and 6 Tyrs. Protein phosphorylation was concerned with signal transduction,so this protein may be a signaling molecule. There were Trypsin-like serine proteases and RdRp functional domain. Main structure of trypsin-like serine proteases functional domain was a column structure and an incompleteβ-barrel. Main structure of RdRp functional domain was a fold whose organisation has been likened to the shape of a right hand with three sub-domains termed fingers,palm and thumb.%利用RT-PCR方法从猪沙波病毒CH430株中克隆出非结构蛋白p70基因并测序,结果显示,p70基因全长1995 nt,编码665个氨基酸,经同源性比对及遗传进化树分析表明,CH430株为基因Ⅲ型沙波病毒毒株。生物信息学分析显示该蛋白理论等电点(pI)为5.96,理论分子质量为72876.6 u;其序列上共发现25个磷酸化位点,分别为Ser (6)、Thr(13)、Tyr(6),而蛋白的磷酸化与信号传导有关,预测该蛋白为一重要的信号传导分子;无信号肽和跨膜区;该蛋白含有胰蛋白酶样丝氨酸蛋白酶和RdRp功能域;胰蛋白酶样丝氨酸蛋白酶功能域核心结构为1个由7个β折叠形成柱状结构和1个由1个α螺旋和7个β折叠扭曲平行形成1个不完全的桶状结构共同组成,RdRp功能域核心结构为1个具有3个子结构域空间结构,该结构与右手掌在形态上非常相似,而3个子结构域也被认为是手指、手掌和拇指。

  13. 登革2型病毒贵州分离株NS1部分基因原核表达蛋白及其多克隆抗体制备%Prokaryotic expression and production of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 1 of the Guizhou strain of the dengue type 2 virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海东; 左丽; 任丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To prokaryotically express the nonstructural protein NS1 of the Guizhou strain of dengue virus type 2 and to prepare polyclonal antibodies against NS1. Methods A partial sequence of the NS1 gene of the M strain of dengue type 2 virus was inserted into the prokaryotic vector pET28a( + ) to construct an expression plasmid. NS1 fusion protein was expressed after the expression plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL2KDE3) and induced with IPTG. Purified NSl-poly(His)-tagged fusion protein was obtained from the expressed product using the His Trap Kit. Anti-NS1B antiserum against NS1 was prepared in mice and the antibody titer was determined with ELISA. Results NS1 of the dengue type 2 virus was successfully expressed as a fusion protein. Polyclonal antibodies against NS1 were prepared, and the antibody titer was 1: 800 according to ELISA. After purification, NS1 recombinant protein was combined with His monoclonal antibodies in Western blotting Conclusion The nonstructural protein of a partial sequence of the NS1 gene of the M strain of dengue type 2 virus was expressed prokaryotically, and effective and specific polyclonal antibodies were induced in mice. This provides a basis for further understanding of the structure and function of NS1 of the dengue virus.%目的 原核表达、纯化DENV-2贵州分离株NS1部分序列表达蛋白,并制备其多克隆抗体以研究其功能.方法 合成DENV-2 M株NS1部分基因序列,克隆到原核表达载体pET28(a),转化大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3);用IPTG诱导表达,Ni柱亲和层析纯化、回收融合蛋白;用纯化融合蛋白免疫BALB/c鼠,制备多克隆抗体,采用ELISA法检测抗体效价.结果 原核表达了NS1部分序列融合蛋白,并获得了其多克隆抗体,ELISA检测抗体效价为1∶800.Western blot检测该蛋白能被His标签抗体识别.结论 DENV-2M株NS1部分序列表达蛋白可诱导小鼠产生较高效价和特异性的多克隆抗体,为进一步研究DENV-2M株NS1

  14. A link between translation of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein and polymerase function; possible consequences for hyperphosphorylation of NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Christopher J; Brown, David; Griffin, Stephen; Challinor, Lisa; Rowlands, David J; Harris, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylation of NS5A is thought to play a key role in controlling hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication. Using a tetracycline-regulable baculovirus delivery system to introduce non-culture-adapted HCV replicons into HepG2 cells, we found that a point mutation in the active site of the viral polymerase, NS5B, led to an increase in NS5A hyperphosphorylation. Although replicon transcripts lacking elements downstream of NS5A also had altered NS5A hyperphosphorylation, this did not explain the changes resulting from polymerase inactivation. Instead, two additional findings may be related to the link between polymerase activity and NS5A hyperphosphorylation. Firstly, we found that disabling polymerase activity, either by targeted mutation of the polymerase active site or by use of a synthetic inhibitor, stimulated translation from the replicon transcript. Secondly, when the rate of translation of non-structural proteins from replicon transcripts was reduced by use of a defective encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site, there was a substantial decrease in NS5A hyperphosphorylation, but this was not observed when non-structural protein expression was reduced by simply lowering replicon transcript levels using tetracycline. Therefore, one possibility is that the point mutation within the active site of NS5B causes an increase in NS5A hyperphosphorylation because of an increase in translation from each viral transcript. These findings represent the first demonstration that NS5A hyperphosphorylation can be modulated without use of kinase inhibitors or mutations within non-structural proteins and, as such, provide an insight into a possible means by which HCV replication is controlled during a natural infection.

  15. PRRSV非结构蛋白2-半胱氨酸结构域的原核表达及抗原表位预测%The Gene Clone, Prokaryotic Expression and Antigen Epitopes Prediction of the Cysteine Domain of Nonstructural Protein 2 of PRRSV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周胜; 高歌; 孙荡; 鲍梦雅; 茅翔

    2012-01-01

    为了获得PRRSV非结构蛋白2-半胱氨酸结构域的高纯度原核表达蛋白以及了解该蛋白的抗原表位,试验以从PRRSV-VR2332毒株上提取的病毒全基因组RNA为模板,通过RT-PCR扩增非结构蛋白2-半胱氨酸结构域(Nsp2pro)基因,连接构建原核表达载体SUMO-Nsp2pro,转入宿主茵Rosetta2,经IPTG诱导,获得高浓度的可溶蛋白Nsp2pro,经亲和层析His-Bind后得到高纯度的目的蛋白。同时,运用生物信息学方法对Nsp2pro二级结构及抗原表位进行预测。结果显示,Nsp2pro的α螺旋及β折叠区域较多,转角区域较少,结构较为复杂,位于蛋白分子表面且亲水的区段很可能是B细胞表位的优势区段。获得较高纯度的蛋白,将为后续进一步研究Nsp2pro基因编码的蛋白在病毒复制过程中的作用奠定基础。%In order to acquire highly purified protein of cysteine domain of nonstructural protein 2 of PRRSV and acquaintance its antigen epiopes, the experiment were conducted with the genome extracted from PRRSV-VR2332 and got the gene of the cysteine domain of nonstructural protein 2 of PRRSV(Nsp2pro)by RT-PCR. Then,a recombinant plasmid named SUMO-Nsp2pro had been constructed, and then transformed SUMO-Nsp2pro into Rosetta2. Therefore,a large amount of Nsp2pro was obtained by IPTG. In the end,Nsp2pro was purified by His-Bind affinity chromatography,meanwhile predicted the second structure and antigen epiopes through means of hio-information,the results showed that Nsp2pro owned a great many Alpha regions and Beta regions while few of turn regions. The antigen epitopes were located in hydrolicity regions possibly. The obtained high purified protein would provide foundations for the further researches on Nsp2pro gene.

  16. 人星状病毒非结构蛋白酵母双杂交诱饵表达载体构建及酵母转化子特性鉴定%Construction of Yeast Two-Hybrid Bait Vector of HAstV Non-Struc-tural Protein and Characterization of Yeast Transformants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀; 崔成成; 杨思达; 黄芬; 曾韦锟; 井申荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a yeast two-hybrid bait vector of non-structure protein 1a/3 (nsP1a/3) of human astrovirus (HAstV), and to characterize the yeast transformants after elec-trotransformation of the recombinant plasmid into the yeast competent cells .Methods The coding sequence of HAstV nsP 1 a/3 obtained by PCR was inserted into the modified plasmid pGST 7.The re-combinant vector nsP1a/3-pGBST7 confirmed by DNA sequencing was transformed into the Y 2 HGo-ld yeast competent cells .The cytotoxicity of the expression products of the recombiant plasmid nsP1a/3-pGBST7 and the autoactivation of the report gene in yeast transformants were exam-ined.Results The sequencing of the nsP 1 a/3-pGBST7 vector showed that the recombinant bait plasmid was successfully constructed and the open reading frame of nsP 1a/3 insert was correct.After electrotransformation, it was found that the expression products of the nsP 1a/3-pGBST7 vector had no cytotoxicity to yeast transformants and also they did not activate the report gene .Conclusion The yeast two-hybrid bait vector of HAstV nsP 1 a/3 was successfully constructed , which laid a foun-dation for further studying the interaction of HAstV nsP 1 a/3 with target proteins and the replication mechanism of HAstV in host cells .%目的:构建人星状病毒非结构蛋白3( non-structure protein 1a/3, nsP1a/3)基因酵母双杂交诱饵重组质粒,电转化酵母感受态细胞后鉴定酵母转化子特性。方法聚合酶链反应扩增人星状病毒nsP1a/3编码的基因序列,定向插入到穿梭表达载体pGBKT7改造后的pGBST7中,测序确定无误后将其电转化到Y2HGold酵母感受态细胞中,对细胞特性即nsP1a/3-pGBST7诱饵质粒表达产物的毒性和报告基因自激活作用进行鉴定。结果测序结果表明诱饵重组质粒构建正确,阅读框无误。电转化酵母后,其表达产物对酵母细胞无毒性作用,对报告基因亦无激活作用。结论成功构建了

  17. Research progress on the structural and nonstructural proteins of group A rotavirus%A组轮状病毒结构和非结构蛋白的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郏继航; 杨学磊

    2015-01-01

    The group A rotavirus is the most important etiological agent of grave diarrhea in children under 5 years old,mainly causing fever,vomiting,diarrhea and other clinical symptoms,even severe dehydration or death.Study on the viral proteins of rotavirus may contribute to further understanding of its pathogenesis and developing new vaccines.In this article,the progresses on research of the structure,biological functions and immunological properties of group A rotavirus are reviewed.

  18. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey G. Quentin; Elizabeth A. Pinkard; Michael G. Ryan; David T. Tissue; L. Scott Baggett; Henry D. Adams; Pascale Maillard; Jacqueline Marchand; Simon M. Landhausser; Andre Lacointe; Yves Gibon; William R. L. Anderegg; Shinichi Asao; Owen K. Atkin; Marc Bonhomme; Caroline Claye; Pak S. Chow; Anne Clement-Vidal; Noel W. Davies; L. Turin Dickman; Rita Dumbur; David S. Ellsworth; Kristen Falk; Lucía Galiano; Jose M. Grunzweig; Henrik Hartmann; Gunter Hoch; Sharon Hood; Joanna E. Jones; Takayoshi Koike; Iris Kuhlmann; Francisco Lloret; Melchor Maestro; Shawn D. Mansfield; Jordi Martinez-Vilalta; Mickael Maucourt; Nathan G. McDowell; Annick Moing; Bertrand Muller; Sergio G. Nebauer; Ulo Niinemets; Sara Palacio; Frida Piper; Eran Raveh; Andreas Richter; Gaelle Rolland; Teresa Rosas; Brigitte Saint Joanis; Anna Sala; Renee A. Smith; Frank Sterck; Joseph R. Stinziano; Mari Tobias; Faride Unda; Makoto Watanabe; Danielle A. Way; Lasantha K. Weerasinghe; Birgit Wild; Erin Wiley; David R. Woodruff

    2016-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also...

  19. Combined prime-boost vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE using a recombinant vaccinia virus and a bacterial plasmid both expressing TBE virus non-structural NS1 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova LG

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous prime-boost immunization protocols using different gene expression systems have proven to be successful tools in protecting against various diseases in experimental animal models. The main reason for using this approach is to exploit the ability of expression cassettes to prime or boost the immune system in different ways during vaccination procedures. The purpose of the project was to study the ability of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV and bacterial plasmid, both carrying the NS1 gene from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE virus under the control of different promoters, to protect mice against lethal challenge using a heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol. Results The heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol, using a VV recombinant and bacterial plasmid, both containing the NS1 TBE virus protein gene under the control of different promoters, achieved a high level of protection in mice against lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic TBE virus strain. No signs of pronounced TBE infection were detected in the surviving animals. Conclusion Heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocols using recombinant VV and bacterial plasmids could be used for the development of flavivirus vaccines.

  20. Effect of dietary concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrate on energy and nitrogen metabolism and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, C A; Stokes, M R; Hoover, W H; Leonard, H A; Junkins, L L; Sniffen, C J; Mailman, R W

    1983-01-01

    Two complete blended diets with a ratio of concentrate: silage dry matter of 60:40 were fed to 12 Holstein cows in the first 12 wk of lactation in an incomplete changeover arrangement of treatments. Diets differed (dry basis) in content of total nonstructural carbohydrate (24.9% versus 32.9%), neutral detergent fiber (37.0% versus 32.1%), and hemicellulose (19.6% versus 15.7%) but were similar in amounts of lignin, crude protein, soluble nitrogen, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The diet with more total nonstructural carbohydrate was associated with greater dry matter intake as a percentage of body weight and greater yields of milk and solids-not-fat. Cellulose digestibility and mean rumen ammonia concentration were lower with this diet. Despite similar protein solubilities, the diet with more total nonstructural carbohydrate contained more rumen degradable nitrogen (80% versus 60%) but similar amounts of rumen degradable dry matter (82% versus 79%). The metabolizable energy of this diet was used more efficiently for the combined functions of maintenance and production, and net energy for lactation was larger (2.2 versus 1.9 Mcal/kg dry matter), as measured calorimetrically.

  1. Structural modeling and mutational analysis of yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A reveal new critical residues and reinforce its involvement in protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Camila A. O.; Cano, Veridiana S. P.; Rangel, Suzana M.; Apponi, Luciano H.; Frigieri, Mariana C.; Muniz, João R. C.; Garcia, Wanius; Park, Myung H.; Garratt, Richard C.; Zanelli, Cleslei F.; Valentini, Sandro R.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein that is highly conserved and essential for cell viability. This factor is the only protein known to contain the unique and essential amino acid residue hypusine. This work focused on the structural and functional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A. The tertiary structure of yeast eIF5A was modeled based on the structure of its Leishmania mexicana homologue and this model was used to predict the structural localization of new site-directed and randomly generated mutations. Most of the 40 new mutants exhibited phenotypes that resulted from eIF-5A protein-folding defects. Our data provided evidence that the C-terminal α-helix present in yeast eIF5A is an essential structural element, whereas the eIF5A N-terminal 10 amino acid extension not present in archaeal eIF5A homologs, is not. Moreover, the mutants containing substitutions at or in the vicinity of the hypusine modification site displayed nonviable or temperature-sensitive phenotypes and were defective in hypusine modification. Interestingly, two of the temperature-sensitive strains produced stable mutant eIF5A proteins – eIF5AK56A and eIF5AQ22H,L93F – and showed defects in protein synthesis at the restrictive temperature. Our data revealed important structural features of eIF5A that are required for its vital role in cell viability and underscored an essential function of eIF5A in the translation step of gene expression. PMID:18341589

  2. Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Jonathan C.; Sokoloski, Kevin J.; Gebhart, Natasha N.; Hardy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The members of the genus Alphavirus are positive-sense RNA viruses, which are predominantly transmitted to vertebrates by a mosquito vector. Alphavirus disease in humans can be severely debilitating, and depending on the particular viral species, infection may result in encephalitis and possibly death. In recent years, alphaviruses have received significant attention from public health authorities as a consequence of the dramatic emergence of chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean islands and ...

  3. A Rubric for Evaluating Essays from Non-structural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春艳

    2009-01-01

    Composition writing is part of College English teaching.Students'problems in writing fall into two categories:structural problems and non-structural problems.The former cover problems with grammar,punctuation,capitalization,word spelling,and organization of paragraphs.The latter are related to cohesion and coherence.However,there has been lack of detailed and feasible rubrics for evaluating students'compositions.By analyzing 50 published English expository essays from English fast reading materials we got clearer idea about authentic assessment;in turn,presented a rubric for evaluating students'essays,especially from non-structural perspective.It is hoped that English teachers will work out more effective means by which compositions are more oNectively evaluated and more reasonably graded.

  4. Enhancement of CD8+T cell immune response of nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the immunized guinea pigs%口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白对豚鼠CD8~+T细胞应答的免疫增强作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英军; 郑海学; 张艳; 靳野; 杨帆; 张志东; 刘湘涛

    2012-01-01

    为了整体评价口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白和前导蛋白对免疫应答的影响,选用反向遗传操作技术构建的与野生型毒株(Mya98/BY/2010)P1基因相同而非结构蛋白和前导蛋白不同的重组病毒(分别被命名为Re-Mya98/BY/2010)和Mya98/BY/2010)作为抗原,经BEI灭活后与4种佐剂乳化,制备不同的疫苗作为免疫原。然后免疫豚鼠,利用流式细胞仪检测免疫豚鼠CD4+T细胞和CD8+T细胞亚群的含量,ELISA方法检测免疫豚鼠血清中抗体应答。免疫后第28天进行攻毒试验。结果,抗原剂量相同的条件下,重组Re-Mya98/BY/2010疫苗比Mya98/BY/2010疫苗更能有效诱导CD8+亚群,每个时间点都含有较高的含量。ELISA结果显示,Mya98/BY/2010和Re-Mya98/BY/2010抗原都能诱导抗体应答,早期Re-Mya98/BY/2010诱导更高的抗体应答。豚鼠攻毒后,免疫Re-Mya98/BY/2010疫苗的保护率分别达到100%、83.33%、100%和50%,而免疫Mya98/BY/2010疫苗的保护率仅为20%、0、17%和25%,两者具有明显的统计学差异。结果表明,口蹄疫非结构蛋白在诱导免疫应答方面具有显著的诱导CD8+T淋巴细胞应答和提高免疫保护率的作用。%To examine the role of nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV) in induction of protective immune response,the recombinant virus Re-Mya98/BY/2010 was constructed by replacing the structural protein-coding gene of the O vaccine strain,with that of the wild type strain Mya98/BY/2010.The immunogenicity of the recombinant and wild-type viruses was then investigated in immunized guinea pigs.Both the recombinant and wild-type viruses was inactivated with BEI and formulated with four different adjuvants(EMULSIGEN-BCL,EMULSIGEN-D,ISA206 and POLYGEN).The guinea pigs were vaccinated muscularly and challenged with Mya98/BY/2010 on day 28 post-vaccination.Cellular and humoral immune responses on different days post-vaccination were then analyzed.In result,the stronger

  5. 流行性乙型脑炎病毒非结构蛋白1基因的克隆及其在昆虫细胞中的表达%Cloning and Expression of the Nonstructural Protein 1 Gene of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Insect Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢荣辉; 程胤凯; 朱函坪; 翁景清; 徐芳; 姚苹苹; 朱智勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 获得流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒非结构蛋白1(Non-structural Protein 1,NS1)基因并在昆虫细胞中表达,为研制乙脑病毒基因工程疫苗奠定基础.方法 逆转录-聚合酶链反应扩增乙脑病毒NS1基因并测序列,定向克隆入杆状病毒(Baculovirus,BV)转移载体pFastBac HTa,获得重组转移载体pFastBac-NS1.并将pFastBac-NS1转化到DH1OBac感受态细胞中,筛选到重组转座子rBacmid-NS1.在脂质体介导下将rBacmid-NS1 转染粉蚊夜蛾(Trichoplusia ni,TN)细胞获得重组BV(rBV-NSI).rBV-NS1感染TN细胞后,通过十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酞胺凝胶电泳(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacryamide Gel Eleetrophoresis,SDS-PAG)、间接免疫荧光试验(Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay,IFA)和蛋白质印迹法(Western blotting,WB)检测NS1 重组蛋白.结果 成功克隆乙脑病毒NS1 基因,SDS-PAGE、IFA和WB检测表明,NS1基因在昆虫细胞得到表达,能与乙脑患者血清发生特异性免疫反应,具有免疫原性.结论 乙脑病毒NS1 在昆虫细胞中表达,为研究NS1 的生物学特性和研制基因工程疫苗奠定了基础.%Objective To express the non-structral protein 1 (NS1)genes of Japanese encephalitis virus, and study the antigenicity and establish the basis for developing the diagnosis kit.Methods The NS1 cDNA was amplified with RT-PCR and cloned into the transfer plasmid pFastBac HTa, then the recombianat transfer plasmid pFastBac-NS1 was transformed into DH10Bac competent cells.The recombinant transposition rBacmid-NS1 was obstained by screening of white plaque and was identified by PCR.After the rBacmid-NS1 transfected into TN cells,the recombinant baculovirus rBV-NS1 was harvested.The expressed protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot.Results The SDSPAGE and Western blot showed that the NS1 gene was well expressed, and the expressed product had antigenicity.Conclusions The stable expression of this protein and the analysis of its antigenic specificity

  6. Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleskog Carina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNT-5A signaling in the central nervous system is important for morphogenesis, neurogenesis and establishment of functional connectivity; the source of WNT-5A and its importance for cellular communication in the adult brain, however, are mainly unknown. We have previously investigated the inflammatory effects of WNT/β-catenin signaling in microglia in Alzheimer's disease. WNT-5A, however, generally recruits β-catenin-independent signaling. Thus, we aim here to characterize the role of WNT-5A and downstream signaling pathways for the inflammatory transformation of the brain's macrophages, the microglia. Methods Mouse brain sections were used for immunohistochemistry. Primary isolated microglia and astrocytes were employed to characterize the WNT-induced inflammatory transformation and underlying intracellular signaling pathways by immunoblotting, quantitative mRNA analysis, proliferation and invasion assays. Further, measurements of G protein activation by [γ-35 S]GTP binding, examination of calcium fluxes and cyclic AMP production were used to define intracellular signaling pathways. Results Astrocytes in the adult mouse brain express high levels of WNT-5A, which could serve as a novel astroglia-microglia communication pathway. The WNT-5A-induced proinflammatory microglia response is characterized by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines, chemokines, enhanced invasive capacity and proliferation. Mapping of intracellular transduction pathways reveals that WNT-5A activates heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins to reduce cyclic AMP levels and to activate a Gi/o protein/phospholipase C/calcium-dependent protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 axis. We show further that WNT-5A-induced ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for distinct aspects of the proinflammatory transformation, such as matrix metalloprotease 9/13 expression, invasion and proliferation. Conclusions

  7. Two isoforms of eIF-5A in chick embryo. Isolation, activity, and comparison of sequences of the hypusine-containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, E C; Kinzy, T G; Merrick, W C; Park, M H

    1992-03-25

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) (older terminology, eIF-4D) is unique in that it contains the unusual amino acid hypusine (N epsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine). Hypusine is formed by a post-translational event in which a specific lysine residue is modified by a structural contribution from spermidine. Metabolic labeling of chick embryo fibroblasts with [3H]spermidine or [3H]lysine gives rise to two distinct proteins, designated I (approximately 20 kDa and pI 5.6) and II (approximately 18 kDa and pI 5.35), that contain [3H]hypusine. Upon incubation with [3H]lysine the labeling of the two proteins followed a similar time course and showed approximately the same ratio over the 6-h incubation period. [3H]Hypusine-containing proteins from cells which had been cultured with [3H]spermidine were employed as tracers for isolation of hypusine-containing proteins from whole chick embryos. Four such proteins were obtained. Two of these proteins, I and II, correspond to the two native proteins synthesized in chick embryo fibroblasts; the other two forms, Ia and IIa, displayed properties suggesting that they were derived from the native proteins, I and II, respectively, during purification. The amino acid compositions and the tryptic peptide maps of the 20-kDa protein (I) and the 18 kDa protein (II) suggest that they are closely related but distinct proteins. In fact, amino acid sequence analysis of the two major proteins revealed differences in the polypeptide backbone of the two proteins. In spite of structural differences, the two native forms (I and II), as well as the two altered forms (Ia and IIa), were effective in stimulating methionyl-puromycin synthesis, providing evidence that they are indeed functional isoforms of eIF-5A.

  8. Development of surface-based assays for transmembrane proteins: selective immobilization of functional CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silin, Vitalii I; Karlik, Evan A; Ridge, Kevin D; Vanderah, David J

    2006-02-15

    A general method to develop surface-based assays for transmembrane (TM) receptor function(s) without the need to isolate, purify, and reconstitute the proteins is presented. Based on the formation of an active surface that selectively immobilizes membrane vesicles, the method is illustrated using the chemokine receptor CCR5, a member of the largest family of cell surface eukaryotic TM proteins, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The method begins with a protein-resistant surface containing a low percentage (1-5%) of surface-bound biotin on gold as the initial template. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data show specific immobilization of functional CCR5 after the initial template is activated by immobilization of rho 1D4 antibody, an anti-rhodopsin monoclonal antibody specific for the carboxyl terminal nine amino acids on bovine rhodopsin that had been engineered into the carboxyl terminus of CCR5, and exposure to vesicles obtained from mammalian cells transfected with a synthetic human CCR5 gene. Activation of the initial template is effected by sequential immobilization of avidin, which binds to the biotin in the initial template, a biotinylated goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (Bt-IgG), which binds to the avidin binding sites distal to the surface and the F(c) portion of the rho 1D4 antibody through its F(ab) region(s) and finally rho 1D4. This approach establishes a broad outline for the development and application of various assays for CCR5 functions. SPR data also showed that vesicle immobilization could be achieved through an integrin-integrin antibody interaction after activation of the initial template with a goat anti-human integrin beta1 antibody. These results suggest that the generic nature of the initial platform and flexibility of the subsequent surface activation for specific immobilization of membrane vesicles can be applied to the development of assays for other GPCRs or TM receptors for which antibodies are available or can be engineered to

  9. Cloning and analysis of cDNAs encoding the hypusine-containing protein eIF5A of two lepidopteran insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, M M; van Marwijk, M; Kwa, M S; Vlak, J M; Thomas, A A

    1999-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5A is essential for cell viability and contains a characteristic post-translational modification of a specific lysine residue into a hypusine. cDNAs with similarity to eIF5A sequences were derived from Spodoptera exigua and S. frugiperda cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequences are identical for both species and predict a protein with a molecular mass of 17.5 kDa. The Drosophila melanogaster eIF5A cDNA sequence was retrieved from the Drosophila EST Project. The predicted protein is 80% similar to Spodoptera eIF5A. A single eIF5A gene copy is present in the S. frugiperda genome, which is transcribed into four different transcripts. Infection of S. frugiperda cells with a baculovirus resulted in a strong decline of all four transcripts already at 12 h after infection. In contrast, the eIF5A protein was fairly stable up to 48 h post infection.

