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Sample records for nonspherical even-even nuclei

  1. Collective states of nonspherical deformable even--even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A more correct method, as compared with some earlier studies, of finding the wave functions and corresponding energies of longitudinal quadrupole vibrations of nonspherical even--even nuclei is proposed. The wave functions and energies of collective motions in nuclei have been obtained in explicit form for a number of dependences of the potential energy of longitudinal vibrations V(β), including the dependence V(β), not previously used, of the most general form. Explicit dependences of the potential energy of transverse vibrations and the corresponding wave functions and eigenvalues for nuclear states with zero spins are proposed

  2. Collective description of magnetic properties of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruhn, V.

    1975-01-01

    The generalized collective model is modified by introducing a number of quadrupole deformations for protons and neutrons. The coupling potential is described by physical approaches, and the overall model is applied to even-even nuclei. (WL) [de

  3. Vibrational collective model for spheric even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.T.F. da.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the evidences of collective motions in spherical even-even nuclei. The several multipole transitions occuring in such a nuclei are discussed. Some hypothesis which are necessary in order to build-up the model are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Alpha Decay of Even-Even Superheavy Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Hamza, Y.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha decay properties of even-even superheavy nuclei with 112.Z.120 have been investigated using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach. The method is based on the SkP Skyrme interaction and the Lipkin-Nogami prescription for treating the pairing correlations. The alpha decay energies are extracted from the binding energies and then used for the calculation of the decay half-lives using a formula similar to that of Viola-Seaborg. The parameters of the formula were obtained through a least square fit to even-even heavy nuclei taken from the tables of Audi- Wapstra and some more recent references. The results are compared with other theoretical evaluations.

  5. Excited bands in even-even rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands

  6. Study of Triaxial deformation variable γ in even - even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Varshney, Mani; Dhiman, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The deformation parameters β and γ of the collective model are basic description of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure, while values for these variables have been discussed for many nuclei. A systematic study in mass region A = 120-140 and A = 150 -180 can never be less revealing, such study has been presented, in A = 90 -120 for Mo, Ru and Pd nuclei where β and γ both vary strongly

  7. Present state and prospect of systematics for the properties of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yumin; Gu Jinnan

    1993-01-01

    The study of systematics for the properties of even-even nuclei, which is a new research field in nuclei structure, is reviewed. The primary results, including systematic analysis of energy spectra and electromagnetic transition, and the empirical law extracted from experimental data, are presented. It is expected that there will be new developments in the next few years in this fields

  8. Anisotropy of favoured alpha transitions producing even-even deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.

    1997-05-01

    The anisotropy in favoured alpha transitions which produce even-even deformed nuclei is discussed. A simple, Gamow's-like model which takes into account the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus has been formulated to calculate the alpha decay half-life. It is assumed that before tunneling into a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillated isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average preferential polar direction θ 0 (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoidal shape of the product nucleus) for alpha emission in favoured alpha transitions of even-even nuclei. (author)

  9. Multiphonon states in even-even spherical nuclei. Pt.1. Calculation of the overlap matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepenbring, R.; Protasov, K.V.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1995-01-01

    The multiphonon method, previously developed for deformed nuclei is extended to the case of even-even spherical nuclei. Recursion formulae, well suited for numerical calculations are given for the overlap matrix elements. The method is illustrated for a single j-shell, where S-, D-, G-, .. phonons are introduced. In such an approach, the Pauli principle is fully and properly taken into account. ((orig.))

  10. Rotational-vibrational states of nonaxial deformable even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porodzinskii, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskii, E.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The rotational-vibrational excitations of nonaxial even-even nuclei are studied on the basis of a Hamiltonian operator with five dynamical variables. Explicit forms of the wave functions and energies of the rotational-vibrational excitations of such nuclei are obtained. The experimental energies of excited positive-parity states of the 238 U nucleus and those calculated in terms of the model discussed in the article are compared

  11. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  12. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan

    2017-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  13. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  14. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  15. Global set of quadrupole deformation parameters for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental results has been completed for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability [B(E2)up arrow] between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. This compilation together with certain simple relationships noted by other authors can be used to make reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2)up arrow values. The quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 immediately follows, because β 2 is proportional to [B(E2)up arrow]/sup 1/2/. 8 refs., 7 figs

  16. Spin-dependent γ softness or triaxiality in even-even 132-138Nd nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Min-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The properties of γ instability in rapidly rotating even-even 132-138Nd isotopes have been investigated using the pairing-deformation self-consistent total-Routhian-surface calculations in a deformation space of (β2, γ, β4). It is found that even-even 134-138Nd nuclei exhibit triaxiality in both ground and excited states, even up to high-spin states. The lightest isotope possesses a well-deformed prolate shape without a γ deformation component. The current numerical results are compared with previous calculations and available observables such as quadrupole deformation β2 and the feature of γ-band levels, showing basically a general agreement with the observed trend of γ correlations (e.g. the pattern of the odd-even energy staggering of the γ band). The existing differences between theory and experiment are analyzed and discussed briefly. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10805040,11175217), Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province(132300410125) and S & T Research Key Program of Henan Province Education Department (13A140667)

  17. Low-lying collective quadrupole and octupole strengths in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    The B(E2)↑ values for the first 2 + state of even-even nuclei in the Z≥50 region are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models. Comparative estimates of the overall agreement with the data are provided. Gaps and discrepancies in the data and examples that show interesting features such as shape changes are discussed. The B(E2)↑ values are examined critically to search for the dynamical Pauli effects predicted by the fermion dynamic symmetry model. The empirical B(E2)↑ and B(E3)↑ systematics are employed to obtain a measure of the harmonicity of the quadrupole and octupole vibrations. The fraction of the energy-weighted sum-rule strength exhausted by the sum of all known low-lying 2 + states below 2.3 MeV is found to be surprisingly constant in the 60< A<250 region except near closed shells

  18. Damping of isovector giant dipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on the finite temperature quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (FT-QPNM) with the couplings to (2p2h) states at finite temperature taken into account is suggested for calculations of the damping of giant multipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei. The strength functions for the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are calculated in 58 Ni and 90 Zr for a range of temperatures up to 3 MeV. The results show that the contribution of the interactions with (2p2h) configurations to the IV-GDR spreading width changes weakly with varying temperature. The IV-GDR centroid energy decreases slightly with increasing temperature. The nonvanishing superfluid pairing gap due to thermal fluctuations is included. (orig.)

  19. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, C.E.; Hirsch, J.G.; Draayer, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of 20,22 Ne, 24 Mg and 28 Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed

  20. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, C.E. E-mail: cvargas@fis.cinvestav.mx; Hirsch, J.G. E-mail: hirsch@nuclecu.unam.mx; Draayer, J.P. E-mail: draayer@lsu.edu

    2001-07-30

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of {sup 20,22}Ne, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed.

  1. Comparison of the Porter-Thomas distribution with neutron resonance data of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The low-energy neutron resonance data of the even-even nuclei 152 Sm, 158 Gd, 162 Dy, 166,168 Er, 182 W, 232 Th, and 236,238 U have been examined in order to test the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution of the reduced neutron widths---a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom (v=1). In an attempt to circumvent the ever-present problems of missed or spurious s wave levels as well as extra p wave levels, a maximum likelihood statistic was employed which used only measured widths greater than some minimum value. A Bayes-theory test applied to the data helped to ensure that p wave contamination of the s wave level population was not significant. The error-weighted value of the number of degrees of freedom for the nine nuclei studied, left-angle v right-angle=0.98±0.10, is consistent with the theoretical expectation of v=1

  2. Systematics of B(E2;01+→21+) values for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have completed a compilation of experimental results for the electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)up-arrow between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. The adopted B(E2)up-arrow values have been employed to test the various systematic, empirical, and theoretical relationships proposed by several authors (Grodzins, Bohr and Mottelson, Wang et al., Ross and Bhaduri, Patnaik et al., Hamamoto, Casten, Moeller and Nix, and Kumar) on a global, local, or regional basis. These systematics offer methods for making reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2) values. For nuclei away from closed shells, the SU(3) limit of the intermediate boson approximation implies that the B(E2)up-arrow values are proportional to (e/sub p/N/sub p/+e/sub n/N/sub n/) 2 , where e/sub p /(e/sub n/) is the proton (neutron) effective charge and N/sub p/ (N/sub n/) refers to the number of valence protons (neutrons). This proportionality is consistent with the observed behavior of B(E2)up-arrow vs N/sub p/N/sub n/. For deformed nuclei and the actinides, the B(E2)up-arrow values calculated in a schematic single-particle ''SU(3)'' simulation or large single-j simulation of major shells successfully reproduce not only the empirical variation of the B(E2)up-arrow values but also the observed saturation of these values when plotted against N/sub p/N/sub n/. .AE

  3. A united phenomenological description of quadrupole excitations in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipas, P.O.; Haapakoski, P.; Honkaranta, T.

    1975-05-01

    A phenomenological model is developed for the collective quadrupole properties of all even-even nuclei. Rotational, vibrational, and transitional nuclei are included in the model on an equal footing. A Bohr-type intrinsic Hamiltonian for harmonic quadrupole vibrations about an axially deformed shape is solved exactly. States of good angular momentum are projected out of the intrinsic states, and they are made orthogonal by a Schmidt scheme. The angular-momentum and phonon-number composition of the states is analyzed at various stages; states with K=1 are found spurious. Excitation energies for the ground, β and γ bands are calculated as expectation values of a radically simplified nuclear Hamiltonian in our projected and orthogonalized states. With increasing deformation the calculated energies evolve smoothly from the evenly spaced phonon spectrum to the Bohr-Mottelson rotational-vibrational spectrum according to the scheme of Sheline and Sakai. The basic model contains only two parameters (deformation d and energy scale) to fix the entire quadrupole spectrum of a nucleus. The results are given in the form of graphs suitable for immediate application; numerical results are readily produced by our computer code. The ground bands are fitted comparably to the VMI model, while the β and γ bands are reproduced qualitatively. The nuclei 152 Sm, 152 Gd, and 114 Cd are used as test cases. Quadrupole moments and E2 transition rates are also calculated. Intra-ground-band transition ratios and branching ratios from the β and γ bands are given in terms of the single parameter d. The results are applied to 152 Sm, with fair success. Finally the model to include two more parameters (anisotropy) is extended. The improvement over the basic model is modest in view of added parameters and computational effort. (author)

  4. Collective motions and band structures in A = 60 to 80, even--even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence for and the theoretical understanding of the richness of the collective band structures as illustrated by at least seven bands seen in levels of 68 Ge, 74 Se are reviewed. The experimental data on even-even nuclei in the A = 60 to 80 region have now revealed a wide variety of collective bands with different structures. The even parity yrast cascades alone are seen to involve multiple collective structures. In addition to the ground-state bands, strong evidence is presented for both neutron and proton rotation-aligned bands built on the same orbital, (g 9 / 2 ) 2 , in one nucleus. Several other nuclei also show the crossing of RAL bands around the 8 + level in this region. Evidence continues to be strong experimentally and supported theoretically that there is some type of shape transition and shape coexistence occurring now both in the Ge and Se isotopes around N = 40. Negative parity bands with odd and even spins with very collective nature are seen in several nuclei to high spin. These bands seem best understood in the RAL model. Very collective bands with ΔI = 1, extending from 2 + to 9 + are seen with no rotation-alignment. The purity of these bands and their persistence to such high spin establish them as an independent collective mode which is best described as a gamma-type vibration band in a deformed nucleus. In addition to all of the above bands, new bands are seen in 76 Kr and 74 Se. The nature of these bands is not presently known. 56 references

  5. Coexistence in even-even nuclei with emphasis on the germanium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchidi, M.A.V.

    1985-01-01

    No simple model to date can explain in a self-consistent way the results of direct transfer data and BE2 electromagnetic rates in the germanium isotopes. The simplest models use a two-state interaction for describing the ground state and first excited O + state. In all cases, these models can account for some of the data, but they are in drastic conflict with other experimental measurements. In this thesis, it is shown that a two-state model can consistently account for two-neutron and alpha transfer O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in the germanium region (ie. zinc, germanium, and selenium), proton occupation number data in the ground states of the even stable zinc, germanium, and selenium isotopes, and BE2 transition rates in isotopes of germanium and zinc. In addition the author can account for most of the one-neutron and two-neutron transfer O + 2 /g.s. and (9/2 + 2 )/(9/2 + 1 ) cross-section ratio data in the odd-mass germanium isotopes. In this generalized two-state model (called Rerg1), the author makes as few assumptions as possible about the nature of the basis states; rather the author allows the experimental data to dictate the properties of the basis-state overlaps. In this sense, the author has learned much about the basis states and has a useful tool for constructing them. The author also shows that the Rerg1 model can quantitatively account for all two-neutron O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in all even-even nuclei from calcium to uranium

  6. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  7. Prediction of energies of yrast band in some even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Dhiman, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. The researchers found that the values of γ obtained from energies (= γ e ) are nearly equal to the value of γ derived from transition rate (= γ b ) in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei (A∼120-140) and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei (A∼160-200) using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov-Filippov. In the present study, the relatively light mass nuclei (Mo, Ru and Pd) have been taken. As far as γ is concerned, it is known that the Ru chains of nuclei is intermediate between the two having opposite trends for parameter γ, decreasing for Mo and increasing for Pd, and has an irregular behaviour in itself with the increase of neutron number

  8. The neutron-proton pairing and the moments of inertia of the rare earth even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calik, A. E.; Deniz, C.; Gerceklioglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible effect of the neutron-proton pairing interaction in the heavy nuclei has been investigated in the framework of the BCS model by making a simple approximation. This effect has been searched realistically by calculating the moments of inertia of deformed even-even nuclei. Calculations show that the moments of inertia of rare earth nuclei changed dramatically and approached the experimental values.

  9. Calculation of ground state deformation of even-even rare-earth nuclei in sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolin

    1995-01-01

    The analytical calculation of the nuclear ground state deformation of the even-even isotopes in the rare-earth region is given by utilizing the intrinsic states of the sdg interacting boson model. It is compared systematically with the reported theoretical and experimental results. It is shown that the sdg interacting boson model is a reasonable scheme for the description of even-even nuclei deformation

  10. The decay from the two-quasiparticle regime in even-even deformed rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.; Thorstensen, T.F.; Hammaren, E.

    1983-06-01

    A bump at 1 MeV has been identified in coincidence gamma-ray spectra from the ( 3 He, 4 He) reaction in deformed rare earth nuclei. Particle/gamma-ray angular correlation indicates a dipole character. It is suggested that this bump corresponds to transitions from two-quasiparticle states to the ground state band

  11. Real and complex boson expansions in even-even deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Piepenbring, R.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of real and complex boson expansions of the Kishimoto-Tamura type is performed in a deformed basis in order to allow a further study of the anharmonicities of vibrations in deformed nuclei. It is shown that complex solutions cannot be found in the cases where no real one exists. (Auth.)

  12. Regional regularities for the even-even nuclei in intermediate mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Mani; Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of experimental techniques more and more nuclear data are accumulated and compiled for over five decades. The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of collectivity and ultimately the deformation in atomic nuclei. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the growth of R4/2 in different mass regions. The rate of growth regions in regions having proton number Z = 38, 54, 60 and 76 with changing neutron number where the interaction between particle - particle, particle - hole and hole - hole

  13. Systematic study of even-even nuclei with Hartree-Fock+BCS method using Skyrme SIII force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Naoki; Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences

    1997-03-01

    We have applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS method with Skyrme SIII force formulated in a three-dimensional Cartesian-mesh representation to even-even nuclei with 2 {<=} Z {<=} 114. We discuss the results concerning the atomic masses, the quadrupole (m=0, 2) and hexadecapole (m=0, 2, 4) deformations, the skin thicknesses, and the halo radii. We also discuss the energy difference between oblate and prolate solutions and the shape difference between protons and neutrons. (author)

  14. A systematic fast-timing study of even-even nuclei in the well deformed A 170-180 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolie, J.; Regis, J.M.; Dannhoff, M.; Gerst, R.B.; Karayonchev, V.; Mueller-Gatermann, C.; Saed-Samii, N.; Stegemann, S.; Blazhev, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    At the Cologne Tandem accelerator we are performing a systematic study of lifetimes in the ground state bands of well deformed even-even nuclei in order to increase the precision of the ns-ps lifetimes and to solve inconsistencies in the literature. The measurements are done using Orange spectrometers, LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators and Ge detectors. The data are analyzed using the slope and the generalized centroid difference method. The latter allows the measurement of lifetimes down to 5 ps. First results on Yb, Hf and W isotopes are presented.

  15. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  16. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  17. Two quasi-particle excitations with particle-hole core polarization in even-even single closed shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Giraud, B.; Rho, M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy levels and transition properties of the even-even N=28, 50 isotones and Z=28, 50, 82 isotopes are calculated in the framework of the Tamm-Dancoff and Random Phase Approximation, with an effective central interaction in an extended space consisting of two quasi-particle configurations for the open shell and particle-hole configurations for the closed core. Using the results of the Inverse Gap Equation Method, practically all the necessary input data (single quasi-particle energies, force strength) are extracted from the odd-mass nuclei. The ratios of the force components are kept at fixed values for all studied nuclei and no effective charge is used. An overall excellent agreement is obtained for the energies of the vibrational states. On the other hand, while the transition properties of the 3 - states are always well reproduced, those of the 2 + and 4 + states are often too small by about one order of magnitude [fr

  18. Characteristic 7- and 5- states observed in the (p,t) reactions on even-even rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Kubono, S.; Iwasaki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The (p,t) reactions have been studied for the even-even rare earth nuclei with 40 MeV proton beam from the INS SF cyclotron. A pair of 7 - and 5 - states was observed with large cross sections in each of the nuclei with the neutron number (N) ranging from 86 to 100. For sup(140,142)Nd of N = 80 and 82 the data were obtained at KVI in Groningen, and the data for 152 Sm of N = 90 at MSU. Q value systematics of (p,t) reactions to these states seem to suggest that these are excited by the two neutron pick-up from the neutron core of N = 82. The (p,t) cross sections leading to these states of N from 82 to 96 are nearly constant. (author)

  19. A systematic study of even-even nuclei in the nuclear chart by the relativistic mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, K.; Hirata, D.; Tanihata, I.; Sugahara, Y.; Toki, H. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We study systematically the properties of nuclei in the whole mass range up to the drip lines by the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with deformations as a microscopic framework to provide the data of nuclear structure in the nuclear chart. The RMF theory is a phenomenological many-body framework, in which the self-consistent equations for nucleons and mesons are solved with arbitrary deformation, and has a potential ability to provide all the essential information of nuclear structure such as masses, radii and deformations together with single particle states and wave functions from the effective lagrangian containing nuclear interaction. As a first step toward the whole project, we study the ground state properties of even-even nuclei ranging from Z=8 to Z=120 up to the proton and neutron drip lines in the RMF theory. We adopt the parameter set TMA, which has been determined by the experimental masses and charge radii in a wide mass range, for the effective lagrangian of the RMF theory. We take into account the axially symmetric deformation using the constrained method on the quadrupole moment. We provide the properties of all even-even nuclei with all the possible ground state deformations extracted from the deformation energy curves by the constrained calculations. By studying the calculated ground state properties systematically, we aim to explore the general trend of masses, radii and deformations in the whole region of the nuclear chart. We discuss the agreement with experimental data and the predictions such as magicness and triaxial deformations beyond the experimental frontier. (author)

  20. Symmetries of Quadrupole-Collective Vibrational Motion in Transitional Even-Even 124−134Xenon Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Pietralla, N; Rainovski, G; Ahn, T; Bauer, C; Leske, J; Möller, O; Möller, T

    2010-01-01

    Projectile-Coulomb excitation of Xe isotopes has been performed at ANL using the Gammasphere array for the detection of γ-rays. The one-quadrupole phonon 2+ 1,ms mixed-symmetry state (MSS) has been traced in the stable N=80 isotones down to 134Xe. First, the data on absolute E2 andM1 transition rates quantify the amount of F-spin symmetry in these nuclei and provide a new local measure for the pn-QQ interaction. Second, the evolution of the 2+ 1,ms state has been studied along the sequence of stable even-even 124−134Xe isotopes that are considered to form a shape transition path from vibrational nuclei with vibrational U(5) symmetry near N=82 to γ-softly deformed shapes with almost O(6) symmetry. Third, our data on more than 50 absolute E2 transition rates between off-yrast low-spin states of 124,126Xe enable us to quantitatively test O(6) symmetry in these nuclei. As a result we find that O(6) symmetry is more strongly broken in the A=130 mass region than previously thought. The data will be discussed.

  1. A systematic study of even-even nuclei up to the drip lines within the relativistic mean field framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, D.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Tanihata, I.; Sugahara, Y.; Tachibana, T.; Toki, H.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the relativistic mean field theory to study the ground state properties of about 2000 even-even nuclei from Z=8 to Z=120 up to the proton and neutron drip lines. The calculations have been done under the axial symmetry assumption and a quadratic constraint method in order to obtain all possible ground state configurations. We do not take into account the pairing correlation in the present study. The calculations are performed with the TMA parameter set. We explore the generaI trend of masses, radii and deformations in the whole region of the nuclear chart. Using the masses obtained from RMF theory, we calculate the r-process abundances and the r-process path. (orig.)

  2. Deformation properties of even-even Os, Pt, Hg nuclei and spectroscopic properties of odd Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg nuclei from self-consistent calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Desthuilliers-Porquet, M G; Quentin, P; Sauvage-Letessier, J

    1981-01-01

    Static properties of even-even Os, Pt, Hg nuclei have been obtained from HF+BCS calculations. Single-particle wave functions which come from these self-consistent calculations have been used to calculate some spectroscopic properties of odd Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and Hg nuclei, within the rotor-quasiparticle coupling model. The authors' calculations are able to give a good description of most of available experimental data. (12 refs).

  3. The Hartree-Fock approximation for s-d shell even-even nuclei with N different of Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.C. de.

    1981-02-01

    Using the Hartree-Fock approximation method for 22 Ne, 26 Mg and 30 Si nuclei with different kinds of two-body interactions, the electric quadrupole moments and projected energy levels, of angular momentum J=0,2,4,6..., are determined. The Peierls-Yoccoz projection m ethod is used to determine the wave function with well-defined angular momentum. A comparison is made, with the experimental results and the ones obtained by other authors. (Author) [pt

  4. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghumman, S. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology (Deemed University), Longowal, Sangrur-148106, Punjab, India s-ghumman@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  5. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria) and Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Centre Universitaire de Khemis Miliana, Route de Theniet-El-Had, 44225 Khemis-Milia (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria) and Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, COMENA, BP399 Alger-Gare, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  6. Hydrodynamic model wavefunctions in intrinsic coordinates and their application to the structure of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margetan, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A closed expression is presented for intrinsic-coordinate (β, γ, theta/sub i/) eigenfunctions of the hydrodynamic, quadrupole-vibration Hamiltonian of A. Bohr. These functions are used as an expansion basis for the treatment of more general collective Hamiltonians. Two classes of such Hamiltonians are considered. In each the potential energy term of the Bohr Hamiltonian, 1/2 Cβ 2 , was replaced with a more general function of the shape coordinates, V(β, γ). The potential of Gneuss and Greiner (1) is used to demonstrate the soundness of the calculational techniques, and to illustrate convergence properties of calculated energies. Potentials possessing a single minimum on 0 less than or equal to γ less than or equal to 60 0 are considered through the study of a quadratic-potential [QP] Hamiltonian. The smooth development from spherical to asymmetrically deformed nuclear shapes is investigated by systematically varying the parameters β 0 and C/sub γ/. Model energies and E2 transition rates are traced during this process. The QP model is then applied to 106 Pd, 166 Er, 182 W, 122 Te, and 186 188 190 192 Os. Low-energy γ vibrations appear to play a prominent role in the latter five nuclei, and the QP model offers a better accounting of experimental spectra than does the model of Davydov and Chaban (2). 74 references

  7. The salient features of charge density distributions of medium and heavy even-even nuclei determined from a systematic analysis of elastic electron scattering from factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.; Voegler, N.

    1982-01-01

    All available information on charge distributions of even-even nuclei is analysed systematically. For medium and heavy nuclei five general features of p(r) are investigated: (i) The extension for which we discuss several different definitions. The measured extension together with experimental binding energies allows a determination of nuclear compressibility within the framework of the droplet model, the resulting value being K = 165 +- 10 MeV. (ii) The surface thickness. Here too, several definitions are discussed. A close relationship between the surface thickness and binding energies is demonstrated. (iii) The average slope in the inner part of the nucleus. A method is formulated to separate this slope from the oscillations observed. All nuclei show a positive slope of comparable size. (iv) The oscillations on p(r). They are related to an abrupt breakdown in the form factor around q = 2.25 fm -1 . This effect seems to be closely related to the fact that p(r) is built up out of single particles, details however being unimportant. (v) The high-q components of the form factor are indicative for a scattering mechanism involving pairs of nucleons. (orig.)

  8. The B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) / B(E2;2^+1->0^+1) Ratio in Even-Even Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, C.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; G"Urdal, G.

    2009-10-01

    We considered 207 even-even nuclei throughout the chart of nuclides for which the NNDC Tables had data on the energies and lifetimes of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states. Using these data we calculated for each nucleus the electric quadrupole transition strengths B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) and B(E2;2^+1->0^+1), as well as their ratio. The internal conversion coefficients were obtained by using the NNDC HSICC calculator. For each nucleus we plotted the B(E2) ratio against A, N, and Z. We found that for close to 90% of the nuclei considered the ratio had values between 0.5 and 2.5. Most of the outliers had magic numbers of protons or neutrons. Our ratio results were compared with the theoretical predictions for this ratio by different models--10/7 in the rotational model and 2 in the simplest vibrational model. In the rotational regions (for 150 220) the ratios were indeed close to 10/7. For the few nuclei thought to be vibrational the ratios were usually less than 2. Otherwise, we got a wide scatter of ratio values. Hence other models, including the NpNn scheme, must be considered in interpreting these results.

  9. Study of the deexcitation by monopole pair emission from the first J=0+ states in some even-even nuclei of the 2s-1d shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souw, Kenghok.

    1975-01-01

    A new high efficiency plastic scintillation pair spectrometer was used to measure the E0 branching ratio GAMMAsub(π)/GAMMA(tot) (GAMMAsub(π)=pair emission partial width, GAMMA(tot)=total width) of the transition from the first excited Jsup(π)=0 + state to the Jsup(π)=0 + ground state in some even-even nuclei of the 2s-1d shell. Experiments were performed on 18 O, 26 Mg, 30 Si, 32 S, 34 S and 38 Ar nuclei. The method consisted in detecting the electron and positron of the pair in coincidence in two telescopes. A surface barrier counter placed downstream the target, working in coincidence with the spectrometer, allowed the relevant pair-decays to be selected and the feeding yield to be determined from direct spectra. The branching ratios were such directly determined. These ratios combined with the values available for the lifetimes of these states give the monopole matrix elements Msub(π). The single particle strength of these decays passes through a minimum in the middle of the shell ( 30 Si) and reaches a maximum around the closed shells ( 18 O, and 48 Ca) [fr

  10. Calculation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces for even-even transuranium nuclei: systematic investigation of the triaxiality effect on the fission barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Liu, Min-Liang; Wang, Hua-Lei

    2018-05-01

    Static fission barriers for 95 even-even transuranium nuclei with charge number Z = 94–118 have been systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the potential energy surface approach in multidimensional (β 2, γ, β 4) deformation space. Taking the heavier 252Cf nucleus (with the available fission barrier from experiment) as an example, the formation of the fission barrier and the influence of macroscopic, shell and pairing correction energies on it are analyzed. The results of the present calculated β 2 values and barrier heights are compared with previous calculations and available experiments. The role of triaxiality in the region of the first saddle is discussed. It is found that the second fission barrier is also considerably affected by the triaxial deformation degree of freedom in some nuclei (e.g., the Z=112–118 isotopes). Based on the potential energy curves, general trends of the evolution of the fission barrier heights and widths as a function of the nucleon numbers are investigated. In addition, the effects of Woods-Saxon potential parameter modifications (e.g., the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the nuclear surface diffuseness) on the fission barrier are briefly discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675148, 11505157), the Project of Youth Backbone Teachers of Colleges and Universities of Henan Province (2017GGJS008), the Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province (162300410222), the Outstanding Young Talent Research Fund of Zhengzhou University (1521317002) and the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017)

  11. Fermionic symmetries: Extension of the two to one relationship between the spectra of even-even and neighboring odd mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, L.; Devi, Y.D.