  10. Processing Map and Essential Cleavage Sites of the Nonstructural Polyprotein Encoded by ORF1 of the Feline Calicivirus Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Garfield, Mark; Green, Kim Y.

    2002-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) nonstructural proteins are translated as part of a large polyprotein that undergoes autocatalytic processing by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase. In this study, we mapped three new cleavage sites (E46/A47, E331/D332, and E685/N686) recognized by the virus proteinase in the N-terminal part of the open reading frame 1 (ORF1) polyprotein to complete the processing map. Taken together with two sites we identified previously (E960/A961 and E1071/S1072), the FCV ORF1 po...

  11. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a inhibited by pimozide may regulate survival of goat mammary gland epithelial cells by regulating parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Sun, Yongsen; Yu, Qian; Li, Lihui

    2014-11-10

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) modulates genes involved in proliferation and survival and plays pivotal roles in regulating the function of the mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. However, there is little information about the effects of Stat5a on apoptosis of goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a key regulator in cellular calcium transport, mammary gland development and breast tumor biology. This study aimed to explore the interaction of Stat5a and PTHrP in GMEC apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that Stat5a was predominantly expressed in the mammary gland, lung, liver and spleen of goats. Treating the GMECs with pimozide, an inhibitor of Stat5a that decreases Stat5a tyrosine phosphorylation, increased PTHrP levels in GMECs in a dose-dependent manner and simultaneously promoted apoptosis of the GMECs. We also demonstrated that PTHrP inhibition induced GMEC apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from pimozide- and calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, pimozide and CaCl2 downregulated the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 mRNA expression, respectively, and these effects were protected by PTHrP overexpression. Interestingly, we also found that Stat5a suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) which can induce goat mammary epithelial cell migration, but PTHrP increased MMP-9 mRNA level. Thus, Stat5a may regulate GMEC survival by regulating the expression of PTHrP. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Translation initiation factor eIF-5A, the hypusine-containing protein, is phosphorylated on serine and tyrosine and O-glycosylated in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Arroyo, Rossana; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Elizbeth

    2012-03-01

    The eukaryotic translation factor eIF-5A is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and undergoes an unusual polyamine-dependent post-translational modification called hypusination. Trichomonas vaginalis has two tveif-5a genes (tveif-5a1 and tveif-5a2), each encoding a 19-kDa protein. In this report, we describe the detection of two forms with different isoelectric points (5.2 and 5.5) that correspond to the precursor and mature TveIF-5A, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that only the mature form of TveIF-5A is phosphorylated and glycosylated via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-western blot (2DE-WB) assays using anti-phosphoserine and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies and the SNA, ConA and MAA lectins. Interestingly, when the protozoa were grown in 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis, and transferred to medium containing exogenous putrescine, a new spot with an isoelectric point of 5.3 was observed, presumably corresponding to a phosphorylated intermediate or deoxyhypusine form. Our data indicate that, in T. vaginalis, phosphorylations and glycosylations are necessary to obtain the mature TveIF-5A, and we confirm the identity of the precursor, intermediate and mature forms of TveIF-5A by mass spectrometry analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; Mariah S. Carbone; Trevor F. Keenan; Claudia I. Czimczik; David Y. Hollinger; Paula Murakami; Paul G. Schaberg; Xiaomei. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars...

  14. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1 PROTEIN CAN BE EXPRESSED IN LIVE ATTENUATED SHIGELLA FLEXNERI 5A STRAIN SH42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Xinzhong; Yang Xiaofeng; Zheng Jin; Wang Kai; Si Lüsheng; Wang Yili

    2005-01-01

    Objective Attenuated strains of Shigella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal immune responses which is a suitable carrier for the prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine development, To examine the potential of a live Shigella based prophylactic HPV vaccine, HPV16L1should be expressed in attenuated shigella strain. Methods A Shigella large invasive plasmid (icsA/virG) based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed. HPV16L1 gene was inserted into plasmid pHS3199 to form pHS3199-HPV16 L1 construct, and pHS3199-hpv16L1 was electroporated into a live attenuated shigella strain sh42. The expression of HPV16L1 protein was demonstrated by Western blotting with monoclonal antibody to HPV16L1, The genetic stability of recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1 was monitored by consecutive passage culture. Invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was evaluated by Hela cell infection assay. Results HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1, and the protein stably expressed over 140 generations. The invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was diminished dramatically compared to its parent strain, but not abolished completely. Conclusion HPV16L1 protein was constitutively expressed in the attenuated strain of shigella flexneri sh42, and maintained partial invasive ability. Our strategy may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV16 infection.

  15. Isolation and structural characterization of different isoforms of the hypusine-containing protein eIF-5A from HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, H; Csonga, R; Joäo, H C; Eckerskorn, C; Auer, M; Lottspeich, F; Eder, J

    1995-11-14

    Posttranslational modification of a specific lysine residue in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is essential for cell viability and proliferation. The product of this modification is hypusine, an amino acid unique to eIF-5A. We have purified and characterized one major and three minor isoforms of human eIF-5A from HeLa cells. The main form, which accounts for approximately 95% of the total eIF-5A, carries hypusine at position 50 and is amino-terminally acetylated as determined by amino acid composition analysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical gel filtration indicates that this protein variant possesses a native apparent molecular weight that lies between that expected for a monomeric and dimeric form. Nevertheless, several experiments confirm this protein to be monomeric. It is further shown that eIF-5A have well-defined secondary structure. Both the far-UV circular dichroism spectrum as well as secondary structure predictions using different algorithms suggest this protein to have predominantly beta-sheet structure. Two plausible models for the packing of the secondary structure elements are presented. In contrast to the main form, all three minor isoforms of eIF-5A are characterized by acetylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine at position 47. The minor isoforms are distinguishable by their state of modification of the lysine residue at position 50. Whereas the main form occurs in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear fraction of HeLa cells, the minor isoforms were not detectable in the preparation of the nuclear fraction. Therefore, acetylation of lysine at position 47 might play a controlling role in the distribution of the minor isoforms to the nucleus.

  16. Genome sequence, structural proteins, and capsid organization of the cyanophage Syn5: a "horned" bacteriophage of marine synechococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Welkin H; Weigele, Peter R; Chang, Juan; Pedulla, Marisa L; Ford, Michael E; Houtz, Jennifer M; Jiang, Wen; Chiu, Wah; Hatfull, Graham F; Hendrix, Roger W; King, Jonathan

    2007-05-11

    Marine Synechococcus spp and marine Prochlorococcus spp are numerically dominant photoautotrophs in the open oceans and contributors to the global carbon cycle. Syn5 is a short-tailed cyanophage isolated from the Sargasso Sea on Synechococcus strain WH8109. Syn5 has been grown in WH8109 to high titer in the laboratory and purified and concentrated retaining infectivity. Genome sequencing and annotation of Syn5 revealed that the linear genome is 46,214 bp with a 237 bp terminal direct repeat. Sixty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Based on genomic organization and sequence similarity to known protein sequences within GenBank, Syn5 shares features with T7-like phages. The presence of a putative integrase suggests access to a temperate life cycle. Assignment of 11 ORFs to structural proteins found within the phage virion was confirmed by mass-spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Eight of these identified structural proteins exhibited amino acid sequence similarity to enteric phage proteins. The remaining three virion proteins did not resemble any known phage sequences in GenBank as of August 2006. Cryo-electron micrographs of purified Syn5 virions revealed that the capsid has a single "horn", a novel fibrous structure protruding from the opposing end of the capsid from the tail of the virion. The tail appendage displayed an apparent 3-fold rather than 6-fold symmetry. An 18 A resolution icosahedral reconstruction of the capsid revealed a T=7 lattice, but with an unusual pattern of surface knobs. This phage/host system should allow detailed investigation of the physiology and biochemistry of phage propagation in marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  17. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  18. Two and 8-azido photoaffinity probes. 1. Enzymatic synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of 2- and 8-azido photoprobes of 2-5A and photolabeling of 2-5A binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadolnik, R.J.; Kariko, K.; Sobol, R.W. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Haley, B.E.

    1988-11-29

    The 2- and 8-azido trimer 5'-triphosphate photoprobes of 2-5A have been enzymatically synthesized from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azidoATP and (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azidoAPT by 2-5A synthetase from rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Identification and structural determination of the 2- and 8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphates were accomplished by enzymatic hydrolyses with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Hydrolysis products were identified by HPLC and PEI-cellulose TLC analyses. The 8-azido photoprobe of 2-5A displaces p/sub 3/A/sub 4/(/sup 32/P)pCp from RNase L with affinity equivalent to p/sub 3/A/sub 3/. The 8-azido photoprobe also activates RNase L to hydrolyze poly(U)(/sup 32/P)pCp 50% at 7 /times/ 10/sup /minus/9/ M in core-cellulose assays. The 2- and 8-azido photoprobes and authentic p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ activate RNase L to cleave 28S and 18S rRNA to specific cleavage products at 10/sup /minus/9/ M in rRNA cleavage assays. The nucleotide binding site(s) of RNase L and/or other 2-5A binding proteins in extracts of interferon-treated L929 cells were investigated by photoaffinity labeling. Dramatically different photolabeling patterns were observed with the 2- and 8-azido photoprobes. The (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)2-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate photolabels only one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 185,000 as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis, whereas the (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8-azido adenylate trimer 5'-triphosphate covalently photolabels six polypeptides with molecular weights of 46,000, 63,000, 80,000, 89,000, 109,000, and 158,000. Evidence that the photolabeling by 2- and 8-azido 2-5A photoprobes was highly specific for the p/sub 3/A/sub 3/ allosteric binding site was obtained.

  19. CCp5A protein from Toxoplasma gondii as a serological marker of oocyst-driven infections in humans and domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Silva Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the current immunoassays are not able to distinguish the infective forms that cause Toxoplasma gondii infection, the present study was carried out to evaluate the reactivity of two recombinant proteins (CCp5A and OWP1 from oocyst/sporozoite, in order to differentiate infections occurring by ingestion of oocysts or tissue cysts. The reactivity of the recombinant proteins was assessed against panels of serum samples from animals (chickens, pigs and mice that were naturally or experimentally infected by different infective stages of the parasite. Also, we tested sera from humans who have been infected by oocysts during a well-characterized toxoplasmosis outbreak, as well as sera from pregnant women tested IgM+/IgG+ for T. gondii, which source of infection was unknown. Only the sporozoite-specific CCp5A protein was able to differentiate the parasite stage that infected chickens, pigs and mice, with specific reactivity for oocyst-infected animals. Furthermore, the CCp5A showed preferential reactivity for recent infection by oocyst/sporozoite in pigs and mice. In humans, CCp5A showed higher reactivity with serum samples from the outbreak, compared with serum from pregnant women. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the CCp5A protein as a new tool to identify the parasite state of T. gondii infection, allowing its application for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations in animals and humans. The identification of parasite infective stage can help to design effective strategies to minimize severe complications in immunocompromised people and, particularly, in pregnant women to prevent congenital infection.

  20. Genome-wide analyses and functional classification of proline repeat-rich proteins: potential role of eIF5A in eukaryotic evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Mandal

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic translation factor, eIF5A has been recently reported as a sequence-specific elongation factor that facilitates peptide bond formation at consecutive prolines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as its ortholog elongation factor P (EF-P does in bacteria. We have searched the genome databases of 35 representative organisms from six kingdoms of life for PPP (Pro-Pro-Pro and/or PPG (Pro-Pro-Gly-encoding genes whose expression is expected to depend on eIF5A. We have made detailed analyses of proteome data of 5 selected species, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. The PPP and PPG motifs are low in the prokaryotic proteomes. However, their frequencies markedly increase with the biological complexity of eukaryotic organisms, and are higher in newly derived proteins than in those orthologous proteins commonly shared in all species. Ontology classifications of S. cerevisiae and human genes encoding the highest level of polyprolines reveal their strong association with several specific biological processes, including actin/cytoskeletal associated functions, RNA splicing/turnover, DNA binding/transcription and cell signaling. Previously reported phenotypic defects in actin polarity and mRNA decay of eIF5A mutant strains are consistent with the proposed role for eIF5A in the translation of the polyproline-containing proteins. Of all the amino acid tandem repeats (≥3 amino acids, only the proline repeat frequency correlates with functional complexity of the five organisms examined. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of proline repeat-rich proteins and a potential role for eIF5A and its hypusine modification pathway in the course of eukaryotic evolution.

  1. eEF1A Interacts with the NS5A Protein and Inhibits the Growth of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV is involved in the RNA synthesis and viral replication. However, the NS5A-interacting cellular proteins engaged in the CSFV replication are poorly defined. Using yeast two-hybrid screen, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A was identified to be an NS5A-binding partner. The NS5A–eEF1A interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays. The domain I of eEF1A was shown to be critical for the NS5A–eEF1A interaction. Overexpression of eEF1A suppressed the CSFV growth markedly, and conversely, knockdown of eEF1A enhanced the CSFV replication significantly. Furthermore, eEF1A, as well as NS5A, was found to reduce the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES of CSFV in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay. Streptavidin pulldown assay revealed that eEF1A could bind to the CSFV IRES. Collectively, our results suggest that eEF1A interacts with NS5A and negatively regulates the growth of CSFV.

  2. CCS5, a thioredoxin-like protein involved in the assembly of plastid c-type cytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabilly, Stéphane T; Dreyfuss, Beth Welty; Karamoko, Mohamed; Corvest, Vincent; Kropat, Janette; Page, M Dudley; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Hamel, Patrice P

    2010-09-24

    The c-type cytochromes are metalloproteins with a heme molecule covalently linked to the sulfhydryls of a CXXCH heme-binding site. In plastids, at least six assembly factors are required for heme attachment to the apo-forms of cytochrome f and cytochrome c(6) in the thylakoid lumen. CCS5, controlling plastid cytochrome c assembly, was identified through insertional mutagenesis in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complementing gene encodes a protein with similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana HCF164, which is a thylakoid membrane-anchored protein with a lumen-facing thioredoxin-like domain. HCF164 is required for cytochrome b(6)f biogenesis, but its activity and site of action in the assembly process has so far remained undeciphered. We show that CCS5 is a component of a trans-thylakoid redox pathway and operates by reducing the CXXCH heme-binding site of apocytochrome c prior to the heme ligation reaction. The proposal is based on the following findings: 1) the ccs5 mutant is rescued by exogenous thiols; 2) CCS5 interacts with apocytochrome f and c(6) in a yeast two-hybrid assay; and 3) recombinant CCS5 is able to reduce a disulfide in the CXXCH heme-binding site of apocytochrome f.

  3. Nephrocystin-5, a ciliary IQ domain protein, is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Edgar A; Loeys, Bart; Khanna, Hemant; Hellemans, Jan; Sudbrak, Ralf; Fan, Shuling; Muerb, Ulla; O'Toole, John F; Helou, Juliana; Attanasio, Massimo; Utsch, Boris; Sayer, John A; Lillo, Concepcion; Jimeno, David; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne; Reinhardt, Richard; Klages, Sven; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kawakami, Isao; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Omran, Heymut; Imm, Anita; Tippens, Melissa; Raymond, Pamela A; Hill, Jo; Beales, Phil; He, Shirley; Kispert, Andreas; Margolis, Benjamin; Williams, David S; Swaroop, Anand; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2005-03-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in children. Identification of four genes mutated in NPHP subtypes 1-4 (refs. 4-9) has linked the pathogenesis of NPHP to ciliary functions. Ten percent of affected individuals have retinitis pigmentosa, constituting the renal-retinal Senior-Loken syndrome (SLSN). Here we identify, by positional cloning, mutations in an evolutionarily conserved gene, IQCB1 (also called NPHP5), as the most frequent cause of SLSN. IQCB1 encodes an IQ-domain protein, nephrocystin-5. All individuals with IQCB1 mutations have retinitis pigmentosa. Hence, we examined the interaction of nephrocystin-5 with RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator), which is expressed in photoreceptor cilia and associated with 10-20% of retinitis pigmentosa. We show that nephrocystin-5, RPGR and calmodulin can be coimmunoprecipitated from retinal extracts, and that these proteins localize to connecting cilia of photoreceptors and to primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Our studies emphasize the central role of ciliary dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SLSN.

  4. Biophysical and structural investigation of bacterially expressed and engineered CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Maciej; Morin, Sébastien; Sass, Hans-Jürgen; Kebbel, Fabian; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 belongs to the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Besides its role in leukocyte trafficking, it is also the major HIV-1 coreceptor and hence a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Here, we report Escherichia coli expression and a broad range of biophysical studies on E. coli-produced CCR5. After systematic screening and optimization, we obtained 10 mg of purified, detergent-solubilized, folded CCR5 from 1L culture in a triply isotope-labeled ((2)H/(15)N/(13)C) minimal medium. Thus the material is suitable for NMR spectroscopic studies. The expected α-helical secondary structure content is confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The solubilized CCR5 is monodisperse and homogeneous as judged by transmission electron microscopy. Interactions of CCR5 with its ligands, RANTES and MIP-1β were assessed by surface plasmon resonance yielding K(D) values in the nanomolar range. Using size exclusion chromatography, stable monomeric CCR5 could be isolated. We show that cysteine residues affect both the yield and oligomer distribution of CCR5. HSQC spectra suggest that the transmembrane domains of CCR5 are in equilibrium between several conformations. In addition we present a model of CCR5 based on the crystal structure of CXCR4 as a starting point for protein engineering.

  5. Biophysical and structural investigation of bacterially expressed and engineered CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiktor, Maciej; Morin, Sebastien; Sass, Hans-Juergen [University of Basel, Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum (Switzerland); Kebbel, Fabian [University of Basel, Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum (Switzerland); Grzesiek, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.grzesiek@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 belongs to the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Besides its role in leukocyte trafficking, it is also the major HIV-1 coreceptor and hence a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Here, we report Escherichia coli expression and a broad range of biophysical studies on E. coli-produced CCR5. After systematic screening and optimization, we obtained 10 mg of purified, detergent-solubilized, folded CCR5 from 1L culture in a triply isotope-labeled ({sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C) minimal medium. Thus the material is suitable for NMR spectroscopic studies. The expected {alpha}-helical secondary structure content is confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The solubilized CCR5 is monodisperse and homogeneous as judged by transmission electron microscopy. Interactions of CCR5 with its ligands, RANTES and MIP-1{beta} were assessed by surface plasmon resonance yielding K{sub D} values in the nanomolar range. Using size exclusion chromatography, stable monomeric CCR5 could be isolated. We show that cysteine residues affect both the yield and oligomer distribution of CCR5. HSQC spectra suggest that the transmembrane domains of CCR5 are in equilibrium between several conformations. In addition we present a model of CCR5 based on the crystal structure of CXCR4 as a starting point for protein engineering.

  6. Technology of Developing of the Information Models of Nonstructurized Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Samojlov, V N

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a multi-level algorithm of forming the information models is proposed for nonstructurized processes. Basic components of the information model are classified in the form of structure-functional constituents and structure-functional types of a developing composite system. Systematic requirements and criteria of construction of the basis of knowledge data and the bank of data of information model are formulated with the use of the proposed algorithm. As examples, the results are shown for application of the systematic analysis of forming the correspondence of computational technique and mathematical simulation in research studies on the structure-functional type "input-process-output" and constructing of the structure-functional model of the knowledge data basis starting from one of the inculcated technological processes.

  7. A Non-Structural Investigation of VIX Risk Neutral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo; Violante, Francesco

    behavior of the risk neutral moments, the probabilities of volatility tail-events are priced in the options as jumps under the risk-neutral measure, and the variance swap term structure depends on two factors, one accounting for the slope and one for the mean-reverting behavior of the VIX.......We propose a non-structural pricing method to derive the risk-neutral density (RND) implied by options on the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX). The methodology is based on orthogonal polynomial expansions around a kernel density and yields the RND of the underlying asset without the need...... of the RND in a large variety of cases, also when the no-arbitrage and efficient option prices are contaminated by measurement errors. Our empirical investigation, based on a panel of traded VIX options, reveals some stylized facts on the RND of VIX. We find that a common stochastic factor drives the dynamic...

  8. A Non-Structural Investigation of VIX Risk Neutral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo; Violante, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We propose a non-structural pricing method to derive the risk-neutral density (RND) implied by options on the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX). The methodology is based on orthogonal polynomial expansions around a kernel density and yields the RND of the underlying asset without the need...... of the RND in a large variety of cases, also when the no-arbitrage and efficient option prices are contaminated by measurement errors. Our empirical investigation, based on a panel of traded VIX options, reveals some stylized facts on the RND of VIX. We find that a common stochastic factor drives the dynamic...... behavior of the risk neutral moments, the probabilities of volatility tail-events are priced in the options as jumps under the risk-neutral measure, and the variance swap term structure depends on two factors, one accounting for the slope and one for the mean-reverting behavior of the VIX....

  9. Small heterodimer partner 1 directly interacts with NS5A viral protein and has a key role in HCV related liver cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Beatrice; Porcu, Cristiana; Viscomi, Carmela; Minutolo, Antonella; Costantini, Susan; Corazzari, Marco; Iannucci, Gino; Barbaro, Barbara; Balsano, Clara

    2016-12-20

    HCV life cycle is strictly correlated with the hepatocyte lipid metabolism; moreover, the progression of HCV chronic hepatitis is accelerated by the presence of liver steatosis. Among the steatogenic genes deregulated during the HCV infection one of the most attractive is the Small Heterodimer Protein 1 (SHP1; NR0B2), that is involved in a remarkable number of metabolic functions. HCV NS5A is an essential and integral component of the HCV membranous-web replicon complex (RC) and plays an essential role to transfer the viral genome from the RCs to the surface of the lipid droplets (LDs) that, in turn, play a key function during HCV life cycle.With the help of a HCV infection model, we demonstrate a functional interaction between SHP1 and HCV NS5A protein. SHP1 silencing (siSHP1) reversed the pro-oncogenic effects of HCV infection, inducing a significant decrease in liver lipid accumulation and in NS5A protein expression. Moreover, siSHP1 causes a strong modulation of some genes involved in HCV-related EMT, such as: HNF4, a central regulators of hepatocyte differentiation, E-Cadherin, SNAILs.Our data suggest that SHP1 results not only to be strictly connected to the pathogenesis of HCV-related liver steatosis, but also to its progression towards the liver transformation.

  10. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Olejniczak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in liver biopsies from adults (n=19 with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05. At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT, serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging

  11. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C) in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Adamek, Agnieszka; Biczysko, Wieslawa; Seidel, Jolanta; Przybyszewska, Wieslawa; Olejniczak, Karolina; Juszczyk, Jacek; Zabel, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C) in liver biopsies from adults (n=19) with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex) technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05). At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT), serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging, proliferative activity

  12. 4种ELISA方法检测牛口蹄疫非结构蛋白抗体的ROC评价%ROC evaluation of four ELISAs for detection of cattle serum antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 张润祥; 李迪; 曹永生; 高明春; 王君伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较4种口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白抗体(FMDV-NSP)ELISA的临床检测效果.方法 以Ceditest ELISA试剂盒检测结果为"金标准",应用4种ELISA方法检测164份牛血清口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白抗体,通过平行试验比较各检测方法的特异性,敏感性及检出率,然后应用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线分析,分析各检测方法的Youden指数,并优化最适临界值,再次比较几种检测方法的特异性,敏感性及检出率.结果 口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白3ABC抗体检测ELISA试剂盒,口蹄疫病毒非结构蛋白抗体单抗阻断ELISA试剂盒,3B合成肽ELISA试剂盒和本实验室建立的8BF-ELISA的敏感性分别为94.2%(80/85),91.9%(78/85),83.7%(71/85),91.9%(78/85);特异性分别为97.4%(77/79),91.0%(72/79),97.4%(77/79),94.9%(75/79);检出率为95.8%(157/164),91.5%(150/164),90.3%(148/164),93.3%(153/164)..经X2检验,4种ELISA的检出率之间无显著性差异(P=0.461>0.05).但3B合成肽ELISA试剂盒的敏感性明显低于其他3种检测方法,不适合大规模临床样本的初筛试验.结论 在优化临界值后的ELISA A,ELISA B和ELISA D的敏感性和特异性都大于90%,同时有着很高的检出率,均可用于大规模临床的样本的初筛试验.%The clinical testing effectiveness of four ELISAs for detection of nonstructural protein antibody against the foot-and-mouth disease virus was compared in China in this study and 164 serum samples of bovine were detected. Specificity, sensitivity and the detection rate of the four ELISAs were compared by parallel test and then were compared with Ceditest ELISA kit which was considered as the "gold standard". The results were calculated and the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Youden index for each test method were subsequently analyzed. Four methods were evaluated again after optimization of optimum threshold value. The results showed that the sensitivity with 3ABC-1- ELISA, Blocking ELISA, 3B-Elisa, and 8BF

  13. 3.5A cryoEM structure of hepatitis B virus core assembled from full-length core protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuekui Yu

    Full Text Available The capsid shell of infectious hepatitis B virus (HBV is composed of 240 copies of a single protein called HBV core antigen (HBc. An atomic model of a core assembled from truncated HBc was determined previously by X-ray crystallography. In an attempt to obtain atomic structural information of HBV core in a near native, non-crystalline environment, we reconstructed a 3.5Å-resolution structure of a recombinant core assembled from full-length HBc by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM and derived an atomic model. The structure shows that the 240 molecules of full-length HBc form a core with two layers. The outer layer, composed of the N-terminal assembly domain, is similar to the crystal structure of the truncated HBc, but has three differences. First, unlike the crystal structure, our cryoEM structure shows no disulfide bond between the Cys61 residues of the two subunits within the dimer building block, indicating such bond is not required for core formation. Second, our cryoEM structure reveals up to four more residues in the linker region (amino acids 140-149. Third, the loops in the cryoEM structures containing this linker region in subunits B and C are oriented differently (~30° and ~90° from their counterparts in the crystal structure. The inner layer, composed of the C-terminal arginine-rich domain (ARD and the ARD-bound RNAs, is partially-ordered and connected with the outer layer through linkers positioned around the two-fold axes. Weak densities emanate from the rims of positively charged channels through the icosahedral three-fold and local three-fold axes. We attribute these densities to the exposed portions of some ARDs, thus explaining ARD's accessibility by proteases and antibodies. Our data supports a role of ARD in mediating communication between inside and outside of the core during HBV maturation and envelopment.