    1999-01-01

    In the single j shell there is a two to one relationship between the spectra of certain even-even and neighboring odd mass nuclei; e.g., the calculated energy levels of J=0 + states in 44 Ti are at twice the energies of corresponding levels in 43 Ti( 43 Sc) with J=j=7/2. Here an approximate extension of the relationship is made by adopting a truncated seniority scheme; i.e., for 46 Ti and 45 Sc we get the relationship if we do not allow the seniority v=4 states to mix with the v=0 and v=2 states. Better than that, we get very close to the two to one relationship if seniority v=4 states are admixed perturbatively. In addition, it is shown that for the J=0 T=3 state in 46 Ti and for the J=j T=5/2 state in 45 Sc (i.e., the states of higher isospin) there are no admixtures in which the neutrons have seniority 4. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Systematics of gamma decay through low-lying vibrational levels of even--even nuclei excited by (p,p') and (n,n') reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which gamma-ray spectra were measured, using a Ge(Li) detector, for incident 7 to 26-MeV protons on the even-even vibrational nuclei 56 Fe, 62 Ni, 64 Zn, 108 Pd, 110 Cd, 114 Cd, 116 Cd, 116 Sn, 120 Sn, and 206 Pb, and for incident 14-MeV neutrons on natural Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb. These measurements yielded gamma-ray cross sections from which it was inferred that almost all of the gamma cascades from (p,p') and (n,n') reactions passed down through the first 2 + levels. Consequently, the strength of the 2 + → 0 + gamma transitions were found to be an indirect measure of the (p,p') or (n,n') cross sections. Several types of nuclear model calculations were performed and compared with experimental results. These calculations included coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the direct, collective excitation of the low-lying levels, and statistical plus pre-equilibrium model calculations to reproduce the (p,p') and the (n,n') cross sections for comparison with the 2 + → 0 + gamma measurements. The agreement between calculation and experiment was generally good except at high energies, where pre-equilibrium processes dominate (i.e. around 26-MeV). Here discrepancies between calculations from the two different pre-equilibrium models and between the data and the calculations were found. Significant isospin mixing of T/sub greater than/ into T/sub less than/ states was necessary in order to have the calculations match the data for the (p,p') reactions, up to about 18-MeV

  13. Systematics of triaxial moment of inertia and deformation parameters (β, γ) in even-even nuclei of mass region A = 90-120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, A.K.; Dhiman, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. In recent past the sets of deformation parameters ((β, γ) have been extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei (A∼120-140) and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei (A∼160-200) using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov-Filippov (DF). Researcher have found that the values of β obtained separately from energy and transition rate (β e and β b respectively), though, are found almost equal in heavy mass region (A ∼160-200) but, not so in medium mass (A∼120-140) nuclei. This observation puts a question mark whether the ββ dependence of moment of inertia in hydrodynamic model is reliable. The purpose of the present work is to study a relatively lighter mass region (A∼90-120) where the gap between values of two sets of β may further increase. To improve the calculations for extracting β e , the use of Grodzins rule will be made along with uncertainties, since only through this rule the E2 1 + is related with β G (value of β for symmetric nucleus and evaluated using Grodzins rule)

  14. A special type of neutron-proton pairing interaction and the moments of inertia of some deformed even-even nuclei in the rare earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftunoglu, E.; Gerceklioglu, M.; Erbil, H.H.; Kuliev, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the effect of a special type of neutron-proton pairing interaction on the moments of inertia of some deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is investigated. First, making a perturbative approximation, we assume that the form of the equations of the BCS theory and usual Bogolyubov transformations are unchanged. Second, we use a phenomenological method for the strength of this neutron-proton pairing interaction introducing a parameter. Calculations show that this interaction is important for the ground-state moments of inertia and that it could be effectual in other nuclear phenomena. (author)

  15. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N = Z nuclei. The {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, L., E-mail: luca.morelli@bo.infn.it; D’Agostino, M.; Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Baiocco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università and INFN, Pavia (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [CNRS, LPC, Caen, France and ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Degerlier, M. [University of Nevsehir, Physics Department, Nevsehir (Turkey); Fabris, D. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università and INFN, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. Within the currently ongoing experimental campaign by the NUCL-EX collaboration we have measured the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 10}B reactions at 95 MeV and 80 MeV respectively, and compared experimental data corresponding to complete fusion of target and projectile into an excited {sup 24}Mg nucleus to the results of a pure statistical model[3, 4]. We found clear deviations from the statstical model in the decay pattern: emission channels involving multiple α particles are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recentely measured the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C reaction at three different beam energies, namely E{sub beam} = 90, 110 and 130 MeV.

  16. Influence of isovector pairing and particle-number projection effects on spectroscopic factors for one-pair like-particle transfer reactions in proton-rich even-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Y.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing and particle-number fluctuation effects on the spectroscopic factors (SF) corresponding to one-pair like-particle transfer reactions in proton-rich even-even nuclei are studied. With this aim, expressions of the SF corresponding to two-neutron stripping and two-proton pick-up reactions, which take into account the isovector np pairing effect, are established within the generalized BCS approach, using a schematic definition proposed by Chasman. Expressions of the same SF which strictly conserve the particle number are also established within the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) discrete projection method. In both cases, it is shown that these expressions generalize those obtained when only the pairing between like particles is considered. First, the formalism is tested within the Richardson schematic model. Second, it is applied to study even-even proton-rich nuclei using the single-particle energies of a Woods-Saxon mean-field. In both cases, it is shown that the np pairing effect and the particle-number projection effect on the SF values are important, particularly in N = Z nuclei, and must then be taken into account.

  17. Phases of dense matter with non-spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethick, C J [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark); [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ravenhall, D G [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review is given of some of the important physics related to phases with non-spherical nuclei that can exist in neutron stars and in matter in stellar collapse at densities just below the saturation density of nuclear matter. Comparisons are made with other systems that exhibit similar liquid-crystal-like phases, both in nuclear physics and in condensed matter physics. A short account is given of recent work on the elastic properties of these phases, and their vibration spectrum, as well as on neutron superfluid gaps. (orig.)

  18. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  19. E0 and E2 decay of low-lying 0+ states in the even-even nuclei 206Pb, 208Po, 112-120 Sn and 112114Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Rauno.

    1979-04-01

    Several new methods of in-beam conversion-electron and γ-ray spectrometry, applicable in the determination of E0 and E2 decay properties of low-lying 0 + states in even-mass nuclei, have been developed. The main attention has been paid to direct lifetime-measurement and coincidence methods based on the use of the natural pulsing of a cyclotron beam. With the aid of these methods, the similarity of the absolute decay rates of the two-neutron-hole 0 + 2 states in the N = 124 nuclei 206 Pb and 208 Po has been shown. A systematic investigation of the de-excitation of the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 , 11 4 , 116 , 118 , 120 Sn has been carried out. Twelve E0 transitions connecting the 0 + states have been observed, including very strong low-energy E0 transitions between the excited 0 + states, and several absolute transition probabilities have been determined. Furthermore, the new techniques have been applied successfully in determining the absolute E0 and E2 transition rates from the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 Cd and 114 Cd. The use of isotope-shift data in the calculation of the monopole strengths in 206 Pb and 208 Po is discussed. The results on even Sn and Cd nuclei are discussed within the framework of the coexistence of different shapes and of configuration mixing. (author)

  20. Model of coupled bands in even-even nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadzhakov, E G; Nozharov, R M; Myankova, G Z; Antonova, V A [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika

    1979-01-01

    The model is derived in a natural way from the theory of coupled modes. It is based on an expansion of the Hamiltonian in terms of elementary transition operators, including direct rotation-vibration coupling with phonons. The treatment is limited to three types of phonons: ( I = K = 0), S (I = K = 1) and (I = K = 2). The basis of the operators, acting on the ground state is truncated by an inclusion of a reasonable number of phonon states. In the framework of this approximation one may evaluate the matrix elements of the model Hamiltonian and diagonalize it by standard numerical methods to fit the experimental spectrum. The well known picture of band hybridization is obtained as a special case of the model under consideration.

  1. Systematic studies for medium-heavy even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhao, Y.M.; Chen, J.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The systematics for the excitation energies of the ground, β, and γ bands are presented using the empirical total np interaction V NP . Some regularities found in the previous studies are tested by the systematics in the V NP schemes. The systematics of the β and γ bands are presented in detail. Elegant regularities are observed for the excitation energies. The correlation phenomenon of the general behavior among different bands within each major shell is pointed out

  2. Collective excitations at low energy: microscopic study of rotation, vibration and their coupling in even-even nuclei; Excitations collectives a basse energie: Etude microscopique de la rotation, de la vibration et de leur couplage dans les noyaux pair-pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloncle, I.

    1989-10-23

    In this study we have built the quadrupolar collective Bohr Hamiltonian in a purely microscopic way by using an approximation of the time-dependant Hartree-Fock adiabatic approach. The purpose of this work was to obtain a quantitative description of the collective properties in the low energy range of intermediate and heavy nuclei by using a 2-body effective interaction of Skyrme-type. We consider low energy processes as dynamic regimes in which the collective movement is adiabatic when compared with modes associated to individual freedom. In the N-body solution we propose, we have assumed that: -) a mean field exists at any moment, -) some collective variables exist whose temporal variations include all the dynamics, and -) the collective movement is adiabatic. This work is a microscopic formulation and an efficient approach to resolve the Bohr and Mottelson unified model. Low energy spectra have been computed for 4 nuclei: Ge{sup 74}, Se{sup 76}, Cd{sup 110} and Pt{sup 186} and they agree well with experimental data.

  3. Process of diffractive scattering and disintegration of complex particles by nonspherical deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The differential and integral cross sections of diffractive elastic and inelastic scattering and of the disintegration of complex particles by axial and nonaxial deformed nuclei are investigated depending on the shape, deformability and diffuseness of nuclear boundary as well as on the structure of the incident particles and of the rescattering processes. It is shown that the complicated coincidence experiments and experimnts on inelastic scattering with excitation of the target nucleus collective states are satisfactorily described taking simultaneously into account all factors mentioned above and the final-state interaction between the disintegration products of the incident particle

  4. Diffraction scattering and disintegration of complex particles by nonspherical deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Isupov, V.Y.; Tartakovskii, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    We study the dependence of the differential and integrated cross sections for diffraction scattering and disintegration of complex particles by axially symmetric and non-axially-symmetric nuclei on the shape, deformability, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface, and also on the structure of the incident particles and rescattering processes. It is shown that when all of these factors are taken into account, as well as the interaction in the final state between the disintegration products of the incident particle, a satisfactory description of complicated coincidence experiments can be obtained, and also inelastic scattering experiments with excitation of collective states of the target nucleus

  5. Multipole mixtures for (2γ+-2g+) transitions in nonspherical nuclei with N = 90-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.M.; Govor, L.I.; Kurkin, V.A.; Mikhajlov, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    The multipole mixture σ-sings for (2 γ + -2 g + ) transitions of nuclei with neutron number N = 90-110 are considered. It is found that the correlations of the σ-sings (σ γ + -2 g + ) and (4 γ + -4 g + ) transitions and also the anti-correlations of the σ-sings for (2 γ + -2 g + ) and (2 β + -2 g + ) transitions are observed in majority of cases. There are exclusions from these rules due to inter-cation between β- and γ-vibrational excitations, when they approach each other in energy, and as well due to the contribution given by the two-proton configuration of proton Nilsson orbits in the 2 γ + -level [ru

  6. Reduced widths of alpha -decay of near-magic even-even nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kar Yan, N

    1972-01-01

    Precision on-line investigations on the linear heavy-ion Berkeley accelerator, and on the CERN synchrophasotron were carried out recently on new alpha -emitters. The results obtained are analysed with a view to finding the degree of correspondence, or disagreement, with the authors' own ideas about alpha -decay processes. The discussion is confined to examining even isotopes of polonium, radon, radium and thorium Several theoretical and experimental plots are given of reduced widths of alpha -disintegration for different regions of shell filling and a comparison is made between barrier penetration coefficients, obtained by rigorous methods and with the aid of WKB- approximation, for /sup 212/Po, /sup 208/Po and /sup 212/Po isotopes. (24 refs).

  7. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  8. Predicting the optical observables for nucleon scattering on even-even actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyanov, D. S.; Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.

    2017-09-01

    The previously derived Lane consistent dispersive coupled-channel optical model for nucleon scattering on 232Th and 238U nuclei is extended to describe scattering on even-even actinides with Z = 90-98. A soft-rotator-model (SRM) description of the low-lying nuclear structure is used, where the SRM Hamiltonian parameters are adjusted to the observed collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM nuclear wave functions (mixed in K quantum number) have been used to calculate the coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model. The “effective” deformations that define inter-band couplings are derived from the SRM Hamiltonian parameters. Conservation of nuclear volume is enforced by introducing a dynamic monopolar term to the deformed potential, leading to additional couplings between rotational bands. The fitted static deformation parameters are in very good agreement with those derived by Wang and collaborators using the Weizsäcker-Skyrme global mass model (WS4), allowing use of the latter to predict cross sections for nuclei without experimental data. A good description of the scarce “optical” experimental database is achieved. SRM couplings and volume conservation allow a precise calculation of the compound-nucleus formation cross sections, which is significantly different from that calculated with rigid-rotor potentials coupling the ground-state rotational band. The derived parameters can be used to describe both neutron- and proton-induced reactions. Supported by International Atomic Energy Agency, through the IAEA Research Contract 19263, by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity under Contracts FPA2014-53290-C2-2-P and FPA2016-77689-C2-1-R.

  9. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 230-244U isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The binary fission of even-even 230-244 U isotopes has been studied using the concept of cold reaction valley which was introduced in relation to the structure of minima in the so called driving potential

  10. Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei Near the Threshold; Photofission des Noyaux Pair-Pair au Voisinage du Seuil; 0424 041e 0422 041e 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 0427 0415 0422 041d 041e - 0427 0415 0422 041d 042b 0425 042f 0414 0415 0420 0412 0411 041b 0418 0417 0418 041f 041e 0420 041e 0413 0410 ; Fotofision de los Nucleos Par-Par Cerca del Umbral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabotnov, N. S.; Smirenkin, G. N.; Soldatov, A. C.; Usachev, L. N. [Fiziko-Energeticheskij Institut, Obninsk, SSSR (Russian Federation); Kapica, S. P.; Cipenjuk, I. Ju.M. [Institut Fizicheskih Problem, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-07-15

    exceed 3 to 3.5%. Of the even-even fissionable nuclei investigated, Pu{sup 240} shows the effect of ''quadrupole'' fission most clearly and Th{sup 232} least. The results of the measurements may be used to assess the relationship of the partial cross-sections of photoabsorption in heavy nuclei. The question of the parity of the ground state of Pu{sup 239} is discussed in the context of the results of measurements of the angular distributions of Pu{sup 239} photofission fragments exhibiting a change in the anisotropy sign in accordance with the predictions of the theory for channels with K = 1/2 and 3/2. (author) [French] Les auteurs indiquent les resultats qu'ils ont obtenus en mesurant la distribution angulaire des fragments formes dans la photofission de {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 240}Pu et {sup 239}Pu; les mesures ont ete faites a l'aide d'un faisceau gamma de rayonnement de freinage. Comme source de rayons gamma ils ont utilise le microtron de 12 MeV de l'Institut de physique de l'Academie des sciences de l'URSS. Grace a l'intensite du rayonnement emis, il a ete possible de mesurer les distributions angulaires dans la region des energies gamma a E{sub max} < 6 MeV, qui revet un interet particulier et n'a pas encore ete etudiee. Les recherches ont porte sur les gammes d'energies ci-apres: 5,2 a 9,2 MeV pour {sup 238}U; 5,4 a 6,9 MeV pour {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th; 5,4 a 7,9 MeV pour {sup 240}Pu; 5,4 a 7,9 MeV pour {sup 239}Pu, Le memoire indique les resultats de la mesure des distributions angulaires dans la photofission de {sup 238}U et {sup 232}Th par rayons gamma provenant de la reaction {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O. Comme source de rayons gamma on a employe une cible epaisse en CaF{sub 2} exposee a des protons de 1,45 MeV. Ces mesures ont permis d'etablir, conformement a la plupart des experiences anterieures, mais contrairement aux donnees obtenues par Lazareva et al. ainsi que par Forknian et Johansson, que dans le domaine d'energie E Less

  11. Search for α + core states in even-even Cr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Mecanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyake, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    The α + core structure is investigated in even-even Cr isotopes from the viewpoint of the local potential model. The comparison of Q{sub α}/A values for even-even Cr isotopes and even-even A = 46, 54, 56, 58 isobars indicates that {sup 46}Cr and {sup 54}Cr are the most favorable even-even Cr isotopes for the α + core configuration. The ground state bands of the two Cr isotopes are calculated through a local α + core potential containing a nuclear term with (1 + Gaussian) x (W.S. + W.S.{sup 3}) shape. The calculated spectra give a very good description of most experimental {sup 46}Cr and {sup 54}Cr levels, including the 0{sup +} bandheads. The reduced α-widths, rms intercluster separations and B(E2) transition rates are determined for the ground state bands. The calculations reproduce the order of magnitude of the available experimental B(E2) values without using effective charges, indicate that the low-spin members of the ground state bands present a stronger α-cluster character, and point out that the {sup 46}Cr ground state band has a significant degree of α-clustering in comparison with {sup 44}Ti. The volume integral per nucleon pair and rms radius obtained for the α + {sup 50}Ti potential are consistent with those reported previously in the analysis of α elastic scattering on {sup 50}Ti. (orig.)

  12. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction {theta} (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  13. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction θ (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  14. Electric and magnetic dipole transitions from broad s-wave neutron resonance in even-even sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, H.; Igashira, M.; Shimizu, M.; Muto, K.; Oda, T.; Achiha, Y.; Lee, Y.; Mukai, N.

    1992-01-01

    Observations have been performed for electromagnetic transitions from the broad s-wave neutron resonances at 658 keV in 24 Mg, at 180 keV in 28 Si, and at 103 keV in 32 S. Capture gamma rays were measured with an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) detector, using a neutron time-of-flight technique. E1 and M1 transitions from those resonances to low-lying states with a strong single-particle character were found. The deduced partial radiative widths for E1 transition are in excellent agreement with the Lane-Mughabghab valence-capture model calculations taking the neutron effective charge, -Ze/A. Moreover, it is shown that essential features of the observed E1 and M1 transitions can be well explained by assuming a configuration-mixing wave function, Ψ i (1/2 + )=a(0 + direct-product 1/2 + )+b(1 + direct-product 1/2 + )+c(1 + direct-product 3/2 + ), for each resonance. The M1 transition strengths are compared also with more detailed shell model calculations in the model space of full (sd) n configurations, using the Wildenthal effective interaction

  15. Neutron densities and the single particle structure of several even-even nuclei from 40Ca to 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, L.; Hodgson, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Previously developed techniques which sum the squares of proton single particle wave functions to obtain nuclear charge densities are applied to the study of neutron distributions in /sup 40,48/Ca, /sup 58,64/Ni, /sup 116,124/Sn, and 208 Pb by comparing to those neutron densities deduced from 800 MeV proton elastic scattering data. The proton and neutron single particle wave functions are derived from a one-body, nonlocal Woods-Saxon binding potential whose parameters are adjusted to give the experimental single particle energies. Empirical spectroscopic factors determine the appropriate occupation probabilities for the single particle levels near the Fermi surface. Proper attention is given to nonorthogonality problems and to the removal of the spurious center-of-mass motion. These semiphenomenological neutron densities are compared to the predictions of the density matrix expansion variant of Hartree-Fock theory and to densities which are empirically deduced from recent 800 MeV polarized proton elastic scattering data. These ''experimental'' neutron distributions are obtained from approximate second order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler optical potential analyses using essentially ''model independent'' neutron densities. Qualitatively good agreement is obtained between the semiphenomenological neutron densities computed here, the density matrix expansion predictions, and the empirical results

  16. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C, α 3n #betta#) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C, 5n #betta#) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75--95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including #betta#-decay excitation functions, α-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-#betta# timing, were utilized to establish level energies, #betta#-ray multipolarities, J/sup π/ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23h in 214 Rn and roughly-equal30h in 216 Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (T/sub 1/2/ = 9 ns, J/sup π/ = 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216 Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, approx.24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed

  17. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C,α3nγ) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C,5nγ) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, JHπ assignments and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23 h/2π in 214 Rn and 30 h/2π in 216 Ra were established. Isomers are found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (9 ns, 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16 + ), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20 + ) and 4735 keV (8.0 ns, 22 + ) and in 216 Ra at 1710 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, 24 - ). B(EL) values are derived and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations are performed on the basis of which configuration assignment is made. The absence of α-decay branching in the isomers is explained. The systematical behaviour of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed. Effective moments of inertia are derived. (author)

  18. Fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in 92Zr and even-even Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanova, O.; Voronov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in doubly even spherical nuclei is calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The fragmentation is due to the interactions leading to the formation of phonons and to the quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The spectroscopic factors for the ''particle-valence particle'' states in 92 Zr are calculated. The agreement with the experimental data of the reaction 91 Zr(d, p) 92 Zr is obtained. The centroid energy Esub(jjsub(0)) and width GITAsub(jjsub(0)) are calculated for the configurations excited in the (p, d) reactions on odd-A isotopes of Cd, Sn and Te. It is shown that the valence particle-hole lgsub(9/2) configuration is localized at the excitation energies of 7-9 MeV. The corresponding experimental data are well described

  19. Structure of Even-Even 218-230 Ra Isotopes within the Interacting Boson Approximation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diab S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A good description of the excited positive and negative parity states of radium nuclei (Z=88, N=130-142 is achieved using the interacting boson approximation model (IBA-1. The potential energy surfaces, energy levels, parity shift, electromagnetic transition rates B(E1, B(E2 and electric monopole strength X(E0/E2 are calculated for each nucleus. The analysis of the eigenvalues of the model Hamiltonian reveals the presence of an interaction between the positive and negative parity bands. Due to this interaction the $Delta I = 1$ staggering effect, between the energies of the ground state band and the negative parity state band, is produced including beat patterns.

  20. Triaxial shapes in the ground states of even-even neutron-rich Ru isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Partial level schemes for {sup 108,110,112}Ru, and {sup 114}Ru about which nothing was previously known, were determined from the measurement of prompt, triple-gamma coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 249}Cm source, mixed with 65-mg KCl and pressed in the form of a 7-mm diameter pellet, was used for the experiment. Prompt {gamma} rays emitted from the fission fragments were detected with the Eurogam array at Daresbury, which at that time consisted of 45 Compton suppressed Ge detectors and 5 LEPS spectrometers. Transitions in Ru were identified by gating on {gamma} rays in the complementary Te fragments. Figure I-25 shows the technique used to identify the previously unknown transitions in {sup 114}Ru and its partial level scheme. High spin states up to spin 10 h were observed and the {gamma}-ray branching ratios were determined. The ratios of electric quadrupole transition probabilities deduced from the experimental branching ratios were found to be in good agreement with the predictions of a simple model of rigid triaxial rotor. Our analysis shows that gamma deformation in Ru isotopes is increasing with the neutron number and the gamma value for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru is {approximately} 25 degrees. This is one of the highest gamma values encountered in nuclei, suggesting soft triaxial shapes for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru. The results of this investigation were published.

  1. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N=128 systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C. J.; Young, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214Rn and 216Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn and 208Pb(13C, 5n γ)216Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, Jπ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23ℏ in 214Rn and ~30ℏ in 216Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214Rn at 1625 keV (T12=9 ns, Jπ=8+), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10+), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8+) and 5868 keV (10 ns, ~24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N=128 even-even nuclei is discussed. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn, 208Pb(13C, 5n γ) 216Ra, Elab=75-95 MeV. Measured α-γ coin, γ-γ(t) coin, I(θ), pulsed-beam-γ timing. Deduced level schemes, Jπ, T12, B(EL), multipolarities. Shell model calculations, Ge(Li) and Si detectors, enriched target.

  2. nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkov N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of quadrupole-octupole deformations on the energy and magnetic properties of high-K isomeric states in even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei. The neutron two-quasiparticle (2qp isomeric energies and magnetic dipole moments are calculated within a deformed shell model with the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS pairing interaction over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. We found that in most cases the magnetic moments exhibit a pronounced sensitivity to the octupole deformation, while the 2qp energies indicate regions of nuclei in which the presence of high-K isomeric states may be associated with the presence of octupole softness or even with octupole deformation. In the present work we also examine the influence of the BCS pairing strength on the energy of the blocked isomer configuration. We show that the formation of 2qp energy minima in the space of quadrupole-octupole and eventually higher multipolarity deformations is a subtle effect depending on nuclear pairing correlations.

  3. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  4. Pushing the pseudo-SU(3) model towards its limits: Excited bands in even-even Dy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands. A realistic Hamiltonian is employed. Both the success of model and its limitations are discussed

  5. Consistent evaluations of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes using empirical systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manokhin, Vassily N. [Russian Nuclear Data Center, Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Odano, Naoteru; Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    An approach for consistent evaluation of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes with the (n,np) reaction thresholds lower than (n,2n) reaction ones is described. For determination of cross sections in the maximum of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions some empirical systematics developed by Manokhin were used together with trends in dependence of gaps between the (n,2n) and (n,np) thresholds on atomic mass number A. The shapes of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions were calculated using the normalized functions from the Manokhin's systematics. Excitation functions of (n,2n) and (n,np) reactions were evaluated for several nuclei by using the systematics and it was found that the approach used for the present study gives reasonable results. (author)

  6. A comparative analysis of alpha-decay half-lives for even-even 178Pb to 234U isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay from the even-even transitions of 178Pb to 234U isotopes has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The alpha decay half-lives are considered from different theoretical approaches using Semi-empirical formula of Poenaru et al. (SemFIS), the Universal Decay law (UDL) of Qi et al., Akrawy-Dorin formula of Akrawy and Poenaru (ADF), the Scaling law of Brown (SLB) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. (SLH). The numerical results obtained by the CPPM and compared with other method as well the experimental data.

  7. Calculations of the Low-Lying Structures in the Even-Even Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Youn; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Young Jun

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear structure of deformed nuclei has been studied using the interacting boson model (IBM). In this study, energy levels and E2 transition probabilities were determined for even nuclei in the Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy chains which have a transition characteristic between the rotational, SU(3) and vibrational, U(5) limits. The structure of the nuclei exhibits a slight breaking of the SU(3) symmetry in the direction of U(5), and therefore, we add the d-boson number operator n d , which is the main term of the U(5) symmetric Hamiltonian, to the SU(3) Hamiltonian of the IBM. The calculated results for low-lying energy levels and E2 transition rates in Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy isotopes are in reasonably good agreement with known experimental results.

  8. Study of neutron shell structure of even-even 40-56Ca isotopes by the dispersive optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Boboshin, I.N.; Varlamov, V.V.; Ermakova, T.A.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Romanovskij, E.A.; Spasskaya, T.I.; Timokhina, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    The single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the bound neutron states in 40,42,44,46,48 Ca isotopes were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data. The results were analyzed by the dispersive optical model and a good agreement was achieved. The dispersive optical potential was extrapolated to unstable 50,52,54,56 Ca nuclei. The calculated single-particle energies of the bound neutron states in unstable Ca isotopes were compared with the nuclear shell-model calculations, which predicted new magic number N = 34 for nuclei with Z = 20 [ru

  9. Isospin degree of freedom in even-even 68-76Ge and 62-70Zn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili Majarshin, A.

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of isotopic spin is significant in light nuclei as Ge and Zn isotopes in order to take into account isospin effects on energy spectra. Dynamical symmetries in spherical, γ-soft limits and transition in the interacting boson model IBM-3 are analyzed. Analytic expressions and exact eigenenergies, electromagnetic transitions probabilities are obtained for the transition between spherical and γ-soft shapes by using the Bethe ansatz within an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra in light mass nuclei. The corresponding algebraic structure and reduction chain are studied in IBM-3. For examples, the nuclear structure of the 68-76 Ge and 62-70 Zn isotopes is calculated in IBM-3 and compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  10. Isospin degree of freedom in even-even 68-76Ge and 62-70Zn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili Majarshin, A.