  14. Influence of NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on CSFV internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Wang, Yujing; Zhu, Zailing; Yu, Jialin; Wan, Lingzhu; Chen, Jun

    2009-12-01

    An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) present in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) promotes translation of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Using an in vitro system with monocistronic reporter RNA containing the CSFV 5'UTR, this study found that CSFV NS5A decreased CSFV IRES-mediated translation in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion analysis showed that the region responsible for repressing CSFV IRES activity might cover aa 390-414, located in the C-terminal half of CSFV NS5A. Triple and single alanine-scanning mutagenesis revealed that the inhibitory effect on CSFV IRES-directed translation mapped to the K399, T401, E406 and L413 residues of NS5A. These important amino acids were also found to be present in the NS5A proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1, BVDV-2, border disease virus and hepatitis C virus, indicating that NS5A may play an important role in the switch from translation to replication in these viruses.

  15. Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although advances in diagnostic imaging for early detection, surgical techniques and chemotherapy have improved overall survival, the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer remains poor. Understanding cancer cell dynamics in the metastatic process is important to develop new therapeutic strategies. Experimental animal models and imaging would be powerful tools for understanding of the molecular events of multistep process of metastasis. In the present study, to develop a new cancer cell line that is applicable to bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we transfected the expression vector of a green fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 into a metastatic cell line 5a-D-Luc, which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and ZsGreen1. The 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells proliferate more rapidly and have a more invasive phenotype compared with 5a-D-Luc cells following intracardiac injection. Metastasis sites were easily detected in the whole body by bioluminescence imaging and in excised tissues by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells was not lost after formalin fixation and decalcification. It enabled us to easily evaluate tumor spread and localization at the cellular level in microscopic analysis. The strong fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells allowed for real-time imaging of circulating tumor cells in cerebral blood vessels of live animals immediately after intracardiac injection of cells using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that the 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells would be a useful tool for research on mechanisms of metastatic process in animal models.

  16. Using an Old Drug to Target a New Drug Site: Application of Disulfiram to Target the Zn-Site in HCV NS5A Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ming; Duh, Yulander; Wang, Shih-Ting; Lai, Michael M C; Yuan, Hanna S; Lim, Carmay

    2016-03-23

    In viral proteins, labile Zn-sites, where Zn(2+) is crucial for maintaining the native protein structure but the Zn-bound cysteines are reactive, are promising drug targets. Here, we aim to (i) identify labile Zn-sites in viral proteins using guidelines established from our previous work and (ii) assess if clinically safe Zn-ejecting agents could eject Zn(2+) from the predicted target site and thus inhibit viral replication. As proof-of-concept, we identified a labile Zn-site in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein and showed that the antialcoholism drug, disulfiram, could inhibit HCV replication to a similar extent as the clinically used antiviral agent, ribavirin. The discovery of a novel viral target and a new role for disulfiram in inhibiting HCV replication will enhance the therapeutic armamentarium against HCV. The strategy presented can also be applied to identify labile sites in other bacterial or viral proteins that can be targeted by disulfiram or other clinically safe Zn-ejectors.

  17. High-Level Expression of Functionally Active Dengue-2 Non-Structural Antigen 1 Production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gowri Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of nonstructural protein (NS1 is an important diagnostic marker during acute phase of dengue infection. Not only for diagnostic purpose, the protein had important role in vaccine design as well, as a candidate for studying virus assembly and maturation. Various researchers employed different expression systems and strategies for recombinant NS1 protein production. Attempts to express NS1 protein in prokaryotic and yeast expression system result in formation of insoluble protein which needs to undergo refolding to attain native structural and functional forms. Here, we report the production of soluble NS1 protein in E. coli by using appropriate vector and employing suitable culture conditions to maximize protein production. Proteins were purified using metal affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis reveal the native structure of NS1 protein. Solid phase ELISA using the recombinantly expressed antigen with positive and negative dengue samples showed that the expressed protein retains its antigenic and immunological properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful production of functionally active recombinant dengue-2 NS1 protein production without undergoing any in vitro posttranslational modification process.

  18. Analysis of hepatitis C virus core/NS5A protein co-localization using novel cell culture systems expressing core-NS2 and NS5A of genotypes 1-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Scheel, Troels K H; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2013-01-01

    JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-NS2 and NS5A from genotypes 1-7, and analysed core and NS5A co-localization in infected cells. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA of core-NS2/NS5A recombinants and putative adaptive mutations were analysed by reverse genetics. Adapted core-NS2/NS5A...

  19. Dietary prescription adherence and non-structured physical activity following weight loss with and without aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M C; Treuth, M S; Ryan, A S

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effects of weight loss with and without exercise on 1) dietary prescription adherence and 2) non-structured activity in postmenopausal women. Longitudinal study. Clinical research setting with facility based exercise and nutrition education. Overweight and obese women, 45-76 years old. 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; N=38) or with aerobic exercise (AEX+WL; N=41). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), resting metabolic rate (RMR), seven day food intake, and physical activity (by Actical accelerometers worn in a subset subgroup: WL: N=10; AEX+WL: N=15) were assessed before and after the interventions. Both interventions resulted in similar weight loss (~9%) and no significant changes in RMR, while only the AEX+WL group improved VO2max (~10%). At baseline, the AEX+WL group consumed slightly more protein than the WL group (Pactivity counts decreased 22% (Pactivity observed following AEX+WL. Although similar dietary adherence was observed, these data suggest that postmenopausal women undergoing weight loss may benefit from the addition of exercise to prevent the decline in non-structured activity observed following weight loss alone.

  20. Approaches to hepatitis C treatment and cure using NS5A inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler JJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available James J Kohler,1,2 James H Nettles,1,2 Franck Amblard,1,2 Selwyn J Hurwitz,1,2 Leda Bassit,1,2 Richard A Stanton,1 Maryam Ehteshami,1 Raymond F Schinazi1,2 1Center for AIDS Research and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA Abstract: Recent progress in the understanding of hepatitis C virus (HCV biology and the availability of in vitro models to study its replication have facilitated the development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs that target specific steps in the viral replication cycle. Currently, there are three major classes of DAA in clinical development: NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B polymerase inhibitors, and NS5A directed inhibitors. Several compounds thought to bind directly with NS5A are now in various clinical trial phases, including the most advanced, daclatasvir (BMS-790052, ledipasvir (GS-5885, and ABT-267. While many NS5A-targeted compounds demonstrate picomolar potency, the exact mechanism(s of their action is still unclear. In the clinic, NS5A HCV inhibitors show promise as important components in DAA regimens and have multifunctionality. In addition to inhibiting viral replication, they may synergize with other DAAs, possibly by modulating different viral proteins, to help suppress the emergence of resistant viruses. Structure-based models have identified target interaction domains and spatial interactions that explain drug resistance for mutations at specific positions (eg, residues 93 and 31 within NS5A and potential binding partners. This review provides, insights into the unique complexity of NS5A as a central platform for multiple viral/host protein interactions, and possible mechanism(s for the NS5A inhibitors currently undergoing clinical trials that target this nonstructural viral protein. Keywords: HCV replication complex, direct acting antivirals (DAAs, clinical trials

  1. Neutrophil Recruitment to the Lung in both C5a and CXCL1-Induced Alveolitis is Impaired in Vitamin D Binding Protein Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Glenda; Habiel, David M.; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Cooke, Nancy E.; Kew, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how neutrophils respond to chemotactic signals in a complex inflammatory environment is not completely understood. Moreover, even less is known about factors in physiological fluids that regulate the activity of chemoattractants. The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to complement activation peptide C5a using purified proteins in vitro, and by ex vivo depletion of DBP in physiological fluids, but this function has not been determined in vivo. DBP null (-/-) mice were used to investigate how a systemic absence of this plasma protein affects leukocyte recruitment in alveolitis models of lung inflammation. DBP-/- mice had significantly reduced (~50%) neutrophil recruitment to the lungs compared to their wild-type DBP+/+ counterparts in three different alveolitis models, two acute and one chronic. The histology of DBP-/- mouse lungs also showed significantly less injury than wild-type animals. The chemotactic cofactor function of DBP appears to be selective for neutrophil recruitment, but in contrast to previous in vitro results, in vivo DBP can enhance the activity of other chemoattractants including CXCL1. The reduced neutrophil response in DBP-/- mice could be rescued to wild-type levels by administering exogenous DBP. Finally, in inflammatory fluids DBP binds to G-actin released from damaged cells and this complex may be the active chemotactic cofactor. Results show for the first time that DBP is a significant chemotactic cofactor in vivo and not specific for C5a, suggesting that this ubiquitous plasma protein may have a more significant role in neutrophil recruitment than previously recognized. PMID:23752613

  2. Neutrophil recruitment to the lung in both C5a- and CXCL1-induced alveolitis is impaired in vitamin D-binding protein-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Glenda; Habiel, David M; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Cooke, Nancy E; Kew, Richard R

    2013-07-15

    Knowledge of how neutrophils respond to chemotactic signals in a complex inflammatory environment is not completely understood. Moreover, even less is known about factors in physiological fluids that regulate the activity of chemoattractants. The vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to complement activation peptide C5a using purified proteins in vitro, and by ex vivo depletion of DBP in physiological fluids, but this function has not been determined in vivo. DBP null ((-/-)) mice were used to investigate how a systemic absence of this plasma protein affects leukocyte recruitment in alveolitis models of lung inflammation. DBP(-/-) mice had significantly reduced (~50%) neutrophil recruitment to the lungs compared with their wild-type DBP(+/+) counterparts in three different alveolitis models, two acute and one chronic. The histology of DBP(-/-) mouse lungs also showed significantly less injury than wild-type animals. The chemotactic cofactor function of DBP appears to be selective for neutrophil recruitment, but, in contrast to previous in vitro results, in vivo DBP can enhance the activity of other chemoattractants, including CXCL1. The reduced neutrophil response in DBP(-/-) mice could be rescued to wild-type levels by administering exogenous DBP. Finally, in inflammatory fluids, DBP binds to G-actin released from damaged cells, and this complex may be the active chemotactic cofactor. To our knowledge, results show for the first time that DBP is a significant chemotactic cofactor in vivo and not specific for C5a, suggesting that this ubiquitous plasma protein may have a more significant role in neutrophil recruitment than previously recognized.

  3. Antibodies against non-structural c100/3 and structural core antigen of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida,C.F.T.; Takahashi, Y.; B.O.M. Vanderborght; Rouzere,C. D.; França,M. S. de; Takahashi,C.; Takamizawa, A; Yoshida, I.; Schatzmayr, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) maintenance were evaluated for their antibody response to non-structural c100/3 protein and structural core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty-six patients (Group 1) never presented liver abnormalities during HD treatment, while 52 patients (Group 2) had either current or prior liver enzyme elevations. Prevalence rates of 32.6% and 41.3% were found for anti-c100/3 and anti-HCV core antibodies, respectively, in patients with silent inf...

  4. Expression and processing of the Hepatitis E virus ORF1 nonstructural polyprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Mahua

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ORF1 of hepatitis E virus (HEV encodes a nonstructural polyprotein of ~186 kDa that has putative domains for four enzymes: a methyltransferase, a papain-like cysteine protease, a RNA helicase and a RNA dependent RNA polymerase. In the absence of a culture system for HEV, the ORF1 expressed using bacterial and mammalian expression systems has shown an ~186 kDa protein, but no processing of the polyprotein has been observed. Based on these observations, it was proposed that the ORF1 polyprotein does not undergo processing into functional units. We have studied ORF1 polyprotein expression and processing through a baculovirus expression vector system because of the high level expression and post-translational modification abilities of this system. Results The baculovirus expressed ORF1 polyprotein was processed into smaller fragments that could be detected using antibodies directed against tags engineered at both ends. Processing of this ~192 kDa tagged ORF1 polyprotein and accumulation of lower molecular weight species took place in a time-dependent manner. This processing was inhibited by E-64d, a cell-permeable cysteine protease inhibitor. MALDI-TOF analysis of a 35 kDa processed fragment revealed 9 peptide sequences that matched the HEV methyltransferase (MeT, the first putative domain of the ORF1 polyprotein. Antibodies to the MeT region also revealed an ORF1 processing pattern identical to that observed for the N-terminal tag. Conclusion When expressed through baculovirus, the ORF1 polyprotein of HEV was processed into smaller proteins that correlated with their proposed functional domains. Though the involvement of non-cysteine protease(s could not be be ruled out, this processing mainly depended upon a cysteine protease.

  5. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Audrey G; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Ryan, Michael G; Tissue, David T; Baggett, L Scott; Adams, Henry D; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R L; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W; Dickman, L Turin; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Saint Joanis, Brigitte; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R

    2015-11-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also asked whether any differences among laboratories were related to the extraction and quantification methods used to determine starch and sugar concentrations. These questions were addressed by sending sub-samples collected from five woody plant tissues, which varied in NSC content and chemical composition, to 29 laboratories. Each laboratory analyzed the samples with their laboratory-specific protocols, based on recent publications, to determine concentrations of soluble sugars, starch and their sum, total NSC. Laboratory estimates differed substantially for all samples. For example, estimates for Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EGL) varied from 23 to 116 (mean = 56) mg g(-1) for soluble sugars, 6-533 (mean = 94) mg g(-1) for starch and 53-649 (mean = 153) mg g(-1) for total NSC. Mixed model analysis of variance showed that much of the variability among laboratories was unrelated to the categories we used for extraction and quantification methods (method category R(2) = 0.05-0.12 for soluble sugars, 0.10-0.33 for starch and 0.01-0.09 for total NSC). For EGL, the difference between the highest and lowest least squares means for categories in the mixed model analysis was 33 mg g(-1) for total NSC, compared with the range of laboratory estimates of 596 mg g(-1). Laboratories were reasonably consistent in their ranks of estimates among tissues for starch (r = 0.41-0.91), but less so for total NSC (r = 0.45-0.84) and soluble sugars (r = 0.11-0.83). Our results show that NSC estimates for woody plant tissues cannot be compared among laboratories. The relative changes in NSC between treatments measured within a laboratory

  6. Response of a 2-story test-bed structure for the seismic evaluation of nonstructural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroushian, Siavash; Maragakis, E. "Manos"; Zaghi, Arash E.; Rahmanishamsi, Esmaeel; Itani, Ahmad M.; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    A full-scale, two-story, two-by-one bay, steel braced-frame was subjected to a number of unidirectional ground motions using three shake tables at the UNR-NEES site. The test-bed frame was designed to study the seismic performance of nonstructural systems including steel-framed gypsum partition walls, suspended ceilings and fire sprinkler systems. The frame can be configured to perform as an elastic or inelastic system to generate large floor accelerations or large inter story drift, respectively. In this study, the dynamic performance of the linear and nonlinear test-beds was comprehensively studied. The seismic performance of nonstructural systems installed in the linear and nonlinear test-beds were assessed during extreme excitations. In addition, the dynamic interactions of the test-bed and installed nonstructural systems are investigated.

  7. Tissue specific expression of antifreeze protein and growth hormone transgenes driven by the ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) antifreeze protein OP5a gene promoter in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Rod S; Fletcher, Garth L

    2008-02-01

    Previous research aimed at producing genetically improved salmon broodstock for aquaculture led to the creation of two lines of transgenic Atlantic salmon using gene constructs that were derived in part from the ocean pout OP5a antifreeze protein (AFP) gene. One of the lines was produced using an OP5a AFP gene in which the 5' region of the promoter was removed (termed t-OP5a-AFP), and the other line contains a growth hormone (GH) transgene (EO-1alpha) that consists of a chinook salmon GH cDNA driven by a truncated OP5a AFP promoter that is almost identical to that of the t-OP5a-AFP construct. The similarity of the promoter regions of these transgenes provided an opportunity to evaluate their tissue specific expression patterns. Expression of mRNA was evaluated using Northern blot and RT-PCR techniques. The results demonstrate that the AFP and GH trangenes were expressed in almost all body tissues, suggesting that the promoter region of the OP5a AFP gene lacks tissue specific elements. Northern analysis revealed that expression of the t-OP5a-AFP gene was considerably greater than that of the EO-1alpha GH transgene. Only the spleen tissue of the GH transgenics showed a visible band of hybridization. In contrast clear bands of hybridization were evident in all tissues, except for blood cells, of the AFP transgenics with heart, liver and brain tissue showing the highest levels of mRNA expression. This higher level of expression could be attributable to the presence of introns in the t-OP5a-AFP transgene. Since the GH transgenic salmon grow considerably faster than non-transgenics the low levels of GH transgene expression in this line were clearly sufficient to produce the desired rapid growth phenotype. In contrast the levels of AFP expression were inadequate to impart any improvement in the freeze resistance of the AFP transgenic salmon.

  8. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  9. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Carbone, Mariah S; Keenan, Trevor F; Czimczik, Claudia I; Hollinger, David Y; Murakami, Paula; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocation schemes in a process-based model of forest C cycling. We found that the nonstructural carbohydrates are both highly dynamic and about a decade old. Seasonal dynamics in starch (two to four times higher in the growing season, lower in the dormant season) mirrored those of sugars. Radiocarbon-based estimates indicated that the mean age of the starch and sugars in red maple (Acer rubrum) was 7-14 yr. A two-pool (fast and slow cycling reserves) model structure gave reasonable estimates of the size and mean residence time of the total NSC pool, and greatly improved model predictions of interannual variability in woody biomass increment, compared with zero- or one-pool structures used in the majority of existing models. This highlights the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates in the context of forest ecosystem carbon cycling.

  10. Detection of immune-complex-dissociated nonstructural-1 antigen in patients with acute dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C.P. Burghoorn-Maas; A. Falconar; T.E. Setiati (Tatty); K. Djamiatun; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAccurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infections is essential for the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, the diagnostic value of a newly developed immune-complex dissociated nonstructural-1 (NS-1) antigen dot

  11. The LIM domain protein FHL2 interacts with the NR5A family of nuclear receptors and CREB to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulis, Christina K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear receptor transcriptional activity is enhanced by interaction with coactivators. The highly related nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) subfamily members liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 bind to and activate several of the same genes, many of which are important for reproductive function. To better understand transcriptional activation by these nuclear receptors, we sought to identify interacting proteins that might function as coactivators. The LIM domain protein four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) was identified as interacting with the NR5A receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human ovary cDNA library. FHL2, and the closely related FHL1, are both expressed in the rodent ovary and in granulosa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FHL1 and FHL2 in primary mouse granulosa cells reduced expression of the NR5A target genes encoding inhibin-α and P450scc. In vitro assays confirmed the interaction between the FHL and NR5A proteins and revealed that a single LIM domain of FHL2 is sufficient for this interaction, whereas determinants in both the ligand binding domain and DNA binding domain of NR5A proteins are important. FHL2 enhances the ability of both liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene promoter in granulosa cells and thus functions as a transcriptional coactivator. FHL2 also interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein and substantially augments activation of inhibin gene expression by the combination of NR5A receptors and forskolin, suggesting that FHL2 may facilitate integration of these two signals. Collectively these results identify FHL2 as a novel coactivator of NR5A nuclear receptors in ovarian granulosa cells and suggest its involvement in regulating target genes important for mammalian reproduction.

  12. Retreatment with direct-acting antivirals of genotypes 1-3-4 hepatitis C patients who failed an anti-NS5A regimen in real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Scholtès, Caroline; Izopet, Jacques; Larrat, Sylvie; Trimoulet, Pascale; Zoulim, Fabien; Alric, Laurent; Métivier, Sophie; Leroy, Vincent; Ouzan, Denis; de Lédinghen, Victor; Mohamed, Sofiane; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Khiri, Hacène; Thélu, Marie-Ange; Plauzolles, Anne; Chiche, Laurent; Bourlière, Marc; Abravanel, Florence

    2017-10-04

    The aim was to study retreatment according to baseline nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after the failure of first-line DAA-based treatment. From January 2014 to March 2016, 2995 HCV-infected patients were treated with NS5A inhibitors in six French liver referral centers; 80 (2.7%) patients relapsed. This "real-world" study included 24 of those 80 patients who had failed to achieve sustained virological response (SVR) on previous NS5A-based therapy. These 24 patients were re-treated with different regimen combinations. Antiviral efficacy was evaluated using the primary endpoints of SVR at weeks 4 and 12 post-treatment (SVR4, SVR12). The presence of NS5A RASs/polymorphisms was found in 20 (80%) patients at baseline of retreatment. All patients achieved SVR with HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification (<15 IU/mL) by the end of treatment. SVR4 and SVR12 were achieved in 23/24 patients (96%), and the remaining patient relapsed four weeks post-treatment. Based on these results, retreatment of patients after the failure of a first-line NS5A regimen is effective (96% SVR). In the future, either dual or triple therapy regimens may have similar results with shorter treatment duration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Regulation of PKR by HCV IRES RNA: importance of domain II and NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroney, Rebecca; Nallagatla, Subba Rao; Boyer, Joshua A; Cameron, Craig E; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2010-07-16

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is an essential component of the innate immune response. In the presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), PKR is autophosphorylated, which enables it to phosphorylate its substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha, leading to translation cessation. Typical activators of PKR are long dsRNAs produced during viral infection, although certain other RNAs can also activate. A recent study indicated that full-length internal ribosome entry site (IRES), present in the 5'-untranslated region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, inhibits PKR, while another showed that it activates. We show here that both activation and inhibition by full-length IRES are possible. The HCV IRES has a complex secondary structure comprising four domains. While it has been demonstrated that domains III-IV activate PKR, we report here that domain II of the IRES also potently activates. Structure mapping and mutational analysis of domain II indicate that while the double-stranded regions of the RNA are important for activation, loop regions contribute as well. Structural comparison reveals that domain II has multiple, non-Watson-Crick features that mimic A-form dsRNA. The canonical and noncanonical features of domain II cumulate to a total of approximately 33 unbranched base pairs, the minimum length of dsRNA required for PKR activation. These results provide further insight into the structural basis of PKR activation by a diverse array of RNA structural motifs that deviate from the long helical stretches found in traditional PKR activators. Activation of PKR by domain II of the HCV IRES has implications for the innate immune response when the other domains of the IRES may be inaccessible. We also study the ability of the HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) to bind various domains of the IRES and alter activation. A model is presented for how domain II of the IRES and NS5A operate to control host and viral translation during HCV infection.

  14. Association of hepatitis C virus replication complexes with microtubules and actin filaments is dependent on the interaction of NS3 and NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Kuen; Jeng, King-Song; Machida, Keigo; Lai, Michael M C

    2008-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication complex (RC), which is composed of viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and host cellular proteins, replicates the viral RNA genome in association with intracellular membranes. Two viral NS proteins, NS3 and NS5A, are essential elements of the RC. Here, by using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrated that NS3 and NS5A interact with tubulin and actin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy revealed that HCV RCs were aligned along microtubules and actin filaments in both HCV replicon cells and HCV-infected cells. In addition, the movement of RCs was inhibited when microtubules or actin filaments were depolymerized by colchicine and cytochalasin B, respectively. Based on our observations, we propose that microtubules and actin filaments provide the tracks for the movement of HCV RCs to other regions in the cell, and the molecular interactions between RCs and microtubules, or RCs and actin filaments, are mediated by NS3 and NS5A.

  15. Locations of nonstructural hydrocarbon traps on the shelf of the northern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanin, G. S.; Pavlov, S. P.; Tarasov, G. A.; Schlykova, V. V.; Matishov, G. G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper considers the results of summarized integrated geophysical investigations that were carried out from 2006 to 2012. The investigations included common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection survey, over water gravity survey, and differential hydromagnetic exploration with a total work scope of 30 000 linear kilometers. The deep structural tectonic plan, the structural and lithofacies features of the sedimentary cover section on the basic reflecting boundaries, and the features of the seismogeological complexes and seismic sections on a depth scale have been studied, and geological oil-and-gas zoning of the Northern Barents shelf has been made. Seventy-nine local anticlinal highs have been revealed, and the zones with potential nonstructural hydrocarbon traps have been determined. Due to the lack of huge anticlinal highs in the northern Barents Sea region, nonstructural traps are of interest in studying and replacing the mineral raw material base of Russia, as well as for arranging marine exploration.

  16. Non-Structured Materials Science Data Sharing Based on Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of non-structured materials science data makes it urgent for materials researchers to resolve the problem of how to effectively share this information. Materials science image data is an important class of non-structured data. This paper proposes a semantic annotation method to resolve the problem of materials science image data sharing. This method is implemented by a four-layer architecture, which includes ontology building, semantic annotation, reasoning service, and application. We take metallographic image data as an example and build a metallographic image OWL-ontology. Users can accomplish semantic annotation of metallographic image according to the ontology. Reasoning service is provided in a data sharing application to demonstrate the effective sharing of materials science image data through adding semantic annotation.

  17. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonstructural damages of reinforced concrete buildings due to 2015 Ranau earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    On 15th June 2016 a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw5.9 was occurred in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the epicentre was located at 16 km northwest of Ranau. Less than two days after the first event, a reconnaissance mission took action to investigate the damages on buildings. Since the reinforced concrete buildings in Ranau were designed based on gravity and wind load only, a lot of minor to severe damages was occurred. This paper presents the damages on the nonstructural elements of reinforced concrete buildings due to Ranau earthquake. The assessment was conducted via in-situ field investigation covering the visual observation, taking photo, and interview with local resident. Based on in-situ field investigation, there was a lot of damages occurred on the nonstructural elements like the brick walls. Such damages cannot be neglected since it can cause injury and fatality to the victims. Therefore, it can be concluded that the installation of nonstructural elements should be reviewed for the sake of safety.