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of isotopic spin is significant in light nuclei as Ge and Zn isotopes in order to take into account isospin effects on energy spectra. Dynamical symmetries in spherical, γ-soft limits and transition in the interacting boson model IBM-3 are analyzed. Analytic expressions and exact eigenenergies, electromagnetic transitions probabilities are obtained for the transition between spherical and γ-soft shapes by using the Bethe ansatz within an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra in light mass nuclei. The corresponding algebraic structure and reduction chain are studied in IBM-3. For examples, the nuclear structure of the 68-76Ge and 62-70Zn isotopes is calculated in IBM-3 and compared with experimental results.

  11. Isospin degree of freedom in even-even {sup 68-76}Ge and {sup 62-70}Zn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalili Majarshin, A. [University of Tabriz, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    The introduction of isotopic spin is significant in light nuclei as Ge and Zn isotopes in order to take into account isospin effects on energy spectra. Dynamical symmetries in spherical, γ-soft limits and transition in the interacting boson model IBM-3 are analyzed. Analytic expressions and exact eigenenergies, electromagnetic transitions probabilities are obtained for the transition between spherical and γ-soft shapes by using the Bethe ansatz within an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra in light mass nuclei. The corresponding algebraic structure and reduction chain are studied in IBM-3. For examples, the nuclear structure of the {sup 68-76}Ge and {sup 62-70}Zn isotopes is calculated in IBM-3 and compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  13. Low-lying magnetic dipole strength distribution in the γ-soft even-even 130-136Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyev, E.; Ertugral, F.; Kuliev, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the scissors mode 1 + states are systematically investigated within the rotational invariant Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) for 130-136 Ba isotopes. We consider the 1 + vibrations generated by the isovector spin-spin interactions and the isoscalar and isovector quadrupole-type separable forces restoring the broken symmetry by a deformed mean field according to A.A. Kuliev et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 9, 249 (2000)). It has been shown that the restoration of the broken rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian essentially decreases the B(M1) value of the low-lying 1 + states and increases the collectivization of the scissors mode excitations in the spectroscopic energy region. The agreement between the calculated mean excitation energies as well as the summed B(M1) value of the scissors mode excitations and the available experimental data of 134 Ba and 136 Ba is rather good. A destructive interference between the orbit and spin part of the M1 strength has been found for barium isotopes near the shell closer. For all the nuclei under investigation, the low-lying M1 transitions have ΔK=1 character as it is the case for the well-deformed nuclei. (orig.)

  14. Reduced electric-octupole transition probabilities, B(E3;O1+ → 31-), for even-even nuclides throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, R.H.

    1988-11-01

    Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988

  15. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S. [Sezione di Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  16. Multiphonon K/sup π/+ states in even-even deformed nuclei. II. Calculation of matrix elements of a general Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Piepenbring, R.

    1978-01-01

    Matrix elements of a general Hamiltonian H in a subspace spanned by collective K/sup π/+ deformed phonons are derived with the help of recursion formulas. Various approximations are discussed both in the fermion space and in the boson space. Careful comparisons are made in the framework of a simple solvable model

  17. Multiphonon states in even-even spherical nuclei. Pt. 2. Calculation of the matrix elements of one and two body operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepenbring, R.; Protasov, K.V.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix elements of one and two body operators, which appear in a general hamiltonian and in electromagnetic transitions are derived in a subspace spanned by multiphonon states. The method is illustrated for a single j-shell, where phonons built with one type of particles are introduced. The eigenvalues obtained within the space spanned by the phonons of lowest angular momentum are compared to those of the full space. In such a method, the Pauli principle is fully and properly taken into account. ((orig.))

  18. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N=Z nuclei. The 24Mg and 28Si cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelli L.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive variables are in general well reproduced by the model. We found clear deviations from the statistical model if we select emission channels involving multiple α particles which are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. Data from 12C+12C reaction have been analyzed in order to study the decay of the Hoyle state of 12C* with two different selections: peripheral binary collisions and 6α decay channel in central events. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recently measured the 16O+12C reaction at three different beam energies, namely Ebeam = 90, 110 and 130 MeV. Preliminary results are presented.

  19. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ENERGY L.EVELS AND MUL TIPOLE MIXING RATIO OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSITIONSIN THE EVEN-EVEN ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KARAKAYA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work some of the electromagnetic interactions of even-even Haf nium isotopes in the 150lt;k:;l90 defoıınation region were studied in a detailed manner. l n this region� us ing the experimental 8(E2/lv11 ınultipole ınixing ratios the deformation parameters �o and the quadrupole moments q0 and q'2 were calculated. The obtained results are in a good agreement ·with the ge neral systematic of the defoıınation region under consideration.

  20. The Determination of Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Section Data on Even-Even, Magic- Number Nuclide Chromium 52 Using EXIFON Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The EXIFON code version 2.0 is a calculational tool, which is based on both many-body theory and random matrix physics. In this work, it has been used to calculate neutron induced reaction cross section data from 0 to 20 MeV on an even-even, magic number nuclide 52 Cr with neutron number, N=28. Specifically, the (n,p), (n,α) and (n,2n) reaction cross section data were calculated as functions of incident energy of neutrons. Data obtained from the experimental data in the IAEA, EXFOR data Library and recommended data libraries around the globe, JENDL, ENDF and JEFF were used to validate the calculated data. The data indicate that the calculated data without shell corrections are in good agreement with experimental data as well as the recommended data from the evaluated data libraries. The calculated results could provide useful insight into the choice of some input parameters near closed shells using the EXIFON code.

  1. Shape coexistence measurements in even-even neutron-deficient polonium isotopes by Coulomb excitation, using REX-ISOLDE and the Ge MINIBALL array

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...

  2. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, and dumbbells to determine which shapes form hypostatic versus isostatic packings and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from na\\"ive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circul...

  3. Nuclei in a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, K.; Yamada, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the recent progress in understanding the matter in the crust of a neutron star. For nuclides in the outer crust, recently measured masses of neutron-rich nuclei enable us to determine more accurately the stable nuclide as a function of the matter density. In the inner crust, the compressible liquid-drop model predicts successive change of the nuclear shape, from sphere to cylinder, slab, cylindrical hole and spherical hole at densities just before the transition to uniform matter. In order to go beyond the liquiddrop model, we performed the Thomas-Fermi calculation paying special attention to the surface diffuseness, and have recently calculated the shell energies of the non-spherical nuclei. We have found from these studies that all these non-spherical nuclei exist stably in the above order even if we include the surface diffuseness and shell energies. (author)

  4. Scattering of light by nonspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, K.L.

    1985-12-01

    Methods of computing scattering by non-spherical particles are reviewed for the Mie theory, the Rayleigh-Gans approximation, the geometric optics method, the extended boundary condition method, the anamalous diffraction, the suppression of resonances, the statistical approach, the expansion of vector wave equations in spheroidal coordinates, and the semi-emperical theory of Pollack and Cuzzi. The results of computations for nonspherical particles are compared for prolate and oblate spheroids, homogeneous sphere with holes, rough particles made of stacked cylinders, irregular particles of various shapes, and particles of carbonaceous smokes. Conclusions are presented in the context of nuclear winter

  5. Charging of nonspherical macroparticles in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, J. T.; Coppins, M.

    2016-03-01

    The current theories of macroparticle charging in a plasma are limited to spheres, and are unsuitable for the multitude of nonspherical objects existing in astrophysical, atmospheric, laboratory, and fusion plasmas. This paper extends the most widely used spherical charging theory, orbit motion limited theory, to spheroids and, as such, provides a comprehensive study of the charging of nonspherical objects in a plasma. The spherical charging theory is shown to be a reasonable approximation for a considerable range of spheroids. However, the electric potential of highly elongated spheroids can be almost twice the spherical value. Furthermore, the total charge on the spheroids increases by a significantly larger factor than their potential.

  6. Nonspherical oscilllations of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollet, B.; van der Meer, S.M.; Garbin, V.; Garbin, Valeria; de Jong, N.; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of nonspherical oscillations (or surface modes) of coated microbubbles, used as ultrasound contrast agents in medical imaging, is investigated using ultra–high-speed optical imaging. Optical tweezers designed to micromanipulate single bubbles in 3-D are used to trap the bubbles far

  7. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circulo-lines and cir-polygons, we developed an interparticle potential that gives continuous forces and torques as a function of the particle coordinates. We show that the packing fraction and coordination number at jamming onset obey a masterlike form for all of the nonspherical particle packings we studied when plotted versus the particle asphericity A , which is proportional to the ratio of the squared perimeter to the area of the particle. Further, the eigenvalue spectra of the dynamical matrix for packings of different particle shapes collapse when plotted at the same A . For hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles, we verify that the number of "quartic" modes along which the potential energy increases as the fourth power of the perturbation amplitude matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. We show that the fourth derivatives of the total potential energy in the directions of the quartic modes remain nonzero as the pressure of the packings is decreased to zero. In addition, we calculate the principal curvatures of the inequality constraints for each contact in circulo-line packings and identify specific types of contacts with inequality constraints that possess convex curvature. These contacts can constrain multiple degrees of freedom and allow hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles to be mechanically

  8. Torsional Optomechanics of a Levitated Nonspherical Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F.; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-09-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be 1 order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. We propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale torsion balance with a torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10-29 N m /√{Hz } under realistic conditions.

  9. Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zade S S; Patil K D; Mulkalwar P N

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid.The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole.We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng[Phys.Lett.A 266 (2000) 249]to the non-spherical case.

  10. The Role of Broken Cooper Pairs in Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Larsen, A.C.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N.U.H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand warm nuclei and describe the underlying microscopic structure, entropy is measured for several even-even and odd-mass nuclei. Mid-shell nuclei show significant odd-even entropy differences interpreted as the single-particle entropy introduced by the valence nucleon. A method to extract critical temperatures for the pair breaking process is demonstrated. (author)

  11. Systematics of light nuclei in a relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of relativistic mean field calculations for non-spherical nuclei are presented and discussed. The need for non-linear scalar meson self-couplings in order to describe the properties of s-d shell nuclei is emphasized along with the importance of self-consistency in calculations of magnetic moments of odd-mass nuclei. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying

  13. Problem of ''deformed'' superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiczewski, A.; Patyk, Z.; Muntian, I.

    2000-08-01

    Problem of experimental confirmation of deformed shapes of superheavy nuclei situated in the neighbourhood of 270 Hs is discussed. Measurement of the energy E 2+ of the lowest 2+ state in even-even species of these nuclei is considered as a method for this confirmation. The energy is calculated in the cranking approximation for heavy and superheavy nuclei. The branching ratio p 2+ /p 0+ between α decay of a nucleus to this lowest 2+ state and to the ground state 0+ of its daughter is also calculated for these nuclei. The results indicate that a measurement of the energy E 2+ for some superheavy nuclei by electron or α spectroscopy is a promising method for the confirmation of their deformed shapes. (orig.)

  14. Effect of particle nonsphericity on bidirectional reflectance of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, M.I.; Rossow, W.B.; Macke, A.; Lacis, A.A. [Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the fractal ice particle method to study the differences in bidirectional reflectance caused by the differences in the single scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets and nonspherical ice crystals.

  15. Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias

    This study deals with the interaction between turbulence and non-spherical particles and represents an extension of the modeling framework for particleladen flows. The effect of turbulence on particles is commonly referred to as turbulent dispersion while the effect of particles on the carrier....... This study encompass an outlook on existing work, an experimental study, development of a numerical model and a case study advancing the modeling techniques for pulverized coal combustion to deal with larger non-spherical biomass particles. Firstly, existing knowledge concerning the motion of non......-spherical particles and turbulence modulation are outlined. A complete description of the motion of non-spherical particles is still lacking. However, evidence suggests that the equation of motion for a sphere only represent an asymptotical value for a more general, but yet unformulated, description of the motion...

  16. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  17. Reflection asymmetric shapes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Emling, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data show that there is no even-even nucleus with a reflection asymmetric shape in its ground state. Maximum octupole- octupole correlations occur in nuclei in the mass 224 (N∼134, Z∼88) region. Parity doublets, which are the characteristic signature of octupole deformation, have been observed in several odd mass Ra, Ac and Pa nuclei. Intertwined negative and positive parity levels have been observed in several even-even Ra and Th nuclei above spin ∼8ℎ. In both cases, the opposite parity states are connected by fast El transitions. In some medium-mass nuclei intertwined negative and positive parity levels have also been observed above spin ∼7ℎ. The nuclei which exhibit octupole deformation in this mass region are 144 Ba, 146 Ba and 146 Ce; 142 Ba, 148 Ce, 150 Ce and 142 Xe do not show these characteristics. No case of parity doublet has been observed in the mass 144 region. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  18. Superheavy Nuclei in the Quark-Meson-Coupling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Jirina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a selection of the first results obtained in a comprehensive calculation of ground state properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in the region of 96 < Z < 136 and 118 < N < 320 from the Quark-Meson-Coupling model (QMC. Ground state binding energies, the neutron and proton number dependence of quadrupole deformations and Qα values are reported for even-even nuclei with 100 < Z < 136 and compared with available experimental data and predictions of macro-microscopic models. Predictions of properties of nuclei, including Qα values, relevant for planning future experiments are presented.

  19. Stability of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The potential-energy surfaces of an extended set of heavy and superheavy even-even nuclei with 92 ≤Z ≤126 and isospins 40 ≤N -Z ≤74 are evaluated within the recently developed Fourier shape parametrization. Ground-state and decay properties are studied for 324 different even-even isotopes in a four-dimensional deformation space, defined by nonaxiality, quadrupole, octupole, and hexadecapole degrees of freedom. Nuclear deformation energies are evaluated in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and a Yukawa-folded mean-field potential. The evolution of the ground-state equilibrium shape (and possible isomeric, metastable states) is studied as a function of Z and N . α -decay Q values and half-lives, as well as fission-barrier heights, are deduced. In order to understand the transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission along the Fm isotopic chain, the properties of all identified fission paths are investigated. Good agreement is found with experimental data wherever available. New interesting features about the population of different fission modes for nuclei beyond Fm are predicted.

  20. Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J

    2003-01-01

    The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.

  1. Electron form factors of deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.; Isupov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Using the smallness of the deformation parameter of the nucleus, we obtain simple explicit expressions for the form factors of electroexcitation of the low-lying rotation-vibration states of light, deformable, even-even nuclei. The expressions satisfactorily describe the experimental data on the excitation of collective nuclear states by the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

  2. Measurement of Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The change in the turbulence intensity of an air jet resulting from the addition of particles to the flow is measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry. Three distinct shapes are considered: the prolate spheroid, the disk and the sphere. Measurements of the carrier phase and particle phase velocities...... at the centerline of the jet are carried out for mass loadings of 0.5, 1, 1.6 and particle sizes 880μm, 1350μm, 1820μm for spherical particles. For each non-spherical shape only a single size and loading are considered. The turbulence modulation of the carrier phase is found to highly dependent on the turbulence......, the particle mass flow and the integral length scale of the flow. The expression developed on basis of spherical particles only is applied on the data for the non-spherical particles. The results suggest that non-spherical particles attenuate the carrier phase turbulence significantly more than spherical...

  3. Gravitational agglomeration of post-HCDA LMFBR aerosols: nonspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.F.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1982-12-01

    Aerosol behavior analysis computer programs have shown that temporal aerosol size distributions in nuclear reactor containments are sensitive to shape factors. This research investigates shape factors by a detailed theoretical analysis of hydrodynamic interactions between a nonspherical particle and a spherical particle undergoing gravitational collisions in an LMFBR environment. First, basic definitions and expressions for settling speeds and collisional efficiencies of nonspherical particles are developed. These are then related to corresponding quantities for spherical particles through shape factors. Using volume equivalent diameter as the defining length in the gravitational collision kernel, the aerodynamic shape factor, the density correction factor, and the gravitational collision shape factor, are introduced to describe the collision kernel for collisions between aerosol agglomerates. The Navier-Stokes equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates is solved to model a nonspherical particle and then the dynamic equations for two particle motions are developed. A computer program (NGCEFF) is constructed, and the dynamical equations are solved by Gear's method

  4. Isotopic shift in even-even barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Afaque; Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    We have discussed the correlation between a nuclear shape and its matter distribution. Here, we present the root-mean-square radii (r rms ) and rms charge radius (r ch ). We have also discussed the isotopic shift in terms of the observable ‹Δr 2 c › N,82 and its differential ‹Δr 2 c › N-2,N . We present nuclear radii evaluated using different interactions. Neutron radii and charge radii for all the isotopic chains are shown. Neutron radii for Ba isotopes show an increasing trend with the neutron number for all isotopic chains. One can observe a clear kink about magic number N=82

  5. Non-Spherical Microcapsules for Increased Core Content Volume Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to advance microencapsulation from the standard spherical microcapsule to a non-spherical, high-aspect ratio (HAR), elongated microcapsule. This was to be accomplished by developing reproducible methods of synthesizing or fabricating robust, non-spherical, HAR microcapsules. An additional goal of this project was to develop the techniques to the point where scale-up of these methods could be examined. Additionally, this project investigated ways to apply the microencapsulation techniques developed as part of this project to self-healing formulations.

  6. Collective models of transition nuclei Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombradi, Zs.

    1982-01-01

    The models describing the even-odd and odd-odd transition nuclei (nuclei of moderate ground state deformation) are reviewed. The nuclear core is described by models of even-even nuclei, and the interaction of a single particle and the core is added. Different models of particle-core coupling (phenomenological models, collective models, nuclear field theory, interacting boson-fermion model, vibration nucleon cluster model) and their results are discussed. New developments like dynamical supersymmetry and new research trends are summarized. (D.Gy.)

  7. Pseudomagic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown previously that, below a critical angular momentum, yrast bands of nonmagic nuclei are well described by the two-parameter variable moment of inertia model. Some striking exceptions to this rule are found in nuclei which have the same mass number as doubly magic nuclei but possess either one (or two) proton pairs beyond a magic number and one (or two) neutron hole pairs, or vice versa. Yrast bands in these pseudomagic nuclei resemble those in magic nuclei. 17 references

  8. Isospin mixing in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.; Clegg, T.B.; Fauber, R.E.; Karwowski, H.J.; Mooney, T.M.; Thompson, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    This program has provided accurate measurements of isospin mixing (ΔT = 1,2) in proton elastic scattering on even-even target nuclei up to A = 40. In order to improve experimental results and to test the hypothesis that isospin mixing is dominated by mixing in the target ground state (as opposed to mixing in the compound system) the authors have undertaken to (1) extend the proton scattering results to additional T = 3/2 states in certain compound systems and (2) examine processes which can proceed by only isotensor mixing (ΔT = 2) in order to isolate the effects of that contribution

  9. On the phase diagram of non-spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Wautelet, M; Hecq, M

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of nanoparticles is known to be a function of their size. In the literature, this is generally demonstrated for cases where their shape is spherical. Here, it is shown theoretically that the phase diagram of non-spherical particles may be calculated from the spherical case, at the same surface area/volume ratio, both with and without surface segregation, provided the surface tension is considered to be isotropic.

  10. How do nuclei really vibrate or rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, H.G.; Kunz, J.; Mosel, U.; Mueller, M.; Schuh, A.; Wust, U.

    1983-01-01

    By means of the adiabatic cranking model the properties of the current and velocity fields of nuclear quadrupole vibrations for even-even nuclei in the rare-earth region are investigated. BCS correlated wave functions based on the Nilsson single particle Hamiltonian have been used. The current fields are analyzed in terms of vector spherical harmonics. The realistic microscopic currents show a vortex structure not present in the classical irrotational flow. The microscopic origin of the vortex structure is investigated

  11. Equilibrium deformations of single-particle states of odd nuclei of rare earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.A.; Tsoj, E.G.; Zuber, K.; Pashkevich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    In terms of the Strutinsky shell-correction method using the Woods-Saxon non-spherical potential the energies, quadrupole, and hexadecapole momenta of the ground and excited states of odd-proton nuclei with 61 6 deformation on atomic nuclei non-rotation states energies is discussed. It is shown that account of deformation of α 6 type slightly influences on the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformation value

  12. Exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The actual tendencies to study exotic nuclei; applications of exotic nuclei beams in material study and medicine; recent results obtained by GANIL and Berkeley Laboratories of measurements of binding energy and radii of light nuclei; the future experiences to be carry out in several international laboratories and; proposal of studies in Brazil using Pelletron-USP accelerator and the LINAC superconductor accelerator, in construction in the same laboratory, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  13. Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1985-09-01

    The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)

  14. Systematics of triaxial deformation in Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.; Vogel, O.; von Brentano, P.; Gelberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The (β,γ) deformation parameters of even-even Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei have been calculated by using the triaxial rotor model. Deformation parameters calculated, on one hand, from decay properties and, on the other hand, from energies are in good agreement. The smooth dependence of the deformation parameters on Z and N is discussed. The results are compared with those extracted from properties of odd-A nuclei

  15. E2 transitions in deformed nuclei and the IBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Casten, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism which determines the relative E2 strengths in the Interacting Boson Approximation is studied, and the structure of the E2 operator necessary to reproduce the empirical B(E2) values in deformed even-even nuclei in the rate earth region is investigated

  16. Magnetic particle tracking for nonspherical particles in a cylindrical fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, K.A.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.; Padding, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In granular flow operations, often particles are nonspherical. This has inspired a vast amount of research in understanding the behavior of these particles. Various models are being developed to study the hydrodynamics involving nonspherical particles. Experiments however are often limited to obtain

  17. Controlled electrosprayed formation of non-spherical microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of biocompatible microparticles, such as alginate particles, with the possibility of controlling the particles' morphology in a high-throughput manner, is essential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Even though the shape of alginate particles has been shown to be an important parameter in controlling drug delivery, there are very limited manufacturing methods to produce non-spherical alginate microparticles in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we present a system that generates non-spherical biocompatible alginate microparticles with a tunable size and shape, and at high-throughput, using an electrospray technique. Alginate solution, which is a highly biocompatible material, is flown through a needle using a constant flow rate syringe pump. The alginate phase is connected to a high-voltage power supply to charge it positively. There is a metallic ring underneath the needle that is charged negatively. The applied voltage creates an electric field that forces the dispensing droplets to pass through the metallic ring toward the collection bath. During this migration, droplets break up to smaller droplets to dissipate their energy. When the droplets reach the calcium chloride bath, polymerization happens and solidifies the droplets. We study the effects of changing the distance from the needle to the bath, and the concentration of calcium chloride in the bath, to control the size and the shape of the resulting microparticles.

  18. Level density and thermal properties in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siem, S.; Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.

    2000-01-01

    The level density at low spin has been extracted for several nuclei in the rare earth region using the ( 3 He,α) reaction. Within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble, the entropy and the temperature of the nuclei are derived. The temperature curve shows bumps which are associated with the break up of Cooper pairs. The entropies of the even-even and even-odd nuclei have been compared. The nuclear heat capacity is deduced within the framework of the canonical ensemble and exhibits an S-formed shape as function of temperature. (author)

  19. Shell-model Monte Carlo studies of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The pair content and structure of nuclei near N = Z are described in the frwnework of shell-model Monte Carlo (SMMC) calculations. Results include the enhancement of J=0 T=1 proton-neutron pairing at N=Z nuclei, and the maxked difference of thermal properties between even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei. Additionally, a study of the rotational properties of the T=1 (ground state), and T=0 band mixing seen in 74 Rb is presented

  20. Shock waves from non-spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Combining simultaneous high-speed imaging and hydrophone measurements, we uncover details of the multiple shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles collapsing in a non-spherical way. For strongly deformed bubbles collapsing near a free surface, we identify the distinct shock waves caused by the jet impact onto the opposite bubble wall and by the individual collapses of the remaining bubble segments. The energy carried by each of these shocks depends on the level of bubble deformation, quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ, the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For jetting bubbles, at ζ water hammer as ph = 0.45 (ρc2 Δp) 1 / 2ζ-1 .

  1. Program package for calculation of cross sections of neutron scattering on deformed nuclei by the coupled-channel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Program package and numerical solution of the problem for a system of coupled equations used in optical model to solve a problem on low and mean energy neutron scattering on deformed nuclei, is considered. With these programs differnet scattering cross sections depending on the incident neutron energy on even-even and even-odd nuclei were obtained. The programm permits to obtain different scattering cross sections (elastic, inelastic), excitation cross sections of the first three energy levels of rotational band depending on the energy, angular distributions and neutron polarizations including excited channels. In the program there is possibility for accounting even-even nuclei octupole deformation

  2. MISR Dark Water aerosol retrievals: operational algorithm sensitivity to particle non-sphericity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalashnikova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to theoretically investigate the sensitivity of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR operational (version 22 Dark Water retrieval algorithm to aerosol non-sphericity over the global oceans under actual observing conditions, accounting for current algorithm assumptions. Non-spherical (dust aerosol models, which were introduced in version 16 of the MISR aerosol product, improved the quality and coverage of retrievals in dusty regions. Due to the sensitivity of the retrieval to the presence of non-spherical aerosols, the MISR aerosol product has been successfully used to track the location and evolution of mineral dust plumes from the Sahara across the Atlantic, for example. However, the MISR global non-spherical aerosol optical depth (AOD fraction product has been found to have several climatological artifacts superimposed on valid detections of mineral dust, including high non-spherical fraction in the Southern Ocean and seasonally variable bands of high non-sphericity. In this paper we introduce a formal approach to examine the ability of the operational MISR Dark Water algorithm to distinguish among various spherical and non-spherical particles as a function of the variable MISR viewing geometry. We demonstrate the following under the criteria currently implemented: (1 Dark Water retrieval sensitivity to particle non-sphericity decreases for AOD below about 0.1 primarily due to an unnecessarily large lower bound imposed on the uncertainty in MISR observations at low light levels, and improves when this lower bound is removed; (2 Dark Water retrievals are able to distinguish between the spherical and non-spherical particles currently used for all MISR viewing geometries when the AOD exceeds 0.1; (3 the sensitivity of the MISR retrievals to aerosol non-sphericity varies in a complex way that depends on the sampling of the scattering phase function and the contribution from multiple scattering; and (4 non-sphericity

  3. Superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Superdeformation was first proposed some twenty years ago to explain the fission isomers observed in some actinide nuclei. It was later realized that superdeformed shapes can occur at high angular momentum in lighter nuclei. The interest in the mechanisms responsible for these exotic shapes has increased enormously with the discovery of a superdeformed band of nineteen discrete lines in 152 Dy (8). At about the same time, evidence for highly deformed nuclei (axis ratio 3:2) was also reported near 132 Ce(9). Striking properties emerged from the first experiments, such as the essentially constant energy spacing between transitions (picket-fence spectra), the unexpectedly strong population of superdeformed bands at high spins, and the apparent lack of a link between the superdeformed states and the yrast levels. These findings were reviewed by Nolan and Twin. The present article follows upon their work and discusses the wealth of information that has since become available. This includes the discovery of a new island of superdeformation near A = 190, the detailed spectroscopy of ground and excited bands in the superdeformed well near A = 150 and A = 190, the surprising occurrence of superdeformed bands with identical transition energies in nuclei differing by one or two mass units, and the improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for the feeding into and the decay out of the superdeformed states

  4. Colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, Roger; Remaud, Bernard; Suraud, E.; Durand, Dominique; Tamain, Bernard; Gobbi, A.; Cugnon, J.; Drapier, Olivier; Govaerts, Jan; Prieels, Rene

    1995-09-01

    This 14. international school Joliot-Curie of nuclear physic deals with nuclei in collision at high energy. Nine lectures are included in the proceedings of this summer school: 1 - From statistical mechanics outside equilibrium to transport equations (Balian, R.); 2 - Modeling of heavy ions reactions (Remaud, B.); 3 - Kinetic equations in heavy ions physics (Suraud, E.); 4 - Colliding nuclei near the Fermi energy (Durand, D.; Tamain, B.); 5 - From the Fermi to the relativistic energy domain: which observable? For which physics? (Gobbi, A.); 6 - Collisions at relativistic and ultra relativistic energies, Theoretical aspects (Cugnon, J.); 7 - Quark-gluon plasma: experimental signatures (Drapier, O.); 8 - Electroweak interaction: a window on physics beyond the standard model (Govaerts, J.); 9 - Symmetry tests in β nuclear process: polarization techniques (Prieels, R.)