  19. In vitro proteolytic processing of the MD145 norovirus ORF1 nonstructural polyprotein yields stable precursors and products similar to those detected in calicivirus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Mitra, Tanaji; Hammer, Carl; Garfield, Mark; Green, Kim Y

    2003-10-01

    The MD145-12 strain (GII/4) is a member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae and was detected in a patient with acute gastroenteritis in a Maryland nursing home. The open reading frame 1 (ORF1) (encoding the nonstructural polyprotein) was cloned as a consensus sequence into various expression vectors, and a proteolytic cleavage map was determined. The virus-encoded cysteine proteinase mediated at least five cleavages (Q(330)/G(331), Q(696)/G(697), E(875)/G(876), E(1008)/A(1009), and E(1189)/G(1190)) in the ORF1 polyprotein in the following order: N-terminal protein; nucleoside triphosphatase; 20-kDa protein (p20); virus protein, genome linked (VPg); proteinase (Pro); polymerase (Pol). A time course analysis of proteolytic processing of the MD145-12 ORF1 polyprotein in an in vitro coupled transcription and translation assay allowed the identification of stable precursors and final mapped cleavage products. Stable precursors included p20VPg (analogous to the 3AB of the picornaviruses) and ProPol (analogous to the 3CD of the picornaviruses). Less stable processing intermediates were identified as p20VPgProPol, p20VPgPro, and VPgPro. The MD145-12 Pro and ProPol proteins were expressed in bacteria as active forms of the proteinase and used to further characterize their substrate specificities in trans cleavage assays. The MD145-12 Pro was able to cleave its five mapped cleavage sites in trans and, in addition, could mediate trans cleavage of the Norwalk virus (GI/I) ORF1 polyprotein into a similar proteolytic processing profile. Taken together, our data establish a model for proteolytic processing in the noroviruses that is consistent with nonstructural precursors and products identified in studies of caliciviruses that replicate in cell culture systems.

  20. Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-beta3 and fibronectin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Boshuizen; J.W. Rossen (John); C.K. Sitaram; F.F.P. Kimenai; Y. Simons-Oosterhuis (Ytje); C. Laffeber; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis and dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is an enterotoxin that was identified as an important agent in symptomatic rotavirus infection. To identify cellular

  1. Regulation of the Production of Infectious Genotype 1a Hepatitis C Virus by NS5A Domain III▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungtaek; Welsch, Christoph; Yi, MinKyung; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2011-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly remains incompletely understood, recent studies with the genotype 2a JFH-1 strain suggest that it is dependent upon the phosphorylation of Ser residues near the C terminus of NS5A, a multifunctional nonstructural protein. Since genotype 1 viruses account for most HCV disease yet differ substantially in sequence from that of JFH-1, we studied the role of NS5A in the production of the H77S virus. While less efficient than JFH-1, genotype 1a H77S RNA produces infectious virus when transfected into permissive Huh-7 cells. The exchange of complete NS5A sequences between these viruses was highly detrimental to replication, while exchanges of the C-terminal domain III sequence (46% amino acid sequence identity) were well tolerated, with little effect on RNA synthesis. Surprisingly, the placement of the H77S domain III sequence into JFH-1 resulted in increased virus yields; conversely, H77S yields were reduced by the introduction of domain III from JFH-1. These changes in infectious virus yield correlated well with changes in the abundance of NS5A in RNA-transfected cells but not with RNA replication or core protein expression levels. Alanine replacement mutagenesis of selected Ser and Thr residues in the C-terminal domain III sequence revealed no single residue to be essential for infectious H77S virus production. However, virus production was eliminated by Ala substitutions at multiple residues and could be restored by phosphomimetic Asp substitutions at these sites. Thus, despite low overall sequence homology, the production of infectious virus is regulated similarly in JFH-1 and H77S viruses by a conserved function associated with a C-terminal Ser/Thr cluster in domain III of NS5A. PMID:21525356

  2. Antibody responses to an immunodominant nonstructural 1 synthetic peptide in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J H; Wey, J J; Sun, Y C; Chin, C; Chien, L J; Wu, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Two flaviviruses, dengue (DEN) virus and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, are important because of their global distribution and the frequency of epidemics in tropical and subtropical areas. To study the B-cell epitopes of nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein and anti-NS1 antibody response in DEN infection, a series of 15-mer synthetic peptides from the predicted B-cell linear epitopes of DEN-2 NS1 protein were prepared. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze antibody responses to these peptides from sera of both DEN and JE patients. One peptide derived from DEN-2 NS1, D2 NS1-P1 (amino acids 1-15), was identified as the immunodominant epitope that reacted with sera from dengue fever (DF) patients but not JE patients. The isotype of D2 NS1-P1-specific antibodies was mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) in all sera that tested positive. A specificity study demonstrated that sera from all four DEN types reacted with D2 NS1-P1. A dynamics study showed that specific antibodies to this peptide could be detected as early as 2 days after the onset of symptoms. We observed significant anti-D2 NS1-P1 antibody responses in 45% of patients with primary and secondary infections with DF or with dengue hemorrhagic fever. This is the first report demonstrating that significant anti-DEN NS1 antibodies can be induced in the sera of patients with primary DEN infection.

  3. Quasispecies evolution in NS5A region of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b during interferon or combined interferon-ribavirin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Veillon; Christopher Payan; Hélène Le Guillou-Guillemette; Catherine Gaudy; Fran(c)oise Lunel

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the implication of substitutions in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein in the resistance of HCV during mono-interferon (IFN)or combined IFN-ribavirin (IFN-R) therapy. Although NS5A has been reported to interact with the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B, as well as with many cellular proteins, the function of NS5A in the life cycle of HCV remains unclear.METHODS: HCV quasispecies were studied by cloning and sequencing of sequential isolates from patients infected by HCV genotype 1b. Patients were treated by IFN-α2b for 3 mo followed by IFN-α2b alone or combined IFN-R therapy for 9 additional months. Patients were categorized intro two groups based on their response to the treatments: 7 with sustained virological response (SVR) (quasispecies = 150) and 3 non-responders (NR) to IFN-R (quasispecies = 106).RESULTS: Prior to treatment, SVR patients displayed a lower complexity of quasispecies than NR patients. Most patients had a decrease in the complexity of quasispecies during therapy. Analysis of amino acids substitutions showed that the degree of the complexity of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) and the V3 domain of NS5A protein was able to discriminate the two groups of patients. Moreover, SVR patients displayed more variability in the NS5A region than NR patients.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that detailed molecular analysis of the NS5A region may be important for understanding its function in IFN response during HCV 1b infection.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  5. Approach for in vivo protein binding of 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine bioactivated in chimeric mice with humanized liver by two-dimensional electrophoresis with accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kuribayashi, Shunji; Inoue, Tae; Tateno, Chise; Nishikura, Yasufumi; Oofusa, Ken; Harada, Daisuke; Naito, Shinsaku; Horie, Toru; Ohta, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Drug development of a potential analgesic agent 5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine was withdrawn because of its limited hepatotoxic effects in humans that could not be predicted from regulatory animal or in vitro studies. In vivo formation of glutathione conjugates and covalent binding of a model compound 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine were investigated in the present study after intravenous administration to chimeric mice with a human or rat liver because of an interesting capability of human cytochrome P450 1A2 in forming a covalently bound metabolite in vitro. Rapid distribution and elimination of radiolabeled 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine in plasma or liver fractions were seen in chimeric mice after intravenous administration. However, similar covalent binding in liver was detected over 0.17-24 h after intravenous administration. Radio-LC analyses revealed that the chimeric mice with humanized liver preferentially gave the 3-hydroxylated metabolite and its glutathione conjugate in the plasma and liver. On the contrary, chimeric mice with a rat liver had some rat-specific metabolites in vivo. Analyses by electrophoresis with accelerator mass spectrometry of in vivo radiolabeled liver proteins in chimeric mice revealed that bioactivated 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine bound nonspecifically to a variety of microsomal proteins including human P450 1A2 as well as cytosolic proteins in the livers from chimeric mice with humanized liver. These results suggest that the hepatotoxic model compound 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine was activated by human liver microsomal P450 1A2 to reactive intermediate(s) in vivo in humanized chimeric mice and could relatively nonspecifically bind to biomolecules such as P450 1A2 and other proteins.

  6. How hepatitis C virus counteracts the interferon response: the jury is still out on NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S L; Katze, M G

    2001-05-25

    Interferons (IFNs) induce an antiviral state in the cell through complex and indirect mechanisms, which culminate in a direct inhibition of viral replication and stimulation of the host adaptive responses. Viruses often counteract with elaborate strategies to interfere with the induction as well as action of IFN effector molecules. This evolutionary battle between viruses and IFN components is a subject of intense research aimed at understanding the immunopathogenesis of viruses and the molecular basis of IFN signaling and action. In the case with hepatitis C virus (HCV), this may have profound implications for the therapeutic use of recombinant IFN in treating chronic hepatitis C. Depending on the subtype of HCV, current IFN-based treatment regimens are effective for only a small subset of chronic hepatitis C patients. Thus, one of the Holy Grails in HCV research is to understand the mechanisms by which the virus may evade IFN antiviral surveillance and establish persistent infection, which may eventually provide insights into new avenues for better antiviral therapy. Despite the lack of an efficient tissue culture system and an appropriate animal model for HCV infection, several mechanisms have been proposed based on clinical studies and in vitro experiments. This minireview focuses on the HCV NS5A nonstructural protein, which is implicated in playing a role in HCV tolerance to IFN treatment, possibly in part through its ability to inhibit the cellular IFN-induced PKR protein kinase.

  7. A cooperative interaction between nontranslated RNA sequences and NS5A protein promotes in vivo fitness of a chimeric hepatitis C/GB virus B.

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    Lucile Warter

    Full Text Available GB virus B (GBV-B is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV, infects small non-human primates, and is thus a valuable surrogate for studying HCV. Despite significant differences, the 5' nontranslated RNAs (NTRs of these viruses fold into four similar structured domains (I-IV, with domains II-III-IV comprising the viral internal ribosomal entry site (IRES. We previously reported the in vivo rescue of a chimeric GBV-B (vGB/III(HC containing HCV sequence in domain III, an essential segment of the IRES. We show here that three mutations identified within the vGB/III(HC genome (within the 3'NTR, upstream of the poly(U tract, and NS5A coding sequence are necessary and sufficient for production of this chimeric virus following intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic RNA in tamarins, and thus apparently compensate for the presence of HCV sequence in domain III. To assess the mechanism(s underlying these compensatory mutations, and to determine whether 5'NTR subdomains participating in genome replication do so in a virus-specific fashion, we constructed and evaluated a series of chimeric subgenomic GBV-B replicons in which various 5'NTR subdomains were substituted with their HCV homologs. Domains I and II of the GBV-B 5'NTR could not be replaced with HCV sequence, indicating that they contain essential, virus-specific RNA replication elements. In contrast, domain III could be swapped with minimal loss of genome replication capacity in cell culture. The 3'NTR and NS5A mutations required for rescue of the related chimeric virus in vivo had no effect on replication of the subgenomic GBneoD/III(HC RNA in vitro. The data suggest that in vivo fitness of the domain III chimeric virus is dependent on a cooperative interaction between the 5'NTR, 3'NTR and NS5A at a step in the viral life cycle subsequent to genome replication, most likely during particle assembly. Such a mechanism may be common to all hepaciviruses.

  8. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  9. PRMT5, a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis via nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Koike, Sumie; Naito, Mikihiko; Noda, Tetsuo; Arai, Hiroyuki; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya

    2009-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily and has selective antitumor activity. Although TNF-alpha-induced intracellular signaling pathways have been well studied, TRAIL signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), as a result of proteomic screening. PRMT5 selectively interacted with death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 but not with TNF receptor 1 or Fas. PRMT5 gene silencing sensitized various cancer cells to TRAIL without affecting TRAIL resistance in nontransformed cells. PRMT5 contributed to TRAIL-induced activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), leading to induction of several NF-kappaB target genes. Although IKK inhibition increased sensitivity to both TRAIL and TNF-alpha, PRMT5 knockdown potentiated TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity alone. PRMT5 had no effect on TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. These results show the selectivity of PRMT5 for TRAIL signaling. The PRMT5 small interfering RNA-mediated susceptibility to TRAIL was rescued by ectopic expression of active IKKbeta, confirming the involvement of PRMT5 in TRAIL resistance by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of PRMT5 in TRAIL-based cancer treatments

  10. A WW domain protein TAZ is a critical coactivator for TBX5, a transcription factor implicated in Holt-Oram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Nakagawa, Masayo; Olson, Eric N; Nakagawa, Osamu

    2005-12-13

    The T-box transcription factor TBX5 plays essential roles in cardiac and limb development. Various mutations in the TBX5 gene have been identified in patients with Holt-Oram syndrome, which is characterized by congenital defects in the heart and upper extremities. In this study, we identified a WW-domain-containing transcriptional regulator TAZ as a potent TBX5 coactivator. TAZ directly associates with TBX5 and markedly stimulates TBX5-dependent promoters by interacting with the histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF. YAP, a TAZ-related protein with conserved functional domains, also stimulates TBX5-dependent transcription, possibly by forming a heterodimer with TAZ. TBX5 lacks a PY motif, which mediates the association of other proteins with TAZ, and interacts with TAZ through multiple domains including its carboxyl-terminal structure. Truncation mutants of TBX5 identified in patients with Holt-Oram syndrome were markedly impaired in their ability to associate with and be stimulated by TAZ. These findings reveal key roles for TAZ and YAP in the control of TBX5-dependent transcription and suggest the involvement of these coactivators in cardiac and limb development.

  11. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  12. The KnowRISK project - Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveria, Carlos; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Lopez, Mário; Sousa Silva, Delta; Musacchio, Gemma; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Falsaperla, Susanna; Meroni, Fabrizio; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Historically, there is a tendency to focus on seismic structural performance of buildings, neglecting the potential for damage of non-structural elements. In particular, non-structural elements of buildings are their architectural parts (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding), electrical and mechanical components (i.e., distribution panels, piping, plumbing), and contents (e.g., furniture, bookcases, computers and desktop equipment). Damage of these elements often contributes significantly to earthquake impacts. In the 1999 Izmit Earthquake, Turkey, 50% of the injuries and 3% of human losses were caused by non-structural failures. In the 2010-2011 Christchurch Earthquakes (New Zealand), 40% of building damage was induced by non-structural malfunctions. Around 70%-85% of construction cost goes into these elements, and their damage can strongly influence the ability of communities to cope with and recover from earthquakes. The project Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements (KnowRISK) aims at facilitating local communities' access to expert knowledge on non-structural seismic protection solutions. The project will study seismic scenarios critical for non-structural damage, produce a portfolio of non-structural protection measures and investigate the level of awareness in specific communities. We will implement risk communication strategies that will take into account the social and cultural background and a participatory approach to raise awareness in local communities. The paradox between the progress of scientific knowledge and the ongoing increase of losses from natural disasters worldwide is a well-identified gap in the UN Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, in which one of the main priorities is the investment on "knowledge use, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience". The KnowRISK is well aligned with these priorities and will contribute to participatory action aimed at: i) transferring expert knowledge

  13. Relationships between IgE/IgG4 epitopes, structure and function in Anisakis simplex Ani s 5, a member of the SXP/RAL-2 protein family.

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    María Flor García-Mayoral

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a re-emerging global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis larvae. This zoonotic disease is characterized by severe gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptoms which may misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies. The Anisakis allergen Ani s 5 is a protein belonging to the SXP/RAL-2 family; it is detected exclusively in nematodes. Previous studies showed that SXP/RAL-2 proteins are active antigens; however, their structure and function remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of Ani s 5 and its main IgE and IgG4 binding regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tertiary structure of recombinant Ani s 5 in solution was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mg2+, but not Ca2+, binding was determined by band shift using SDS-PAGE. IgE and IgG4 epitopes were elucidated by microarray immunoassay and SPOTs membranes using sera from nine Anisakis allergic patients. The tertiary structure of Ani s 5 is composed of six alpha helices (H, with a Calmodulin like fold. H3 is a long, central helix that organizes the structure, with H1 and H2 packing at its N-terminus and H4 and H5 packing at its C-terminus. The orientation of H6 is undefined. Regarding epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 immunoglobulins, the same eleven peptides derived from Ani s 5 were bound by both IgE and IgG4. Peptides 14 (L40-K59, 26 (A76-A95 and 35 (I103-D122 were recognized by three out of nine sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first reported 3D structure of an Anisakis allergen. Magnesium ion binding and structural resemblance to Calmodulin, suggest some putative functions for SXP/RAL-2 proteins. Furthermore, the IgE/IgG4 binding regions of Ani s 5 were identified as segments localized on its surface. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the interactions that occur between immunoglobulins and allergens

  14. Antibodies against non-structural c100/3 and structural core antigen of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C F; Takahashi, Y; Vanderborght, B O; Rouzere, C D; França, M S; Takahashi, C; Takamizawa, A; Yoshida, I; Schatzmayr, H G

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) maintenance were evaluated for their antibody response to non-structural c100/3 protein and structural core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty-six patients (Group 1) never presented liver abnormalities during HD treatment, while 52 patients (Group 2) had either current or prior liver enzyme elevations. Prevalence rates of 32.6% and 41.3% were found for anti-c100/3 and anti-HCV core antibodies, respectively, in patients with silent infections (Group 1). The rate of anti-c100/3 in patients of Group 2 was 71.15% and reached 86.5% for anti-HCV core antibodies. The recognition of anti-c100/3 and anti-core antibodies was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. A line immunoassay composed of structural and non-structural peptides was used as a confirmation assay. HBV infection, measured by the presence of anti-HBc antibodies, was observed in 39.8% of the patients. Six were HBsAg chronic carriers and 13 had naturally acquired anti-HBs antibodies. The duration of HD treatment was correlated with anti-HCV positivity. A high prevalence of 96.7% (Group 2) was found in patients who underwent more than 5 years of treatment. Our results suggest that anti-HCV core ELISA is more accurate for detecting HCV infection than anti-c100/3. Although the risk associated with the duration of HD treatment and blood transfusion was high, additional factors such as a significant non-transfusional spread of HCV seems to play a role as well. The identification of infective patients by more sensitive methods for HCV genome detection should help to control the transmission of HCV in the unit under study.

  15. Small interfering RNA targeting the nonstructural gene 1 transcript inhibits influenza A virus replication in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Roopali; Khanna, Madhu; Kumar, Prashant; Kumar, Binod; Sharma, Sonal; Gupta, Neha; Saxena, Latika

    2012-12-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses counteracts the host immune response against the influenza viruses by not only inhibiting the nuclear export and maturation of host cell messenger RNA (mRNA), but by also blocking the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-mediated inhibition of viral RNA translation. Reduction of NS1 gene product in the host cell may be a potent antiviral strategy to provide protection against the influenza virus infection. We used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) synthesized against the viral mRNA to down regulate the NS1 gene and observed its effect on inhibition of virus replication. When NS1 gene-specific siRNA were transfected in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells followed by influenza A virus infection, approximately 60% inhibition in intracellular levels of NS1 RNA was observed. When siRNA was administered in BALB/c mice, 92% reduction in the levels of NS1 gene expression in mice lungs was observed. A significant reduction in the lung virus titers and cytokine levels was also detected in the presence of siRNAs as compared with the untreated control. The study was validated by the use of selectively disabled mutants of each set of siRNA. Our findings suggest that siRNA targeted against NS1 gene of influenza A virus can provide considerable protection to the virus-infected host cells and may be used as potential candidates for nucleic acid-based antiviral therapy for prevention of influenza A virus infection.

  16. The role of non-structural carbohydrate reserves in trees under climatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, G.; Koerner, C.

    2012-12-01

    The storage of non-structural carbon (C) reserves is an indispensable process for all plants. Diverting parts of their photoassimilates into storage pools (e.g. starch and storage lipids) ensures plants to survive periods when the requirement for C (i.e. the sum of all C-sink activities) exceeds their photosynthetic capacity (C-source activity). Over the last decade, research delivered clear evidence that under the current atmospheric CO2 concentrations, tree growth is generally limited by the availability of resources other than C (e.g. soil nutrients) under most conditions. Whether climatic stresses, like cold temperature or drought, can induce C-limitation in trees is currently vividly debated. We will thus address the following questions: 1) do low temperatures at alpine treelines or drought lead to situations where photosynthesis is limiting growth, and 2) what is the role of non-structural C reserves under such conditions? Trees at the alpine treeline as well as under hydraulic constraints accumulate, rather than use up their non-structural carbohydrate reserves with increasing stress. We propose that this observed increase of C stores results from a stress related decline in growth (C-sink activity) relative to C-supply. Hence, the higher C reserve concentrations found in trees under cold and dry conditions are very likely a direct physiological response to the environmental stress (diversion to storage), reflecting relatively higher availability of photoassimilates compared to sink demand. Previous experiments with trees and crops showed that in cold and dry environments, meristematic growth is generally limited more severely and at an earlier stage than photosynthesis. While cell division and differentiation are close to zero at about 5 °C even in cold adapted species, rates of photosynthesis are still reaching up to 80 % of maximum rates. Similarly, structural growth generally ceases at much less negative water potentials than does photosynthesis, which

  17. The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha regulates the phosphorylation status of hepatitis C virus NS5A.

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    Simon Reiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha (PI4KIIIα is an essential host factor of hepatitis C virus (HCV replication. PI4KIIIα catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P accumulating in HCV replicating cells due to enzyme activation resulting from its interaction with nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A. This study describes the interaction between PI4KIIIα and NS5A and its mechanistic role in viral RNA replication. We mapped the NS5A sequence involved in PI4KIIIα interaction to the carboxyterminal end of domain 1 and identified a highly conserved PI4KIIIα functional interaction site (PFIS encompassing seven amino acids, which are essential for viral RNA replication. Mutations within this region were also impaired in NS5A-PI4KIIIα binding, reduced PI4P levels and altered the morphology of viral replication sites, reminiscent to the phenotype observed by silencing of PI4KIIIα. Interestingly, abrogation of RNA replication caused by mutations in the PFIS correlated with increased levels of hyperphosphorylated NS5A (p58, indicating that PI4KIIIα affects the phosphorylation status of NS5A. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PI4KIIIα or pharmacological ablation of kinase activity led to a relative increase of p58. In contrast, overexpression of enzymatically active PI4KIIIα increased relative abundance of basally phosphorylated NS5A (p56. PI4KIIIα therefore regulates the phosphorylation status of NS5A and viral RNA replication by favoring p56 or repressing p58 synthesis. Replication deficiencies of PFIS mutants in NS5A could not be rescued by increasing PI4P levels, but by supplying functional NS5A, supporting an essential role of PI4KIIIα in HCV replication regulating NS5A phosphorylation, thereby modulating the morphology of viral replication sites. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PI4KIIIα activity affects the NS5A phosphorylation status. Our results highlight the importance of PI4KIIIα in the morphogenesis

  18. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C NS5A phosphoprotein that inhibits HIV replication.

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    Jinhua Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GBV-C infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected people and GBV-C inhibits HIV replication in co-infection models. Expression of the GBV-C nonstructural phosphoprotein 5A (NS5A decreases surface levels of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4, induces the release of SDF-1 and inhibits HIV replication in Jurkat CD4+ T cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Jurkat cell lines stably expressing NS5A protein and peptides were generated and HIV replication in these cell lines assessed. HIV replication was significantly inhibited in all cell lines expressing NS5A amino acids 152-165. Substitution of an either alanine or glycine for the serine at position 158 (S158A or S158G resulted in a significant decrease in the HIV inhibitory effect. In contrast, substituting a phosphomimetic amino acid (glutamic acid; S158E inhibited HIV as well as the parent peptide. HIV inhibition was associated with lower levels of surface expression of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4 and increased release of the CXCR4 ligand, SDF-1 compared to control cells. Incubation of CD4+ T cell lines with synthetic peptides containing amino acids 152-167 or the S158E mutant peptide prior to HIV infection resulted in HIV replication inhibition compared to control peptides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expression of GBV-C NS5A amino acids 152-165 are sufficient to inhibit HIV replication in vitro, and the serine at position 158 appears important for this effect through either phosphorylation or structural changes in this peptide. The addition of synthetic peptides containing 152-167 or the S158E substitution to Jurkat cells resulted in HIV replication inhibition in vitro. These data suggest that GBV-C peptides or a peptide mimetic may offer a novel, cellular-based approach to antiretroviral therapy.

  19. The Human Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5), a Sequentially and Structurally Divergent SET Domain-Containing Protein with No Intrinsic Catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, Catherine; Déméné, Hélène; Carvalho, João E.; Bird, Louise E.; Lebedev, Andrey; Fattori, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Dumas, Christian; Bourguet, William; le Maire, Albane

    2016-01-01

    Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5) plays a key role in hematopoiesis, spermatogenesis and cell cycle progression. Chromatin binding is ensured by its plant homeodomain (PHD) through a direct interaction with the N-terminus of histone H3 (H3). In addition, MLL5 contains a Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain, a protein module that usually displays histone lysine methyltransferase activity. We report here the crystal structure of the unliganded SET domain of human MLL5 at 2.1 Å resolution. Although it shows most of the canonical features of other SET domains, both the lack of key residues and the presence in the SET-I subdomain of an unusually large loop preclude the interaction of MLL5 SET with its cofactor and substrate. Accordingly, we show that MLL5 is devoid of any in vitro methyltransferase activity on full-length histones and histone H3 peptides. Hence, the three dimensional structure of MLL5 SET domain unveils the structural basis for its lack of methyltransferase activity and suggests a new regulatory mechanism. PMID:27812132

  20. RNA Replication and Membrane Modification Require the Same Functions of Alphavirus Nonstructural Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Katri; Hellström, Kirsi; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2015-11-18

    The alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations known as spherules as their RNA replication sites. Here, we show that inactivation of any function (polymerase, helicase, protease, or membrane association) essential for RNA synthesis also prevents the generation of spherule structures in a Semliki Forest virus trans-replication system. Mutants capable of negative-strand synthesis, including those defective in RNA capping, gave rise to spherules. Recruitment of RNA to membranes in the absence of spherule formation was not detected.

  1. Upscaling the Use of Mixed Recycled Aggregates in Non-Structural Low Cement Concrete

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    Antonio López-Uceda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce non-structural concrete with mixed recycled aggregates (MRA in upscaled applications with low-cement content. Four slabs were executed with concrete made with different ratios of coarse MRA (0%, 20%, 40% and 100%, using the mix design, the mixing procedures and the facilities from a nearby concrete production plant. The analysis of the long-term compressive and splitting tensile strengths in concrete cores, extracted from the slabs, allowed the highlighting of the long-term high strength development potential of MRA incorporation. The study of cast specimens produced in situ under the same conditions as the slabs showed, firstly, that the use of MRA has a great influence on the properties related to durability, secondly, that the loss of compressive strength for total MRA incorporation relative to control concrete increases proportionally with the class strength, and, thirdly, that the mechanical properties (including Schmidt hammer results from the concrete slabs showed no significant differences relative to the control concrete for coarse aggregates replacements up to 40%. Therefore, this upscaled experimental study supports the application of concrete with 100% coarse MRA incorporation and low cement content in non-structural civil works such as bike lanes, gutters, ground slabs, leveling surfaces, and subgrades for foundations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there have not been any upscaled applications of concrete with MRA and low cement content.

  2. Confirm the HCV NS5A protein interaction with aconitase 1%HCV NS5A结合蛋白顺乌头酸酶1的验证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓杰; 相久全; 韩乐强; 张锦前; 成军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen proteins of human liver cDNA library interacting with HCV NS5A and confirm the interaction between HCV N55A protein and aconitate 1 protein.Methods Yeast two hybrid was performed by mating AH109 ( HCV NS5A) with Y187 ( liver cDNA lihrary of human) .The interacted proteins with HCV NS5A were screened from the library.The aconitate 1 gene was amplified at first.The expression vectors of aconitate 1 were constructed.Then the interaction between HCV N55A protein and Homo sapiens aconitate 1 protein was confirmed using co-imruunoprecipitation and mammalian two hybrid experiment.Results The eukaryotic expression vectors of aconitate 1 were constructed.These results showed that Homo sapiens aconitate 1 protein interacted with HCV NS5A protein by co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two hybrids experiment Conclusion HCV NS5A and Homo sapiens aconitate 1 protein can interact in HepCJ2 cells.%目的 筛选人肝脏cDNA文库中与HCV NS5A的结合蛋白基因,验证其中顺乌头酸酶1与HCV NS5A的相互作用.方法 应用酵母双杂交系统3筛选人肝脏cDNA文库中的HCV NS5A结合蛋白基因,应用哺乳动物双杂交及免疫共沉淀技术验证其中顺乌头酸酶1蛋白与HCV NS5A之间的相瓦作用.结果 成功筛选出人肝脏cD-NA文库中与HCV NS5A存在相瓦作用的蛋白基因,哺乳动物双杂交及免疫共沉淀实验结果 证实HCV NS5A与顺乌头酸酶1蛋白在HepG2细胞内存在相互作用.结论 本实验成功筛选人肝脏cDNA文库中的HCV NS5A结合蛋白基因,并且在体外水平即细胞内证实HCV NS5A与其中的顺乌头酸酶1蛋白之间的相互作用,为进一步细胞内及体内的糖、脂类代谢等功能研究奠定基础.

  3. Hypusine modification of the ribosome-binding protein eIF5A, a target for new anti-inflammatory drugs: understanding the action of the inhibitor GC7 on a murine macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Oedem Paulo; Toledo, Thais Regina; Rossi, Danuza; Rossetto, Daniella de Barros; Watanabe, Tatiana Faria; Galvão, Fábio Carrilho; Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Zanelli, Cleslei Fernando; Valentini, Sandro Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of an important mechanism triggered by the innate immune response that rapidly responds to invading microorganisms and tissue injury. One important elicitor of the inflammatory response is the Gram-negative bacteria component lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces the activation of innate immune response cells, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), and the cellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Although essential to the immune response, uncontrolled inflammatory responses can lead to pathological conditions, such as sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, identifying cellular targets for new anti-inflammatory treatments is crucial to improving therapeutic control of inflammation-related diseases. More recently, the translation factor eIF5A has been demonstrated to have a proinflammatory role in the release of cytokines and the production of NO. As eIF5A requires and essential and unique modification of a specific residue of lysine, changing it to hypusine, eIF5A is an interesting cellular target for anti-inflammatory treatment. The present study reviews the literature concerning the anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting eIF5A function. We also present new data showing that the inhibition of eIF5A function by the small molecule GC7 significantly decreases TNF-α release without affecting TNF-α mRNA levels. We discuss the mechanisms by which eIF5A may interfere with TNF-α mRNA translation by binding to and regulating the function of ribosomes during protein synthesis.

  4. Water stress, shoot growth and storage of non-structural carbohydrates along a tree height gradient in a tall conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in upper branch wood, foliage and trunk sapwood of Douglas-fir trees in height classes ranging from ~2 to ~57 m. Mean concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for all tissues were highest in the tallest height class and lowest in the lowest height class, and height-related trends in NSC...

  5. 77 FR 28533 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels...-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design feature associated with the installation of large non-structural glass items in the cabin area of...

  6. 77 FR 40255 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels...-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... associated with the installation of large non-structural glass items in the cabin area of an executive...

  7. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  8. The effect of non-structural components and lignin on hemicellulose extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai-Xuan; Li, Hong-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As the important structural component of corn stover, hemicellulose could be converted into a variety of high value-added products. However, high quality hemicellulose extraction is not an easy issue. The present study aims to investigate the effects of non-structural components (NSCs) and lignin removal on alkaline extraction of hemicellulose. Although NSCs were found to have a minimal effect on hemicellulose dissolution, they affected the color values of the hemicellulose extracts. The lignin limited the hemicellulose dissolution and increased the color value by binding to hemicellulose molecules and forming lignin-carbohydrate complexes. Sodium chlorite method can remove about 90% lignin from corn stover, especially the lignin connected to hemicellulose through p-coumaric and ferulic acids. Which increased the hemicellulose dissolution ratio to 93% and reduced the color value 14-28%, but the cost is about 20% carbohydrates lost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Changes of non-structural carbohydrates and its impact factors in trees: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun-Pu; Wang, He-Xin; Lou, Xin; Yang, Qing-Peng; Xu, Ming

    2014-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important energy source for the metabolism of plants. The size of the NSC pool is likely to mirror the overall carbon supply status and its dynamics strongly influences physiological processes in plants. In order to predict the response and adaptation of trees to climate change, this review summarized the current understanding of NSC pool in trees, and mainly focused on its seasonal and spatial variation for analyzing the relationships between environmental factors and NSC allocation. Moreover, the response and adaptation strategies of NSC pool in trees to climate change were also discussed. Finally, some suggestions were proposed for the potential study orientation of NSC pool in trees in future climate conditions.

  10. The reproduction number R(t) in structured and nonstructured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Tom; Chowell, Gerardo

    2009-04-01

    Using daily counts of newly infected individuals, Wallinga and Teunis (WT) introduced a conceptually simple method to estimate the number of secondary cases per primary case (R(t)) for a given day. The method requires an estimate of the generation interval probability density function (pdf), which specifies the probabilities for the times between symptom onset in a primary case and symptom onset in a corresponding secondary case. Other methods to estimate R(t) are based on explicit models such as the SIR model; therefore, one might expect the WT method to be more robust to departures from SIR- type behavior. This paper uses simulated data to compare the quality of daily R(t) estimates based on a SIR model to those using the WT method for both structured (classical SIR assumptions are violated) and nonstructured (classical SIR assumptions hold) populations. By using detailed simulations that record the infection day of each new infection and the donor-recipient identities, the true R(t) and the generation interval pdf is known with negligible error. We find that the generation interval pdf is time dependent in all cases, which agrees with recent results reported elsewhere. We also find that the WT method performs essentially the same in the structured populations (except for a spatial network) as it does in the nonstructured population. And, the WT method does as well or better than a SIR-model based method in three of the four structured populations. Therefore, even if the contact patterns are heterogeneous as in the structured populations evaluated here, the WT method provides reasonable estimates of R(t), as does the SIR method.

  11. Properties of Non-Structural Concrete Made with Mixed Recycled Aggregates and Low Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Uceda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of not being legally accepted in most countries, mixed recycled aggregates (MRA could be a suitable raw material for concrete manufacturing. The aims of this research were as follows: (i to analyze the effect of the replacement ratio of natural coarse aggregates with MRA, the amount of ceramic particles in MRA, and the amount of cement, on the mechanical and physical properties of a non-structural concrete made with a low cement content; and (ii to verify if it is possible to achieve a low-strength concrete that replaces a greater amount of natural aggregate with MRA and that has a low cement content. Two series of concrete mixes were manufactured using 180 and 200 kg/m3 of CEM II/A-V 42.5 R type Portland cement. Each series included seven concrete mixes: one with natural aggregates; two MRA with different ceramic particle contents; and one for each coarse aggregate replacement ratio (20%, 40%, and 100%. To study their properties, compressive and splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, porosity, water penetration, and sorptivity, tests were performed. The results confirmed that the main factors affecting the properties analyzed in this research are the amount of cement and the replacement ratio; the two MRAs used in this work presented a similar influence on the properties. A non-structural, low-strength concrete (15 MPa with an MRA replacement ratio of up to 100% for 200 kg/m3 of cement was obtained. This type of concrete could be applied in the construction of ditches, sidewalks, and other similar civil works.

  12. 霍乱弧菌04-5a糖发酵激活蛋白编码基因分析%Clonging and sequencing of sugar fermentation stimulation protein gene from Vibrio cholerae 04-5a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆刚; 张敬平; 马广源; 李伯清; 姜勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较霍乱弧菌04-5a株糖发酵激活蛋白编码基因与霍乱流行株与非流行株相关序列的差异,明确其基因型.方法 采用基因克隆测序方法,对霍乱弧菌04-5a株糖发酵激活蛋白编码基因进行序列分析,并与相关序列进行比较.结果 霍乱弧菌04-5a株糖发酵激活蛋白编码基因由771个碱基对组成,编码258个氨基酸的多肽,流行株和非流行株相关序列比较发现,04-5a株与流行株两者基因完全相同,与非流行株在334、622和666位核苷酸碱基的具有差异,第666位碱基的差异导致了氨基酸的不同,在非流行株与流行株分别为丙氨酸与苏氨酸.结论 霍乱弧菌04-5a株糖发酵激活蛋白编码基因序列符合流行株基因特征,在非流行株与流行株第666位碱基差异可能与其致病性及流行有关,值得深入研究.%Objective To investigate the differences in the sequences of sugar fermentation stimulation protein genes between Vibro cholerae 04-5a and epidemic and nonepidemic V. cholerae strains. Methods Cloning and sequencing methods were used to analyze the sequence of sugar fermentation stimulation protein genes from V. cholerae 04-5a and to compare the sequences with related gene sequences. Results The sequence of sugar fermentation stimulation protein genes from V. cholerae 04-5a is a 771bp gene, encoding 258 amino acid polypeptide, and is identical to the ones from the epidemic strain. According to the sequence of sugar fermentation stimulation protein gene, the V. cholerae 04-5a has mutations at 334th,622th and 666th point compared with the nonepidemic strain,and is identical to the epidemic strain. The difference of the 666th point mutation led to (he changs of the deduced amino acid level. Conclusion The sequence of sugar fermentation stimulation protein gene from V. cholerae 04-5a is identical to that of from the epidemic strains and the related pathogenic mechanism and epidemiology need to be further studied.

  13. Yeast sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage requires Cdc48 and Dsc5, a ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing subunit of the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emerson V; Lloyd, S Julie-Ann; Burg, John S; Nwosu, Christine C; Lintner, Robert E; Daza, Riza; Russ, Carsten; Ponchner, Karen; Nusbaum, Chad; Espenshade, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sre1 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that controls adaptation to hypoxia. Like its mammalian homolog, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), Sre1 activation requires release from the membrane. However, in fission yeast, this release occurs through a strikingly different mechanism that requires the Golgi Dsc E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and the proteasome. The mechanistic details of Sre1 cleavage, including the link between the Dsc E3 ligase complex and proteasome, are not well understood. Here, we present results of a genetic selection designed to identify additional components required for Sre1 cleavage. From the selection, we identified two new components of the fission yeast SREBP pathway: Dsc5 and Cdc48. The AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase Cdc48 and Dsc5, a ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein, interact with known Dsc complex components and are required for SREBP cleavage. These findings provide a mechanistic link between the Dsc E3 ligase complex and the proteasome in SREBP cleavage and add to a growing list of similarities between the Dsc E3 ligase and membrane E3 ligases involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

  14. Evaluation of three 3ABC ELISAs for foot-and-mouth disease non-structural antibodies using latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malirat Viviane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates. Serological diagnosis/surveillance of FMD presents several problems as there are seven serotypes worldwide and in the event of vaccination it may be necessary to be able to identify FMD infected/exposed animals irrespective of their vaccination status. The recent development of non-structural 3ABC protein (NSP ELISA tests has greatly advanced sero-diagnosis/surveillance as these tests detect exposure to live virus for any of the seven serotypes of FMD, even in vaccinated populations. This paper analyses the performance of three NSP tests using a Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model to estimate test sensitivity and specificity in the absence of a "gold-standard" test, using sera from a well described cattle population in Cameroon with endemic FMD. Results The analysis found a high sensitivity and specificity for both the Danish C-ELISA and the World Organisation for Animal Health (O.I.E. recommended South American I-ELISA. However, the commercial CHEKIT kit, though having high specificity, has very low sensitivity. The results of the study suggests that for NSP ELISAs, latent class models are a useful alternative to the traditional approach of evaluating diagnostic tests against a known "gold-standard" test as imperfections in the "gold-standard" may give biased test characteristics. Conclusion This study demonstrates that when applied to naturally infected zebu cattle managed under extensive rangeland conditions, the FMD ELISAs may not give the same parameter estimates as those generated from experimental studies. The Bayesian approach allows for full posterior probabilities and capture of the uncertainty in the estimates. The implications of an imperfect specificity are important for the design and interpretation of sero-surveillance data and may result in excessive numbers of false positives in low prevalence

  15. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies against monomeric dengue virus non-structural glycoprotein 1 (NS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Poole-Smith, B Katherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein is useful for diagnosis of DENV infections in the first 8 days of illness with any of the four serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4). However, NS1 diagnostics are less sensitive for secondary DENV infections so the utility of NS1 diagnostics in dengue endemic countries where there is predominantly secondary infections is being questioned. Heat-mediated immunecomplex dissociation (ICD) prior to testing serum samples can significantly improve NS1 test sensitivity in secondary infections but requires monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to heat-denatured NS1. In order to incorporate a simple heat-mediated ICD step, a crucial step was to develop new MAbs with high affinity and specificity to heat-denatured DENV NS1 protein. In the present study, six new MAbs were isolated from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant monomeric NS1 of DENV-1 and DENV-2. Characterization using three different methods: indirect ELISA, fixed cell ELISA and western blot revealed that all six MAbs are serotype-cross-reactive and capable of recognizing dimeric and hexameric isoforms as well as heat-denatured NS1 from all four DENV serotypes. No cross-reactivity to NS1 of West Nile virus and Yellow fever virus was observed on western blot and indirect ELISA. Five of the six MAbs mapped to the DENV NS1 region of 105-119 amino acids. The remaining MAb mapped to DENV NS1 region of 25-39 amino acids. These two NS1 regions were found to be highly conserved among all four DENV serotypes by sequences analysis and database comparison. These MAbs were used to develop an NS1 capture ELISA and tested using a small panel of clinical specimens. The results from the NS1 capture ELISA indicated at least a three-fold increase in NS1 antigen detection in heat-denatured samples compared to untreated specimens. Furthermore, artificial immunecomplexed results also demonstrated the binding efficiency of these MAbs to heat denatured NS1. Taken together

  16. Association of filamin A and vimentin with hepatitis C virus proteins in infected human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Ahrens, W A; Phatak, S U; Hwang, S; Schrum, L W; Bonkovsky, H L

    2011-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and remains a major therapeutic challenge. A variety of host proteins interact with HCV proteins. The definitive role of cytoskeletal (CS) proteins in HCV infection remains to be determined. In this study, our aim was to determine the expression profile of differentially regulated and expressed selected CS proteins and their association with HCV proteins in infected hepatocytes as possible therapeutic targets. Using proteomics, qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques, we revealed that filamin A (fila) and vimentin (vim) were prominently increased proteins in HCV-expressing human hepatoma cells compared with parental cells and in liver biopsies from patients with CHC vs controls. HCV nonstructural (NS) 3 and NS5A proteins were associated with fila, while core protein partially with fila and vim. Immunoprecipitation showed interactions among fila and NS3 and NS5A proteins. Cells treated with interferon-α showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in CS and HCV proteins. NS proteins clustered at the perinuclear region following cytochalasin b treatment, whereas disperse cytoplasmic and perinuclear distribution was observed in the no-treatment group. This study demonstrates and signifies that changes occur in the expression of CS proteins in HCV-infected hepatocytes and, for the first time, shows the up-regulation and interaction of fila with HCV proteins. Association between CS and HCV proteins may have implications in future design of CS protein-targeted therapy for the treatment for HCV infection.

  17. Wind-Tunnel Evaluation of the Effect of Blade Nonstructural Mass Distribution on Helicopter Fixed-System Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, Jr, William T.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilkie, W K.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides data obtained during a wind-tunnel test conducted to investigate parametrically the effect of blade nonstructural mass on helicopter fixed-system vibratory loads. The data were obtained with aeroelastically scaled model rotor blades that allowed for the addition of concentrated nonstructural masses at multiple locations along the blade radius. Testing was conducted for advance ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.35 for 10 blade-mass configurations. Three thrust levels were obtained at representative full-scale shaft angles for each blade-mass configuration. This report provides the fixed-system forces and moments measured during testing. The comprehensive database obtained is well-suited for use in correlation and development of advanced rotorcraft analyses.

  18. Effects of non-structural components and soil-structure interaction on the seismic response of framed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella; Carlo Ponzo, Felice

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, several nonlinear numerical models of reinforced concrete framed structures have been defined in order to evaluate the effects of non-structural elements and soil-structure interaction on the elastic dynamic behaviour of buildings. In the last few years, many and various studies have highlighted the significant effects derived from the interaction between structural and non-structural components on the main dynamic characteristics of a building. Usually, structural and non-structural elements act together, adding both masses and stiffness. The presence of infill panels is generally neglected in the design process of structural elements, although these elements can significantly increase the lateral stiffness of a structure leading to a modification in the dynamic properties. Particularly, at the Damage Limit State (where an elastic behaviour is expected), soil-structure interaction effects and non-structural elements may further affect the elastic natural period of buildings, changing the spectral accelerations compared with those provided by seismic codes in case of static analyses. In this work, a parametric study has been performed in order to evaluate the elastic fundamental period of vibration of buildings as a function of structural morphology (height, plan area, ratio between plan dimensions), infills presence and distribution and soil characteristics. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring'' and by the "Centre of Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area - CGIAM" within the Framework Agreement with the University of Basilicata "Study, Research and Experimentation in the Field of Analysis and Monitoring of Seismic Vulnerability of Strategic and Relevant Buildings for the purposes of Civil Protection and Development of Innovative Strategies of Seismic Reinforcement".

  19. Functional, Structural and Non-Structural Preparedness of Ahvaz Health Centers Against Disasters in 2014 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ahvaz metropolitan as an industrial pole and special geopolitical location is vulnerable to miscellaneous disasters. Public health centers are one of the most important units that should have necessary preparedness against disasters and crisis. Objectives The current study aimed to determine functional, structural and non-structural preparedness of public health centers against natural and manmade disasters at all levels, rural health houses, rural and urban health centers and the Iranian health centers. Materials and Methods The current descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on about 47 rural health houses, rural and urban health centers and Iranian health centers of Ahvaz city (western and eastern regions. A checklist of Iran ministry of health, field observation and interview methods were used for data collection. Functional preparedness included crisis management framework, planning, insurance coverage, event management system, public services, education and manure. Non-structural preparedness was assessed in three levels as desirable, mid desirable and undesirable. Structural preparedness included instruments, structures and facilities of the health centers. All calculations were performed by excel software. Results Risk rate, functional, non-structural and structural preparedness and final safety level were 58.62%, 51.48%, 54.82%, 33.97%, and 43.72%, respectively. Conclusions According to the results, the Iranian public health centers preparedness against disasters before, during and after accidents were in safety level 4 from 10, which was undesirable.

  20. Drought survival of tropical tree seedlings enhanced by non-structural carbohydrate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Philipson, Christopher D.; Tay, John; Hector, Andy

    2014-08-01

    Plants in most biomes are thought to be living at their hydraulic limits, and alterations to precipitation patterns consistent with climate change trends are causing die-back in forests across the globe. However, within- and among-species variation in plant traits that promote persistence and adaptation under these new rainfall regimes may reduce mortality in these changing climates. Storage of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is posited as an important trait for resistance and resilience of forests to climate-change-induced drought, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a positive relationship between NSCs and drought survival by manipulating NSC concentrations within seedlings of ten tropical tree species. Seedlings experimentally enriched in NSCs showed higher stem water potentials and sustained NSCs during drought. NSC use for maintenance of osmoregulation and hydraulic function therefore seems to underlie improved drought resistance. That drought mortality is delayed by higher NSC concentrations has implications for predicting the impacts of climate change on forest die-back and may help focus restoration efforts on species that increase the resistance and resilience of forests to climate change.

  1. Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2009-01-01

    Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ≥1 NTI. Of 215 with ≥1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population. PMID:19214124

  2. Distinctive Structural and Non-Structural Building Defects and Failures in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sin Wen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the maintenance-free building may be a theoretical possibility, all buildings are subject to the vagaries of defects, failures, deterioration and variation. The examples of these problems are fungus growth, peeling paint, termite attack, dampness, defective rainwater goods, roof defects, harmful growth, settlement, foundation failure, roof collapse and others. There are a great number of building defects and failures arose and being reported officially by mass media, especially problems with educational buildings. Theoretically, all buildings tend to deteriorate over period of time due to aging or other factors, regardless the types of buildings. There are several main factors can be taken into account such as design fault, poor maintenance, poor workmanship, building age and location of building. This paper will discuss on distinctive structural and non-structural building defects and failures than frequently happened in educational buildings. This paper is noteworthy to render varies of problems generally faced by Malaysian educational buildings to the public. As such, the awareness among them can be raised or improved. Furthermore, the public will concern, especially the government authorities should emphasize the laws and regulations to enforce the safety of construction work as well as the procedure in giving approval to the occupation of educational buildings.

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of wound tumor virus genomic segments encoding nonstructural polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzola, J V; Dall, D J; Xu, Z K; Nuss, D L

    1989-07-01

    Sequence analysis of the genomic segments which encode the five wound tumor virus nonstructural polypeptides has been completed. The complete nucleotide sequence of segments S4 (2565 bp), S6 (1700 bp), S9 (1182 bp), and S10 (1172 bp) are presented in this report while the sequence of segment S12 (851 bp) has been described previously (T. Asamizu, D. Summers, M. B. Motika, J. V. Anzola, and D. L. Nuss, 1985, Virology 144, 398-409). Comparison of the only published sequence for another member of the genus Phytoreovirus, that of rice dwarf virus segment S10, with the combined available wound tumor virus sequence data revealed similarity with WTV segment S10: 54.9 and 30.6% at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Although wound tumor virus and rice dwarf virus differ in plant host range, tissue specificity, vector range, and disease symptom expression, the level of sequence similarity shared by the two segments suggests a common origin for these viruses. The potential use of a phytoreovirus sequence database for predicting functions of viral encoded gene products is considered.

  4. The evaluation of benzene and phenol biodegradation kinetics by applying non-structured models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueros, D E G; Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Kroumov, A D

    2010-01-01

    The biodegradation kinetics of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene and phenol as single substrates and as a mixture were investigated through non-structured model analysis. The material balance equations involving the models of Monod and Andrews and representing the biodegradation kinetics of individual substrates in batch mode were numerically solved. Further, utilization of a benzene-phenol mixture was described by applying more sophisticated mathematical forms of competitive, noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibition models as well as the sum kinetic interactions parameters (SKIP) model. In order to improve the performance of the studied models, some modifications were also proposed. The Particle Swarm Global Optimization method, coded in Maple, was applied to the parameter identification procedure of each model, where the least square method was used as a search statistical criterion. The description of the biodegradation kinetics of a benzene-phenol mixture by the competitive inhibition model was based on the information that the compounds could be catabolized via one metabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida F1. Simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental data and proved the robustness of the applied methods and models. The developed knowledge database could be very useful in the optimization of the biodegradation processes of different bioreactor types and operational conditions.

  5. Drought and shade deplete nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in seedlings of five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Andrea J; Kobe, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Plants that store nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) may rely on carbon reserves to survive carbon-limiting stress, assuming that reserves can be mobilized. We asked whether carbon reserves decrease in resource stressed seedlings, and if NSC allocation is related to species' relative stress tolerances. We tested the effects of stress (shade, drought, and defoliation) on NSC in seedlings of five temperate tree species (Acer rubrum Marsh., Betula papyrifera Marsh., Fraxinus americana L ., Quercus rubra L., and Quercus velutina Lam.). In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings were subjected to combinations of shade, drought, and defoliation. We harvested seedlings over 32-97 days and measured biomass and NSC concentrations in stems and roots to estimate depletion rates. For all species and treatments, except for defoliation, seedling growth and NSC accumulation ceased. Shade and drought combined caused total NSC decreases in all species. For shade or drought alone, only some species experienced decreases. Starch followed similar patterns as total NSC, but soluble sugars increased under drought for drought-tolerant species. These results provide evidence that species deplete stored carbon in response to carbon limiting stress and that species differences in NSC response may be important for understanding carbon depletion as a buffer against shade- and drought-induced mortality.