  5. Effect of weak nonsphericity on linear and nonlinear optical properties of small particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, A.V.; Popelnukh, V.V.; Venger, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A small particle composite in which the inclusions are slightly nonspherical and distributed in shape is considered. Within the framework of the mean-field approximation, the functions of linear and nonlinear optical responses are calculated in terms of a nonsphericity parameter specifying the width of the distribution function in shape. To estimate the effect of weak nonsphericity on the functions, their second derivatives with respect to the nonsphericity parameter are computed. The derivatives are shown to be complexly structured surfaces in the coordinates (Re(ε i /ε m ), Im(ε i /ε m )), where ε i and ε m are the inclusion and matrix permittivity, respectively. Based on the results obtained, applicability area of the classical Maxwell Garnett theory is discussed. The main conclusion is that weak nonsphericity is significant only in the close vicinity of a dipole resonance of a single ball made of inclusion material. At the same time, the role of nonsphericity increases with decreasing the imaginary part of inclusion permittivity. (author)

  6. Importance of aerosol non-sphericity in estimating aerosol radiative forcing in Indo-Gangetic Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Mishra, S K; Tiwari, Suresh

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols are usually presumed spherical in shape while estimating the direct radiative forcing (DRF) using observations or in the models. In the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), a regional aerosol hotspot where dust is a major aerosol species and has been observed to be non-spherical in shape, it is important to test the validity of this assumption. We address this issue using measured chemical composition at megacity Delhi, a representative site of the western IGB. Based on the observation, we choose three non-spherical shapes - spheroid, cylinder and chebyshev, and compute their optical properties. Non-spherical dust enhances aerosol extinction coefficient (β ext ) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at visible wavelengths by >0.05km -1 and >0.04 respectively, while it decreases asymmetry parameter (g) by ~0.1. Accounting non-sphericity leads top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) dust DRF to more cooling due to enhanced backscattering and increases surface dimming due to enhanced β ext . Outgoing shortwave flux at TOA increases by up to 3.3% for composite aerosols with non-spherical dust externally mixed with other spherical species. Our results show that while non-sphericity needs to be accounted for, choice of shape may not be important in estimating aerosol DRF in the IGB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Packing Nonspherical Particles: All Shapes Are Not Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-02-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the effects of particle shape on the characteristics of dense particle packings, since deviations from sphericity can lead to more realistic models of granular media, nanostructured materials, and tissue architecture. It is clear the that the broken rotational symmetry of a nonspherical particle is a crucial aspect in determining its resulting packing characteristics, but given the infinite variety of possible shapes (ellipsoids, superballs, regular and irregular polyhedra, etc.) it is desirable to formulate packing organizing principles based the particle shape. Such principles are beginning to be elucidated; see Refs. 1 and 2 and references therein. Depending upon whether the particle has central symmetry, inequivalent principle axes, and smooth or flat surfaces, we can describe the nature of its densest packing (which is typically periodic) as well as its disordered jammed states (which may or may not be isostatic). Changing the shape of a particle can dramatically alter its packing attributes. This tunability capability via particle shape could be used to tailor many-particle systems (e.g., colloids and granular media) to have designed crystal, liquid and glassy states. [4pt] [1] S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, ``Jammed Hard-Particle Packings: From Kepler to Bernal and Beyond," Rev. Modern Phys. 82, 2633 (2010). [0pt] [2] Y. Jiao and S. Torquato, Communication: ``A Packing of Truncated Tetrahedra That Nearly Fills All of Space and its Melting Properties," J. Chem. Phys. 135, 151101 (2011).

  8. Heat transfer rate within non-spherical thick grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huchet Florian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the internal heat conduction into non-spherical thick grains constitutes a significant issue for physical modeling of a large variety of application involving convective exchanges between fluid and grains. In that context, the present paper deals with heat rate measurements of various sizes of particles, the thermal sensors being located at the interface fluid/grain and into the granular materials. Their shape is designed as cuboid in order to control the surface exchanges. In enclosed coneshaped apparatus, a sharp temperature gradient is ensured from a hot source releasing the air stream temperature equal to about 400°C. Two orientations of grain related to the air stream are considered: diagonally and straight arrangements. The thermal diffusivity of the grains and the Biot numbers are estimated from an analytical solution established for slab. The thermal kinetics evolution is correlated to the sample granular mass and its orientation dependency is demonstrated. Consequently, a generalized scaling law is proposed which is funded from the effective area of the heat transfer at the grain-scale, the dimensionless time being defined from the calculated diffusional coefficients.

  9. Heat transfer rate within non-spherical thick grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchet, Florian; Richard, Patrick; Joniot, Jules; Le Guen, Laurédan

    2017-06-01

    The prediction of the internal heat conduction into non-spherical thick grains constitutes a significant issue for physical modeling of a large variety of application involving convective exchanges between fluid and grains. In that context, the present paper deals with heat rate measurements of various sizes of particles, the thermal sensors being located at the interface fluid/grain and into the granular materials. Their shape is designed as cuboid in order to control the surface exchanges. In enclosed coneshaped apparatus, a sharp temperature gradient is ensured from a hot source releasing the air stream temperature equal to about 400°C. Two orientations of grain related to the air stream are considered: diagonally and straight arrangements. The thermal diffusivity of the grains and the Biot numbers are estimated from an analytical solution established for slab. The thermal kinetics evolution is correlated to the sample granular mass and its orientation dependency is demonstrated. Consequently, a generalized scaling law is proposed which is funded from the effective area of the heat transfer at the grain-scale, the dimensionless time being defined from the calculated diffusional coefficients.

  10. Equations of state of nonspherical fluids by spherical intermolecular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastea, S; Ree, F H

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium properties of anisotropic molecular fluids can be in principle calculated in a statistical mechanics framework, but the theory is generally too cumbersome for many practical applications. Fortunately, at high densities and temperatures the anisotropy can be averaged-out by means of a density and temperature independent potential (the median) that produces reliable thermodynamics[1,2]. The proposal of Shaw and Johnson[1], which turns out to be the so-called median potential[2], is very successful in predicting the thermodynamics of simple fluids such as N(sub 2) and CO(sub 2) at reasonable high pressures and temperatures[3]. Lebowitz and Percus[2] pointed out some time ago that the success of this approximation could perhaps be understood in terms of a simple theory that treats the asphericity as a perturbation. The median appears to be the best choice for hard nonspherical potential[4], which may explain its success for fluids at high densities, where the hard core contribution is known to be dominant

  11. Steady three-fluid coronal expansion for nonspherical geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joselyn, J.; Holzer, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A steady three-fluid model of the solar coronal expansionk in which 4 He ++ ions (alphas) are treated as a nonminor species, is developed for nonspherically symmetric flow geometries of the general sort thought to be characteristic of coronal holes. It is found that the very high mass fluxes in the low corona, which are associated with rapidly diverging flow geometries, lead to a locally enhanced frictional coupling between protons and alphas and consequently to a significant reduction of the He/H abundance ratio in the lower corona from that normally predicted by multifluid models. In the models considered, the frictional drag on the protons by the alphas (a process neglected in most studies) is found to play an important role near the sun. Heavy ions, other than alphas, are treated as minor species and are seen to exhibit varying responses to the rapidly diverging flow geometries, depending on the ion mass and charge. As for the protons, the frictional effect of the alphas on the heavier ions is found to be significant in the models considered

  12. Shape nuclei and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental methods for obtaining the nucleus shape parameters are reviewed throughout the period of 1955-1975. Spatial properties of a nucleus, which can be directly or indirectly measured, are determined. They include: parameters of nucleus localization in space; parameters characterizing the nucleus nonsphericity; parameters of the nucleus nonaxiality. Dimensional parameters of a nucleus, namely, radius R and surface ΔR are derived from electron scattering. The deformation sign is indirectly obtained in the experiments. Parameters of the nucleus shape, namely, the sign and magnitude of nuclear deformation are derived from the mean energy proton scattering by a coupled channels method. The only direct way of deriving the nucleus surface deformation signs is the method of the Blaire phase shift. Results on scattering of electrons, protons, and α-particles on light and medium nuclei are reported. Data on the nucleus shape can be also obtained from reactions with heavy ions. A difference between strong absorptions of incident particles of high and average energy by a nucleus is noted. Numerous diagrams illustrate experimental and theoretical results

  13. Quest for superheavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenen, P.H. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Nucleaire Theorique (Belgium); Nazarewicz, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej

    2002-02-01

    This article draws the long history of the discovery of new heavy nuclei since its beginning in 1940 when neptunium was found, and presents the current status of research in this field. The last 3 years have brought a number of experimental surprises which have truly rejuvenated the field. In January 1999, scientists from Dubna (Russia) reported the synthesis of 1 atom of element 114 ({sup 298}Uuq) in a hot fusion reaction between a {sup 48}Ca beam and a {sup 244}Pu target. This discovery was followed by 3 other reports from Dubna. First using the {sup 242}Pu({sup 48}Ca,3n) reaction, they produced {sup 287}Uuq. In 1999 the synthesis of another isotope of Z=114, the even-even {sup 288}Uuq was reported. The element Z=116 ({sup 292}Uuh) was discovered as a product of the {sup 248}Cm({sup 48}Ca,4n) reaction. The GSI (Germany) group found a new even isotope of the element 110: {sup 270}Uun and also {sup 272}Uuu (element 111) and {sup 277}Uub (element 112). 2 new isotopes of the element 107: {sup 266}Bh and {sup 267}Bh have been found at Berkeley (Usa). The synthesis of the new element Z=118 ({sup 293}Uuo) announced in 1999 by the Berkeley group was retracted 2 years later. The lifetimes reported for the elements {sup 284}Uub and {sup 280}Uun are by many orders of magnitude longer than those of the isotopes with Z{<=}112 previously discovered at GSI. (A.C.)

  14. Relativistic mean field theory for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the properties of unstable nuclei in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. We take the RMF theory as a phenomenological theory with several parameters, whose form is constrained by the successful microscopic theory (RBHF), and whose values are extracted from the experimental values of unstable nuclei. We find the outcome with the newly obtained parameter sets (TM1 and TMA) is promising in comparison with various experimental data. We calculate systematically the ground state properties of even-even nuclei up to the drip lines; about 2000 nuclei. We find that the neutron magic shells (N=82, 128) at the standard magic numbers stay at the same numbers even far from the stability line and hence provide the feature of the r-process nuclei. However, many proton magic numbers disappear at the neutron numbers far away from the magic numbers due to the deformations. We discuss how to describe giant resonances for the case of the non-linear coupling terms for the sigma and omega mesons in the relativistic RPA. We mention also the importance of the relativistic effect on the spin observables as the Gamow-Teller strength and the longitudinal and transverse spin responses. (author)

  15. Physics of the N = Z and N = Z + 1 Nuclei in the A = 80 -100 Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, D.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the experimental work performed at the GASP array with the purpose of the identification and first spectroscopic measurements of the heaviest even-even N = Z and odd-A N = Z + 1 nuclei (mass larger than 80) is made. Systematic experiments in this mass region led to the first study of seven such nuclei: 88 Ru, 81 Zr, 85 Mo, 89 Ru, 91 Rh, 93 Pd, and 95 Ag, and extensive data on many other nuclei in their neighborhood. The systematic evolution of the level structures in both even-even and odd-A nuclei, between N ∼ Z ∼ 40 and N ∼ Z ∼ 47 is briefly presented. The possibility that effects of the neutron-proton pairing have been observed, as well as the type of collectivity observed in this region are discussed. (author)

  16. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baktash, C; Garrett, J D; Winchell, D F; Smith, A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Low-spin identical bands in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  18. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  19. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Remarkable long-range-systematic in the binding energies of α-nuclei. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter I present further data that show the remarkable evidence for the existence of an α-cluster structure in the ground states of even-even N=Z nuclei. Such a remarkable systematic was observed 20 years ago Gross and Nemes [Phys. Lett. B 130 (1983) 131] for these nuclei at A≤72 and is extended here up to A=100

  1. Dynamic deformation theory of spherical and deformed light and heavy nuclei with A = 12-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Krishna.

    1979-01-01

    Deformation dependent wave functions are calculated for different types of even-even nuclei (spherical, transitional, deformed; light, medium, heavy) without any fitting parameters. These wave functions are employed for the energies, B(E2)'s, quadrupole and magnetic moments of selected nuclei with A = 12-240 (with special emphasis on 56 Fe, 154 Gd), and for neutron cross sections of 148 Sm, 152 Sm

  2. Low-lying states of 184W and 184Os nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrad, F.I.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Al-Dahan, N.; Umran, N.M.; Okhunov, A.A.; Abu Kassim, H.

    2013-01-01

    The energy levels, transition energy, B(E2) values, intrinsic quadrupole moment Q 0 and potential energy surface for even-even 184 W and 184 Os nuclei were calculated using IBM-1. The predicted energy levels, transition energy, B(E2) values and intrinsic quadrupole moment Q 0 results are reasonably consistent with the experimental data. A contour plot of the potential energy surfaces shows that two interesting nuclei are deformed and have rotational characters. (authors)

  3. Primordial nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The recent detection of intergalactic helium by NASA's Astro-2 mission backs up two earlier measurements by ESA and the University of California, San Diego, using instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Taken together, these results give strong evidence that this helium is primordial, confirming a key prediction of the Big Bang theory. The amount of helium the results imply could also account for some of the Universe's invisible dark matter - material which affects galactic motion but is otherwise undetectable. According to theory, helium nuclei formed at around 100 seconds after the Big Bang, but the amount of helium depended on even earlier events. Initially, protons turned into neutrons with the same probability that neutrons turned into protons. But after about one second, the Universe had cooled down enough for the weak interaction to freeze out. Neutrons continued to decay into the slightly lighter protons, whilst the opposite reaction became much more scarce. At around 100 seconds, thermonuclear fusion reactions could begin, and all the neutrons that were left became absorbed into helium nuclei, leaving the remaining protons locked up in hydrogen. The ratio of helium to hydrogen was therefore determined by events occurring when the Universe was just one second old. Standard models of primordial nucleosynthesis fix this ratio at slightly less than 2 5% by mass. All heavier elements were cooked up much later in the stars, and amount to less than 1 % of the Universe's mass. These predictions have been borne out remarkably well by observation, although proof of the primordial origins of hydrogen and helium has remained elusive until now. Big Bang nucleosynthesis goes on to estimate that primordial baryonic matter in the form of light nuclei could account for around 10% of the Universe's dark matter. All three recent measurements used the same technique of looking at distant quasars, some of the most luminous objects in the Universe, to

  4. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr; Cho, Kuk, E-mail: kukcho@pusan.ac.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying.

  5. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Cho, Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying

  6. Deformation and shape coexistence in medium mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Emerging evidence for deformed structures in medium mass nuclei is reviewed. Included in this review are both nuclei that are ground state symmetric rotors and vibrational nuclei where there are deformed structures at excited energies (shape coexistence). For the first time, Nilsson configurations in odd-odd nuclei within the region of deformation are identified. Shape coexistence in nuclei that abut the medium mass region of deformation is also examined. Recent establishment of a four-particle, four-hole intruder band in the double subshell closure nucleus 96 Zr 56 is presented and its relation to the nuclear vibron model is discussed. Special attention is given to the N=59 nuclei where new data have led to the reanalysis of 97 Sr and 99 Zr and the presence of the [404 9/2] hole intruder state as isomers in these nuclei. The low energy levels of the N=59 nuclei from Z=38 to 50 are compared with recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations that can describe their transition from near-rotational to single closed shell nuclei. The odd-odd N=59 nuclei are discussed in the context of coexisting shape isomers based on the (p[303 5/2]n[404 9/2])2 - configuration. Ongoing in-beam (t,p conversion-electron) multiparameter measurements that have led to the determination of monopole matrix elements for even-even 42 Mo nuclei are presented, and these are compared with initial estimates using IBA-2 calculations that allow mixing of normal and cross subshell excitations. Lastly, evidence for the neutron-proton 3 S 1 force's influence on the level structure of these nuclei is discussed within the context of recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations. (Auth.)

  7. On the motion of non-spherical particles at high Reynolds number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a critical review of available methodology for dealing with the motion of non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers in the Eulerian- Lagrangian methodology for dispersed flow. First, an account of the various attempts to classify the various shapes and the efforts...... motion it is necessary to account for the non-coincidence between the center of pressure and center of gravity which is a direct consequence of the inertial pressure forces associated with particles at high Reynolds number flow. Extensions for non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers are far...

  8. Particle-rotation coupling in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberger, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recently an increased interest in the rotational nuclei has been spurred by the new experimental high-spin activities and by the possibilities for lower spins to interpret an impressive amount of experimental data by some comparatively simple model calculations. The author discusses the particle modes of excitation for rotational nuclei in the pairing regime where some puzzles in the theoretical description remain to be resolved. A model comparison is made between the particle-rotor and cranking models which have different definitions of the collective rotation. The cranking model is found to imply a smaller value of the quasiparticle spin alignment than the particle-rotor model. Rotational spectra for both even and odd nuclei are investigated with the use of the many-BCS-quasiparticles plus rotor model. This model gives an accurate description of the ground and S-bands in many even-even rare-earth nuclei. However, the discrepancies for odd-A nuclei between theory and experiments point to the importance of additional physical components. Therefore the rotationally induced quadrupole pair field is considered. This field has an effect on the low spin states in odd-A nuclei, but is not sufficient to account for the experimental data. Another topic considered is the interaction matrix element in crossings for given spin between quasiparticle rotational bands. The matrix elements are found to oscillate as a function of the number of particles, thereby influencing the sharpness of the backbending. Finally the low-spin continuation of the S-band is studied and it is shown that such states can be populated selectively by means of one-particle pickup reactions involving high angular momentum transfer. (Auth.)

  9. Pauli principle role in the description of collective non-rotational states of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.; Serdyukova, S.I.; Meliev, F.; Nesterenko, V.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Pauli principle role account for one-phonon and two- phonon states of even-even deformed nuclei sup(160, 164)Dy, sup(230, 232)Th, 154 Gd, 240 Pu, 238 U is performed. With account of isoscalar part of multipole-multipole interaction hamiltonian of a model and basic equations for energy and wave functions of one-phonon and two-phonon states are obtained. The results of calculations of centroids of energies of two-phonon states of the (lambda 1 μ 1 i 1 lambda 2 μ 2 i 2 ) type with and without the Pauli principle are tabulated. The calculations performed have shown that the energy centroids shift of collective two-phonon states with the Pauli-principle account is characteristic for all even-even deformed nuclei. In the authors opinion additional experimental investigations of 154 Cd, 164 Dy, 240 Pu two-phonon nuclei states to confirm theoretical results are necessary [ru

  10. Where is the Scissors Mode Strength in Odd-Mass Nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, J.; Huxel, N.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Richter, A.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated by a fluctuation analysis based on the assumption of a Wigner distribution for the nuclear level spacings and of a Porter-Thomas distribution for the transition strengths that significant parts of the dipole strength excited in photon scattering experiments in heavy, deformed odd-mass nuclei are hidden in the background of the experimental spectra. With this additional strength, the heretofore claimed severe reduction of the B(M1) scissors mode strength in odd-mass nuclei compared to the one in neighboring even-even nuclei disappears. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  12. Thermo-mechanical screening tests to qualify beryllium pebble beds with non-spherical pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.reimann@partner.kit.edu [IKET, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fretz, Benjamin [KBHF GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pupeschi, Simone [IAM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. • Spherical pebbles are considered as the candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest. • Thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for non-spherical beryllium grades. • Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT) were used to measure the stress–strain relations and the thermal conductivity. • A small experimental set-up had to be used and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance. • Compared to spherical pebble beds, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer and mainly the thermal conductivity is lower. - Abstract: In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. Fairly spherical pebbles are considered as a candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest because production costs are much lower. Yet, thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for these beryllium grades, and the blanket relevant potential of these grades cannot be judged. Screening experiments were performed with three different grades of non-spherical beryllium pebbles, produced by different companies, accompanied by experiments with the reference beryllium pebble beds. Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT), were performed to measure both the stress–strain relation and the thermal conductivity, k, at different stress levels. Because of the limited amounts of the non-spherical materials, the experimental set-ups were small and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance in order to prove that the used design was appropriate. Compared to the pebble beds consisting of spherical pebbles, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer (smaller stress for a given strain), and, mainly as a consequence of this, for a given strain value, the thermal conductivity is lower. This

  13. On peculiarities of the cascade γ decay of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneva, S.T.; Khitrov, V.A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Sukhovoj, A.M.; Vasil'eva, E.V.; Yazvitskij, Yu.S.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of measured and calculated by statistical theory sums of two-quanta cascade intensities in compound-nuclei 163 ≤ A ≤ 183 points to the dependence of cascade intensity on the structure of initial and intermediate levels. The dependence of two-quanta cascade intensity sum on reduced neutron widths of compound states of even-even nuclei-targets of rare earth regions is detected. In 175 Yb and 179 Hf nuclei a considerable increase in the intensity of two-quanta cascades at the energy of their intermediate level in the range of the calculated position of one-quasiparticle states of the Saxon-Woods deformed potential is observed

  14. A new spin on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Wadsworth, B.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic rotation is a new phenomenon that is forcing physicists to rethink their understanding of what goes on inside the nucleus The rotation of quantum objects has a long and distinguished history in physics. In 1912 the Danish scientist Niels Bjerrum was the first to recognize that the rotation of molecules is quantized. In 1938 Edward Teller and John Wheeler observed similar features in the spectra of excited nuclei, and suggested that this was caused by the nucleus rotating. But a more complete explanation had to wait until 1951, when Aage Bohr (the son of Niels) pointed out that rotation was a consequence of the nucleus deforming from its spherical shape. We owe much of our current understanding of nuclear rotation to the work of Bohr and Ben Mottelson, who shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physics with James Rainwater for developing a model of the nucleus that combined the individual and collective motions of the neutrons and protons inside the nucleus. What makes it possible for a nucleus to rotate? Quantum mechanically, a perfect sphere cannot rotate because it appears the same when viewed from any direction and there is no point of reference against which its change in position can be detected. To see the rotation the spherical symmetry must be broken to allow an orientation in space to be defined. For example, a diatomic molecule, which has a dumbbell shape, can rotate about the two axes perpendicular to its axis of symmetry. A quantum mechanical treatment of a diatomic molecule leads to a very simple relationship between rotational energy, E, and angular momentum. This energy is found to be proportional to J(J + 1), where J is the angular momentum quantum number. The molecule also has a magnetic moment that is proportional to J. These concepts can be applied to the atomic nucleus. If the distribution of mass and/or charge inside the nucleus becomes non-spherical then the nucleus will be able to rotate. The rotation is termed ''collective'' because many

  15. A better understanding of biomass co-firing by developing an advanced non-spherical particle tracking model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    -area-to-volume ratio and thus experiences a totally different motion and reaction as a non-spherical particle. Therefore, an advanced non-spherical particle-tracking model is developed to calculate the motion and reaction of nonspherical biomass particles. The biomass particles are assumed as solid or hollow cylinders......-gradient force. Since the drag and lift forces are both shape factor- and orientation-dependent, coupled particle rotation equations are resolved to update particle orientation. In the reaction of biomass particles, the actual particle surface area available and the average oxygen mass flux at particle surface...

  16. Fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo showed a different behavior at low energies, if compared to measurements with {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo. This points to a possible influence of nuclear structure on the fusion process. One way to characterize the structure of vibrational nuclei is via their restoring force parameters C{sub 2} which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the corresponding B(E2) value. A survey of the even-even nuclei between A = 28-150 shows strong variations in C{sub 2} values spanning two orders of magnitude. The lowest values for C{sub 2} are observed for {sup 78}Kr, {sup 104}Ru and {sup 124}Xe followed by {sup 74,76}Ge, {sup 74,76}Se, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 110}Pd. In order to learn more about the influence of {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement, we measured cross sections for evaporation residue production for the systems {sup 78}Kr + {sup 104}Ru and {sup 78}Kr + {sup 76}Ge with the gas-filled magnet technique. For both systems, fusion excitation functions involving the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 86}Kr were measured previously. The data are presently being analyzed.

  17. Simultaneous projection of particle-number and angular momentum BCS wave-functions in the rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Benhamouda, N.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2000-01-01

    A method of simultaneous particle-number and angular-momentum projection of the BCS wave-function is presented. The particle number projection method is of FBCS type. In the frame work of the adiabatic approximation, the rotational energies of the axially symmetric even-even nuclei are established and numerically calculated for the rare-earth region. (author)

  18. Effective field theory for triaxially deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.B. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics and JARA-HPC, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Meng, J. [Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Stellenbosch, Department of Physics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    Effective field theory is generalized to investigate the rotational motion of triaxially deformed even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian for the triaxial rotor is obtained up to next-to-leading order within the effective field theory formalism. Its applicability is examined by comparing with a five-dimensional rotor-vibrator Hamiltonian for the description of the energy spectra of the ground state and γ band in Ru isotopes. It is found that by taking into account the next-to-leading order corrections, the ground state band in the whole spin region and the γ band in the low spin region are well described. The deviations for high-spin states in the γ bands point towards the importance of including vibrational degrees of freedom in the effective field theory formulation. (orig.)

  19. Non-spherical core collapse supernovae. III. Evolution towards homology and dependence on the numerical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryszczak, A.; Guzman, J.; Plewa, T.; Kifonidis, K.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: We study the hydrodynamic evolution of a non-spherical core-collapse supernova in two spatial dimensions. We begin our study from the moment of shock revival - taking into account neutrino heating and cooling, nucleosynthesis, convection, and the standing accretion shock (SASI) instability of the supernova blast - and continue for the first week after the explosion when the expanding flow becomes homologous and the ejecta enter the early supernova remnant (SNR) phase. We observe the growth and interaction of Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities resulting in an extensive mixing of the heavy elements throughout the ejecta. We obtain a series of models at progressively higher resolution and provide a discussion of numerical convergence. Methods: Different from previous studies, our computations are performed in a single domain. Periodic mesh mapping is avoided. This is made possible by employing cylindrical coordinates, and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy in which the computational workload (defined as the product of the total number of computational cells and the length of the time step) is monitored and, if necessary, reduced. Results: Our results are in overall good agreement with the AMR simulations we have reported in the past. We show, however, that numerical convergence is difficult to achieve, due to the strongly non-linear nature of the problem. Even more importantly, we find that our model displays a strong tendency to expand laterally away from the equatorial plane and toward the poles. We demonstrate that this expansion is a physical property of the low-mode, SASI instability. Although the SASI operates only within about the first second of the explosion, it leaves behind a large lateral velocity gradient in the post shock layer which affects the evolution for minutes and hours later. This results in a prolate deformation of the ejecta and a fast advection of the highest-velocity 56Ni-rich material from

  20. Nuclei far from stability. Individual and collective excitations at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.

    1984-01-01

    The low energy structure of exotic nuclei is discussed in terms of self-consistent microscopic models. The experimental striking features of the spectroscopy of these nuclei are briefly surveyed and the schematic steps performed to obtain from effective N-N interactions their spectroscopic properties are presented. Their saturation and deformation properties are given by the Hartree-Fock approximation (HF). Then it is shown how to describe the dynamics of even-even exotic nuclei excited states by solving the complete Bohr Hamiltonian, built microscopically using the HF approximation and the adiabatic limit (and its derivatives) of the time-dependent HF approximation (ATDHF). The structure of odd and doubly odd nuclei is discussed in the framework of the unified model, ie the microscopic rotor + quasiparticles model. Finally possible future directions of experimental research concerning exotic nuclei are described and improvements or new theoretical approaches discussed [fr

  1. Scattering from Model Nonspherical Particles Theory and Applications to Environmental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Saija, Rosalba

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by nonspherical particles has become an increasingly important research topic over the past 20 years. Instead of handling anisotropic particles of arbitrary shape, the authors consider the more amenable problem of aggregates of spherical particles. This is often a very satisfactory approach as the optical response of nonspherical particles depends more on their general symmetry and the quantity of refractive material than on the precise details of their shape. The book addresses a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from scattering properties of water droplets containing pollutants, atmospheric aerosols and ice crystals to the modeling of cosmic dust grains as aggregates. In this extended second edition the authors have encompassed all the new topics arising from their recent studies of cosmic dust grains. Thus many chapters were deeply revised and new chapters were added. The new material spans The description of the state of polarization of electromagnetic wave...

  2. Gamow-Teller beta decay of proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.; Rykaczewski, K.

    1990-11-01

    The beta decays of 48 Mn and of even-even nuclei near the double shell-closures at 100 Sn and 146 Gd are currently investigated at the GSI on-line mass separator. Their Gamow-Teller strength are surveyed in their present experimental status, together with related results from the ISOLDE (CERN) and ISOCELE (Orsay) separators, and are compared with predictions from different nuclear models. The strength of the 0 + → 1 + Gamow-Teller transitions is compiled in tables and graphs. (orig.)