  6. The Sustainable Island Development Evaluation Model and Its Application Based on the Nonstructural Decision Fuzzy Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanming Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity and diversity of the issue of sustainable island development, no widely accepted and applicable evaluation system model regarding the issue currently exists. In this paper, we discuss and establish the sustainable development indicator system and the model approach from the perspective of resources, the island environment, the island development status, the island social development, and the island intelligence development. We reference the sustainable development theory and the sustainable development indicator system method concerning land region, combine the character of the sustainable island development, analyze and evaluate the extent of the sustainable island development, orient development, and identify the key and limited factors of sustainable island development capability. This research adopts the entropy method and the nonstructural decision fuzzy set theory model to determine the weight of the evaluating indicators. Changhai County was selected as the subject of the research, which consisted of a quantitative study of its sustainable development status from 2001 to 2008 to identify the key factors influencing its sustainability development, existing problems, and limited factors and to provide basic technical support for ocean development planning and economic development planning.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of pedicle screw-rod internal fixation after one-stage posterior transforaminal lesion debridement and non-structural bone grafting for tuberculosis of lumbar vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ming LIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pedicle screw-rod internal fixation after one-stage posterior transforaminal lesion debridement and non-structural bone grafting in the treatment of tuberculosis of mono-segmental lumbar vertebra. Methods From January 2010 to April 2013, 21 patients (9 males and 12 females with an average age of 49.1 years with mono-segmental tuberculosis of lumbar vertebra underwent surgery in our hospital were included. Eight patients had neurological deficit. The focus of tuberculosis was located on one side of the vertebral body, and all the patients had obvious signs of bone destruction on CT and MRI. All the patients were given anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy for 2-3 weeks before surgery. The local bone chips and autologous iliac cancellous bone were used as the intervertebral bone graft. Postoperative plain radiographs and CT were obtained to evaluate the fusion rate and degree of lumbar lordosis. The visual analogue scale score (VAS, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP before and after operation, and at final follow-up date were recorded. Results All the patients were followed up for 25.3±4.2 months. The mean operation time was 157±39 minutes, and the average blood loss was 470±143ml. The fusion rate of the interbody bone graft was 95.2%, with an average fusion period of 6.1±2.5 months. The neurological function was improved by 100%, and no severe complication or neurological injury occured. The preoperative and postoperative lordosis angles of the lumbar spine were 21.4°±5.7° and 33.6°±3.1°, respectively, and it was 31.3°±2.7° at the final follow up. The preoperative and postoperative VAS scores were 7.8±2.6 and 2.4±1.7 respectively, and it was 0.9±0.7 at the final follow up. The ESR and CRP were significantly decreased 3 months after surgery, and they became normal at 6 months. Conclusion Pedicle screw-rod internal fixation after one-stage posterior

  8. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  9. Antibodies against non-structural c100/3 and structural core antigen of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis patients Anticorpos contra os antígenos não estrutural c100/3 e estrutural core do vírus da hepatite C (HCV) em pacientes de hemodiálise

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida,C.F.T.; Takahashi, Y.; B.O.M. Vanderborght; Rouzere,C. D.; França,M. S. de; Takahashi,C.; Takamizawa, A; Yoshida, I.; Schatzmayr, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) maintenance were evaluated for their antibody response to non-structural c100/3 protein and structural core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty-six patients (Group 1) never presented liver abnormalities during HD treatment, while 52 patients (Group 2) had either current or prior liver enzyme elevations. Prevalence rates of 32.6% and 41.3% were found for anti-c100/3 and anti-HCV core antibodies, respectively, in patients with silent inf...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in bulbs and shoots of the geophyte Galanthus nivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthen, Birgit; Wehrmeyer, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates were studied in Galanthus nivalis L. over a 2-year period. The plants were collected in the field and separated into above- and below-ground biomass. The polysaccharide fraction of the bulbs consisted of fructans and starch. Seasonal variations suggest that the polysaccharides were utilized for carbon and energy supply for re-growth and flower development. With the re-sprouting of the bulbs in autumn the fructans within the bulbs were depolymerized and an increase of low degree of polymerization fructans as well as sucrose was observable. Within shoots the major polysaccharides were fructans, the starch content was much lower. Gas liquid chromatography and high-performance, anion-exchange chromatographyanalysis of the fructan fraction revealed that the fructans within the shoots were predominantly those with a low degree of polymerization. In addition to the two polysaccharides the other dominant sugar in shoots was sucrose. During the period of slow re-growth and flowering, fructan and starch pools were depleted to different degrees. Calculation of the difference between the carbohydrate content at the start of visible growth and at the time of lowest content revealed that the starch pool showed a higher depletion than the fructan pool. During the re-growth periods in 1996/97 and 1997/98 fructans were catabolized by 39 and 32% only, whereas the starch pool was depleted by 92% (1996/97) and 79% (1997/98), respectively. During rapid shoot growth and fruiting, the bulbs and above-ground organs appeared to be competing sinks for the photosynthetically fixed carbon. Refilling of the bulbs carbohydrate reserve started in February/March In shoots, the period of refilling the bulbs was characterized by a low content of oligosaccarides and a high content of hexoses.

  11. Nonstructural carbohydrate remobilization and suckering of aspen roots following severe disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E.; King, C.; Richardson, A. D.; Landhäusser, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) storage and remobilization are important processes that allow trees to temporarily maintain a negative carbon balance and recover from disturbances that kill aboveground tissue and/or limit carbon uptake. However, our knowledge of carbohydrate remobilization in trees remains very limited. Recent isotopic work suggests that trees can store carbohydrates that are relatively old, but it is not known how much of this carbon can be remobilized and used for growth. To determine the extent and the spatial/temporal pattern in which carbohydrates are remobilized following a severe disturbance, we collected root segments (1-3 cm diameter; 10-30 years old) from mature trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in northern Alberta. These roots were incubated in a dark growth chamber to ensure that root reserves were the sole supply of carbon for root suckering. Roots were harvested periodically to measure sucker growth and NSC concentrations of the phloem and inner and outer xylem. In addition, at two stages of suckering, the carbon in the newest sucker tissues was aged using the radiocarbon `bomb spike'. Initially, roots contained 5-6 times more NSC mass in the phloem than in the xylem, and the decrease in NSC mass during suckering was 3-4 times greater in the phloem. Root sucker mass was more strongly correlated with initial phloem NSC than xylem NSC concentration. Early sucker growth was composed of relatively young carbon, averaging 1-3 years old. Later sucker growth was significantly, but only slightly older ( 1 yr). At sucker death, xylem still contained 2-3% NSC and phloem contained 11-13.5% NSC; NSC pools were reduced to a greater degree in xylem than in phloem. These results suggest that the phloem—an often overlooked carbohydrate pool—contains a large and important carbon reserve pool for regrowth following disturbance. The high levels of carbohydrates remaining in the root suggest that a large portion of NSC may be unavailable

  12. Can gas exchange dynamics predict non-structural carbohydrate use under drought stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, S.; Phillips, R.

    2016-12-01

    A recent conceptual framework for understanding tree drought responses characterizes species along a continuum from isohydry to anisohydry, with theory predicting that isohydric and anisohydric trees should display different carbon (C) allocation patterns under drought conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the trade-offs inherent in the isohydry-anisohydry framework (i.e., C starvation vs. hydraulic failure) necessitate different allocation patterns to non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), growth, and respiration. Specifically, we hypothesized that isohydric trees would decrease NSC stores and growth in the face of reduced incoming photoassimilate, whereas anisohydric trees would maintain assimilation, growth, and NSC pools due to decreased demand for stored metabolic C and enhanced osmoregulatory needs. To test this, we subjected saplings of Liriodendron tulipifera (an isohydric tree) and Quercus alba (an anisohydric tree) to a six week drought in the greenhouse, and measured assimilation, leaf water potential (midday and predawn), growth, leaf dark respiration and NSCs (both sugars and starch in aboveground and belowground tissues) in control and droughted plants. Overall, we confirmed that the isohydric and anisohydric species used NSCs differently during drought. In most tissues, both species had similar responses of NSCs to drought: starch NSCs were maintained or decreased while sugar NSCs tended to increase. Stem NSCs were a notable exception, as L. tulipifera decreased total NSC to almost zero while NSCs in Q. alba remained constant. This depletion of stem NSC in L. tulipifera was offset by increases in other tissues, however, resulting in no net change to total NSC during the drought. In contrast, Q. alba increased total NSC. Interestingly, Q. alba also decreased assimilation and growth, indicating a potential trade-off between NSC and biomass allocation. Our results show that NSCs in different tissues may have contrasting uses as storage or

  13. 马尾松毛虫质型多角体病毒非结构蛋白p44在Bac-to-Bac系统中的表达和亚细胞定位%Expression ofDendrolimus puntatus Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (DpCPV1)Non-structural Protein p44 in Bac-to-Bac System and Localization in Infected Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晗; 王洪秀; 王金昌; 关丽梅; 靳亮; 万翠香

    2016-01-01

    为探寻马尾松毛虫质型多角体病毒(DpCPV 1)p44蛋白的功能,构建了DpCPV 1基因组S8片段的原核表达体系,表达纯化蛋白后免疫家兔制备了多克隆抗体。利用Bac-to-Bac杆状病毒表达系统,构建了3种重组的杆状病毒质粒(Bacmid-p44、Bacmid-p44-eGFP和Bacmid-eGFP)。转染昆虫细胞Sf9进行表达,通过Western blot检测和蛋白的亚细胞定位观察。Western blot检测结果显示,Bacmid-S8在昆虫细胞Sf9中表达实际蛋白的大小为35 kD,比在原核系统中表达的蛋白(44 kD)略小;利用激光共聚焦显微镜观察p44-eGFP的融合蛋白的亚细胞定位发现,融合p44的绿色荧光蛋白(eGFP)主要聚集在细胞质中,而未融合的 eGFP则分布于整个细胞,说明 DpCPV 1的p44蛋白定位于细胞质中。%In order to study the function of theDendrolimus puntatuscytoplasmicpolyhedrosis virus(DpCPV1)protein p44,PCR primers were designed according to the sequence of genome segment S8,the prokaryotic expression vector for genome segment 8 of DpCPV1 was constructed,and the polyclonal antibodies were prepared by immunizing rabbits with the purified expressed protein. Three recombinant plasmids(Bacmid-p44,Bacmid-p44-eGFP and Bacmid-eGFP)were constructed using Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus expression system.,and they were transfected into insect cell Sf9 for the expression. The detection and subcellular localization of the protein were determined by Western blot. The results from Western blot showed that the actual expressed protein of Bacmid-S8 in Sf9 was 35 kD,smaller than the one(44 kD) expressed in the prokaryotic expression vector. The subcellular localization of fusion protein of p44-eGFP was determined by laser scanning confocal microscope,and the fused green fluorescent protein(eGFP)of p44 concentrated in the cytoplasm of the cells,while infused eGFP distributed throughout the whole cell,indicating that p44 protein of DpCPV1 was localized mainly in the

  14. Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-beta3 and fibronectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, J A; Rossen, J W A; Sitaram, C K; Kimenai, F F P; Simons-Oosterhuis, Y; Laffeber, C; Büller, H A; Einerhand, A W C

    2004-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis and dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is an enterotoxin that was identified as an important agent in symptomatic rotavirus infection. To identify cellular proteins that interact with NSP4, a

  15. Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-beta3 and fibronectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, J A; Rossen, J W A; Sitaram, C K; Kimenai, F F P; Simons-Oosterhuis, Y; Laffeber, C; Büller, H A; Einerhand, A W C

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis and dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is an enterotoxin that was identified as an important agent in symptomatic rotavirus infection. To identify cellular proteins that interact with NSP4, a

  16. Efficacy of double-stranded RNA against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV non-structural (orf89, wsv191 and structural (vp28, vp26 genes in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Escobedo-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool against viral infections. Previous works with RNAi showed different antiviral efficacies depending on the silenced gene. This work evaluated the antiviral efficacy of double-stranded (ds RNA against two non-structural (orf89, wsv191 WSSV genes compared to structural (vp26, vp28 genes to inhibit an experimental WSSV infection. Gene orf89 encodes a putative regulatory protein and gene white spot virus (wsv191 encodes a nonspecific nuclease; whereas genes vp26 and vp28 encode envelope proteins, respectively. Molecules of dsRNA against each of the WSSV genes were intramuscularly injected (4 μg per shrimp into a group of shrimp 48 h before a WSSV challenge. The highest antiviral activity occurred with dsRNA against orf89, vp28 and vp26 (cumulative mortalities 10%, 10% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, the least effective treatment was wsv191 dsRNA (cumulative mortality 83%. All dead animals were WSSV-positive by one-step PCR, whereas reverse-transcription PCR of all surviving shrimp confirmed inhibition of virus replication. This study showed that dsRNA against WSSV genes orf89, vp28 and vp26 were highly effective to inhibit virus replication and suggest an essential role in WSSV infection. Non-structural WSSV genes such as orf89 can be used as novel targets to design therapeutic RNAi molecules against WSSV infection.

  17. Combined effects of defoliation and water stress on pine growth and non-structural carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jean-Sébastien; Bosc, Alexandre; O'Grady, Anthony; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase both pest insect damage and the occurrence of severe drought. There is therefore a need to better understand the combined effects of biotic and abiotic damage on tree growth in order to predict the multi-factorial effect of climate change on forest ecosystem productivity. Indeed, the effect of stress interactions on tree growth is an increasingly important topic that greatly lacks experiments and data, and it is unlikely that the impact of combined stresses can be extrapolated from the outcomes of studies that focused on a single stress. We developed an original manipulative study under real field conditions where we applied artificial defoliation and induced water stress on 10-year-old (∼10 m high) maritime pine trees (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Tree response to combined stresses was quantitatively assessed following tree secondary growth and carbohydrate pools. Such a design allowed us to address the crucial question of combined stresses on trees under stand conditions, sharing soil supplies with neighboring trees. Our initial hypotheses were that (i) moderate defoliation can limit the impact of water stress on tree growth through reduced transpiration demand by a tree canopy partly defoliated and that (ii) defoliation results in reduced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools, affecting tree tolerance to drought. Our results showed additive effects of defoliation and water stress on tree growth and contradict our initial hypothesis. Indeed, under stand conditions, we found that partial defoliation does not limit the impact of water stress through reduced transpiration. Our study also highlighted that, even if NSC in all organs were affected by defoliation, tree response to water stress was not triggered. We found that stem NSC were maintained or increased during the entire growing season, supporting literature-based hypotheses such as an active maintenance of the hydraulic system or another limiting resource for tree growth

  18. Chikungunya virus infectivity, RNA replication and non-structural polyprotein processing depend on the nsP2 protease’s active site cysteine residue

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Rausalu; Age Utt; Tania Quirin; Varghese, Finny S.; Eva Žusinaite; Pratyush Kumar Das; Tero Ahola; Andres Merits

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, has a positive-stand RNA genome approximately 12 kb in length. In infected cells, the genome is translated into non-structural polyprotein P1234, an inactive precursor of the viral replicase, which is activated by cleavages carried out by the non-structural protease, nsP2. We have characterized CHIKV nsP2 using both cell-free and cell-based assays. First, we show that Cys478 residue in the active site of CHIKV nsP2 is indispensa...

  19. Naturally occurring mutations in the nonstructural region 5B of hepatitis C virus (HCV from treatment-naive Korean patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Won Kim

    Full Text Available The nonstructural 5B (NS5B protein of the hepatitis C virus (HCV with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp activity plays a pivotal role in viral replication. Therefore, monitoring of its naturally occurring mutations is very important for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines. In the present study, mutations in the partial NS5B gene (492 bp from 166 quasispecies of 15 genotype-1b (GT treatment-naïve Korean chronic patients were determined and mutation patterns and frequencies mainly focusing on the T cell epitope regions were evaluated. The mutation frequency within the CD8+ T cell epitopes was significantly higher than those outside the CD8+ T cell epitopes. Of note, the mutation frequency within predicted CD4+ T cell epitopes, a particular mutational hotspot in Korean patients was significantly higher than it was in patients from other areas, suggesting distinctive CD4+ T cell-mediated immune pressure against HCV infection in the Korean population. The mutation frequency in the NS5B region was positively correlated with patients with carrier-stage rather than progressive liver disease (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the mutation frequency in four codons (Q309, A333, V338 and Q355 known to be related to the sustained virological response (SVR and end-of treatment response (ETR was also significantly higher in Korean patients than in patients from other areas. In conclusion, a high degree of mutation frequency in the HCV GT-1b NS5B region, particularly in the predicted CD4+ T cell epitopes, was found in Korean patients, suggesting the presence of distinctive CD4+ T cell pressure in the Korean population. This provides a likely explanation of why relatively high levels of SVR after a combined therapy of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin (RBV in Korean chronic patients with GT-1b infections are observed.

  20. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC, in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. Four hundred and fifty samples of wide spectrum from different origin were selected out of 3000 scanned for the calibration set, whereas 87 independent random samples were used in the external validation. The goodness of the calibration models was evaluated using the following statistics: coefficient of determination (R2, standard error of cross-validation (SECV, standard error of prediction for external validation (SEP and the RPDCV and RPDP indexes [ratios of standard deviation (SD of reference analysis data to SECV and SEP, respectively]. The smaller the SECV and SEP and the greater the RPDCV and RPDP, the predictions are better. Trait measurement units were g/100g of dry matter (DM, except for IVOMD (g/100g OM. The SECV and RPDCV statistics of the calibration set were 1.34 and 3.2 for WSC, 2.57 and 3 for NSC and 2.3 and 2.2 for IVOMD, respectively. The SEP and RPDP statistics for external validation were 0.74 and 4.7 for WSC, 2.14 and 2.5 for NSC and 1.68 and 1.6 for IVOMD respectively. It can be concluded that the NIRS technique can be used to predict WSC and NSC with good accuracy, whereas prediction of IVOMD showed a lesser accuracy. NIRS predictions of OM, CP, NDF, ADF and starch also showed good accuracy.

  1. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  2. Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in drought-induced tree mortality have recently been documented globally and although less documented, non-lethal reductions in growth that are associated with the observed occurrences of tree mortality could represent an even greater drought-induced loss of net ecosystem productivity. Although carbon starvation has received a great deal of attention recently as a potential cause of drought-related mortality, the role of carbon depletion in the growth reduction and mortality of trees remains unresolved. The difference in mortality rates of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in response to drought has been hypothesized to be related to their contrasting strategies for avoiding tissue desiccation and hydraulic failure (isohydry for piñon and anisohydry for juniper), and the subsequent impact of these strategies on their carbon balance. Despite intense interest in the role of carbon dynamics in tree survival and productivity, little is known of the short- and long-term consequences of drought on carbon storage and depletion in the context of these two contrasting strategies. Diurnal patterns of concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed in piñon and juniper under ambient growing conditions as well as under experimental drought conditions during May, August, and September of 2012. Our objective was to examine differences in storage, depletion and conversion of starch and sugars in these species at multiple points throughout the growing season and to identify any potential patterns of storage or conversion that could represent distinct vulnerabilities or compensatory responses to drought. Differences in total NSC between species were least pronounced at the beginning of the growing season in May and substantially more pronounced in August and September when NSC in piñon was reduced to approximately 2% tissue dry wt., down from 13-16% during May, whereas NSC in juniper was reduced to 4-6 % tissue

  3. Variation in the concentration and age of nonstructural carbon stored in different tree tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Carbone, Mariah; Huggett, Brett; Furze, Morgan; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2014-05-01

    Trees store nonstructural carbon (NSC), in the form of sugars and starch, in the ray parenchyma cells of woody tissues. These reserves provide a carbon buffer when demand (growth, protection, or metabolism) exceeds supply (photosynthesis). This is particularly important in the context of resilience to stress and disturbance, such as might be associated with various global change factors. However, storage allocation processes and the availability of stored reserves remain poorly understood in woody plants. To better understand how NSC reserves are distributed throughout the tree, and the degree to which NSC reserves mix across ring boundaries and tissue types, we destructively sampled two 30-year-old trees (one red oak, Quercus rubra L., and one white pine, Pinus strobus L.) growing at Harvard Forest, an oak-dominated temperate forest in the northeastern United States. We analyzed stemwood samples (divided into individual rings, bark, and phloem), coarse and fine branches, and coarse (separated into three depths) and fine roots for concentrations of total sugars and starch. For a subset of samples we used the radiocarbon (14C) "bomb spike" method to estimate the mean age of extracted sugars and starch. In oak, stemwood sugar and starch concentrations were highest (50 mg/g) in the youngest (most recently-formed) rings, and dropped off rapidly (to 10 mg/g or less) across the 10 most recent rings. In oak phloem tissue, sugar concentrations were high (90 mg/g) compared to starch (10 mg/g). In pine, sugar concentrations dropped off rapidly across the three most recent rings (from 30 mg/g to 10 mg/g) whereas starch concentrations were low even for the youngest rings (10 mg/g or less). In pine, phloem concentrations of both sugar (190 mg/g) and starch (20 mg/g) were both substantially higher than in oak. Such strong radial trends must be accounted for when scaling up to whole-tree budgets, as whole increment cores cannot properly integrate (on a ring-area basis) across the

  4. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5, eIF-5, a protein from Zea mays, containing a zinc-finger structure, binds nucleic acids in a zinc-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ribera, I; Ruiz-Avila, L; Puigdomènech, P

    1997-07-18

    A maize cDNA encoding the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF-5) has been isolated from an 8-day-old seedling cDNA library. The 1975 bp cDNA encodes a protein of 451 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 49.04 kDa, and hybridizes to a single sequence in the maize genome. The deduced sequence contains motifs characteristic of proteins belonging to the GPTase superfamily, a zinc finger well conserved in all the protein sequences for eIF-5 reported so far, and a fragment also present in prokaryotic and chloroplast L11 ribosomal protein. Polymer-binding assays have been used to assess the predicted RNA binding property of the protein and to characterize its function. It is shown that the eIF-5-encoded protein binds to single-stranded DNA and to polyuridylic acid and that the binding is dependent on the presence of Zn2+ ions. These results suggest that the zinc-finger structure is involved in the binding of the eIF-5 protein to RNA.

  5. Effects of structured versus non-structured learning on achievement and attitudes of fifth graders in a public aquarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Merryl Audrey

    The investigator analyzed the main effect of a structured-learning experience in an informal setting, as well as interactions between the students' learning-style variations toward the element of structure and the imposed instructional conditions. The subjects consisted of 170 students enrolled in two public schools located in Brooklyn, New York. The students were predominantly a White multi-ethnic population consisting of 118 Caucasians, 25 Hispanics, 24 Asians, and 3 African-Americans. Three randomly assigned classes (n = 81) were provided trip sheets, which directed students on how to learn new information with written questions and directives. Three randomly assigned non-structured classes (n = 89) experienced the same exhibit in a free-form manner. Science-based criterion-referenced pre- and posttests were administered, in addition to Learning Style Inventories (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) and a modified Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981), which was used to measure attitudinal levels. The non-structured group had access to similar content information in the form of exhibit graphics, but apparently they chose not to read it as carefully or engage in the information-seeking process as intensely as the students equipped with trip sheets. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that a structured-learning experience produced significantly higher science-achievement test scores than in a non-structured-learning experience (p = .0001). In addition, there was no single learning-style variation (preference, aversion, or no preference) to structure that produced significantly higher gains than another. Furthermore, attitudinal scores were not significantly different between structured and non-structured groups, as well as among homogeneous subsets of students with learning-style variations that matched, mismatched, or indicated no-preferenced positions on the element of structure. Hence, a moderate amount of structure resulted in academic gains without

  6. Development of NIR calibration models to assess year-to-year variation in total non-structural carbohydrates in grasses using PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to quantify total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in grass samples in order to overcome year-to-year variation. A total of 1103 above-ground plant and root samples were collected from different field and pot experiments ...

  7. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  8. Long range chromosome organization in Escherichia coli: The position of the replication origin defines the non-structured regions and the Right and Left macrodomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized into four macrodomains (Ori, Ter, Right and Left) and two non-structured regions. This organization influences the segregation of sister chromatids, the mobility of chromosomal DNA, and the cellular localization of the chromosome. The organization of the Ter and Ori macrodomains relies on two specific systems, MatP/matS for the Ter domain and MaoP/maoS for the Ori domain, respectively. Here by constructing strains with chromosome rearrangements to reshuffle the distribution of chromosomal segments, we reveal that the difference between the non-structured regions and the Right and Left lateral macrodomains relies on their position on the chromosome. A change in the genetic location of oriC generated either by an inversion within the Ori macrodomain or by the insertion of a second oriC modifies the position of Right and Left macrodomains, as the chromosome region the closest to oriC are always non-structured while the regions further away behave as macrodomain regardless of their DNA sequence. Using fluorescent microscopy we estimated that loci belonging to a non-structured region are significantly closer to the Ori MD than loci belonging to a lateral MD. Altogether, our results suggest that the origin of replication plays a prominent role in chromosome organization in E. coli, as it determines structuring and localization of macrodomains in growing cell. PMID:28486476

  9. Calcineurin A versus NS5A-TP2/HD domain containing 2: a case study of site-directed low-frequency random mutagenesis for dissecting target specificity of peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Silvia; Cluet, David; Stebe, Pierre-Nicolas; Baumle, Véronique; Léault, Jérémie; Terreux, Raphaël; Bickle, Marc; Chassey, Benoit D E; Mikaelian, Ivan; Colas, Pierre; Spichty, Martin; Zoli, Michele; Rudkin, Brian B

    2013-07-01

    We previously identified a peptide aptamer (named R5G42) via functional selection for its capacity to slow cell proliferation. A yeast two-hybrid screen of human cDNA libraries, using R5G42 as "bait," allowed the identification of two binding proteins with very different functions: calcineurin A (CnA) (PP2B/PPP3CA), a protein phosphatase well characterized for its role in the immune response, and NS5A-TP2/HD domain containing 2, a much less studied protein induced subsequent to hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A expression in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, with no known activity. Our objective in the present study was to dissect the dual target specificity of R5G42 in order to have tools with which to better characterize the actions of the peptide aptamers toward their individual targets. This was achieved through the selection of random mutants of the variable loop, derived from R5G42, evaluating their specificity toward CnA and NS5A-TP2 and analyzing their sequence. An interdisciplinary approach involving biomolecular computer simulations with integration of the sequence data and yeast two-hybrid binding phenotypes of these mutants yielded two structurally distinct conformers affording the potential molecular basis of the binding diversity of R5G42. Evaluation of the biological impact of CnA- versus NS5A-TP2-specific peptide aptamers indicated that although both contributed to the anti-proliferative effect of R5G42, CnA-binding was essential to stimulate the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, indicative of the activation of endogenous CnA. By dissecting the target specificity of R5G42, we have generated novel tools with which to study each target individually. Apta-C8 is capable of directly activating CnA independent of binding to NS5A-TP2 and will be an important tool in studying the role of CnA activation in the regulation of different signaling pathways, whereas Apta-E1 will allow dissection of the function of NS5A

  10. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Chikungunya Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Inhibits type I/II Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fros, J.; W.J. Liu; Prow, A.; Geertsema, C.; Ligtenberg, M; Vanlandingham, D. L.; Schnettler, E.; Vlak, J. M.; Suhrbier, A.; Khromykh, A.A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. Like that of other alphaviruses, CHIKV replication causes general host shutoff, leading to severe cytopathicity in mammalian cells, and inhibits the ability of infected cells to respond to interferon (IFN). Recent research, however, suggests that alphaviruses may have additional mechanisms to circumvent the host's antiviral IFN response. Here we show that CHIKV replication is resistant to inhibition by interfer...

  12. Mutations in the nonstructural protein 3A confer resistance to the novel enterovirus replication inhibitor TTP-8307.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, A.M. De; Thibaut, H.J.; Linden, L. van de; Lanke, K.H.W.; Heggermont, W.; Ireland, S.; Andrews, R.; Arimilli, M.; Al-Tel, T.H.; Clercq, E. De; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Neyts, J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all

  13. Alphavirus-based Vaccines Encoding Nonstructural Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus Induce Robust and Protective T-cell Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ip, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Regts, Joke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    An absolute prerequisite for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the potency to induce HCV-specific vigorous and broad-spectrum T-cell responses. Here, we generated three HCV vaccines based on a recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vector expressing all-or a part of

  14. Nonstructural 3 Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Modulates the Tribbles Homolog 3/Akt Signaling Pathway for Persistent Viral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Si C.; Pham, Tu M.; Nguyen, Lam N.; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms underlying HCV-induced liver pathogenesis are still not fully understood. By transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we recently identified host genes that were significantly differentially expressed in cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these, tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) was selected for further characterization. TRIB3 was init...

  15. Chikungunya Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Inhibits type I/II Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.; Liu, W.J.; Prow, A.; Geertsema, C.; Ligtenberg, M.; Vanlandingham, D.L.; Schnettler, E.; Vlak, J.M.; Suhrbier, A.; Khromykh, A.A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. Like that of other alphaviruses, CHIKV replication causes general host shutoff, leading to severe cytopathicity in mammalian cells, and inhibits the ability of infected cells to respond to interferon (IFN). Recent res

  16. SARS-CoV ORF1b-encoded nonstructural proteins 12-16: replicative enzymes as antiviral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Imbert, Isabelle; Ferron, François; Collet, Axelle; Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic caused ten years ago by the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology of coronaviruses. This research has provided significant new insight into many mechanisms used by the coronavirus replication-transcription complex (RTC). The RTC directs and coordinates processes in order to replicate and transcribe the coronavirus genome, a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of outstanding length (∼27-32kilobases). Here, we review the up-to-date knowledge on SARS-CoV replicative enzymes encoded in the ORF1b, i.e., the main RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), the helicase/triphosphatase (nsp13), two unusual ribonucleases (nsp14, nsp15) and RNA-cap methyltransferases (nsp14, nsp16). We also review how these enzymes co-operate with other viral co-factors (nsp7, nsp8, and nsp10) to regulate their activity. These last ten years of research on SARS-CoV have considerably contributed to unravel structural and functional details of one of the most fascinating replication/transcription machineries of the RNA virus world. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted efficiently from infected mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Ana C; Medina, Fernando; González-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio J; Vásquez, Carlos; Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Del Angel, Rosa M; Ludert, Juan E

    2016-01-15

    Dengue virus NS1 is a glycoprotein of 46-50kDa which associates as a dimer to internal and cytoplasmic membranes and is also secreted, as a hexamer, to the extracellular milieu. However, the notion exist that NS1 is secreted only from infected vertebrate and not mosquito cells. In this work, evidence is presented showing that NS1 is secreted efficiently by infected mosquito cells. NS1 was detected in cell supernatants starting at 6hpi with a continuous concentration increase up to 24hpi. Nevertheless, cell viability showed an average cell survival of 97%. At variance with observations with vertebrate cells, NS1 does not seems to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane of insect cells. Finally, evidence is presented indicating that NS1 is secreted from insect cells as a barrel-shaped hexamer. These findings provide new insights into the biology of NS1 and open questions about the role of secreted NS1 in the vector mosquito. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  19. Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-beta3 and fibronectin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Boshuizen; J.W. Rossen (John); C.K. Sitaram; F.F.P. Kimenai; Y. Simons-Oosterhuis (Ytje); C. Laffeber; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis and dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is an enterotoxin that was identified as an important agent in symptomatic rotavirus infection. To identify cellular prote

  20. Differential expression of eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2 in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Paul M. J.; Johansson, Hans E.; Wolff, Edith C.; Park, Myung H.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine [Nε-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Vertebrates carry two genes that encode two eIF5A isoforms, eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2, which, in humans, are 84% identical. eIF5A-1 mRNA (1.3 kb) and protein (18 kDa) are constitutively expressed in human cells. In contrast, expression of eIF5A-2 mRNA (0.7–5.6 kb) and eIF5A-2 protein (20 kDa) varies widely. Whereas eIF5A-2 mRNA was demonstrable in most cells, eIF5A-2 protein was detectable only in the colorectal and ovarian cancer-derived cell lines SW-480 and UACC-1598, which showed high overexpression of eIF5A-2 mRNA. Multiple forms of eIF5A-2 mRNA (5.6, 3.8, 1.6 and 0.7 kb) were identified as the products of one gene with various lengths of 3′-UTR, resulting from the use of different polyadenylation (AAUAAA) signals. The eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2 precursor proteins were modified comparably in UACC-1598 cells and both were similarly stable. When eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2 coding sequences were expressed from mammalian vectors in 293T cells, eIF5A-2 precursor was synthesized at a level comparable to that of eIF5A-1 precursor, indicating that the elements causing inefficient translation of eIF5A-2 mRNA reside outside of the open reading frame. On sucrose gradient separation of cytoplasmic RNA, only a small portion of total eIF5A-2 mRNA was associated with the polysomal fraction, compared with a much larger portion of eIF5A-1 mRNA in the polysomes. These findings suggest that the failure to detect eIF5A-2 protein even in eIF5A-2 mRNA positive cells is, at least in part, due to inefficient translation. PMID:16519677

  1. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  2. Optimizing choice of oral interferon-free treatment for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus using testing for NS5A resistance: a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhout, Kirsten Y; Bouwmeester, Walter; Duchesne, Inge; Pisini, Marta; Piena, Marjanne A; Damele, Francesco; Gueron, Beatrice; Treur, Maarten; Belsey, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus infection who have failed to respond to standard therapy or who relapse following treatment may be considered for an interferon-free regimen incorporating a nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor. Sustained virologic response (SVR) with these regimens is typically >90%, but this is reduced in patients with NS5A resistance. European Association for Study of the Liver guidelines recommend simeprevir + sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (SMV+SOF±R) for re-treating patients failing an NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen. An alternative strategy would be to test for NS5A resistance prior to treatment, with therapy optimized based on the results. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Materials and methods A Markov model was used to estimate disease progression for treatment-experienced genotype 1 patients with severe fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis. Targeted treatment with either SMV+SOF±R or sofosbuvir + ledipasvir ± ribavirin (SOF+LDV±R) based on pretreatment NS5A resistance testing was compared to routine SOF+LDV±R without testing. Treatment duration was 12 or 24 weeks for patients with severe fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis (Metavir F3/F4). SVR data for the treatment options were based on the results of published clinical trials. The analysis was carried out from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. Results Optimized treatment using NS5A resistance testing yielded 0.163 additional QALYs and increased costs of €2,789 per patient versus no testing. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €17,078/QALY. Sensitivity analysis identified the SVR attributable to each of the treatment regimens as the most sensitive determinant of ICER (range: €10,055/QALY–€43,501/QALY across plausible range). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000/QALY, the probability that NS5A-directed treatment will be cost

  3. A retrospective case-control study of hepatitis C virus infection and oral lichen planus in Japan: association study with mutations in the core and NS5A region of hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Japanese patients with oral lichen planus and identify the impact of amino acid (aa substitutions in the HCV core region and IFN-sensitivity-determining region (ISDR of nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A associated with lichen planus. Methods In this retrospective study, 59 patients (group 1-A with oral lichen planus among 226 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and 85 individuals (group 1-B, controls with normal oral mucosa were investigated for the presence of liver disease and HCV infection. Risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus were assessed by logistic regression analysis. We compared aa substitutions in the HCV core region (70 and/or 91 and ISDR of NS5A of 12 patients with oral lichen planus (group 2-A and 7 patients who did not have oral lichen planus (group 2-B among patients (high viral loads, genotype 1b who received interferon (IFN therapy in group1-A. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA was 67.80% (40/59 and 59.32% (35/59, respectively, in group 1-A and 31.76% (27/85 and 16.47% (14/85, respectively, in group 1-B. The prevalence of anti-HCV (P P Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of HCV infection in patients with oral lichen planus. Longstanding HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and smoking were significant risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus in patients. It is advisable for Japanese patients with lichen planus to be tested for HCV infection during medical examination.

  4. Aquareovirus NS80 Initiates Efficient Viral Replication by Retaining Core Proteins within Replication-Associated Viral Inclusion Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Yan; Jie Zhang; Hong Guo; Shicui Yan; Qingxiu Chen; Fuxian Zhang; Qin Fang

    2015-01-01

    Viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) are specific intracellular compartments for reoviruses replication and assembly. Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80 has been identified to be the major constituent for forming globular VIBs in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the role of NS80 in viral structural proteins expression and viral replication. Immunofluorescence assays showed that NS80 could retain five core proteins or inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6), but not outer-capsi...

  5. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural (NS gene of influenza A viruses isolated from mallards in Northern Europe in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Björn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the important role of the non-structural 1 (NS gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established, our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses in their natural reservoirs in Europe is incomplete. In this study we determined the subtypes and prevalence of influenza A viruses present in mallards in Northern Europe and further analysed the NS gene of these isolates in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of influenza A virus in their natural hosts. Results A total number of 45 influenza A viruses of different subtypes were studied. Eleven haemagglutinin- and nine neuraminidase subtypes in twelve combinations were found among the isolated viruses. Each NS gene reported here consisted of 890 nucleotides; there were no deletions or insertions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present at the same time in the same geographic location in the mallard populations in Northern Europe. A comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses revealed a substantial number of silent mutations, which results in high degree of homology in amino acid sequences. The degree of variation within the alleles is very low. In our study allele A viruses displays a maximum of 5% amino acid divergence while allele B viruses display only 2% amino acid divergence. All the viruses isolated from mallards in Northern Europe possessed the typical avian ESEV amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end of the NS1 protein. Conclusion Our finding indicates the existence of a large reservoir of different influenza A viruses in mallards population in Northern Europe. Although our phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present in the mallards populations in Northern Europe, allele B viruses appear to be less

  7. Behavior of non-structural masonry in the Lorca earthquake; Comportamiento de las fabricas no estructurales en el terremoto de Lorca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermmans, L.; Fraile de Lerma, A.; Alarcon Alvarez, E.; Alvarez Cabal, R.

    2012-07-01

    Lorca 11 May 2011 earthquake effects are described on both facades and partitions of Lorca buildings and the relationship among these elements, traditionally regarded as non-structural, and the structure itself is analysed. In addition, field observations are reproduced with simple numerical models. From this study we prove the high importance of the masonry in the building behaviour during this earthquake. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. THE EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR ON STRUCTURAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATES AND LIGNIN CONTENT IN SELECTED GRASS SPECIES AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Anna Ciepiela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was undertaken to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak SL, derived from brown seaweed species Ecklonia maxima (kelp, on structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as lignin content in orchard grass and Braun’s festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: an application of the plant growth regulator Kelpak SL applied at the rate of 2 dm3· ha-1 vs an untreated control (0 dm3· ha-1, pure sown grass species and cultivars grown in monoculture: Dactylis glomerata, cv. Amila and Tukan, as well as Festulolium braunii cv. Felopa and Agula. This study revealed that an application of Kelpak significantly reduced cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents of the grasses but significantly increased non-structural carbohydrates, regardless of the remaining factors. Non-structural carbohydrates were the highest in Kelpak-treated Festulolium braunii (on average, 232.7 g · kg-1.

  9. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  10. Sweets for the foe - effects of nonstructural carbohydrates on the susceptibility of Quercus robur against Phytophthora quercina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angay, Oguzhan; Fleischmann, Frank; Recht, Sabine; Herrmann, Sylvie; Matyssek, Rainer; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Buscot, François; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2014-09-01

    The root-rot pathogen Phytophthora quercina is a key determinant of oak decline in Europe. The susceptibility of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) to this pathogen has been hypothesized to depend on the carbon availability in roots as an essential resource for defense. Microcuttings of Q. robur undergo an alternating rhythm of root and shoot growth. Inoculation of mycorrhizal (Piloderma croceum) and nonmycorrhizal oak roots with P. quercina was performed during both growth phases, that is, root flush (RF) and shoot flush (SF). Photosynthetic and morphological responses as well as concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed. Infection success was quantified by the presence of pathogen DNA in roots. Concentrations of NSC in roots depended on the alternating root/shoot growth rhythm, being high and low during RF and SF, respectively. Infection success was high during RF and low during SF, resulting in a significantly positive correlation between pathogen DNA and NSC concentration in roots, contrary to the hypothesis. The alternating growth of roots and shoots plays a crucial role for the susceptibility of lateral roots to the pathogen. NSC availability in oak roots has to be considered as a benchmark for susceptibility rather than resistance against P. quercina.

  11. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  12. Understanding the roles of nonstructural carbohydrates in forest trees - from what we can measure to what we want to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Trumbore, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Contents 386 I. 386 II. 388 III. 392 IV. 392 V. 396 VI. 399 399 References 399 SUMMARY: Carbohydrates provide the building blocks for plant structures as well as versatile resources for metabolic processes. The nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly sugars and starch, fulfil distinct functional roles, including transport, energy metabolism and osmoregulation, and provide substrates for the synthesis of defence compounds or exchange with symbionts involved in nutrient acquisition or defence. At the whole-plant level, NSC storage buffers the asynchrony of supply and demand on diel, seasonal or decadal temporal scales and across plant organs. Despite its central role in plant function and in stand-level carbon cycling, our understanding of storage dynamics, its controls and response to environmental stresses is very limited, even after a century of research. This reflects the fact that often storage is defined by what we can measure, that is, NSC concentrations, and the interpretation of these as a proxy for a single function, storage, rather than the outcome of a range of NSC source and sink functions. New isotopic tools allow direct quantification of timescales involved in NSC dynamics, and show that NSC-C fixed years to decades previously is used to support tree functions. Here we review recent advances, with emphasis on the context of the interactions between NSC, drought and tree mortality.

  13. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2015-08-01

    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  14. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of three cultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. The cultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments with four replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 was found in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found in Gk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantly different, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can be concluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gk cultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. At reproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase.

  15. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of threecultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. Thecultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments withfour replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 wasfound in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found inGk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantlydifferent, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can beconcluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gkcultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. Atreproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Non-structural (NS) Gene of Influenza A Viruses Isolated in Kazakhstan in 2002-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy; Marat Sayatov; Kainar Zhumatov; Vladimir Berezin; Alexey Prilipov; I lya Korotetskiy; Irina Zaitseva; Aydyn Kydyrmanov; Kobey Karamedin; Nailya Ishmukhametova; Saule Asanova

    2011-01-01

    Although the important role of the non-structural (NSI and NEP) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established,our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses in their natural reservoirs in Kazakhstan is incomplete.17 influenza A viruses of different subtypes were studied in this paper.Seven types of haemagglutinin and five different neuraminidase subtypes in eight combinations were found among the isolated viruses.A comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses revealed a substantial number of silent mutations,which results in high degree of homology in amino acid sequences.By phylogenetic analysis it was shown that two distinct gene pools,corresponding to both NS allele A with 5 Clades and B,were present at the same time in Kazakhstan.The degree of variation within the alleles was very low.In our study allele A viruses had a maximum of 5% amino acid divergence in Clade while allele B viruses had only 4% amino acid divergence.

  17. Linking nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics to gas exchange and leaf hydraulic behavior in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C; Marias, Danielle E; Sevanto, Sanna; Jenkins, Michael W; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Leaf hydraulics, gas exchange and carbon storage in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, two tree species on opposite ends of the isohydry-anisohydry spectrum, were analyzed to examine relationships between hydraulic function and carbohydrate dynamics. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability, leaf water potential (Ψl ), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content were analyzed throughout the growing season. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability was significantly lower in the relatively anisohydric J. monosperma than in the more isohydric P. edulis. In P. edulis, Ψl dropped and stayed below 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductance (P₅₀) early in the day during May, August and around midday in September, leading to sustained reductions in Kleaf . In J. monosperma, Ψl dropped below P₅₀ only during August, resulting in the maintenance of Kleaf during much of the growing season. Mean A and gs during September were significantly lower in P. edulis than in J. monosperma. Foliar total NSC was two to three times greater in J. monosperma than in P. edulis in June, August and September. Consistently lower levels of total NSC in P. edulis suggest that its isohydric strategy pushes it towards the exhaustion of carbon reserves during much of the growing season. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Bioengineered Vaults: Self-Assembling Protein Shell–Lipophilic Core Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel approach to a new class of bioengineered, monodispersed, self-assembling vault nanoparticles consisting of a protein shell exterior with a lipophilic core interior designed for drug and probe delivery. Recombinant vaults were engineered to contain a small amphipathic α-helix derived from the nonstructural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus, thereby creating within the vault lumen a lipophilic microenvironment into which lipophilic compounds could be reversibly encapsulated. Multiple types of electron microscopy showed that attachment of this peptide resulted in larger than expected additional mass internalized within the vault lumen attributable to incorporation of host lipid membrane constituents spanning the vault waist (>35 nm). These bioengineered lipophilic vaults reversibly associate with a sample set of therapeutic compounds, including all-trans retinoic acid, amphotericin B, and bryostatin 1, incorporating hundreds to thousands of drug molecules per vault nanoparticle. Bryostatin 1 is of particular therapeutic interest because of its ability to potently induce expression of latent HIV, thus representing a preclinical lead in efforts to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Vaults loaded with bryostatin 1 released free drug, resulting in activation of HIV from provirus latency in vitro and induction of CD69 biomarker expression following intravenous injection into mice. The ability to preferentially and reversibly encapsulate lipophilic compounds into these novel bioengineered vault nanoparticles greatly advances their potential use as drug delivery systems. PMID:25061969

  19. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  20. Mutations in HCV non-structural genes do not contribute to resistance to nitazoxanide in replicon-containing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Changsuek; Viswanathan, Prasanth; Rossignol, Jean-François; Korba, Brent

    2011-09-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell culture. Previously, HCV replicon-containing cell lines resistant to NTZ were selected, but transfer the HCV NTZ-resistance phenotype was not observed following transfection of whole cell RNA. To further explore the nature of the resistance of HCV to NTZ, full length HCV replicon sequences were obtained from two NTZ-resistant (NTZ-11, TIZ-9), and the parental (RP7) cell lines. Numerous nucleotide changes were observed in individual HCV genomes relative to the RP7 HCV consensus sequence, but no common mutations in the HCV non-structural genes or 3'-UTR were detected. A cluster of single nucleotide mutations was found within a 5-base portion of the 5'-UTR in 20/21 HCV replicon sequences from both resistant cell lines. Three mutations (5'-UTR G17A, G18A, C20U) were individually inserted into CON1 ('wild-type') HCV replicons, showed reduced replication (5 to 50-fold), but none conferred resistance to NTZ. RP7, NTZ-11, and TIZ-9 were cured of HCV genomes by serial passage under interferon. Transfection of cured NTZ-11 and TIZ-9 with either whole cell RNAs from RP7, NTZ-11, or TIZ-9, 'wild-type' or the 5'-UTR mutation-containing replicon RNAs exhibited an NTZ-resistance phenotype. TIZ (the active metabolite of NTZ) was found to be inactive against the activity of HCV polymerase, protease, and helicase in enzymatic assays. These data confirm previous speculations that HCV resistance to NTZ is not due to mutations in the virus, and demonstrate that HCV resistance and most likely the antiviral activity of TIZ are due to interactions with cellular target(s).

  1. Non-structural carbon dynamics and allocation relate to growth rate and leaf habit in California oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Czimczik, Claudia I; Sierra, Carlos A; Muhr, Jan; Xu, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Trees contain non-structural carbon (NSC), but it is unclear for how long these reserves are stored and to what degree they are used to support plant activity. We used radiocarbon ((14)C) to show that the carbon (C) in stemwood NSC can achieve ages of several decades in California oaks. We separated NSC into two fractions: soluble (∼50% sugars) and insoluble (mostly starch) NSC. Soluble NSC contained more C than insoluble NSC, but we found no consistent trend in the amount of either pool with depth in the stem. There was no systematic difference in C age between the two fractions, although ages increased with stem depth. The C in both NSC fractions was consistently younger than the structural C from which they were extracted. Together, these results indicate considerable inward mixing of NSC within the stem and rapid exchange between soluble and insoluble pools, compared with the timescale of inward mixing. We observed similar patterns in sympatric evergreen and deciduous oaks and the largest differences among tree stems with different growth rates. The (14)C signature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from tree stems was higher than expected from very recent photoassimilates, indicating that the mean age of C in respiration substrates included a contribution from C fixed years previously. A simple model that tracks NSC produced each year, followed by loss (through conversion to CO2) in subsequent years, matches our observations of inward mixing of NSC in the stem and higher (14)C signature of stem CO2 efflux. Together, these data support the idea of continuous accumulation of NSC in stemwood and that 'vigor' (growth rate) and leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen) control NSC pool size and allocation.

  2. Overexpression of Wnt5a Promotes Angiogenesis in NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate Wnt5a expression and its role in angiogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, immunohistochemistry and CD31/PAS double staining were performed to examine the Wnt5a expression and we analyze the relationships between Wnt5a and microvessel density (MVD, vasculogenic mimicry (VM, and some related proteins. About 61.95% of cases of 205 NSCLC specimens exhibited high expression of Wnt5a. Wnt5a expression level was upregulated in the majority of NSCLC tissues, especially in squamous cell carcinoma, while its expression level in adenocarcinoma was the lowest. Wnt5a was also found more frequently expressed in male patients than in female patients. Except for histological classification and gender, little association was found between Wnt5a and clinicopathological features. Moreover, Wnt5a was significantly correlated with prognosis. Overall, Wnt5a-positive expression in patients with NSCLC indicated shorter survival time. As for vascularization in NSCLC, Wnt5a showed close association with VM and MVD. In addition, Wnt5a was positively related with β-catenin-nu, VE-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9. The results demonstrated that overexpression of Wnt5a may play an important role in NSCLC angiogenesis and it may function via canonical Wnt signal pathway. This study will provide evidence for further research on NSCLC and also will provide new possible target for NSCLC diagnosis and therapeutic strategies.

  3. 先天性QT间期延长综合征相关基因SCN5A定点突变及蛋白表达研究%Site-directed mutagenesis and protein expression of SCN5A gene associated with congenital Long QT syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史瑞明; 强华; 张艳敏; 马爱群; 高洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建先天性QT间期延长综合征相关基因SCN5A-delQKP1507-1509突变型真核表达载体,并观察其在人胚肾293(HEK293)细胞中的表达.方法 采用一步法构建SCN5 A-delQKP1507-1509突变型真核表达载体PEGFP-delQKP-hH1,用脂质体转染法将野生型和突变型质粒分别转染HEK293细胞,激光共聚焦显微镜观察钠通道蛋白在HEK293细胞的表达与定位,Western blot检测其蛋白表达.结果 经电泳及DNA测序显示突变型1507-1509位点成功缺失9个碱基,野生型与突变型均在HEK293细胞膜上表达,且表达量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 成功构建钠通道基因SCN5 A-delQKP 1507-1509突变型真核表达载体,并在HEK293细胞中表达,为进一步研究其功能奠定基础.%Objective To construct the sodium channel gene SCN5A-delQKP1507-1509 mutation associated with congenital long QT syndrome, and its eukaryotic expression vector, and to examine the expression of mutation protein in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector PEGFP-delQKP-hHl for SCN5A-delQKP1507-1509 mutation was constructed by rapid site-directed mutagenesis. HEK293 cells were transfected with the wild or mutant vector using lipofectamine, and then subjected to confocal microscopy. The transfected cells were immunostained to visualize intracellular expression of the mutant molecules. Results Direct sequence and electrophoresis analysis revealed 9 basic group absences at position 1507-1509. The delQKP1507-1509 mutation eukaryotic expression vector was expressed in HEK293 cells. Immunostaining of transfected cells showed the expression of both wild type and mutant molecules on the plasma membrane and there was no difference in the amount of protein, which suggested that the mutant delQKP1507-1509 did not impair normal protein expression in HEK293 cells. Conclusions Successful construction of mutant SCN5AdelQKP1507-1509 eukaryotic expression vector and expression of SCN5A

  4. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect datafrom primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the studyareas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  5. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the study areas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  6. Nonstructural Protein 2 (nsP2) of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) Enhances Protective Immunity Mediated by a CHIKV Envelope Protein Expressing DNA Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Huihui; Ramanathan, Aarti A.; Kawalakar, Omkar; Sundaram, Senthil G.; Tingey, Colleen; Bian, Charoran B.; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Vijayachari, Paluru; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Weiner, David B.; Ugen, Kenneth E; Muthumani, Karuppiah

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. It can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. The epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. The generation of an efficient vaccine against CHIKV is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. In this report, we studied immune response against a CHIK...

  7. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    -specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by coexpression of TNF-alpha and mobilization of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved among strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus, M and NSP5 represent...

  8. The non-structural (NS) gene segment of H9N2 influenza virus isolated from backyard poultry in Pakistan reveals strong genetic and functional similarities to the NS gene of highly pathogenic H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Zohari, Siamak; Iqbal, Munir; Abbas, Muhammad; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Berg, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    Apart from natural reassortment, co-circulation of different avian influenza virus strains in poultry populations can lead to generation of novel variants and reassortant viruses. In this report, we studied the genetics and functions of a reassorted non-structural gene (NS) of H9N2 influenza virus collected from back yard poultry (BYP) flock. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes indicates that an isolate from BYP belongs to H9N2. However, the NS gene-segment of this isolate cluster into genotype Z, clade 2.2 of the highly pathogenic H5N1. The NS gene plays essential roles in the host-adaptation, cell-tropism, and virulence of influenza viruses. However, such interpretations have not been investigated in naturally recombinant H9N2 viruses. Therefore, we compared the NS1 protein of H9N2 (H9N2/NS1) and highly pathogenic H5N1 (H5N1/NS1) in parallel for their abilities to regulate different signaling pathways, and investigated the molecular mechanisms of IFN-β production in human, avian, and mink lung cells. We found that H9N2/NS1 and H5N1/NS1 are comparably similar in inhibiting TNF-α induced nuclear factor κB and double stranded RNA induced activator protein 1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription factors. Thus, the production of IFN-β was inhibited equally by both NS1s as demonstrated by IFN stimulatory response element and IFN-β promoter activation. Moreover, both NS1s predominantly localized in the nucleus when transfected to human A549 cells. This study therefore suggests the possible increased virulence of natural reassortant viruses for their efficient invasion of host immune responses, and proposes that these should not be overlooked for their epizootic and zoonotic potential.