  3. Novel Discrete Element Method for 3D non-spherical granular particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelen, Luuk; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Granular materials are common in many industries and nature. The different properties from solid behavior to fluid like behavior are well known but less well understood. The main aim of our work is to develop a discrete element method (DEM) to simulate non-spherical granular particles. The non-spherical shape of particles is important, as it controls the behavior of the granular materials in many situations, such as static systems of packed particles. In such systems the packing fraction is determined by the particle shape. We developed a novel 3D discrete element method that simulates the particle-particle interactions for a wide variety of shapes. The model can simulate quadratic shapes such as spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders. More importantly, any convex polyhedron can be used as a granular particle shape. These polyhedrons are very well suited to represent non-rounded sand particles. The main difficulty of any non-spherical DEM is the determination of particle-particle overlap. Our model uses two iterative geometric algorithms to determine the overlap. The algorithms are robust and can also determine multiple contact points which can occur for these shapes. With this method we are able to study different applications such as the discharging of a hopper or silo. Another application the creation of a random close packing, to determine the solid volume fraction as a function of the particle shape.

  4. The drag and lift of different non-spherical particles from low to high Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, Sathish K. P.; Padding, Johan

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates a simplified drag and lift model that can be used for different non-spherical particles. The flow around different non-spherical particles is studied using a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method. We compute the mean drag coefficient CD , ϕ at different incident angles ϕ for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re). We show that the sine-squared drag law CD , ϕ =CD , ϕ =0° +(CD , ϕ =90° -CD , ϕ =0°) sin2 ϕ holds up to large Reynolds numbers Re = 2000 . The sine-squared dependence of CD occurs at Stokes flow (very low Re) due to linearity of the flow fields. We explore the physical origin behind the sine-squared law at high Re , and reveal that surprisingly, this does not occur due to linearity of flow fields. Instead, it occurs due to an interesting pattern of pressure distribution contributing to the drag, at higher Re , for different incident angles. Similarly, we find that the equivalent theoretical equation of lift coefficient CL can provide a decent approximation, even at high Re , for elongated particles. Such a drag and lift law valid at high Re is very much useful for Euler-Lagrangian fluidization simulations of the non-spherical particles. European Research Council (ERC) consolidator Grant scheme, Contract No. 615096 (NonSphereFlow).

  5. Low energy structure of even-even Ni isotopes close to 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, Carrol R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S.N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Morton, N.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Mueller, W.F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of magic neutron-rich nickel isotopes produced in the fragmentation of a 140 A MeV 86 Kr beam was investigated. For the first time four gamma transitions were assigned to the decay of the I π =8 + , T 1/2 = 590 +180 -110 isomer, thus establishing the 0 + -2 + -4 + -6 + -8 + ground-state band in 76 Ni. The previously unknown 2 + and 4 + levels belonging to the ground-state band in 74 Ni were identified in the β decay of 74 Co (T 1/2 =30(3) ms). The decay properties of 72 Co → 72 Ni were verified and confirmed on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data. The relevance of the measured level properties for the magicity of 78 Ni is analyzed with the help of advanced shell-model predictions

  6. Band structure of even-even selenium isotopes in the proton-neutron interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, U.; Moenkemeyer, C.; Brentano, P. von

    1983-01-01

    Available systematic IBM calculations [1-6] for Krypton and Strontium isotopes have been extended to Selenium. The analysis in terms of the IBM is complicated by the interplay of collective and noncollective degrees of freedom. However, satisfactory agreement has been obtained for N>=42. (orig.)

  7. The influence of the shell closure on the microscopic structure of even-even Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghardt, A.J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Muonic X-ray data were obtained for 198 200 202 204 Hg at high-intensity muon-beam facility of SIN and an electron-scattering study was performed on 204 Hg with the 500 MeV, high-resolution electron-scattering facility of NIKHEF-K in a q-range from 0.4 to 2.9 fm -1 . The combined analysis of the elastic electron-scattering and muonic X-ray data has yielded the ground-state charge distribution of 204 Hg. Hartree-Fock calculations with four different interactions, with and without the inclusion of pairing correlations, are compared to this experimental result. The charge-density difference between 206 Pb (determined elsewhere) and 204 Hg is then used ot investigate the filling of the last proton orbit before the Z=82 shell closure, the 3s 1/2 orbit. The interpretation of this difference, also in terms of Hartree-Fock calculations, is discussed in conjunction with the earlier study of Frois et al. concerning 206 Pb and 205 Tl. Many excited states have been observed in the spectra of 204 Hg. The experimental excitation energies and the spins and parities assigned to a number of states are presented. From the cross-section data for these states transition charge distributions have been extracted. Shell-model predictions are compared with the observed level scheme and the shell-model calculation performed by Poppelier is used to interpret transition charge distributions of six states. 101 refs.; 32 figs.; 41 figs

  8. Microscopic structure of high-spin vibrational states in superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Matsuyanagi, Kenichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mizutori, Shoujirou [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the quadrupole and octupole correlations for excited superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even A=190 nuclei. The K = 2 octupole vibrations are predicted to be the lowest excitation modes at zero rotational frequency. The Coriolis coupling at finite frequency produces different effects depending on the neutron and proton number of nucleus. The calculations also indicate that some collective excitations may produce moments of inertia almost identical to those of the yrast SD band. An interpretation of the observed excited bands invoking the octupole vibrations is proposed, which suggests those octupole vibrations may be prevalent in even-even SD A=190 nuclei.

  9. Studies of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the nuclei far off stability valley is of much interest for testing the nuclear models established for the stable nuclei but also for astrophysics to understand the nucleosynthesis. Experiments aim to measure the mass and lifetime, to build the decay schemes and also to study the structure and the properties of these nuclei. The radioactive beam group focused its research on light neutron-rich nuclei having a halo neutron structure. Mass measurements in N ∼ Z nuclei namely in A ∼ 60-80 proton-rich nuclei, important for understanding the rp process, are mentioned, as well as in nuclei in the 100 Sn region. In the newly obtained 26 O and 28 O nuclei the lifetimes, the probabilities of emission of one for more neutrons were determined. The data analysis has permitted to determine also for the first time the lifetimes of 27,29 F and 30 Ne. Studies of nuclei in the 100 Sn region, near the proton drip line in the ground and isomeric states are now under way. The spectroscopy (energy levels, gamma emissions, etc.) of the neutron-rich nuclei produced by the 36 S fragmentation has been carried out in 31 Ne, 17 B and 29 F. Studies by Coulomb excitation of the 2 + excited states and associated probability B (E2) in O, Ne, Ni and Zn are now analysed

  10. Simulation of statistical γ-spectra of highly excited rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Munos, G.; Guttormsen, M.; Bergholt, L.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Tveter, T.S.

    1997-05-01

    The statistical γ-spectra of highly excited even-even rare earth nuclei are simulated applying appropriate level density and strength function to a given nucleus. Hindrance effects due to K-conservation are taken into account. Simulations are compared to experimental data from the 163 Dy( 3 He,α) 162 Dy and 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reactions. The influence of the K quantum number at higher energies is discussed. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Enhancement of octupole strength in near spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dep. Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    The validity of the rotational formula used to compute E1 and E3 transition strengths in even-even nuclei is analyzed within the Generator Coordinate Method framework based on mean field wave functions. It turns out that those nuclei with spherical or near spherical shapes the E1 and E3 strengths computed with this formula are strongly underestimated and a sound evaluation of them requires angular-momentum projected wave functions. Results for several isotopic chains with proton number equal to or near magic numbers are analyzed and compared with experimental data. The use of angular-momentum projected wave functions greatly improves the agreement with the scarce experimental data. (orig.)

  12. Collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Pauli principle in the two-phonon components of the wave functions is taken into account within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of the nucleus with phonon operators depending on the sign of the projection of the angular momentum. The centroid energies of collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated and it is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle shifts them by 1--3 MeV to higher energies. The shifts of the three-phonon poles due to the inclusion of the Pauli principle in the three-phonon components of the wave functions are calculated. Strong fragmentation of collective two-phonon states whose energy centroids are 3--5 MeV should be expected. It is concluded that collective two-phonon states need not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation with the 168 Er nucleus and the Th and U isotopes is analyzed

  13. Situation with collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    Within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the operators of phonons depending on the sign of the angular momentum projection, the Pauli principle is taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. The centroid energies of the collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle leads to their shift by 1-3 MeV towards high energies. The shifts of three-phonon poles due to the Pauli principle are calculated in the three-phonon components of the wave functions. The collective two-phonon states, the centroid energies of which are 3-5 MeV, are expected to be strongly fragmented. The conclusion is confirmed that the collective two-phonon states should not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation in 168 Er and in the 228 Th isotopes is analysed

  14. Alpha-decay chains of superheavy nuclei 292-296118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. K.; Kumawat, M.; Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Jain, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    We have employed relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach for the study of even-even superheavy nuclei with Z = 118 which is the last and recent observed element in the periodic chart so far. Our study includes binding energies, Qα values, alpha-decay half-lives and spontaneous decay half-lives along with comparison of available experimental data and the results of FRDM calculations. We find an excellent match with the only known decay chain of 294118 for Z = 118 so far and predict decay chain of 292118 and 296118 in consistency with known experimental decay chains and FRDM results. These results may provide a very helpful insight to conduct experiments for realizing the presence of nuclei with Z = 118.

  15. Nuclei and quantum worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gathers the slides and their commentaries that have been presented at the conference 'physics and fundamental questions' by P. Chomaz. The author reviews the different quantum aspects of nuclei: tunnel effect, symmetries, magic numbers, wave functions, size, shapes and deformations. The author shows that nuclei are quantum objects of great complexity, their structures are not yet well understood and the study of exotic nuclei will continue bringing valuable information

  16. Signature effects in 2qp bands of doubly even rare-earth nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Kawalpreet [Amity University, AUUP, Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences (AIAS), Noida (India); Goel, Alpana [Amity University, AUUP, Amity Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AINST), Noida (India); Jain, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)

    2016-12-15

    The two-quasiparticle rotational bands in deformed doubly even nuclei in the rare-earth region have been studied in detail. A number of interesting features like odd-even staggering and signature inversion have been observed. The phenomenon of signature inversion/reversal is observed experimentally in {sup 162}{sub 66}Dy, {sup 170}{sub 70}Yb and {sup 170}{sub 74}W in even-even nuclei. Two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) calculations are carried out to explain the reverse pattern of signature in {sup 170}{sub 74}W for the rotational band having configuration {(h_1_1_/_2)_p x (d_5_/_2)_p}. (orig.)

  17. New isotopes of elements 104, 106 and 108 - highly stable superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yuri

    1994-01-01

    In April 1993, as part of a joint Dubna-Livermore experiment at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, new heavy isotopes of elements 104 and 106 were synthesized - 262 104, 265 106 and 266 106. Compared with the known even-even isotopes of elements 104 and 106, the new nuclei are characterized by their extraordinary high resistance to spontaneous fission. This is a direct proof of the macro-microscopic theory predictions in its version calculated by A.Sobiczewski et al. regarding a substantial increase in the half-lives of heavy nuclei near deformed shells with atomic number (Z) 108 and neutron number (N) 162.

  18. Nuclear structure of s-d shell nuclei: what is new?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the shape evolution of the even-even s-d shell nuclei with temperature and spin is studied using Landau theory of phase transitions. The most important thermal fluctuations are incorporated in this study. The ground state pairing is also included in the calculations. Both the summation and Strutinsky methods are used for extracting the Landau constants. Both yield qualitatively similar results. To conclude, Landau theory of phase transitions can be effectively and economically used to study the structure of excited s-d shell nuclei. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Pairing correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    There are many similarities between the properties of nucleons in nuclei and electrons in metals. In addition to the properties explainable in terms of independent particle motion, there are many important co-operative effects suggesting correlated motion. Pairing correlation which leads to superconductivity in metals and several important properties in nuclei , is an exmple of such correlations. An attempt has been made to review the effects of pairing correlations in nuclei. Recent indications of reduction in pairing correlations at high angular momenta is discussed. A comparision between pairing correlations in the cases of nuclei and electrons in metals is attempted. (author). 20 refs., 10 figs

  20. Nuclear shape transitions and some properties of aligned-particle configurations at very high spin in some rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.; Bayomy, T.; Awwad, Z.

    1990-01-01

    We will present results on an collective ΔI = 2 ground band level sequence in the spherical six-valence-particle nucleus 152 Dy and the variation of shapes for nuclei in the N = 88 to 92 transitional region. Finally, we will present results for some even-even nuclei without any backbending behaviour, showed a clear backbending in the diagram of 2Φ/(h/2π) 2 versus (hw/2π) 2 . (author)

  1. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  2. Extended interacting boson model description of Pd nuclei in the A∼100 transitional region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böyükata M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of even-even nuclei in the A∼100 transitional mass region within the framework of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1 have been expanded down to 98Pd nuclei to compare the calculation with new experimental results from measurements obtained at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cologne. The low-lying energy levels and the E2 transition rates of 98−100Pd nuclei are investigated and their geometric structures are described in the present work. We have also focused on the new B(E2:21+ → 01+ values of 112,114Pd nuclei to compare with previously calculated values.

  3. Evaluation of advanced automatic PET segmentation methods using nonspherical thin-wall inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, B.; Marshall, C.; Evans, M.; Spezi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The use of positron emission tomography (PET) within radiotherapy treatment planning requires the availability of reliable and accurate segmentation tools. PET automatic segmentation (PET-AS) methods have been recommended for the delineation of tumors, but there is still a lack of thorough validation and cross-comparison of such methods using clinically relevant data. In particular, studies validating PET segmentation tools mainly use phantoms with thick plastic walls inserts of simple spherical geometry and have not specifically investigated the effect of the target object geometry on the delineation accuracy. Our work therefore aimed at generating clinically realistic data using nonspherical thin-wall plastic inserts, for the evaluation and comparison of a set of eight promising PET-AS approaches. Methods: Sixteen nonspherical inserts were manufactured with a plastic wall of 0.18 mm and scanned within a custom plastic phantom. These included ellipsoids and toroids derived with different volumes, as well as tubes, pear- and drop-shaped inserts with different aspect ratios. A set of six spheres of volumes ranging from 0.5 to 102 ml was used for a baseline study. A selection of eight PET-AS methods, written in house, was applied to the images obtained. The methods represented promising segmentation approaches such as adaptive iterative thresholding, region-growing, clustering and gradient-based schemes. The delineation accuracy was measured in terms of overlap with the computed tomography reference contour, using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and error in dimensions. Results: The delineation accuracy was lower for nonspherical inserts than for spheres of the same volume in 88% cases. Slice-by-slice gradient-based methods, showed particularly lower DSC for tori (DSC 0.76 except for tori) but showed the largest errors in the recovery of pears and drops dimensions (higher than 10% and 30% of the true length, respectively). Large errors were visible

  4. Modeling the Interaction of Mineral Dust with Solar Radiation: Spherical versus Non-spherical Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust, emitted from arid and semi-arid regions, is the most dominant atmospheric aerosol by mass. Beside detrimental effect on air quality, airborne dust also influences the atmospheric radiation by absorbing and scattering solar and terrestrial radiation. As a result, while the long-term radiative impacts of dust are important for climate, the short-term effects are significant for the photovoltaic energy production. Therefore, it is a vital requirement to accurately forecast the effects of dust on energy budget of the atmosphere and surface. To this end, a major issue is the fact that dust particles are non-spherical. Thus, the optical properties of such particles cannot be calculated precisely using the conventional methods like Mie theory that are often used in climate and numerical weather forecast models. In this study, T-Matrix method is employed, which is able to treat the non-sphericity of particles. Dust particles are assumed to be prolate spheroids with aspect ratio of 1.5 distributed in three lognormal modes. The wavelength-dependent refractive indices of dust are used in T-Matrix algorithm to calculate the extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and backscattering ratio at different wavelengths. These parameters are then implemented in ICON-ART model (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic model with Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) to conduct a global simulation with 80 km horizontal resolution and 90 vertical levels. April 2014 is selected as the simulation period during which North African dust plumes reached central Europe and Germany. Results show that treatment of non-sphericity reduces the dust AOD in the range of 10 to 30%/. The impacts on diffuse and direct radiation at global, regional and local scales show strong dependency on the size distribution of the airborne dust. The implications for modeling and remote sensing the dust impacts on solar energy are also discussed.

  5. Preparation of non-spherical particles by shell-shield etching for near-field nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jian; Liesbet, Lagae

    2014-01-01

    The shape of polymer particles plays an important role in determining their function. In this paper, we describe a simple and unconventional method called shell-shield etching (SSE) that allows us to prepare freestanding submicrometer- or micrometer-sized polymer particles with various shapes. By precisely varying the time of ultraviolet ozone treatment under the partial shielding effect of the silica shell, we controllably reshape polymer spheres into symmetry-reduced polymer peaches, mushrooms, bowls, and plates. Finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the non-spherical particles obtained from the SSE method might have potential for near-field nanopatterning applications. (papers)

  6. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  7. Nuclei with exotic constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1990-08-01

    We discuss various interesting features in the behavior of exotic constituents of nuclei such as hyperons and mesons, in particular, with emphases on the aspect of exotic halos which are formed in general by short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. Specifically, Λ and Σ hypernuclei and pionic nuclei are discussed. (author)

  8. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  9. Baryon resonances in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.

    1977-01-01

    The field of baryon resonances in nuclei is reviewed. Theoretical developments and experimental evidence as well are discussed. Special emphasis is laid on electromagnetic processes for the two nucleon system. Some aspects of real isobars in nuclei are touched upon. (orig.) [de

  10. Nuclei in high forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Z.; Berger, J.F.; Heenen, P.H.; Heyde, K.; Haas, B.; Janssens, R.; Paya, D.; Gogny, D.; Huber, G.; Bjoernholm, S.; Brack, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of 1991 Joliot-Curie Summer School is to review the most advances in the understanding of the nuclei physics after the considerable progress in gamma spectroscopy. It covers the following topics: Highly and super-deformed nuclei, nuclear structures, mean-field approach and beyond, fission isomers, nuclear excitations with long lifetime and metal clusters

  11. Pair correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Except for the closed shell nuclei, almost all nuclei are in the superconducting state at their ground states. This well-known pair correlation in nuclei causes various interesting phenomena. It is especially to be noted that the pair correlation becomes weak in the excited states of nuclei with high angular momentum, which leads to the pair phase transition to the normal state in the high spin limit. On the other hand, the pair correlation becomes stronger in the nuclei with lower nucleon density than in those with normal density. In the region of neutron halo or skin state of unstable nuclei, this phenomenon is expected to be further enhanced to be observed compared to the ground state of stable nuclei. An overview of those interesting aspects caused via the pair correlation is presented here in the sections titled 'pair correlations in ground states', pair correlations in high spin states' and 'pair correlations in unstable nuclei' focusing on the high spin state. (S. Funahashi)

  12. Eta mesons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of producing eta-mesic nuclei by the use of pions is discussed. If these nuclei are observed experimentally, then the binding energies of the eta in this new nuclear matter can be used to extract accurately the eta-N-N* coupling constant in a nucleus. The framework for these calculations is the coupled channel isobar model

  13. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  14. Investigation of flow regime in debris bed formation behavior with nonspherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important to clarify the characteristics of flow regimes underlying the debris bed formation behavior that might be encountered in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Although in our previous publications, by applying dimensional analysis technique, an empirical model, with its reasonability confirmed over a variety of parametric conditions, has been successfully developed to predict the regime transition and final bed geometry formed, so far this model is restricted to predictions of debris mixtures composed of spherical particles. Focusing on this aspect, in this study a new series of experiments using nonspherical particles have been conducted. Based on the knowledge and data obtained, an extension scheme is suggested with the purpose of extending the base model to cover the particle-shape influence. Through detailed analyses and given our current range of experimental conditions, it is found that, by coupling the base model with this scheme, respectable agreement between experiments and model predictions for the regime transition can be achieved for both spherical and nonspherical particles. Knowledge and evidence from our work might be utilized for the future improvement of design of an in-vessel core catcher as well as the development and verification of sodium-cooled fast reactor severe accident analysis codes in China.

  15. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  16. ASPECT RATIO DEPENDENCE OF THE FREE-FALL TIME FOR NON-SPHERICAL SYMMETRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, Andy; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Toala, Jesus A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gomez, Gilberto C. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Heitsch, Fabian, E-mail: arpon@uvic.ca, E-mail: Douglas.Johnstone@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: toala@iaa.es, E-mail: e.vazquez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: g.gomez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: fheitsch@unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, CB 3255, Phillips Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We investigate the collapse of non-spherical substructures, such as sheets and filaments, which are ubiquitous in molecular clouds. Such non-spherical substructures collapse homologously in their interiors but are influenced by an edge effect that causes their edges to be preferentially accelerated. We analytically compute the homologous collapse timescales of the interiors of uniform-density, self-gravitating filaments and find that the homologous collapse timescale scales linearly with the aspect ratio. The characteristic timescale for an edge-driven collapse mode in a filament, however, is shown to have a square-root dependence on the aspect ratio. For both filaments and circular sheets, we find that selective edge acceleration becomes more important with increasing aspect ratio. In general, we find that lower dimensional objects and objects with larger aspect ratios have longer collapse timescales. We show that estimates for star formation rates, based upon gas densities, can be overestimated by an order of magnitude if the geometry of a cloud is not taken into account.

  17. Real-space calculations of nonspherically averaged charge densities for substitutionally disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.P.; Gonis, A.

    1993-01-01

    Based on screening transformations of muffin-tin orbitals introduced by Andersen and Jepsen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2571 (1984)], we have developed a formalism for calculating the nonspherically averaged charge densities of substitutionally disordered alloys using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation (KKR CPA) method in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). We have validated our method by calculating charge densities for ordered structures, where we find that our approach yields charge densities that are essentially indistinguishable from the results of full-potential methods. Calculations and comparisons are reported for Si, Al, and Li. For substitutionally disordered alloys, where full-potential methods have not been implemented so far, our approach can be used to calculate reliable nonspherically averaged charge densities from spherically symmetric one-electron potentials obtained from the KKR-ASA CPA. We report on our study of differences in charge density between ordered AlLi in the L1 0 phase and substitutionally disordered Al 0.5 Li 0.5 on a face-centered-cubic lattice

  18. Statistical multifragmentation of non-spherical expanding sources in central heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fevre, A.; Ploszajczak, M.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-10-01

    We study the anisotropy effects measured with INDRA at GSI in central collisions of 129 Xe+ nat Sn at 50 A MeV and 197 Au+ 197 Au at 60, 80, 100 A MeV incident energy. The microcanonical multifragmentation model with non-spherical sources is used to simulate an incomplete shape relaxation of the multifragmenting system. This model is employed to interpret observed anisotropic distributions in the fragment size and mean kinetic energy. The data can be well reproduced if an expanding prolate source aligned along the beam direction is assumed. In the model, the anisotropy is the result of correlations between the charge of a fragment and its location in the freeze-out configuration, created by the mutual Coulomb interactions inside the non-spherical source. An either non-Hubblean or non-isotropic radial expansion is required to describe the fragment kinetic energies and their anisotropy. The qualitative similarity of the results for the studied reactions suggests that the concept of a longitudinally elongated freeze-out configuration is generally applicable for central collisions of heavy systems. The deformation decreases slightly with increasing beam energy. (orig.)

  19. ASPECT RATIO DEPENDENCE OF THE FREE-FALL TIME FOR NON-SPHERICAL SYMMETRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, Andy; Johnstone, Doug; Toalá, Jesús A.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Heitsch, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the collapse of non-spherical substructures, such as sheets and filaments, which are ubiquitous in molecular clouds. Such non-spherical substructures collapse homologously in their interiors but are influenced by an edge effect that causes their edges to be preferentially accelerated. We analytically compute the homologous collapse timescales of the interiors of uniform-density, self-gravitating filaments and find that the homologous collapse timescale scales linearly with the aspect ratio. The characteristic timescale for an edge-driven collapse mode in a filament, however, is shown to have a square-root dependence on the aspect ratio. For both filaments and circular sheets, we find that selective edge acceleration becomes more important with increasing aspect ratio. In general, we find that lower dimensional objects and objects with larger aspect ratios have longer collapse timescales. We show that estimates for star formation rates, based upon gas densities, can be overestimated by an order of magnitude if the geometry of a cloud is not taken into account.

  20. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  1. Nucleons in nuclei, however

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Mathiot, J.F.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Frascaria, R.; Gales, S.

    1990-01-01

    The topics presented at the 1989 Joliot-Curie Lectures are reported. Two main subjects were retained: a simplified description of the N-body motion of particles in the quasi-particle configuration; study of the dynamics of nuclear components which are not described by nucleons in their ground state. The following themes were presented: quasiparticles and the Green functions, relativistic aspects of the quasiparticle concept, the dimensions of nucleons in the nuclei and the EMC effect, quarks and gluons in the nuclei, the delta in the nuclei, the strangeness, quasiparticles far from the Fermi sea, diffusion of electrons, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis [fr

  2. Dynamic polarisation of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghini, M.; Abragam, A.

    1961-01-01

    In magnetic fields of about 13000 gauss, at a temperature of 1.5 deg. K, in samples of about 2 mm 3 , we have obtained by the 'solid effect' (application of a magnetic field at an appropriate frequency around 35000 MHz), nuclear polarizations /I of a few percent: 19 per cent for hydrogen nuclei in single crystals of La 2 Mg 3 (NO 3 ) 12 , 24H 2 O; 5 per cent for hydrogen nuclei in polystyrene; 6 per cent for fluorine nuclei in single crystals of LiF. (author) [fr

  3. Quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    The paper concerns the behaviour of quarks in nuclei. Confinement size changes and dynamical rescaling; A dependence; low-x region; gluons and confinement size; and nucleons in a nucleus; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  4. The shape of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    For the class of nuclei which are 'strongly deformed' it is possible to introduce the idea of an empirically measurable static nuclear shape. The limitations of this concept as applied to nuclei (fundamentally quantum-mechanical objects) are discussed. These are basically the limitations of the rotational model which must be introduced in order to define and measure nuclear shape. A unified discussion of the ways in which the shape has been parametrized is given with emphasis on the fact that different parametrizations correspond to different nuclear structures. Accounts of the various theoretical procedures for calculating nuclear shapes and of the interaction between nuclear shapes and nuclear spectroscopy are given. A coherent account of a large subset of nuclei (strongly deformed nuclei) can be given by means of a model in which the concept of nuclear shape plays a central role. (author)

  5. Structure of Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, S.; Uhrenholt, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of nuclei in the energy region between the ground state and the neutron separation energy, here called warm nuclei. The onset of chaos in the nucleus as excitation energy is increased is briefly reviewed. Chaos implies fluctuations of energies and wave functions qualitatively the same for all chaotic nuclei. On the other hand, large structure effects are seen, e.g. in the level-density function at same excitation energies. A microscopic model for the level density is reviewed and we discuss effects on structure of the total level-density function, parity enhancement, and the spin distribution function. Comparisons to data are performed at the neutron separation energy for all observed nuclei, and structure of the level-density function for a few measured cases. The role of structure effects in the level-density function for fission dynamics is exemplified.

  6. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  7. A novel approach to the systematization of α-decaying nuclei, based on shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarman, Tolga; Azmi Altintas, Ali; Zaim, Nimet; Amon Susam, Lidya; Kholmetskii, Alexander; Arik, Metin; Ozaydin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    We provide a novel systematization of α-decaying nuclei, starting with the classically adopted mechanism. The decay half-life of an α-disintegrating nucleus is framed, supposing that i) the α-particle is born inside the parent, then ii) it keeps on hitting the barrier, while it runs back and forth inside the parent, and hitting each time the barrier, and iii) it finally tunnels through the barrier. One can, knowing the decay half-life, consider the probability that the α-particle is born within the parent, before it is emitted, as a parameter. Under all circumstances, the decay appears to be governed by the shell structure of the given nucleus. Our approach well allows to incorporate (not only even-even nuclei, but) all nuclei, decaying via throwing an alpha particle. Though herein, we limit ourselves with just even-even nuclei, in the aim of comparing our results with the existing Geiger-Nuttal results. (orig.)

  8. Shape effects on time-scale divergence at athermal jamming transition of frictionless non-spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weiwei; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-10-01

    The critical behaviors of a granular system at the jamming transition have been extensively studied from both mechanical and thermodynamic perspectives. In this work, we numerically investigate the jamming behaviors of a variety of frictionless non-spherical particles, including spherocylinder, ellipsoid, spherotetrahedron and spherocube. In particular, for a given particle shape, a series of random configurations at different fixed densities are generated and relaxed to minimize interparticle overlaps using the relaxation algorithm. We find that as the jamming point (i.e., point J) is approached, the number of iteration steps (defined as the "time-scale" for our systems) required to completely relax the interparticle overlaps exhibits a clear power-law divergence. The dependence of the detailed mathematical form of the power-law divergence on particle shapes is systematically investigated and elucidated, which suggests that the shape effects can be generally categorized as elongation and roundness. Importantly, we show the jamming transition density can be accurately determined from the analysis of time-scale divergence for different non-spherical shapes, and the obtained values agree very well with corresponding ones reported in literature. Moreover, we study the plastic behaviors of over-jammed packings of different particles under a compression-expansion procedure and find that the jamming of ellipsoid is much more robust than other non-spherical particles. This work offers an alternative approximate procedure besides conventional packing algorithms for studying athermal jamming transition in granular system of frictionless non-spherical particles.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of fluid-particle heat transfer in fixed random arrays of non-spherical particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavassoli Estahbanati, H.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to characterize the fluid-particle heat transfer coefficient in fixed random arrays of non-spherical particles. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of well-known heat transfer correlations, that are proposed for spherical particles,

  10. Statistical multifragmentation of non-spherical expanding sources in central heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fevre, A. E-mail: a.lefevre@gsi.de; Ploszajczak, M.; Toneev, V.D.; Auger, G.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bellaize, N.; Bittiger, R.; Bocage, F.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bouriquet, B.; Charvet, J.L.; Chbihi, A.; Dayras, R.; Durand, D.; Frankland, J.D.; Galichet, E.; Gourio, D.; Guinet, D.; Hudan, S.; Hurst, B.; Lautesse, P.; Lavaud, F.; Legrain, R.; Lopez, O.; Lukasik, J.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Nalpas, L.; Orth, H.; Plagnol, E.; Rosato, E.; Saija, A.; Schwarz, C.; Sfienti, C.; Tamain, B.; Trautmann, W.; Trzcinski, A.; Turzo, K.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Volant, C.; Zwieglinski, B.; Botvina, A.S

    2004-04-19

    We study the anisotropy effects measured with INDRA at GSI in central collisions of {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn at 50 A MeV and {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au at 60, 80, 100 A MeV incident energy. The microcanonical multifragmentation model with non-spherical sources is used to simulate an incomplete shape relaxation of the multifragmenting system. This model is employed to interpret observed anisotropic distributions in the fragment size and mean kinetic energy. The data can be well reproduced if an expanding prolate source aligned along the beam direction is assumed. An either non-Hubblean or non-isotropic radial expansion is required to describe the fragment kinetic energies and their anisotropy. The qualitative similarity of the results for the studied reactions suggests that the concept of a longitudinally elongated freeze-out configuration is generally applicable for central collisions of heavy systems. The deformation decreases slightly with increasing beam energy.

  11. Gravitational collision efficiency of nonspherical aerosols II: motion of an oblate spheroid in a viscous fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R.F.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1985-06-01

    The collisional dynamics of nonspherical aerosols is modeled by the introduction of a shape factor, US . Mechanistic calculation of US requires knowledge of the flow fields around the aerosols. Since actual aerosols can be complicated in shape and since the computation of flow fields can be quite difficult, insights into the nature of US are gained by using the superposition technique and studying aerosols that have tractable flow fields. The motion of an oblate spheroid in a viscous fluid is considered. The Navier-Stokes equations and associated boundary conditions are represented in oblate spheroidal coordinates. A combination of finite differences and spline-interpolation techniques is used to transform these equations to a form suitable for numerical computations. Converged results for the flow fields are obtained for a 0 to 5 range of Reynolds numbers. In the limit of zero Reynolds number, the results are found to be in agreement with the analytical solutions of Oberbeck.

  12. Subluminal and superluminal pulse propagation in inhomogeneous media of nonspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yu; Gao Lei

    2006-01-01

    We study the pulse propagation through a metal/dielectric composites of nonspherical particles enclosed by two gold mirrors. To account for the shape effect, we first adopt Maxwell-Garnett type approximation to obtain the effective dielectric function of composites. Based on the group index, phase time and pulse shape calculations, we find that the particles' shape (characterized by the depolarization factor) plays an important role in determining the subluminal and superluminal pulse propagations through the system. When the inclusions' shape is not spherical, it is possible to observe significant superluminal behavior of the pulse propagation, although the volume fraction is the same. The shape-dependent critical volume fraction is predicted, above which superluminal propagation appears. Furthermore, the Hartman effect in such a system is also investigated

  13. Macroscopic optical constants of a cloud of randomly oriented nonspherical scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, F.; Denti, P.; Saija, R.; Toscano, G.; Sindoni, O.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method to calculate the macroscopic optical constants of a low-density medium consisting of a cloud of identical nonspherical scatterers is presented. The scatterers in the medium are clusters of dielectric spheres and the electromagnetic field scattered by each of the clusters is obtained as a superposition of multipole fields, as previously proposed by the authors. The transformation properties of the spherical multipoles under rotation allow the orientation-dependent terms in the expression for the forward-scattering amplitude of each of the clusters to be factored out. In this way the sum of the scattering amplitudes of the clusters with different orientations, needed to calculate the optical response of the medium, is greatly facilitated and admits a simple analytic expression in the case of randomly oriented clusters. Results of calculations of the optical constants for a few model media are presented

  14. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    phase, both with and without SDS, was established by NMR self-diffusion. In addition H-2 NMR relaxation experiments have demonstrated that the micelles in the cubic phase are non-spherical, having grown and changed shape upon formation of the cubic phase from the micellar solution. Small angle...... associated with the micellar cubic phase, Pm3n and Fd3m. The micellar volumes calculated for these space groups are similar and are consistent with a change in micellar geometry from spherical to prolate.......The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...

  15. Optical Modeling of Sea Salt Aerosols: The Effects of Nonsphericity and Inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Lin, Wushao; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yi, Bingqi

    2018-01-01

    The nonsphericity and inhomogeneity of marine aerosols (sea salts) have not been addressed in pertinent radiative transfer calculations and remote sensing studies. This study investigates the optical properties of nonspherical and inhomogeneous sea salts using invariant imbedding T-matrix simulations. Dry sea salt aerosols are modeled based on superellipsoidal geometries with a prescribed aspect ratio and roundness parameter. Wet sea salt particles are modeled as coated superellipsoids, as spherical particles with a superellipsoidal core, and as homogeneous spheres depending on the level of relative humidity. Aspect ratio and roundness parameters are found to be critical to interpreting the linear depolarization ratios (LDRs) of NaCl crystals from laboratory measurements. The optimal morphology parameters of NaCl necessary to reproduce the measurements are found to be consistent with data gleaned from an electron micrograph. The LDRs of wet sea salts are computed based on inhomogeneous models and compared with the measured data from ground-based LiDAR. The dependence of the LDR on relative humidity is explicitly considered. The increase in the LDR with relative humidity at the initial phase of deliquescence is attributed to both the size increase and the inhomogeneity effect. For large humidity values, the LDR substantially decreases because the overall particle shape becomes more spherical and the inhomogeneity effect in a particle on the LDR is suppressed for submicron sea salts. However, the effect of inhomogeneity on optical properties is pronounced for coarse-mode sea salts. These findings have important implications for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing involving sea salt aerosols.

  16. The necessity of microscopy to characterize the optical properties of size-selected, nonspherical aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veghte, Daniel P; Freedman, Miriam A

    2012-11-06

    It is currently unknown whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect on the climate system. This uncertainty stems from the varied and evolving shape and composition of mineral dust, which leads to diverse interactions of dust with solar and terrestrial radiation. To investigate these interactions, we have used a cavity ring-down spectrometer to study the optical properties of size-selected calcium carbonate particles, a reactive component of mineral dust. The size selection of nonspherical particles like mineral dust can differ from spherical particles in the polydispersity of the population selected. To calculate the expected extinction cross sections, we use Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles and for spherical particles with the polydispersity observed in transmission electron microscopy images. Our results for calcium carbonate are compared to the well-studied system of ammonium sulfate. While ammonium sulfate extinction cross sections agree with Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles, the results for calcium carbonate deviate at large and small particle sizes. We find good agreement for both systems, however, between the calculations performed using the particle images and the cavity ring-down data, indicating that both ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate can be treated as polydisperse spherical particles. Our results indicate that having an independent measure of polydispersity is essential for understanding the optical properties of nonspherical particles measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Our combined spectroscopy and microscopy techniques demonstrate a novel method by which cavity ring-down spectroscopy can be extended for the study of more complex aerosol particles.

  17. Hartree-Fock+BCS approach to unstable nuclei with the Skyrme force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Naoki

    2001-01-01

    We reanalyze the results of our extensive Hartree-Fock+BCS calculation from new points of view paying attention to the properties of unstable nuclei. The calculation has been done with the Skyrme SIII force for the ground and shape isomeric states of 1029 even-even nuclei ranging 2≤Z≤114. We also discuss the advantages of the employed three-dimensional Cartesian-mesh representation, especially on its remarkably high precision with apparently coarse meshes when applied to atomic nuclei. In Appendices we give the coefficients of finite-point numerical differentiation and integration formulae suitable for Cartesian mesh representation and elucidate the features of each formula and the differences from a method based on the Fourier transformation. (author)

  18. Collectivity in heavy nuclei in the shell model Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özen, C.; Alhassid, Y.; Nakada, H.

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic description of collectivity in heavy nuclei in the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model has been a major challenge. The size of the model space required for the description of heavy nuclei prohibits the use of conventional diagonalization methods. We have overcome this difficulty by using the shell model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method, which can treat model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional methods. We identify a thermal observable that can distinguish between vibrational and rotational collectivity and use it to describe the crossover from vibrational to rotational collectivity in families of even-even rare-earth isotopes. We calculate the state densities in these nuclei and find them to be in close agreement with experimental data. We also calculate the collective enhancement factors of the corresponding level densities and find that their decay with excitation energy is correlated with the pairing and shape phase transitions. (author)

  19. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  20. Cosmology and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis has established itself as one of the three pillars of Big Bang cosmology. Many of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis reactions involve unstable nuclei. Hence there is a tight relationship hetween the subject of this conference and cosmology. The prime role of unstable nuclei in cosmology is related to lithium synthesis and the lack of cosmological synthesis of Be and B. These nuclei will thus be focused upon. Nucleosynthesis involves comparing calculated abundances with observed abundances. In general, abundance determinations are dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors, and work on bounding systematics is crucial. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ω b are possible vis-a-vis the homogeneous model; hence the robustness of Ω b ∼0.05 is now apparent. (These calculations depend critically on unstable nuclei.) The above argues that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are not producing visible light. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ω b ∼1 seems to be definitely excluded, so if Ω TOTAL =1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required. The implications of the recently reported halo microlensing events are discussed. In summary, it is argued that the physics of unstable nuclei affects the fundamental dark matter argument. ((orig.))

  1. Emission of exotic clusters by nuclei and discovery of a fine structure in the 14C decay of 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is intended as a broad, mainly experimental, survey of the recent field of exotic cluster radioactivity in heavy nuclei. The first part summarizes the development of the field since the first experimental finding in 1984, insisting on 14 C emission, and giving a schematic status of the corresponding models. The second part describes in detail the 1989 discovery, in Orsay, of a fine structure of the 14 C decay of 223 Ra and the search for a similar effect in even-even neighboring nuclei 222 Ra and 224 Ra. A possible qualitative interpretation of the 'hindrance' of the transition to the ground state of 209 Pb is proposed

  2. Emission of exotic clusters by nuclei and discovery of a fine structure in the 14C decay of 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is intended as a broad, mainly experimental, survey of the recent field of exotic cluster radioactivity in heavy nuclei. The first part summarizes the development of the field since the first experimental finding in 1984, insisting on 14 C emission, and giving a schematic status of the corresponding models. The second part describes in detail the 1989 discovery, in Orsay, of a fine structure of the 14 C decay of 223 Ra and the search for a similar effect in even-even neighboring nuclei 222 Ra and 224 Ra. A possible qualitative interpretation of the ''hindrance'' of the transition to the ground state of 209 Pb is proposed

  3. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  4. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of 120-130Te nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoy, J.R.; Champine, B.R.; Coleman, R.T.; Crandell, K.A.; Tanyi, J.A.; Hicks, S.F.; Alexander, G.K.; Burkett, P.G.; Burns, M.C.; Collard, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Structure of the even 120-130 Te nuclei have been investigated with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy following the 122-126,nat Te(n,n'γ) reactions and the (α,2nγ) 120,124,126 Te reactions. Gamma-ray excitation functions, angular distributions, γγ-coincidences, and Doppler shifts have been measured. Level schemes have been constructed to approximately 3.3 MeV excitation energy, and spectroscopic information including level spins and parities, branching and multipole-mixing ratios, and lifetimes have been extracted. Three different types of structure are thought to play an important role in these low-lying excitations. These are: collective, two-particle, and 4p-2h intruder excitations. Because there are seven stable even-even Te nuclei, the evolution of these excitation modes over this wide range in neutron number is investigated. Level sequences and transition rates obtained from these measurements are compared to IBM-2 model calculations both with and without intruder-state mixing by Rikovska et al. (1), and to particle-vibrational coupling model calculations by Lopac (2). The IBM-2 model calculations with intruder mixing well reproduce the level energies in the low-mass Te; however, examination of the electromagnetic transition rates reveals that there is no clear improvement in the description of these nuclei by adding the intruder configurations. Additionally, no evidence of the 2 + mixed-symmetry strength is observed in the 2 3 + and 2 4 + levels in these nuclei. The particle-vibration model calculations appear to do a good job describing both the level scheme and the transition rates in the heavier nuclei investigated. (author)

  5. Meson-exchange forces and medium polarization in finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, W.

    1986-01-01

    A G-matrix, derived from a meson-exchange potential in nuclear matter, is applied to finite, semi-magic nuclei. For the open shell the broken-pair model, which can accomodate many particle levels, is used. The excitations of the closed shell are treated as particle-hole states. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transition densities are calculated for 88 Sr and 58 Ni. The standard random-phase approximation for finite systems is extended by including the effects of the exchange of the RPA phonons in the residual interaction selfconsistently. It is shown that this particle-hole interaction is strongly energy dependent due to the presence of poles corresponding to 2p-2h (and more complex) excitations. The RPA eigenvalue problem with this energy-dependent residual interaction also provides solutions for these predominantly 2p2h-like states. In addition a modified normalization condition is obtained. This scheme is applied to 56 Ni( 56 Co) in a large configuration space using a residual interaction of the G-matrix type. The effect of dynamic medium polarization on the properties of giant resonances is illustrated for the case of A=48 nuclei. A large fragmentation of the monopole strength is calculated, which is in accordance with the non-observation of the GMR in light nuclei. Properties of A=48 nuclei are computed with an interaction deduced from the NN scattering data without introduction of additional parameters. The role of medium polarization is illustrated for spectra and (e,e') form factors. It is shown how medium polarization induces a coupling between excitations in even-even and in the adjacent odd-odd nuclei. (Auth.)

  6. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  7. Quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1983-01-01

    Some features of quark degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed in the light of recent developments in QCD. The principal aim of this talk is to propose, and give a tentative support to, the motion that one can study through nuclear matter different facets of the vacuum structure implied by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This will be done using the recent (exciting) results obtained in particle physics, in particular lattice gauge calculations. Relevance of this aspect of problem to quark degrees of freedom as well as meson degrees of freedom in nuclei will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2012-02-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.

  9. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6 He and 3 H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ - , e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  11. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  12. Low energy E0 transitions in odd-mass nuclei of the neutron deficient 180 < A < 200 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zganjar, E.F.; Kortelahti, M.O.; Wood, J.L.; Papanicolopulos, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The region of neutron-deficient nuclei near Z = 82 and N = 104 provides the most extensive example of low-energy shape coexistence anywhere on the mass surface. It is shown that E0 and E0 admixed transitions may be used as a fingerprint to identify shape coexistence in odd-mass nuclei. It is also shown that all the known cases of low energy E0 and E0 admixed transitions in odd-mass nuclei occur where equally low-lying O + states occur in neighboring even-even nuclei. A discussion of these and other relevant data as well as suggestions for new studies which may help to clarify and, more importantly, quantify the connection between E0 transitions and shape coexistence are presented. 60 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  13. The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Quang; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Duc, Huynh Ngoc; Chuong, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR), which has been observed via the enhancement of the electric dipole strength E 1 of atomic nuclei, is studied within a microscopic collective model. The latter employs the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Skyrme types plus the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results of the calculations obtained for various even-even nuclei such as "1"6"-"2"8O, "4"0"-"5"8Ca, "1"0"0"-"1"2"0Sn, and "1"8"2"-"2"1"8Pb show that the PDR is significantly enhanced when the number of neutrons outside the stable core of the nucleus is increased, that is, in the neutron-rich nuclei. As the result, the relative ratio between the energy weighted sum of the strength of the PDR and that of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) does not exceed 4%. The collectivity of the PDR and GDR states will be also discussed. (paper)

  14. Superdeformation in the A = 190 region. The lead nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E A; Becker, J A; Brinkman, M J; Kuhnert, A; Stoyer, M A; Wang, T F; Yates, S W [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Azaiez, F A; Beausang, C W; Burde, J; Deleplanque, M A; Diamond, R M; Draper, J E; Kelly, W H; Korton, W; Macchiavelli, A O; Oliveira, J; Rubel, E; Stephens, F S [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cizewski, J A [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the four even-even lead nuclei {sup 192}Pb, {sup 194}Pb, {sup 196}Pb, and {sup 198}Pb. The discovery of SD bands in these nuclei extended the region of superdeformation in the A = 190 region to Z = 82, and to neutron numbers up to N = 116. All of the SD bands in these nuclei are observed with transition energies ranging from about 250 keV to about 600 keV, with the lowest energy SD band transition for the entire region of 169 keV in {sup 194}Pb. The spins deduced for the lowest levels in the SD bands are 6, 8, and 12 for {sup 192,194,196,198}Pb, respectively. The dynamic moments of inertia of {sup 192}Pb and {sup 194}Pb are similar to each other, and to those of many other SD bands in this mass region. The dynamic moments of inertia of {sup 1}`9{sup 6}Pb and {sup 198}Pb are somewhat lower than those of {sup 192,194}Pb at a given frequency. The experimental lifetimes in {sup 194}Pb and the deduced transition quadrupole moments (Qt {approx} 20 eb) are equal to those of other nuclei in the region within errors. While SD bands have been observed in the odd-neutron Hg and Tl nuclei, SD bands have not been reported for the odd-neutron Pb nuclei. In this contribution we discuss briefly three topics on superdeformation in the lead nuclei. First, we have recent experimental data on {sup 196}Pb that extends our knowledge of the SD band in that nucleus. Next we review briefly the population of low-lying yrast levels from the decay of the SD bands in {sup 192,194,196}Pb. Finally, we summarize our efforts to identify superdeformation in the odd-A Pb nuclei. All of the experiments described here were performed using the HERA spectrometer at the 88-Inch Cyclotron facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Systematic study of α half-lives of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaca, A. I.; Silisteanu, I.

    2014-03-01

    Two different descriptions of the α-decay process, namely, the shell model rate theory and phenomenological description are emphasized to investigate the α-decay properties of SHN. These descriptions are shortly presented and illustrated by their results. Special attention is given to the shell structure and resonance scattering effects due to which they exist and decay. A first systematics of α-decay properties of SHN was performed by studying the half-life vs. energy correlations in terms of atomic number and mass number. Such a systematics shows that the transitions between even-even nuclei are favored, while all other transitions with odd nucleons are prohibited. The accuracy of experimental and calculated α-half-lives is illustrated by the systematics of these results.

  16. Symmetries and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Electroweak interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1984-06-01

    Topics include: introduction to electroweak theory; the Weinberg-Salam theory for leptons; the Weinberg-Salam theory for hadrons-the GIM mechanism; electron scattering as a probe of the electroweak interaction (observation of PV, the weak interaction for nucleons, and parity violation in atoms); and time reversed invariance and electric dipole moments of nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. 52 references

  18. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  19. Collisions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamov, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that interactions of high energy particles with nuclei, owing to possible intranuclear rescatterings, may provide information about the space-time behaviour of the production process. Therefore the main goals of these investigations are related with the attempts to study the space-time process of hadronization of coloured quarks and gluons produced at the initial stage of an interaction to white final state particles and to clarify the influence of composite quark-gluon structure of both the projectile and target on features of the production mechanisms. Since in both the initial and final states of these reactions the authors have strongly interacting multiparticle systems, it is of importance to study the collective properties of these systems. The questions to the point are: what is the degree of collectivization of particles newly produced in collisions with nuclei and what is the influence of the collective nature of a nucleus itself on the production mechanisms, in particular, what are the manifestations of possible multinucleon (multiquark) configurations in nuclei? It is obvious that the reductability of, say, hadron-nucleus (hA) interaction to hadron-nucleon (hN) collisions is directly related to the above problems. Due to time limitations the author discusses here only a few aspects of low p/sub t/ hA interactions which in his opinion are of importance for better understanding of general regularities of collisions with nuclei and for further investigations of the above problems

  20. Nucleons in nuclei (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This summary is a review of our understanding of nuclei in terms of hadrons exchanging mesons. The open problems are: the determination of the high momentum components of nuclear systems, the role of the three-body forces and the nature of the short range correlations. The ways of studying these problems are discussed

  1. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  2. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  3. Mesons and light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlik, E.; Mach, R.

    1992-01-01

    62 papers and one summary talk were presented at the conference, on subject matters in between nuclear physics (mainly light nuclei) and elementary particle physics, as indicated by the session headings (1) Electroweak nuclear interaction (2) Nuclear physics with pions and antiprotons (3) Nuclear physics with strange particles (4) Relativistic nuclear physics (5) Quark degrees of freedom. (Quittner)

  4. Radii of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.; Plagnol, E.; Schutz, Y.

    1989-11-01

    A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section (σ R ) for several light radioactive nuclei (A≤40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r o 2 ) are obtained. A comparison is made with data obtained by other techniques. A strong isospin dependence of the nuclear radii is observed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  6. Particles, imaging and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1986-01-01

    The book on particles, imaging and nuclei is one of the Background Readers for the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics course. The contents contain five educational articles, which extend concepts covered in the course and examine recent developments in physics. Four of the articles on:- particles and the forces of nature, radioisotopes, lasers probe the atomic nucleus, and nuclear history, are indexed separately. (UK)

  7. The decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs

  8. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  9. Energetic Nuclei, Superdensity and Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    High-energy, relativistic nuclei were first observed in cosmic rays. Studing these nuclei has provided an opportunity for analyzing the composition of cosmic rays and for experimentally verifying principles governing the behavior of nuclear matter at high and super-high temperatures. Medical research using accelerated nuclei is suggested.…

  10. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V

    2012-01-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies. (physics of our days)

  11. Pions scatter by nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huefner, J.

    1975-01-01

    Are pions a good tool to study nuclei. If the emphasis of this question rests on ''tool'', the answer must be ''not yet.'' The reason: one does not even understand how a pion interacts with a nucleus. This is part of the many-body problem for strongly interacting particles and its study is a basic problem in physics. One must investigate questions like: Can one understand pion-nucleus interactions from pion-nucleon physics. How does a Δ-resonance look in nuclei. Once one has solved those basic problems, there will be spinoffs in medical, technical and nuclear areas. Then pions can be used as a tool to study nuclear properties

  12. Chaos in collective nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    Random Matrix Theory successfully describes the statistics of the low-lying spectra of some nuclei but not of others. It is currently believed that this theory applies to systems in which the corresponding classical motion is chaotic. This conjecture is tested for collective nuclei by studying the Interacting Boson Model. Quantum and classical measures of chaos are proposed and found to be in agreement throughout the parameter space of the model. For some parameter values the measures indicate the presence of a previously unknown approximate symmetry. A phenomenon called partial dynamical symmetry is explored and shown to lead to a suppression of chaos. A time dependent function calculated from the quantum spectrum is discussed. This function is sensitive to the extent of chaos and provides a robust method of analyzing experimental spectra

  13. Structure of ground status in magic nuclei and description of their electric transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savane, Y.Sy.

    1996-11-01

    The structure of the low-lying states in the even-even semi-magic nuclei ( 106-114 50 Sn) and the reduced transition probabilities B(E2, 6 + 1 → 4 = 1 ) for E2-transition have been investigated in the frame of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The model wave function includes a quasiparticle + two phonons components. It is shown that the small values of the transitions are connected with the non collective structure of the states. The calculated values are in agreement with the observed property of decreasing of the transition with increasing of mass number. (author). 16 refs, 6 tabs

  14. One-phonon states in deformed nuclei for isoscalar and isovector interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Solov'ev, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    Extension of the formulas describing the one-phonon states of compound even-even deformed nuclei to the case when the isoscalar and isovector multipole-multipole forces are taken into account, is given. The formalism presented makes it possible to obtain an unified description of the low-lying states and gigantic multipole resonances. Procedure is developed which makes it possible to write down the reduced probability and energetically weighted sum rule in the form of force functions averaged over certain interval of energies. The procedure simplifies the calculations significantly and makes it possible to avoid solving the secular equation for energies of one-phonon states

  15. Effect of zero-point oscillations of nuclear surface on observable properties of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterov, V.S.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    Possible effect of zero-point oscillations of nuclear surface on such observable nucleus characteristics as the mass of ground state, edge diffusion and height of fission barrier is considered. Within the framework of a drop model the calculation of binding energy per nucleon for even-even nuclei with a mass number 8 <= A <= 60 depending on A is given. It is shown that consideration of even quadrupole and octupole oscillations results in marked effects which are necessary to consider when comparing results of model calculations with experiment

  16. Systematics of β and γ parameters of O(6)-like nuclei in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolin

    1997-01-01

    By comparing quadrupole moments between the interacting boson model (IBM) and the collective model, a simple calculation for the triaxial deformation parameters β and γ in the O(6)-like nuclei is presented, based on the intrinsic frame in the IBM. The systematics of the β and γ are studied. The realistic cases are calculated for the even-even Xe, Ba and Ce isotopes, and the smooth dependences of the strength ratios θ 3 /κ and the effective charges e 2 on the proton and neutron boson numbers N π and N ν are discovered

  17. Chaotic behavior in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, G.; Shriner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) were available by the early 1960s, data of sufficiently high quality to adequately test the theory were only obtained a decade later by Rainwater. It was another decade later that Bohigas, Haq and Pandey combined the best available nuclear resonance data - the Columbia neutron resonances in heavy nuclei and the TUNL proton resonances in lighter nuclei - to form the Nuclear Data Ensemble. They obtained excellent agreement for the level statistics with the RMT predictions. The expected Porter-Thomas (PT) distribution was considered very early. However, since the widths (amplitudes squared) are measured, the predicted Gaussian distribution for the amplitudes was only qualitatively confirmed. A much more sensitive test was performed by measuring two widths and the relative phase between the two amplitudes. By comparison of the width and amplitude correlations, the Gaussian distribution was confirmed at the 1% level. Following the Bohigas conjecture - that quantum analogs of classically chaotic systems obey RMT - there was an explosion of activity utilizing level statistics in many different quantum systems. In nuclei the focus was verifying the range of applicability of RMT. Of particular interest was the effect of collectivity and of excitation energy on statistical properties. The effect of symmetry breaking on level statistics was examined and early predictions by Dyson were confirmed. The effect of symmetry breaking on the width distribution was also measured for the first time. Although heuristic arguments predicted no change from the PT distribution, experimentally there was a large deviation from the PT prediction. Later theoretical efforts were consistent with this result. The stringent conditions placed on the experiments - for eigenvalue tests the data need to be essentially perfect (few or no missing levels or mis assigned quantum numbers) - has limited the amount of suitable experimental data. The

  18. Radiation drag in the field of a non-spherical source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Passamonti, A.