  9. 酵母双杂合系统在丙型肝炎病毒NS5A研究中的应用%IDENTIFICATION OF THE NOVEL HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A-INTERACTING PROTEINS IN YEAST TWO-HYBRID SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    酵母双杂合系统是在酵母细胞中研究蛋白-蛋白相互作用的新技术.应用该技术,以丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)非结构蛋白5A(NS5A)为"诱饵",筛检了人肝癌细胞HepG2来源的cDNA文库,获得了7个NS5A结合蛋白的基因克隆.报道了其中两个粜钥寺?#2、#16)的结果,并对"人核小体组装蛋白相关蛋白"(Human nucleosome assembly protein-related protein,hNRP)和"载脂蛋白A-I"(Apolipoprotein A-I)与NS5A结合的生物学意义进行了讨论.

  10. In Vitro Proteolytic Processing of the MD145 Norovirus ORF1 Nonstructural Polyprotein Yields Stable Precursors and Products Similar to Those Detected in Calicivirus-Infected Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Mitra, Tanaji; Hammer, Carl; Garfield, Mark; Green, Kim Y.

    2003-01-01

    The MD145-12 strain (GII/4) is a member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae and was detected in a patient with acute gastroenteritis in a Maryland nursing home. The open reading frame 1 (ORF1) (encoding the nonstructural polyprotein) was cloned as a consensus sequence into various expression vectors, and a proteolytic cleavage map was determined. The virus-encoded cysteine proteinase mediated at least five cleavages (Q330/G331, Q696/G697, E875/G876, E1008/A1009, and E1189/G1190) in th...

  11. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces apoptosis-like caspase independent cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV associated liver diseases may be related to apoptotic processes. Thus, we investigated the role of different HCV proteins in apoptosis induction as well as their potency to interact with different apoptosis inducing agents. Methods and Results The use of a tightly adjustable tetracycline (Tet-dependent HCV protein expression cell system with the founder osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS allowed switch-off and on of the endogenous production of HCV proteins. Analyzed were cell lines expressing the HCV polyprotein, the core protein, protein complexes of the core, envelope proteins E1, E2 and p7, and non-structural proteins NS3 and NS4A, NS4B or NS5A and NS5B. Apoptosis was measured mainly by the detection of hypodiploid apoptotic nuclei in the absence or presence of mitomycin C, etoposide, TRAIL and an agonistic anti-CD95 antibody. To further characterize cell death induction, a variety of different methods like fluorescence microscopy, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-catalyzed deoxyuridinephosphate (dUTP-nick end labeling assay, Annexin V staining, Western blot and caspase activation assays were included into our analysis. Two cell lines expressing the core protein but not the total polyprotein exerted a strong apoptotic effect, while the other cell lines did not induce any or only a slight effect by measuring the hypodiploid nuclei. Cell death induction was caspase-independent since it could not be blocked by zVAD-fmk. Moreover, caspase activity was absent in Western blot analysis and fluorometric assays while typical apoptosis-associated morphological features like the membrane blebbing and nuclei condensation and fragmentation could be clearly observed by microscopy. None of the HCV proteins influenced the apoptotic effect mediated via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway while only the core protein enhanced death-receptor-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion Our data showed a caspase

  12. Human rhinovirus 16 causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation without blocking protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnier, Aurelie; Swieboda, Dawid; Pinto, Anaïs; Guedán, Anabel; Rogers, Andrew V; Walton, Ross; Johnston, Sebastian L; Solari, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The replication of picornaviruses has been described to cause fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus that blocks the secretory pathway. The inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation and cytokine, chemokine and interferon secretion may have important implications for host defense. Previous studies have shown that disruption of the secretory pathway can be replicated by expression of individual nonstructural proteins; however the situation with different serotypes of human rhinovirus (HRV) is unclear. The expression of 3A protein from HRV14 or HRV2 did not cause Golgi apparatus disruption or a block in secretion, whereas other studies showed that infection of cells with HRV1A did cause Golgi apparatus disruption which was replicated by the expression of 3A. HRV16 is the serotype most widely used in clinical HRV challenge studies; consequently, to address the issue of Golgi apparatus disruption for HRV16, we have systematically and quantitatively examined the effect of HRV16 on both Golgi apparatus fragmentation and protein secretion in HeLa cells. First, we expressed each individual nonstructural protein and examined their cellular localization and their disruption of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus architecture. We quantified their effects on the secretory pathway by measuring secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase. Finally, we examined the same outcomes following infection of cells with live virus. We demonstrate that expression of HRV16 3A and 3AB and, to a lesser extent, 2B caused dispersal of the Golgi structure, and these three nonstructural proteins also inhibited protein secretion. The infection of cells with HRV16 also caused significant Golgi apparatus dispersal; however, this did not result in the inhibition of protein secretion. Importance: The ability of replicating picornaviruses to influence the function of the secretory pathway has important implications for host defense. However, there appear to be

  13. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  14. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; Booker, Fitzgerald L; McKeand, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Carbon allocation to soluble phenolics (total phenolics, proanthocyanidins (PA)) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; starch and soluble sugars) in needles of widely planted, highly productive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand resistance to herbivory, and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern USA. However, genetic and growth-related effects on loblolly pine needle chemistry are not well characterized. Therefore, we investigated genetic and growth-related effects on foliar concentrations of total phenolics, PA and TNC in two different field studies. The first study contained nine different genotypes representing a range of genetic homogeneity, growing in a 2-year-old plantation on the coastal plain of North Carolina (NC), USA. The second study contained eight clones with different growth potentials planted in a 9-year-old clonal trial replicated at two sites (Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC), USA). In the first study (NC), we found no genetic effects on total phenolics, PA and TNC, and there was no relationship between genotype size and foliar biochemistry. In the second study, there were no differences in height growth between sites, but the SC site showed greater diameter (diameter at breast height (DBH)) and volume, most likely due to greater tree mortality (lower stocking) which reduced competition for resources and increased growth of remaining trees. We found a significant site × clone effect for total phenolics with lower productivity clones showing 27-30% higher total phenolic concentrations at the GA site where DBH and volume were lower. In contrast to the predictions of growth-defense theory, clone volume was positively associated with total phenolic concentrations at the higher volume SC site, and PA concentrations at the lower volume GA site. Overall, we found no evidence of a trade-off between genotype size and defense, and genetic potential for improved growth may include increased allocation to some

  15. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  16. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  18. Structure and Function of the NS1 Protein of Influenza A Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongzi LIN; Jingfang LAN; Zhizhen ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The avian influenza A virus currently prevailing in Asia causes fatal pneumonia and multiple organ failure in birds and humans.Despite intensive research,understanding of the characteristics of influenza A virus that determine its virulence is incomplete.NS1A protein,a non-structural protein of influenza A virus,was reported to contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence.NS1A protein is a multifunctional protein that plays a significant role in resisting the host antiviral response during the influenza infection.This review briefly outlines the current knowledge on the structure and function of the NS1A protein.

  19. Chikungunya virus infectivity, RNA replication and non-structural polyprotein processing depend on the nsP2 protease's active site cysteine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausalu, Kai; Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Varghese, Finny S; Žusinaite, Eva; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-11-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, has a positive-stand RNA genome approximately 12 kb in length. In infected cells, the genome is translated into non-structural polyprotein P1234, an inactive precursor of the viral replicase, which is activated by cleavages carried out by the non-structural protease, nsP2. We have characterized CHIKV nsP2 using both cell-free and cell-based assays. First, we show that Cys478 residue in the active site of CHIKV nsP2 is indispensable for P1234 processing. Second, the substrate requirements of CHIKV nsP2 are quite similar to those of nsP2 of related Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Third, substitution of Ser482 residue, recently reported to contribute to the protease activity of nsP2, with Ala has almost no negative effect on the protease activity of CHIKV nsP2. Fourth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 completely abolished RNA replication in CHIKV and SFV trans-replication systems. In contrast, trans-replicases with Ser482 to Ala mutation were similar to wild type counterparts. Fifth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 abolished the rescue of infectious virus from CHIKV RNA transcripts while Ser482 to Ala mutation had no effect. Thus, CHIKV nsP2 is a cysteine protease.

  20. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  1. Phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) is localized to the endothelial caveolae and modulates NOS3 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebska, Milena A; Stevenson, Blake K; Hemnes, Anna R; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Haile, Azeb; Hesketh, Geoffrey G; Murray, Christopher I; Zaiman, Ari L; Halushka, Marc K; Krongkaew, Nispa; Strong, Travis D; Cooke, Carol A; El-Haddad, Hazim; Tuder, Rubin M; Berkowitz, Dan E; Champion, Hunter C

    2011-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) is expressed in smooth muscle cells and plays an important role in regulation of vascular tone. The role of endothelial PDE5A, however, has not been yet characterized. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence, localization, and potential physiologic significance of PDE5A within vascular endothelial cells. We demonstrate primary location of human, mouse, and bovine endothelial PDE5A at or near caveolae. We found that the spatial localization of PDE5A at the level of caveolin-rich lipid rafts allows for a feedback loop between endothelial PDE5A and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3). Treatment of human endothelium with PDE5A inhibitors resulted in a significant increase in NOS3 activity, whereas overexpression of PDE5A using an adenoviral vector, both in vivo and in cell culture, resulted in decreased NOS3 activity and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these interactions is primarily regulated by cGMP-dependent second messenger. PDE5A overexpression also resulted in a significant decrease in protein kinase 1 (PKG1) activity. Overexpression of PKG1 rapidly activated NOS3, whereas silencing of the PKG1 gene with siRNA inhibited both NOS3 phosphorylation (S1179) and activity, indicating a novel role for PKG1 in direct regulation of NOS3. Our data collectively suggest another target for PDE5A inhibition in endothelial dysfunction and provide another physiologic significance for PDE5A in the modulation of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, as well as human data, we show that inhibition of endothelial PDE5A improves endothelial function.

  2. Recombinant HCV variants with NS5A from genotypes 1-7 have different sensitivities to an NS5A inhibitor but not interferon-a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M; Mikkelsen, Lotte S;

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein NS5A influences its sensitivity to interferon-based therapy. Furthermore, NS5A is an important target for development of HCV-specific inhibitors. We aimed to develop recombinant infectious cell culture systems that express NS5A from isolates...... of the 7 major HCV genotypes, and determining their sensitivity to a specific NS5A inhibitor and to interferon-a....

  3. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...... proteins formed hollow intranuclear shells around the inclusions. Later, nuclei had irregular outlines and were virtually free of ADV products. In these cells, inclusions of viral DNA with or without associated NS protein were embedded in cytoplasmic VP protein. These findings implied that ADV replication...

  4. Chikungunya virus infectivity, RNA replication and non-structural polyprotein processing depend on the nsP2 protease’s active site cysteine residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausalu, Kai; Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Varghese, Finny S.; Žusinaite, Eva; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, has a positive-stand RNA genome approximately 12 kb in length. In infected cells, the genome is translated into non-structural polyprotein P1234, an inactive precursor of the viral replicase, which is activated by cleavages carried out by the non-structural protease, nsP2. We have characterized CHIKV nsP2 using both cell-free and cell-based assays. First, we show that Cys478 residue in the active site of CHIKV nsP2 is indispensable for P1234 processing. Second, the substrate requirements of CHIKV nsP2 are quite similar to those of nsP2 of related Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Third, substitution of Ser482 residue, recently reported to contribute to the protease activity of nsP2, with Ala has almost no negative effect on the protease activity of CHIKV nsP2. Fourth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 completely abolished RNA replication in CHIKV and SFV trans-replication systems. In contrast, trans-replicases with Ser482 to Ala mutation were similar to wild type counterparts. Fifth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 abolished the rescue of infectious virus from CHIKV RNA transcripts while Ser482 to Ala mutation had no effect. Thus, CHIKV nsP2 is a cysteine protease. PMID:27845418

  5. Mutational analyses of human eIF5A-1--identification of amino acid residues critical for eIF5A activity and hypusine modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Veridiana S P; Jeon, Geoung A; Johansson, Hans E; Henderson, C Allen; Park, Jong-Hwan; Valentini, Sandro R; Hershey, John W B; Park, Myung Hee

    2008-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein that contains hypusine [Nepsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine], which is required for its activity. Hypusine is formed by post-translational modification of one specific lysine (Lys50 for human eIF5A) by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. To investigate the features of eIF5A required for its activity, we generated 49 mutations in human eIF5A-1, with a single amino acid substitution at the highly conserved residues or with N-terminal or C-terminal truncations, and tested mutant proteins in complementing the growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A null strain. Growth-supporting activity was abolished in only a few mutant eIF5As (K47D, G49A, K50A, K50D, K50I, K50R, G52A and K55A), with substitutions at or near the hypusine modification site or with truncation of 21 amino acids from either the N-terminus or C-terminus. The inactivity of the Lys50 substitution proteins is obviously due to lack of deoxyhypusine modification. In contrast, K47D and G49A were effective substrates for deoxyhypusine synthase, yet failed to support growth, suggesting critical roles of Lys47 and Gly49 in eIF5A activity, possibly in its interaction with effector(s). By use of a UBHY-R strain harboring genetically engineered unstable eIF5A, we present evidence for the primary function of eIF5A in protein synthesis. When selected eIF5A mutant proteins were tested for their activity in protein synthesis, a close correlation was observed between their ability to enhance protein synthesis and growth, lending further support for a central role of eIF5A in translation.

  6. Optimizing choice of oral interferon-free treatment for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus using testing for NS5A resistance: a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerhout KY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Y Westerhout,1 Walter Bouwmeester,1 Inge Duchesne,2 Marta Pisini,2 Marjanne A Piena,1 Francesco Damele,3 Beatrice Gueron,2 Maarten Treur,1 Jonathan Belsey4 1Pharmerit BV, Marten Meesweg, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Janssen EMEA, Turnhoutseweg, Beerse, Belgium; 3Janssen-Cilag SpA, Via Michelangelo Buonarroti, Cologno Monzese, Italy; 4JB Medical Ltd, Old Brickworks, Little Cornard, United Kingdom Background: Patients with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus infection who have failed to respond to standard therapy or who relapse following treatment may be considered for an interferon-free regimen incorporating a nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A inhibitor. Sustained virologic response (SVR with these regimens is typically >90%, but this is reduced in patients with NS5A resistance. European Association for Study of the Liver guidelines recommend simeprevir + sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (SMV+SOF±R for re-treating patients failing an NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen. An alternative strategy would be to test for NS5A resistance prior to treatment, with therapy optimized based on the results. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Materials and methods: A Markov model was used to estimate disease progression for treatment-experienced genotype 1 patients with severe fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis. Targeted treatment with either SMV+SOF±R or sofosbuvir + ledipasvir ± ribavirin (SOF+LDV±R based on pretreatment NS5A resistance testing was compared to routine SOF+LDV±R without testing. Treatment duration was 12 or 24 weeks for patients with severe fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis (Metavir F3/F4. SVR data for the treatment options were based on the results of published clinical trials. The analysis was carried out from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service.Results: Optimized treatment using NS5A resistance testing yielded 0.163 additional QALYs and increased costs of €2,789 per patient versus no testing. The

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Barouch-Bentov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses commonly utilize late-domain motifs, sometimes cooperatively with ubiquitin, to hijack the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery for budding at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms underlying budding of viruses lacking defined late-domain motifs and budding into intracellular compartments are poorly characterized. Here, we map a network of hepatitis C virus (HCV protein interactions with the ESCRT machinery using a mammalian-cell-based protein interaction screen and reveal nine novel interactions. We identify HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, an ESCRT-0 complex component, as an important entry point for HCV into the ESCRT pathway and validate its interactions with the HCV nonstructural (NS proteins NS2 and NS5A in HCV-infected cells. Infectivity assays indicate that HRS is an important factor for efficient HCV assembly. Specifically, by integrating capsid oligomerization assays, biophysical analysis of intracellular viral particles by continuous gradient centrifugations, proteolytic digestion protection, and RNase digestion protection assays, we show that HCV co-opts HRS to mediate a late assembly step, namely, envelopment. In the absence of defined late-domain motifs, K63-linked polyubiquitinated lysine residues in the HCV NS2 protein bind the HRS ubiquitin-interacting motif to facilitate assembly. Finally, ESCRT-III and VPS/VTA1 components are also recruited by HCV proteins to mediate assembly. These data uncover involvement of ESCRT proteins in intracellular budding of a virus lacking defined late-domain motifs and a novel mechanism by which HCV gains entry into the ESCRT network, with potential implications for other viruses.

  8. SAT: a late NS protein of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zádori, Zoltán; Szelei, József; Tijssen, Peter

    2005-10-01

    The genomes of all members of the Parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (ORF), designated SAT, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the VP2 initiation codon. Green fluorescent protein or FLAG fusion constructs of SAT demonstrated that these ORFs were expressed. Although the SAT proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stretch affected the localization of the SAT protein. SAT colocalized with calreticulin in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. A knockout mutant (SAT(-)), with an unmodified VP sequence, showed a "slow-spreading" phenotype. These knockout mutants could be complemented with VP2(-) SAT(+) mutant. The SAT protein is a late nonstructural (NS) protein, in contrast to previously identified NS proteins, since it is expressed from the same mRNA as VP2.

  9. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Jörn; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto; Park, Myung Hee

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  10. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Joern; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 30 Rm 211, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-4340 (United States); Park, Myung Hee, E-mail: mhpark@nih.gov [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 30 Rm 211, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-4340 (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N{sup {epsilon}}-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  11. Characterization of cytopathic factors through genome-wide analysis of the Zika viral proteins in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Poulsen, Melissa; Fenyvuesvolgyi, Csaba; Yashiroda, Yoko; Yoshida, Minoru; Simard, J. Marc; Gallo, Robert C.; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Little is known about how ZIKV causes these conditions or which ZIKV viral protein(s) is responsible for the associated ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects, including cell hypertrophy, growth restriction, cell-cycle dysregulation, and cell death. We used fission yeast for the rapid, global functional analysis of the ZIKV genome. All 14 proteins or small peptides were produced under an inducible promoter, and we measured the intracellular localization and the specific effects on ZIKV-associated cytopathic activities of each protein. The subcellular localization of each ZIKV protein was in overall agreement with its predicted protein structure. Five structural and two nonstructural ZIKV proteins showed various levels of cytopathic effects. The expression of these ZIKV proteins restricted cell proliferation, induced hypertrophy, or triggered cellular oxidative stress leading to cell death. The expression of premembrane protein (prM) resulted in cell-cycle G1 accumulation, whereas membrane-anchored capsid (anaC), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E), and nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) caused cell-cycle G2/M accumulation. A mechanistic study revealed that NS4A-induced cellular hypertrophy and growth restriction were mediated specifically through the target of rapamycin (TOR) cellular stress pathway involving Tor1 and type 2A phosphatase activator Tip41. These findings should provide a reference for future research on the prevention and treatment of ZIKV diseases. PMID:28049830

  12. Putrescine is required for the expression of eif-5a in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Arroyo, Rossana; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Lira, Rosalia; Martínez-Benitez, Máximo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2011-11-01

    Recently, we found that Trichomonas vaginalis contains a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (TveIF-5A) with unknown function in this parasite. eIF-5A is the only cellular protein dependent of polyamines to form a hypusine residue, an unusual basic amino acid that is post-translationally formed by modification of a single specific lysine residue in an eIF-5A precursor protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a putrescine analogue, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), on tveif-5a mRNA and TveIF-5A protein expression. TveIF-5A protein expression was reduced by inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis, and tveif-5a mRNA levels were reduced ∼90%, as shown by western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cycloheximide treatment reduced the amount of mature TveIF-5A protein at 4h and decreased the tveif-5a transcript level at 2h, according to western blot, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Actinomycin D treatment showed that the tveif-5a mRNA had half-life of ∼2.5h in DAB-treated parasites. The half-life of tveif-5a mRNA was ∼4.5h under exogenous putrescine conditions. These results suggest that putrescine is required for tveif-5a mRNA stability, and it is necessary for the expression, stability and maturation of TveIF-5A protein.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of protein-protein interactions and involvement of viral proteins in SARS-CoV replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Pan

    Full Text Available Analyses of viral protein-protein interactions are an important step to understand viral protein functions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we adopted a mammalian two-hybrid system to screen the genome-wide intraviral protein-protein interactions of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV and therefrom revealed a number of novel interactions which could be partly confirmed by in vitro biochemical assays. Three pairs of the interactions identified were detected in both directions: non-structural protein (nsp 10 and nsp14, nsp10 and nsp16, and nsp7 and nsp8. The interactions between the multifunctional nsp10 and nsp14 or nsp16, which are the unique proteins found in the members of Nidovirales with large RNA genomes including coronaviruses and toroviruses, may have important implication for the mechanisms of replication/transcription complex assembly and functions of these viruses. Using a SARS-CoV replicon expressing a luciferase reporter under the control of a transcription regulating sequence, it has been shown that several viral proteins (N, X and SUD domains of nsp3, and nsp12 provided in trans stimulated the replicon reporter activity, indicating that these proteins may regulate coronavirus replication and transcription. Collectively, our findings provide a basis and platform for further characterization of the functions and mechanisms of coronavirus proteins.

  14. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paton, D.J.; Clerq, De K.; Greiner, M.; Dekker, A.; Brocchi, E.; Bergmann, I.E.; Sammin, D.J.; Gubbins, S.; Parida, S.

    2006-01-01

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called ¿vaccinate-to-live¿ policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of ¿emergency¿ vaccination of surrounding her

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton, via the non-structural protein 3Cpro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armer, Hannah; Moffat, Katy; Wileman, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. Picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus...

  16. Development of a Luminex assay for the detection of swine antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Han; Lee, Fan; Lin, Yeou-Liang; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ni; Lee, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2013-10-31

    Foot-and mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and vesicular stomatitis (VS) are highly contagious vesicular diseases of swine but are not easy to differentiate clinically. For the purpose of instant detecting of FMD and differentiating it from the other vesicular diseases, a Luminex assay was developed. Sera from 64 infected, 307 vaccinated, and 280 naïve pigs were tested by the Luminex assay. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 100%. Diagnostic specificity of the assay was 98.7% in vaccinated pigs and 97.5% to 100% in naïve pigs. Agreement between the results from the Luminex assay and those from a 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA was 96.3% with kappa statistics of 0.92. The Luminex assay can detect the immune response to NSP-3ABC in swine as early as eight days post-infection. Moreover, all of the 15 vaccinated but unprotected pigs were all detected by the Luminex assay. The results indicated that the Luminex assay has potential with specificity in detecting antibodies to FMDV 3ABC NSP and in distinguishing FMDV-infected pigs from with either SVDV or VSV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. eIF5A isoforms and cancer: two brothers for two functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraglia, M; Park, M H; Wolff, E C; Marra, M; Abbruzzese, A

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine [N(ε)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. The role of hypusine formation in the eIF5A protein in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis is addressed in the present review. Moreover, vertebrates carry two genes that encode two eIF5A isoforms, eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2, which, in humans, are 84% identical. However, the biological functions of these two isoforms may be significantly different. In fact, eIF5A-1 is demonstrable in most cells of different histogenesis, whereas eIF5A-2 protein is detectable only in certain human cancer cells or tissues, suggesting its role as a potential oncogene. In this review we focus our attention on the involvement of eIF5A-1 in the triggering of an apoptotic program and in the regulation of cell proliferation. In addition, the potential oncogenic role and prognostic significance of eIF5A-2 in the prediction of the survival of cancer patients is described. eIF5A-1 and/or the eIF5A-2 isoform may serve as a new molecular diagnostic or prognostic marker or as a molecular target for anti-cancer therapy.

  18. Modulation of Wnt5a expression by periodontopathic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Nanbara

    Full Text Available Wingless proteins, termed Wnt, are involved in embryonic development, blood cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. In mammalian hematopoiesis, Wnt signaling is essential for stem-cell homeostasis and lymphocyte differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that these molecules are associated with cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Furthermore, Wnt5a signaling is essential for the general inflammatory response of human macrophages. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria and the resultant host immune response. Periodontitis is characterized by loss of tooth-supporting structures and alveolar bone resorption. There have been no previous reports on Wnt5a expression in periodontitis tissue, and only few study reported the molecular mechanisms of Wnt5a expression in LPS-stimulated monocytic cells. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that Wnt5a mRNA expression was up-regulated in chronic periodontitis tissue as compared to healthy control tissue. P. gingivalis LPS induced Wnt5a mRNA in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 with a peak at 4 hrs after stimulation. P. gingivalis LPS induced higher up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA than E. coli LPS. The LPS receptors TLR2 and TLR4 were equally expressed on the surface of THP-1 cells. P. gingivalis LPS induced IκBα degradation and was able to increase the NF-κB binding activity to DNA. P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression was inhibited by NF-κB inhibitors, suggesting NF-κB involvement. Furthermore, IFN-γ synergistically enhanced the P. gingivalis LPS-induced production of Wnt5a. Pharmacological investigation and siRNA experiments showed that STAT1 was important for P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression. These results suggest that the modulation of Wnt5a expression by P. gingivalis may play an important role in the periodontal inflammatory process and serve a target for the development of new therapies.

  19. The post-translational synthesis of a polyamine-derived amino acid, hypusine, in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Hee

    2006-02-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the unique polyamine-derived amino acid, hypusine [Nepsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Hypusine is formed in eIF5A by a novel post-translational modification reaction that involves two enzymatic steps. In the first step, deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes the cleavage of the polyamine spermidine and transfer of its 4-aminobutyl moiety to the epsilon-amino group of one specific lysine residue of the eIF5A precursor to form a deoxyhypusine intermediate. In the second step, deoxyhypusine hydroxylase converts the deoxyhypusine-containing intermediate to the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. The structure and mechanism of deoxyhypusine synthase have been extensively characterized. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is a HEAT-repeat protein with a symmetrical superhelical structure consisting of 8 helical hairpins (HEAT motifs). It is a novel metalloenzyme containing tightly bound iron at the active sites. Four strictly conserved His-Glu pairs were identified as iron coordination sites. The structural fold of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is entirely different from those of the other known protein hydroxylases such as prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylases. The eIF5A protein and deoxyhypusine/hypusine modification are essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation. Thus, hypusine synthesis represents the most specific protein modification known to date, and presents a novel target for intervention in mammalian cell proliferation.

  20. Dynamic allocation and transfer of