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a test particle in the gravitational field of a non-spherical source endowed with both mass and mass quadrupole moment is investigated when a test radiation field is also present. The background is described by the Erez-Rosen solution, which is a static space-time belonging to the Weyl class of solutions to the vacuum Einstein's field equations, and reduces to the familiar Schwarzschild solution when the quadrupole parameter vanishes. The radiation flux has a fixed but arbitrary (non-zero) angular momentum. The interaction with the radiation field is assumed to be Thomson-like, i.e. the particles absorb and re-emit radiation, thus suffering for a friction-like drag force. Such an additional force is responsible for the Poynting-Robertson effect, which is well established in the framework of Newtonian gravity and has been recently extended to the general theory of relativity. The balance between gravitational attraction, centrifugal force and radiation drag leads to the occurrence of equilibrium circular orbits which are attractors for the surrounding matter for every fixed value of the interaction strength. The presence of the quadrupolar structure of the source introduces a further degree of freedom: there exists a whole family of equilibrium orbits parametrized by the quadrupole parameter, generalizing previous works. This scenario is expected to play a role in the context of accretion matter around compact objects.

  19. Gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    The theory of gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes is now well established. Yet, as different notations and conventions have been used throughout the years, the literature on the subject is often confusing and sometimes confused. The purpose of this review is to review and collect the relevant expressions related to the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations for the odd and even-parity perturbations of a Schwarzschild spacetime. Special attention is paid to the form they assume in the presence of matter-sources and, for the two most popular conventions in the literature, to the asymptotic expressions and gravitational-wave amplitudes. Besides pointing out some inconsistencies in the literature, the expressions collected here could serve as a quick reference for the calculation of the perturbations of a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime driven by generic sources and for those approaches in which gravitational waves are extracted from numerically generated spacetimes. (topical review)

  20. Controlling placement of nonspherical (boomerang) colloids in nematic cells with photopatterned director

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Zhang, Rui; De Pablo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Placing colloidal particles in predesigned sites represents a major challenge of the current state-of-the-art colloidal science. Nematic liquid crystals with spatially varying director patterns represent a promising approach to achieve a well-controlled placement of colloidal particles thanks to the elastic forces between the particles and the surrounding landscape of molecular orientation. Here we demonstrate how the spatially varying director field can be used to control placement of non-spherical particles of boomerang shape. The boomerang colloids create director distortions of a dipolar symmetry. When a boomerang particle is placed in a periodic splay-bend director pattern, it migrates towards the region of a maximum bend. The behavior is contrasted to that one of spherical particles with normal surface anchoring, which also produce dipolar director distortions, but prefer to compartmentalize into the regions with a maximum splay. The splay-bend periodic landscape thus allows one to spatially separate these two types of particles. By exploring overdamped dynamics of the colloids, we determine elastic driving forces responsible for the preferential placement. Control of colloidal locations through patterned molecular orientation can be explored for future applications in microfluidic, lab on a chip, sensing and sorting devices. (paper)

  1. Controlling placement of nonspherical (boomerang) colloids in nematic cells with photopatterned director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Wei, Qi-Huo; de Pablo, Juan; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2017-01-01

    Placing colloidal particles in predesigned sites represents a major challenge of the current state-of-the-art colloidal science. Nematic liquid crystals with spatially varying director patterns represent a promising approach to achieve a well-controlled placement of colloidal particles thanks to the elastic forces between the particles and the surrounding landscape of molecular orientation. Here we demonstrate how the spatially varying director field can be used to control placement of non-spherical particles of boomerang shape. The boomerang colloids create director distortions of a dipolar symmetry. When a boomerang particle is placed in a periodic splay-bend director pattern, it migrates towards the region of a maximum bend. The behavior is contrasted to that one of spherical particles with normal surface anchoring, which also produce dipolar director distortions, but prefer to compartmentalize into the regions with a maximum splay. The splay-bend periodic landscape thus allows one to spatially separate these two types of particles. By exploring overdamped dynamics of the colloids, we determine elastic driving forces responsible for the preferential placement. Control of colloidal locations through patterned molecular orientation can be explored for future applications in microfluidic, lab on a chip, sensing and sorting devices.

  2. Transverse components of the radiation force on nonspherical particles in the T-matrix formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saija, Rosalba; Antonia Iati, Maria; Giusto, Arianna; Denti, Paolo; Borghese, Ferdinando

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the transition matrix approach, we calculate the force exerted by a plane wave (radiation force) on a dispersion of nonspherical particles modeled as aggregates of spheres. Beyond the customary radiation pressure we also consider the components of the radiation force in a plane orthogonal to the direction of incidence of the incoming wave (transverse components). Our calculations show that, although the latter are generally smaller than the radiation pressure, they are in no way negligible and may be important for some applications, e.g. when studying the dynamics of cosmic dust grains. We also calculate the ensemble average of the components of the radiation force over the orientation of the particles in two physically significant cases: the case of random distribution and the case in which the orientations are randomly distributed around an axis fixed in space (axial average). As expected, we find that, unlike the case of random orientation, the transverse components do not vanish for axial average

  3. Numerical determination of the effective moments of non-spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Nicolas G; Jones, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric characterisation of polarisable particles, and prediction of the forces and torques exerted upon them, relies on the knowledge of the effective, induced dipole moment. In turn, through the mechanism of depolarisation, the induced dipole moment of a particle is strongly dependent upon its shape. Since realistic shapes create modelling difficulties, the 'spherical particle' approximation is often invoked. However, in many cases, including biological dielectric spectroscopy and dielectrophoresis, this assumption is a poor one. For example, human erythrocytes are essentially oblate spheroids with indented sides, while viruses and bacteria often have elongated cigar shapes. Since shape-dependent polarisation both strongly influences the accuracy of conventional dielectric characterisation methods using Maxwell's mixture formula and confounds accurate prediction of dielectrophoretic forces and torques, it is important to develop means to treat non-spherical particles. In this paper, we demonstrate a means to extract the dipole moment directly from numerical solutions of the induced electrostatic potential when a particle is placed in a uniform electric field. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for a range of particle shapes: spherical, ellipsoidal, truncated cylinders and an approximation of an erythrocyte, the red blood cell

  4. Structures of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Discoveries of many different types of nuclear shape coexistence are being found at both low and high excitation energies throughout the periodic table, as documented in recent reviews. Many new types of shape coexistence have been observed at low excitation energies, for examples bands on more than four different overlapping and coexisting shapes are observed in 185 Au, and competing triaxial and prolate shapes in 71 Se and 176 Pt. Discrete states in super-deformed bands with deformations β 2 ∼ 0.4-0.6, coexisting with other shapes, have been seen to high spin up to 60ℎ in 152 Dy, 132 Ce and 135 Nd. Super-deformed nuclei with N and Z both around 38 and around Z = 38, N ≥ 60. These data led to the discovery of new shell gaps and magic numbers of 38 for N and Z and 60 for N but now for deformed shapes. Marked differences in structure are observed at spins of 6 to 20 in nuclei in this region, which differ by only two protons; for example, 68 Ge and 70 Se. The differences are thought to be related to the competing shell gaps in these nuclei

  5. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Nagar, N. M.; Bianchi, S.; Böker, T.; Colbert, E.; Krabbe, A.; Marconi, A.; Matt, G.; Salvati, M.

    2003-10-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically `elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive active galactic nuclei (AGN) in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 1024 cm-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical narrow-line region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30-keV bump of the X-ray background.

  6. Effects of snow grain non-sphericity on climate simulations: Sensitivity tests with the NorESM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf

    2017-04-01

    Snow grains are non-spherical and generally irregular in shape. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, they are often treated as spheres. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this work, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (≈ 0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case (≈ 0.89). Therefore, for a given snow grain size, the use of non-spherical snow grains yields a higher snow broadband albedo, typically by ≈0.03. Consequently, considering the spherical case as the baseline, the use of non-spherical snow grains results in a negative radiative forcing (RF), with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ≈ -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean RF is modest, it has a rather substantial impact on the climate simulated by NoRESM. In particular, the global annual-mean 2-m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further found that the difference between NONSPH and SPH could be largely "tuned away" by adjusting the snow grain size in the NONSPH experiment by ≈ 70%. The impact of snow grain shape on the radiative effect (RE) of absorbing aerosols in snow (black carbon and mineral dust) is also discussed. For an

  7. Chaos and catastrophes in quadrupole oscillations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Yu L; Gonchar, V Yu; Inopin, I V

    1987-02-01

    Dynamics of quadrupole oscillations of atomic nuclei is investigated. A possibility of the transition from the regular regime to the chaotic one is studied; critical energy of this transition for different potential parameters is determined. The obtained results permit to state that for all the considered cases there exists a relatively narrow energy range, where the character of motion varies from regular to chaotic. The determined values of critical energy comply with the following regularities: a) the critical energy for potentials with common central minimum for all the values of parameters coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; b) in the case of potentials with two minia (0 < a < 1/4 b/sup 2/) the critical energy for the central well having several elliptic fixed points coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; for minima corresponding to non-spherical equilibrium states and having only one elliptic fixed point the critical energy coincides with saddle energy; c) similar relation between the number of fixed elliptic points and critical energy of transition to chaos takes place at a < 0.

  8. Nuclei transmutation by collisions with fast hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Drzymala, A.

    1998-01-01

    Atomic nuclei change their mass- and charge-numbers if bombarded by fast hadrons and nuclei; the transmutation appears as a complicated process. It proceeds in a definite way - through a few stages or phases. Adequate identification of the nucleons and light nuclear fragments emitted and evaporated in a hadron-nucleus or nucleus-nucleus collisions and in the collision-induced intranuclear reactions allows one to estimate quantitatively the nuclei transmutations in the various stages (phases) of the process

  9. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  10. Anomalous carbon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparian, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from a bubble chamber experiment to search for anomalous mean free path (MFP) phenomena for secondary multicharged fragments (Zsub(f)=5 and 6) of the beam carbon nucleus at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon. A total of 50000 primary interactions of carbon with propane (C 3 H 8 ) were created. Approximately 6000 beam tragments with charges Zsub(f)=5 and 6 were analyzed in detail to find out an anomalous decrease of MFP. The anomaly is observed only for secondary 12 C nuclei

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  12. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  13. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  14. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  15. Cumulation of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Bondarev, V.K.; Golovanov, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Limit fragmentation of light nuclei (deuterium, helium) bombarded with 8,6 GeV/c protons was investigated. Fragments (pions, protons and deuterons) were detected within the emission angle 50-150 deg with regard to primary protons and within the pulse range 150-180 MeV/c. By the kinematics of collision of a primary proton with a target at rest the fragments observed correspond to a target mass upto 3 GeV. Thus, the data obtained correspond to teh cumulation upto the third order

  16. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  17. Finite Nuclei in the Quark-Meson Coupling Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J R; Guichon, P A M; Reinhard, P G; Thomas, A W

    2016-03-04

    We report the first use of the effective quark-meson coupling (QMC) energy density functional (EDF), derived from a quark model of hadron structure, to study a broad range of ground state properties of even-even nuclei across the periodic table in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. The novelty of the QMC model is that the nuclear medium effects are treated through modification of the internal structure of the nucleon. The density dependence is microscopically derived and the spin-orbit term arises naturally. The QMC EDF depends on a single set of four adjustable parameters having a clear physics basis. When applied to diverse ground state data the QMC EDF already produces, in its present simple form, overall agreement with experiment of a quality comparable to a representative Skyrme EDF. There exist, however, multiple Skyrme parameter sets, frequently tailored to describe selected nuclear phenomena. The QMC EDF set of fewer parameters, derived in this work, is not open to such variation, chosen set being applied, without adjustment, to both the properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter.

  18. Fission barriers of two odd-neutron heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Meng-Hock; Bonneau, L.; Nhan Hao, T. V.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.

    2015-01-01

    The fission barriers of two odd-neutron heavy odd nuclei,namely the 235 U and 239 Pu isotopes have been calculated within a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-plus-BCS approach with blocking. A Skyrme nucleon-nucleon effective interaction has been used together with a seniority force to describe pairing correlations. A full account of the genuine time-reversal symmetry breaking due to the presence of an unpaired nucleon has been incorporated at the mean field level. The SIII and SkM* parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction have been retained as well as for a part a newer parametrization, SLy5*. The seniority force parameters have been fitted to reproduce experimental odd-even mass differences in the actinide region. To assess the relevance of our calculated fission barrier distribution (as a function of the quantum numbers), we have studied the quality of our results with respect to the spectroscopy of band heads (for configurations deemed to be a pure single particle character) in the ground and fission isomeric states. Fission barriers of the considered odd nuclei have been compared with what is obtained for their even-even neighbouring isotopes (namely 234 U and 236 U, 238 Pu and 240 Pu respectively) to determine the so-called specialization energies. Various corrections and associated uncertainties have been discussed in order to compare our results with available data

  19. Description of highly perturbed bands in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.C.; Sood, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Recently some highly perturbed positive parity bands have been populated in odd-mass rare earth nuclei. The energy spacings and sometimes even the spin sequences are drastically different from the usual strong coupling rotational model picture. The levels belonging to 'odd and even' I+1/2 are found to make separate groupings. The levels belonging to odd values of I+1/2 are seen to be very much favoured in comparison to the levels for which I+1/2 is even. In some cases only the favoured levels have been identified. These bands have been studied in the frame-work of rotation aligned coupling scheme in which the odd neutron in the unique parity orbital (in this case the isub(13/2) orbital) is strongly decoupled from the body fixed symmetry axis by the Coriolis force so as to make the projection of its angular momentum α on the rotation axis approximately a good quantum number. A description of the energy levels is suggested by assigning the quantum number α-j to the favoured levels and α-j-1 to the unfavoured levels. The intraband transitions of the favoured and unfavoured bands are examined in comparison with those in the adjacent ground state bands in even-even nuclei. (author)

  20. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NON-SPHERICAL DARK HALOS IN MILKY WAY AND ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kohei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: kohei.hayashi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the non-spherical density structure of dark halos of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies based on revised axisymmetric mass models from our previous work. The models we adopt here fully take into account velocity anisotropy of tracer stars confined within a flattened dark halo. Applying our models to the available kinematic data of the 12 bright dSphs, we find that these galaxies associate with, in general, elongated dark halos, even considering the effect of this velocity anisotropy of stars. We also find that the best-fit parameters, especially for the shapes of dark halos and velocity anisotropy, are susceptible to both the availability of velocity data in the outer regions and the effect of the lack of sample stars in each spatial bin. Thus, to obtain more realistic limits on dark halo structures, we require photometric and kinematic data over much larger areas in the dSphs than previously explored. The results obtained from the currently available data suggest that the shapes of dark halos in the dSphs are more elongated than those of ΛCDM subhalos. This mismatch needs to be solved by theory including baryon components and the associated feedback to dark halos as well as by further observational limits in larger areas of dSphs. It is also found that more diffuse dark halos may have undergone consecutive star formation history, thereby implying that dark-halo structure plays an important role in star formation activity.

  1. Examination of Effective Dielectric Constants Derived from Non-Spherical Melting Hydrometeor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.

    2009-04-01

    The bright band, a layer of enhanced radar echo associated with melting hydrometeors, is often observed in stratiform rain. Understanding the microphysical properties of melting hydrometeors and their scattering and propagation effects is of great importance in accurately estimating parameters of the precipitation from spaceborne radar and radiometers. However, one of the impediments in the study of the radar signature of the melting layer is the determination of effective dielectric constants of melting hydrometeors. Although a number of mixing formulas are available to compute the effective dielectric constants, their results vary to a great extent when water is a component of the mixture, such as in the case of melting snow. It is also physically unclear as to how to select among these various formulas. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether these mixing formulas can be applied to computations of radar polarimetric parameters from non-spherical melting particles. Recently, several approaches using numerical methods have been developed to derive the effective dielectric constants of melting hydrometeors, i.e., mixtures consisting of air, ice and water, based on more realistic melting models of particles, in which the composition of the melting hydrometeor is divided into a number of identical cells. Each of these cells is then assigned in a probabilistic way to be water, ice or air according to the distribution of fractional water contents for a particular particle. While the derived effective dielectric constants have been extensively tested at various wavelengths over a range of particle sizes, these numerical experiments have been restricted to the co-polarized scattering parameters from spherical particles. As polarimetric radar has been increasingly used in the study of microphysical properties of hydrometeors, an extension of the theory to polarimetric variables should provide additional information on melting processes. To account for polarimetric

  2. Fast neutron scattering from soft nuclei: coupled-channel formalism and illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaroche, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra of most of the even-even nuclei have a character which is neither that of a pure vibrator nor that of a pure rotor. Instead, the nuclear spectra display very often both characters. Therefore, improvements in the analysises of nucleon scattering and reaction cross sections require that appropriate collective models of nuclear structure be used. A selection of these models is reviewed, and suggestions are given as to how to extend the familiar coupled-channel formalism to incorporate these enriched collective pictures. These extensions are primarily intended to describe inelastic scattering from levels belonging to β - , γ - and octupole bands. Illustrations are given for neutron and proton scattering off various nuclei [fr

  3. Microscopic mechanism of moments of inertia and odd-even differences for well-deformed actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Liu Shuxin; Zeng Jinyan

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the variation with rotational frequency of moments of inertia and their odd-even differences for well-deformed actinide nuclei are analyzed by using the particle-number conserving (PNC) method for treating nuclear pairing interaction. The moments of inertia for bands building on high j intruder orbitals in odd-A nuclei, e.g., the 235 U (ν[743]7/2) band, are found to be much larger than those of ground-state bands in neighboring even-even nuclei. Moreover, there exist large odd-even differences in the ω variation of moments of inertia. All these experimental odd-even differences are reproduced quite well in the PNC calculation, in which the effective monopole and quadrupole pairing interaction strengths are determined by the experimental odd-even differences in binding energies and bandhead moments of inertia, and no free parameter is involved in the PNC calculation

  4. Exotic nuclei and radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclei called exotic are all the nuclei that it is necessary to recreate in laboratory to study them. Their life time is too short -in relation to earth age- for it remains enough on earth. The researchers are going to have at their s disposal at GANIL (Caen) with the S.P.I.R.A.L. project, exotic nuclei beams and will study new kinds of nuclear reactions to better understand the atom nucleus. (N.C.). 2 refs., 9 figs

  5. Isolation of Nuclei and Nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendle, Alison F; Shaw, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe methods for producing nuclei from Arabidopsis suspension cultures or root tips of Arabidopsis, wheat, or pea. These methods could be adapted for other species and cell types. The resulting nuclei can be further purified for use in biochemical or proteomic studies, or can be used for microscopy. We also describe how the nuclei can be used to obtain a preparation of nucleoli.

  6. Theory of magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosov, V.G.; Kamchatnov, A.M.

    A consistent theory of the shell and magic oscillations of the masses of spherical nuclei is developed on the basis of the Fermi liquid concept of the energy spectrum of nuclear matter. A ''magic'' relationship between the system's dimensions and the limiting momentum of the quasi-particle distribution is derived; an integer number of the de Broglie half-waves falls on the nuclear diameter. An expression for the discontinuity in the nucleon binding energy in the vicinity of a magic nucleus is obtained. The role of the residual interaction is analyzed. It is shown that the width of the Fermi-surface diffuseness due to the residual interaction is proportional to the squared vector of the quasi-particle orbital angular momentum. The values of the corresponding proportionality factors (the coupling constant for quasi particles) are determined from the experimental data for 52 magic nuclei. The rapid drop of the residual interaction with increasing nuclear size is demonstrated. (7 figures, 3 tables) (U.S.)

  7. Cluster structures in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Clustering in neutron-rich nuclei is discussed. To understand the novel features (1,2,3) of the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei, the basic features of the clustering in stable nuclei (4) are briefly reviewed. In neutron-rich nuclei, the requirement of the stability of clusters is questioned and the threshold rule is no more obeyed. Examples of clustering in Be and B isotopes (4,5) are discussed in some detail. Possible existence of novel type of clustering near neutron dripline is suggested (1). (author)

  8. Pairing correlations in N ∝Z pf-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langanke, K.; Dean, D.J.; Koonin, S.E.; Radha, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    We perform shell model Monte Carlo calculations to study pair correlations in the ground states of N=Z nuclei with masses A=48-60. We find that T=1, J π =0 + proton-neutron correlations play an important, and even dominant role, in the ground states of odd-odd N=Z nuclei, in agreement with experiment. By studying pairing in the ground states of 52-58 Fe, we observe that the isovector proton-neutron correlations decrease rapidly with increasing neutron excess. In contrast, both the proton, and trivially the neutron correlations increase as neutrons are added. We also study the thermal properties and the temperature dependence of pair correlations for 50 Mn and 52 Fe as exemplars of odd-odd and even-even N=Z nuclei. While for 52 Fe results are similar to those obtained for other even-even nuclei in this mass range, the properties of 50 Mn at low temperatures are strongly influenced by isovector neutron-proton pairing. In coexistence with these isovector pair correlations, our calculations also indicate an excess of isoscalar proton-neutron pairing over the mean-field values. The isovector neutron-proton correlations rapidly decrease with temperatures and vanish for temperatures above T=700 keV, while the isovector correlations among like-nucleons persist to higher temperatures. Related to the quenching of the isovector proton-neutron correlations, the average isospin decreases from 1, appropriate for the ground state, to 0 as the temperature increases. (orig.)

  9. Level structures in Yb nuclei far from stable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Akira

    1982-01-01

    Applying n-γ, γ-γ coincidence techniques, the excited levels in 158 Yb and in 157 Yb nuclei were studied. Stress is placed ona neutron detection technique to assign (HI,xn) reactions which produce the nuclei far from β stability line. (author)

  10. Optical properties of non-spherical desert dust particles in the terrestrial infrared – An asymptotic approximation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klüser, Lars; Di Biagio, Claudia; Kleiber, Paul D.; Formenti, Paola; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2016-01-01

    Optical properties (extinction efficiency, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and scattering phase function) of five different desert dust minerals have been calculated with an asymptotic approximation approach (AAA) for non-spherical particles. The AAA method combines Rayleigh-limit approximations with an asymptotic geometric optics solution in a simple and straightforward formulation. The simulated extinction spectra have been compared with classical Lorenz–Mie calculations as well as with laboratory measurements of dust extinction. This comparison has been done for single minerals and with bulk dust samples collected from desert environments. It is shown that the non-spherical asymptotic approximation improves the spectral extinction pattern, including position of the extinction peaks, compared to the Lorenz–Mie calculations for spherical particles. Squared correlation coefficients from the asymptotic approach range from 0.84 to 0.96 for the mineral components whereas the corresponding numbers for Lorenz–Mie simulations range from 0.54 to 0.85. Moreover the blue shift typically found in Lorenz–Mie results is not present in the AAA simulations. The comparison of spectra simulated with the AAA for different shape assumptions suggests that the differences mainly stem from the assumption of the particle shape and not from the formulation of the method itself. It has been shown that the choice of particle shape strongly impacts the quality of the simulations. Additionally, the comparison of simulated extinction spectra with bulk dust measurements indicates that within airborne dust the composition may be inhomogeneous over the range of dust particle sizes, making the calculation of reliable radiative properties of desert dust even more complex. - Highlights: • A fast and simple method for estimating optical properties of dust. • Can be used with non-spherical particles of arbitrary size distributions. • Comparison with Mie simulations and

  11. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  12. Microscopic study of low-lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics of even-even barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarswat, S.P.; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The yrast spectra has been obtained in the variation-after-projection framework using pairing-plus-quadrupole- quadrupole model for the two body interaction. Besides the low-lying yrast spectra, the calculated values of intrinsic quadrupole moments of some of the barium isotopes i.e. 124-134 Ba are presented

  13. E2 and M1 transition strengths in heavy deformed nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Popa, G.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vargas, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    An update on the status of pseudo-SU(3) shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is presented. Representative results for energy levels as well as E2 (quadrupole) and M1 (scissors) transitions strengths in 162 Dy (even-even) and 163 Dy (odd-mass) are given. The calculations use realistic single-particle energies and quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interaction strengths fixed from systematics. The strengths of rotor-like terms included in the Hamiltonian- all small relative to the other terms in the interaction were adjusted to give an overall best fit to the energy spectra. The results present a paradox: for even-even nuclei (integer angular momentum) non-zero pseudo-spin configurations seems to be unimportant while for the odd-mass systems (half-integer angular momentum) pseudo-spin mixing is essential as spin-flip couplings appear to dominate the M1 transition strengths. (Author)

  14. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  15. Antideuteron annihilation on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugnon, J.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of antideuteron annihilation on nuclei within an intranuclear cascade (INC) model is presented. Two models are set up to describe the annihilation itself, which either implies the antideuteron as a whole and occurs at a single point, or which may be considered as two independent nucleon-antinucleon annihilation occurring at different points and different times. Particular attention is paid to the energy transferred from the pions issued from the annihilation to the nuclear system and to the possibility of having a multifragmentation of the target. The latter feature is investigated within a percolation model. The pion distribution and the energy distribution are also discussed. Predictions of proton multiplicity distributions are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on Wien filter using in exploring on low-energy radioactive nuclei, memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision, topological charge and topological susceptibility in connection with translation and gauge invariance, solutions of the multitime Dirac equation, the maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description, the charged conductor inside dielectric. Solution of boundary condition by means of auxiliary charges and the method of linear algebraic equations, optical constants of the TGS single crystal irradiated by power pulsed electron beam, interatomic pair potential and n-e amplitude from slow neutron scattering by noble gases, the two-coordinate multiwire proportional chamber of the high spatial resolution and neutron drip line in the region of O-Mg isotopes

  17. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on the integral representation for structure functions and target mass effects, multiscale properties of DNA primary structure including cross-scale correlations, dissipative evolution of the elementary act, the fine structure of the M T =1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147g Tb→ 147 Gd β + /EC decay, the behaviour of the TVO temperature sensors in the magnetic fields, a fast method for searching for tracks in multilayer drift chambers of HADES spectrometer, a novel approach to particle track etching including surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology, azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in 32 S induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei at 4.5 GeV/ c/ nucleon

  18. Pulsars: gigantic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Renxin

    2011-01-01

    What is the real nature of pulsars? This is essentially a question of the fundamental strong interaction between quarks at low-energy scale and hence of the non-perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics, the solution of which would certainly be meaningful for us to understand one of the seven millennium prize problems (i.e., "Yang-Mills Theory") named by the Clay Mathematical Institute. After a historical note, it is argued here that a pulsar is very similar to an extremely big nucleus, but is a little bit different from the gigantic nucleus speculated 80 years ago by L. Landau. The paper demonstrates the similarity between pulsars and gigantic nuclei from both points of view: the different manifestations of compact stars and the general behavior of the strong interaction. (author)

  19. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  20. Pion production in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I.R.; Thomas, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    A method has been suggested for relating μ-capture in nuclei to pion absorption through partially conserved axial vector current hypothesis. The success of the method relies heavily on the knowledge of the pion absorption amplitude at a momentum transfer equal to the μ-meson mass. That is we need to know the pion absorption amplitude off the mass-shell. The simplest nucleus for which this suggestion can be examined is μ-capture in deuterium. The Koltum-Reitan model is used to determine the pion absorption amplitude off the mass shell. In particular the senstivity of this off-mass-shell extrapolution to details of the N-N interaction is studied. (author)

  1. A nucleon-pair and boson coexistent description of nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We study a mixture of s-bosons and like-nucleon pairs with the standard pairing interaction outside an inert core. Competition between the nucleon-pairs and s-bosons is investigated in this scenario. The robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena are examined through an analysis of pf-shell nuclei with realistic single-particle energies, in which two configurations with Pauli blocking of nucleon-pair orbits due to the formation of the s-bosons is taken into account. When the nucleon-pair orbits are considered to be independent of the s-bosons, the BCS-BEC crossover becomes smooth, with the number of the s-bosons noticeably more than that of the nucleon-pairs near the half-shell point, a feature that is demonstrated in the pf-shell for several values of the standard pairing interaction strength. As a further test of the robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena in nuclei, results are given for values of even-even 102-130Sn with 100Sn taken as a core and valence neutron pairs confined within the 1d 5/2, 0g 7/2, 1d 3/2, 2s 1/2, 1h 11/2 orbits in the nucleon-pair orbit and the s-boson independent approximation. The results indicate that the B(E2) values are reproduced well. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375080, 11675071), the U.S. National Science Foundation (OCI-0904874 and ACI-1516338), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0005248), the Southeastern Universities Research Association, the China-U. S. Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei (CUSTIPEN) (DE-SC0009971), and the LSU-LNNU joint research program (9961) is acknowledged

  2. Collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors)

  3. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  4. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors) 304 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Spectroscopy of heavy fissionable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... Nuclei in the actinide chain and beyond are prone to fission owing to ... mass nuclei are typically more difficult, because the intensity is .... j15/2 neutron alignments in a region where shell stablization effects are crucial.

  6. Quarks in Few Body Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Roy J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron scattering at very high Bjorken x from hadrons provides an excellent test of models, has an important role in high energy physics, and from nuclei, provides a window into short range correlations. Light nuclei have a key role because of the relatively well-known nuclear structure. The development of a novel tritium target for Jefferson Lab has led to renewed interest in the mass three system. For example, deep inelastic scattering experiments in the light nuclei provide a powerful means to determine the neutron structure function. The isospin dependence of electron scattering from mass-3 nuclei provide information on short range correlations in nuclei. The program using the new tritium target will be presented along with a summary of other experiments aimed at revealing the large-x structure of the nucleon.

  7. Nonsphericity Index and Size Ratio Identify Morphologic Differences between Growing and Stable Aneurysms in a Longitudinal Study of 93 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, A; Xu, M; Yokota, H; Scalzo, F; Morimoto, E; Salamon, N

    2018-01-25

    Recent studies have strongly associated intracranial aneurysm growth with increased risk of rupture. Identifying aneurysms that are likely to grow would be beneficial to plan more effective monitoring and intervention strategies. Our hypothesis is that for unruptured intracranial aneurysms of similar size, morphologic characteristics differ between aneurysms that continue to grow and those that do not. From aneurysms in our medical center with follow-up imaging dates in 2015, ninety-three intracranial aneurysms (23 growing, 70 stable) were selected. All CTA images for the aneurysm diagnosis and follow-up were collected, a total of 348 3D imaging studies. Aneurysm 3D geometry for each imaging study was reconstructed, and morphologic characteristics, including volume, surface area, nonsphericity index, aspect ratio, and size ratio were calculated. Morphologic characteristics were found to differ between growing and stable groups. For aneurysms of 7 mm, volume ( P differ between those that are growing and those that are stable. The nonsphericity index, in particular, was found to be higher among growing aneurysms. The size ratio was found to be the second most significant parameter associated with growth. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Application of Convolution Perfectly Matched Layer in MRTD scattering model for non-spherical aerosol particles and its performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Li, Hao; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Zidong; Liu, Lei; Chen, Ming

    2017-10-01

    The performance of absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is an important factor influencing the simulation accuracy of MRTD (Multi-Resolution Time-Domain) scattering model for non-spherical aerosol particles. To this end, the Convolution Perfectly Matched Layer (CPML), an excellent ABC in FDTD scheme, is generalized and applied to the MRTD scattering model developed by our team. In this model, the time domain is discretized by exponential differential scheme, and the discretization of space domain is implemented by Galerkin principle. To evaluate the performance of CPML, its simulation results are compared with those of BPML (Berenger's Perfectly Matched Layer) and ADE-PML (Perfectly Matched Layer with Auxiliary Differential Equation) for spherical and non-spherical particles, and their simulation errors are analyzed as well. The simulation results show that, for scattering phase matrices, the performance of CPML is better than that of BPML; the computational accuracy of CPML is comparable to that of ADE-PML on the whole, but at scattering angles where phase matrix elements fluctuate sharply, the performance of CPML is slightly better than that of ADE-PML. After orientation averaging process, the differences among the results of different ABCs are reduced to some extent. It also can be found that ABCs have a much weaker influence on integral scattering parameters (such as extinction and absorption efficiencies) than scattering phase matrices, this phenomenon can be explained by the error averaging process in the numerical volume integration.

  9. Nuclear structure of the N = Z odd - odd nuclei around N=28 closed shell interpreted with IBFFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragulescu, E.; Serbanut, G. C.; Serbanut, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the very recent years the knowledge of the level structure at lower and higher energies in the fpg shell N=Z nuclei has renewed a growing interest due to major improvements in the theoretical techniques. Going away from closed shell, the shell model calculations rapidly exhaust computer capabilities and we must resort to the model observed on collective phenomena. The fpg odd-odd N = Z nuclei close to the doubly magic 56 Ni nucleus are good candidates to investigate the competition between collective and single-particle excitations. Here part of the results obtained from an exhaustive systematic study of the self conjugate doubly-odd nuclei with A > 62: 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei using the interacting - boson - fermion - fermion - model (IBFFM) is presented. The odd-odd nuclei are described in the framework of the IBFFM by coupling valence shell proton and neutron quasiparticles to even-even core described in the interacting - boson model. In the first step of the calculations the core parameters for 60 Zn and 64 Ge cores were fitted to the energies of their excited states. In the second step of calculations, we have adjusted the IBFM proton Hamiltonian to the low - lying levels of 63 Ga and 67 As nuclei and IBFM neutron Hamiltonian of low - lying levels of 61 Zn and 65 Ge nuclei involved in the cases of the structure of odd-odd 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei. We have finally calculated the level spectra and electromagnetic properties of above mentioned nuclei. The IBFFM positive - parity energy spectra are compared with experimental ones. The calculations show a reasonable agreement with experimental data and existing shell - model calculations. (authors)

  10. K-bar-mesic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    New nuclei 'K-bar-Mesic Nuclei' having the strangeness are described. At first it is shown that the strongly attractive nature of K-bar N interaction is reasoned inductively from consideration of the relation between Kaonic hydrogen atom and Λ (1405) which is an excited state of hyperon Λ. The K-bar N interactions are reviewed and summarized into three categories: 1. Phenomenological approach with density dependent K-bar N interaction (DD), relativistic mean field (RMF) approach, and hybrid of them (RMF+DD). 2. Boson exchange model. 3. Chiral SU(3) theory. The investigation of some light K-bar-nuclei by Akaishi and Yamazaki using phenomenological K-bar N interaction is explained in detail. Studies by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) approach are also presented. From these theoretical researches, the following feature of K-bar-mesic nuclei are revealed: 1) Ground state is discrete and bound by 100 MeV or more. 2) Density is very high in side the K-bar-mesic nuclei. 3) Strange structures develop which are not seen in ordinary nuclei. Finally some recent experiments to explore K-bar-mesic nuclei are reviewed. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Description of odd-mass nuclei by multi-reference energy density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in the treatment of odd-mass atomic nuclei in energy density functional (EDF) models. More precisely, the goal of this thesis is to develop and to apply to odd-mass nuclei, the theoretical extensions of the EDF method that are: first, the projection technique, and secondly the configuration mixing by the generator coordinate method (GCM). These two extensions are part of the so-called multi-reference energy density functional (MR-EDF) formalism and allow one to take into account, within an EDF context, the 'beyond-mean-field' correlations between the nucleons forming the nucleus. Until now, the MR-EDF formalism has been applied, in its fully-fledged version, only to the calculation of even-even nuclei. In this thesis, we want to demonstrate the applicability of such a model also for the description of odd-mass nuclei. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the theoretical formalism of the EDF models, giving particular attention to the treatment of symmetries within our approach. In the second part of the manuscript, we apply our model to the nucleus 25 Mg and investigate different aspects of the method (e.g. numerical accuracy, convergence of the configuration mixing, comparison to known experimental data). The results obtained in this work are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of our approach for theoretical nuclear structure calculations. (author)

  12. The moments of inertia of a rotational band 3/2- [521] isotones odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahodjaev, A.K.; Kuyjonov, H.

    2003-01-01

    The moments of inertia are received from experimental data from the following expression for energy of a level with spin I: E I = E 0 +ℎ 2 /2j·I(I+1), K≠l/2. The characteristics of low statuses of a rotational band 3/2 - [521] and inertial parameters 1.75A 1 keV ( A-1=ℎ 2 /2j) for nuclei 155 Dy and 155 Gd are given. The values of inertial parameters 1.75A1 keV for odd nuclei with N = 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101 and 103 are presented. At quantity of neutrons N = 89 with increase of mass number of a nucleus the moment of inertia rather quickly grows. In nuclei with quantity of neutrons equal 91 and 93, with increase of mass number the moment of inertia of nuclei slowly changes and since A=159 and A=163, accordingly, begins sharply to grow. In isotones with N = 95, 97 and 99 moments of inertia decrease with increase of quantity neutrons in a nucleus. The reason of various dependence of the moment of inertia from mass number is, the coriolis interaction of an odd particle with even-even kernel and change of parameter of pair correlation because of presence of an odd particle above a kernel

  13. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  14. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  15. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, T.

    2013-01-01

    An electron scattering facility is under construction in RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan, which is dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. This is the world's first and currently only facility of its type. The construction is nearly completed, and the first electron scattering experiment off short-lived nuclei will be carried out in the beginning of next year. The charge density distributions of short-lived nuclei will be precisely determined by elastic electron scattering for the first time. Physics pursued at this facility including future perspectives are explained

  16. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model...

  17. Gluon density in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  18. Supersymmetry in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Jolie, J

    2002-01-01

    All the elementary particles that make up matter (as do quarks, electrons, neutrinos....) are fermions, the particles that convey the fundamental interactions (as do photons, gluons, W, Z...) are bosons. Composite particles are either bosons, or fermions according to the number of fermions they contain: if this number is even the particle is a boson, otherwise it is a fermion. According to this rule a proton is a fermion and the He sup 4 atom is a boson. Symmetry plays an important role in the standard model, a symmetry is a transformation that connect bosons with other bosons or fermions with other fermions. Supersymmetry associates a boson with a fermion or a fermion with a boson, in fact supersymmetry connects nuclei that are not generally considered as akin. Supersymmetry has just been observed in low energy levels of Gold sup 1 sup 9 sup 5 sup - sup 1 sup 9 sup 6 and Platinum sup 1 sup 9 sup 4 - sup 1 sup 9 sup 5 , it means that the description of these energy levels is simplified and can be made by a co...

  19. Supersymmetry in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolie, J.

    2002-01-01

    All the elementary particles that make up matter (as do quarks, electrons, neutrinos....) are fermions, the particles that convey the fundamental interactions (as do photons, gluons, W, Z...) are bosons. Composite particles are either bosons, or fermions according to the number of fermions they contain: if this number is even the particle is a boson, otherwise it is a fermion. According to this rule a proton is a fermion and the He 4 atom is a boson. Symmetry plays an important role in the standard model, a symmetry is a transformation that connect bosons with other bosons or fermions with other fermions. Supersymmetry associates a boson with a fermion or a fermion with a boson, in fact supersymmetry connects nuclei that are not generally considered as akin. Supersymmetry has just been observed in low energy levels of Gold 195-196 and Platinum 194 - 195 , it means that the description of these energy levels is simplified and can be made by a common set of quantum numbers. (A.C.)

  20. Photon interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, S.T.; Sealock, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a progress report for DOE Grant No. FG05-89ER40501, A000. The grant began March, 1989. Our primary research effort has been expended at the LEGS project at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report will summarize our present research effort at LEGS as well as data analysis and publications from previous experiments performed at SLAC. In addition the principal investigators are heavily involved in the CLAS collaboration in Hall B at CEBAF. We have submitted several letters of intent and proposals and have made commitments to construct experimental equipment for CEBAF. We expect our primary experimental effort to continue at LEGS until CEBAF becomes operational. This report will be divided into separate sections describing our progress at LEGS, SLAC, and CEBAF. We will also discuss our significant efforts in the education and training of both undergraduate and graduate students. Photon detectors are described as well as experiments on delta deformation in nuclei of quasielastic scattering and excitation of the delta by 4 He(e,e')

  1. Parity violation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of parity violating effects in nuclei is given. Thanks to vigorous experimental and theoretical effort, it now appears that a reasonably well-defined value for the weak isovector π-nucleon coupling constant can be obtained. There is one major uncertainty in the analysis, namely the M2/E1 mixing ratio for the 2.79 MeV transition in 21 Ne. This quantity is virtually impossible to calculate reliably and must be measured. If it turns out to be much larger than 1, then a null result in 21 Ne is expected no matter what the weak interaction, so an experimental determination is urgently needed. The most promising approach is perhaps a measurement of the pair internal conversion coefficient. Of course, a direct measurement of a pure isovector case is highly desirable, and it is to be hoped that the four ΔT = 1 experiments will be pushed still further, and that improved calculations will be made for the 6 Li case. Nuclear parity violation seems to be rapidly approaching an interesting and useful synthesis

  2. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  3. Symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.

    2003-01-01

    (1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)

  4. Collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of these collective motions is a very good to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article was to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. In particular we have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. The understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actually in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure if nuclei close to their ground states. (author)

  5. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph

    1997-12-31

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of these collective motions is a very good to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article was to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. In particular we have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. The understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actually in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure if nuclei close to their ground states. (author) 270 refs.

  6. Shape transition in Pt-nuclei with mass A ∼190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoli, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclei in mass region A ∼190 are well known for the prolate-oblate shape co-existence/transition phenomena. The shape coexistence phenomena has been observed in nuclei like Hg and Tl of this mass region. The calculations done for Pt nuclei in indicate a smooth shape change from prolate deformed "1"8"6Pt to nearly spherical "2"0"2"-"2"0"4 Pt through the region of triaxially deformed "1"8"8"-"1"9"8Pt and slightly oblate "2"0"0Pt. In these calculations, a change of shape from prolate to oblate is expected at A = 188. In recent high spin spectroscopic investigations, significant amount of reduced prolate collectivity has been observed in "1"8"8Pt. The level lifetimes provide valuable information about the nuclear shape and also the shape change with increase in spin along a band. So, to get clear signature of prolate to oblate shape inversion in Pt nuclei near A = 190, it is required to perform lifetime measurements. With this objective, the RDM lifetime measurements of high spin states have been done for various even-even Pt isotopes with masss A ≤ 186 over the years. The results obtained in these measurements are very encouraging and do indicate changing nuclear structure for Pt-isotopes with increasing mass at low spins. A gradual increase in B(E2) values upto 4"+ state and near constant nature there after in "1"8"8Pt, contrary to the other light neighboring Pt nuclei tends to indicate the volatile nature of deformation in Pt nuclei near A ∼ 190 which needs further theoretical investigations. (author)

  7. Dynamic polarization of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Yu.F.; Lyuboshits, V.L.; )

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei, embedded into a frozen polarized proton target, atr proposed to polarize by means of some dynamic polarization methods. Angular distributions of γ-quanta emitted ny 22 Na(3 + ) in the cascade β-γ-radiation are calculated. It is shown that this distribution does not depend on the spin temperature sing at the Boltzmann distribution of populations among the Zeeman magnetic substates, whereas the tensor polarization of quadrupole nuclei, placed in the electric field of the crystal, causes the considerable sing dependence. The new method promises wide opportunities for the magnetic structure investigations as well as for the study of spin-spin interaction dynamics of rare nuclei in dielectrics. Physical-technical advantages and disadvantages of the given method are discussed for the polarization of heavy nuclei in the on-line implantation mode [ru

  8. The delta in nuclei. Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy-Stephan, M.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental aspects of the Δ excitation will be presented. The Δ excitation in nuclei will be compared to the free Δ excitation. Various probes will be reviewed and their specific features will be underlined [fr

  9. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Research Center for Electron-Photon Science, Tohoku University, 1-2-1 ... nuclei precisely determined by elastic scattering [1]. .... In order to fulfill these requirements, a window-frame shaped dipole magnet with a gap.

  10. Collisions between complex atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaagen, J. S.

    1977-08-01

    The use of heavy ion accelerators in the study of nuclear structure and states is reviewed. The reactions discussed are the quasielastic reactions in which small amounts of energy and few particles are exchanged between the colliding nuclei. The development of heavy ion accelerators is also discussed, as well as detection equipment. Exotic phenomena, principally the possible existence of superheavy nuclei, are also treated. (JIW)

  11. Particles and nuclei in PANIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-07-15

    PANIC is the triennal International Conference on Particles and Nuclei, and judging from the latest PANIC, held in Kyoto from 20-24 April there is no need for panic yet. Faced with two pictures – one of nuclei described in nucleon and meson terms, and another of nucleons containing quarks and gluons – physicists are intrigued to know what new insights from the quark level can tell us about nuclear physics, or vice versa.

  12. Particles and nuclei in PANIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    PANIC is the triennal International Conference on Particles and Nuclei, and judging from the latest PANIC, held in Kyoto from 20-24 April there is no need for panic yet. Faced with two pictures – one of nuclei described in nucleon and meson terms, and another of nucleons containing quarks and gluons – physicists are intrigued to know what new insights from the quark level can tell us about nuclear physics, or vice versa

  13. Investigation of copper nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive study has been performed on copper isotopes in the mass region A=63-66. The results of a precise measurement are presented on the properties of levels of 64 Cu and 66 Cu. They were obtained by bombarding the 63 Cu and 65 Cu nuclei with neutrons. The gamma spectra collected after capture of thermal, 2-keV, 24-keV neutrons have been analysed and combined to give a rather extensive set of precise level energies and gamma transition strengths. From the angular distribution of the gamma rays it is possible to obtain information concerning the angular momentum J of several low-lying states. The level schemes derived from such measurements have been used as a test for calculations in the framework of the shell model. The spectral distributions of eigenstates in 64 Cu for different configuration spaces are presented and discussed. In this study the relative importance of configurations with n holes in the 1f7/2 shell with n up to 16, are investigated. It is found that the results strongly depend on the values of the single-particle energies. The results of the spectral-distribution method were utilized for shell-model calculations. From the information obtained from the spectral analysis it was decided to adopt a configuration space which includes up to one hole in the 1f7/2 shell and up to two particles in the 1g9/2 shell. Further, restrictions on seniority and on the coupling of the two particles in the 1g9/2 orbit have been applied and their effects have been studied. It is found that the calculated excitation energies reproduce the measured values in a satisfactory way, but that some of the electromagnetic properties are less well in agreement with experimental data. (Auth.)

  14. Effects of the residual proton-neutron interaction in the development of collectivity in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread effects of the residual T=0 proton-neutron (p-n) interaction in the evolution of nuclear structure are discussed. Although these effects in inducing single nucleon configuration mixing, and hence in the development of non-spherical nuclear shapes, collectivity, and the associated shape and phase transitions have been known for four decades, it is only in recent years that their deep ramifications have become more fully appreciated. This had led to a unified phenomenological understanding of the role of the p-n interaction in nuclear collectivity and to, for example, the proposal of the N p N n scheme and the associated concept of the P factor, which is a normalized value of N p N n reflecting the average number of p-n interactions per valence nucleon. Simultaneously, experimentally-determined p-n matrix elements for many nuclei have been extracted: they disclose striking anomalies for N=Z nuclei, and intriguing microstructure. These developments and empirical results will be discussed along with microscopic calculations that can be used to interpret them. 18 refs., 13 figs

  15. Spectrin-like proteins in plant nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Ketelaar, T.; Blumenthal, S.S.D.; Emons, A.M.C.; Schel, J.H.N.

    2000-01-01

    We analysed the presence and localization of spectrin-like proteins in nuclei of various plant tissues, using several anti-erythrocyte spectrin antibodies on isolated pea nuclei and nuclei in cells. Western blots of extracted purified pea nuclei show a cross-reactive pair of bands at 220–240 kDa,

  16. Continuous form-dependent focusing of non-spherical microparticles in a highly diluted suspension with the help of microfluidic spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tanja; Sprenger, Lisa; Odenbach, Stefan; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2018-04-01

    Microfluidic spirals are able to focus non-spherical microparticles in diluted suspension due to the Dean effect. A secondary flow establishes in a curved channel, consisting of two counter-rotating vortices, which transport particles to an equilibrium position near the inner wall of the channel. The relevant size parameter, which is responsible for successful focusing, is the ratio between the particle diameter of a sphere and the hydraulic diameter, which is a characteristic of the microfluidic spiral. A non-spherical particle has not one but several different size parameters. This study investigated the minor and major axes, the equivalent spherical diameter, and the maximal rotational diameter as an equivalent to the spherical diameter. Using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic device with spirals, experiments were conducted with artificial peanut-shaped and ellipsoidal particles sized between 3 and 9 μm as well as with the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Our investigations show that the equivalent spherical diameter, the major axis, and the maximal rotational diameter of a non-spherical particle can predict successful focusing. The minor axis is not suitable for this purpose. Non-spherical particles focused when the ratio of their equivalent spherical diameter to the hydraulic diameter of the channel was larger than 0.07. The particles also focused when the ratio between the maximal rotational diameter or the major axis and the hydraulic diameter was larger than 0.01. These results may help us to separate non-spherical biological particles, such as circulating tumor cells or pathogenic bacteria, from blood in future experimental studies.

  17. A study of the effect of non-spherical dust particles on Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Lim, H.

    2017-12-01

    Non-spherical assumption of particle shape has been used to replace the spherical assumption in the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals for dust particles. GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithms are based on optimal estimation method to provide aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) at 443nm, and aerosol loading height (ALH) simultaneously as products. Considering computing time efficiency, the algorithm takes Look-Up Table (LUT) approach using Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer code (VLIDORT), and aerosol optical properties for three aerosol types of absorbing fine aerosol (BC), dust and non-absorbing aerosol (NA) are integrated from AERONET inversion data, and fed into the LUT calculation. In this study, by applying the present algorithm to OMI top-of the atmosphere normalized radiance, retrieved AOD, SSA with both spherical and non-spherical assumptions have been compared to the surface AERONET observations at East Asia sites for 3 years from 2005 to 2007 to evaluate and quantify the effect of non-spherical dust particles on the satellite aerosol retrievals. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) in the satellite retrieved AOD have been slightly reduced as a result of adopting the non-spherical assumption in the GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithm. For SSA, algorithm tested with spheroid models on dust particle shows promising results for the improved SSA. In terms of ALH, the results are qualitatively compared with CALIOP products, and shows consistent variation. This result suggests the importance of taking into account the effects of non-sphericity in the retrieval of dust particles from GEMS measurements.

  18. Scattering by non-spherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength - A new semi-empirical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J. B.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate method is proposed for evaluating the interaction of randomly oriented, nonspherical particles with the total intensity component of electromagnetic radiation. When the particle size parameter, x, the ratio of particle circumference to wavelength, is less than some upper bound x(o) (about 5), Mie theory is used. For x greater than x(o), the interaction is divided into three components: diffraction, external reflection, and transmission. Physical optics theory is used to obtain the first of these components; geometrical optics theory is applied to the second; and a simple parameterization is employed for the third. The predictions of this theory are found to be in very good agreement with laboratory measurements for a wide variety of particle shapes, sizes, and refractive indexes. Limitations of the theory are also noted.

  19. Rare-earth nuclei: Radii, isotope-shifts and deformation properties in the relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalazissis, G.A.; Ring, P.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic study of the ground-state properties of even-even rare earth nuclei has been performed in the framework of the Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) theory using the parameter set NL-SH. Nuclear radii, isotope shifts and deformation properties of the heavier rare-earth nuclei have been obtained, which encompass atomic numbers ranging from Z=60 to Z=70 and include a large range of isospin. It is shown that RMF theory is able to provide a good and comprehensive description of the empirical binding energies of the isotopic chains. At the same time the quadrupole deformations β 2 obtained in the RMF theory are found to be in good agreement with the available empirical values. The theory predicts a shape transition from prolate to oblate for nuclei at neutron number N=78 in all the chains. A further addition of neutrons up to the magic number 82 brings about the spherical shape. For nuclei above N=82, the RMF theory predicts the well-known onset of prolate deformation at about N=88, which saturates at about N=102. The deformation properties display an identical behaviour for all the nuclear chains. A good description of the above deformation transitions in the RMF theory in all the isotopic chains leads to a successful reproduction of the anomalous behaviour of the empirical isotopic shifts of the rare-earth nuclei. The RMF theory exhibits a remarkable success in providing a unified and microscopic description of various empirical data. (orig.)

  20. Test of Mie-based single-scattering properties of non-spherical dust aerosols in radiative flux calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Q.; Thorsen, T.J.; Su, J.; Ge, J.M.; Huang, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the single-scattering properties (SSPs) of dust aerosols with both spheroidal and spherical shapes at a wavelength of 0.55 μm for two refractive indices and four effective radii. Herein spheres are defined by preserving both projected area and volume of a non-spherical particle. It is shown that the relative errors of the spheres to approximate the spheroids are less than 1% in the extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo, and less than 2% in the asymmetry factor. It is found that the scattering phase function of spheres agrees with spheroids better than the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) function for the scattering angle range of 0-90 o . In the range of ∼90-180 o , the HG function is systematically smaller than the spheroidal scattering phase function while the spherical scattering phase function is smaller from ∼90 o to 145 o but larger from ∼145 o to 180 o . We examine the errors in reflectivity and absorptivity due to the use of SSPs of equivalent spheres and HG functions for dust aerosols. The reference calculation is based on the delta-DISORT-256-stream scheme using the SSPs of the spheroids. It is found that the errors are mainly caused by the use of the HG function instead of the SSPs for spheres. By examining the errors associated with the delta-four- and delta-two-stream schemes using various approximate SSPs of dust aerosols, we find that the errors related to the HG function dominate in the delta-four-stream results, while the errors related to the radiative transfer scheme dominate in the delta-two-stream calculations. We show that the relative errors in the global reflectivity due to the use of sphere SSPs are always less than 5%. We conclude that Mie-based SSPs of non-spherical dust aerosols are well suited in radiative flux calculations.

  1. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  2. Complete destruction of heavy nuclei by hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstov, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    The total disintegration is considered of Ag and Pb nuclei and 4 He, 12 C nuclei With a momentum of 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon. It is shown that nucleons are mainly emitted, and there is no residual nUcleus the mass of which is comparable to that of the primary nucleus. The probability of total nucleus disintegration is considered as a function of projectile energy and the mass. The multiplicity, energy and emission angle of particles are considerred as well. It is shown that the density of nuclear matter in the overlap zone of colliding nuclei exceeds the usual one by a factor of approximately 4. A comparison is made with interaction models. A conclusion is drawn of the collective interaction mechanism (perhaps, of the shock wave type) of particle ejection from the target nucleus at the first stage of interaction and of explosive decay of the residual nucleus at the next one

  3. Breaking of the SU(4) limit for the Gamow-Teller strength in N{proportional_to}Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Langanke, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Caurier, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France)

    2007-12-15

    We have performed large-scale shell model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength distributions in N{proportional_to}Z pf-shell nuclei. These calculations were motivated by the experimental attempts to measure the low-lying GT strength for the even-even N=Z+2 or N=Z-2 nuclei {sup 46}Ti, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 54}Fe and {sup 62}Ge, where a sizable low-energy GT strength could be interpreted as reminiscence of SU(4) symmetry; in the limit of exact SU(4) symmetry the GT{sub -} strength would be concentrated in a single transition to the lowest T=0, J=1{sup +} state in the daughter. We confirm that the SU(4) symmetry is strongly broken by the spin-orbit interaction and by increasing neutron excess. (orig.)

  4. Simple description of odd-A nuclei around the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Luo Yanan; Draayer, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytically solvable model, X(3/2j+1), is proposed to describe odd-A nuclei near the X(3) critical point. The model is constructed based on a collective core described by the X(3) critical point symmetry coupled to a spin-j particle. A detailed analysis of the spectral patterns for cases j=1/2 and j=3/2 is provided to illustrate dynamical features of the model. By comparing theory with experimental data and results of other models, it is found that the X(3/2j+1) model can be taken as a simple yet very effective scheme to describe those odd-A nuclei with an even-even core at the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition.

  5. Inverted spin sequences in the spectra of odd-odd nuclei in the 2S-1d and 2P-1f shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    In case of odd-odd nuclei, near magic numbers, there are found inverted sequences as well as few rotational members. In order to explain the unique feature of the spectra of odd-odd nuclei, we have applied modified form of rotational-vibrational model with two parameters A and B. It is found that level orders in inverted as well as in rotational sequences are very well reproduced on the basis of this model. In case of inverted spin sequences, the sign of B is found to be positive. The ratio of B/A is ≅ 10 -2 as compared to its value of the order of 10 -3 in case of even-even and odd-A nuclei. We infer that pair correlations are responsible for these invertions. The simple model applied here worked well to predict these inverted spectra. (author)

  6. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, A M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M BH =(4−20)M ⊙ ) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M BH =(10 6 −10 10 )M ⊙ ) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a ∗ have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a ∗ =0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths λ≲1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope). (100

  7. Protonic decay of oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the multiparticle theory of protonic decay, the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented spherical and deformed nuclei in the laboratory frame and in the internal coordinate frame of deformed parent nuclei are constructed with allowance for symmetry with respect to time inversion. It is shown that, because of the deep-subbarrier character of protonic decay, the adiabatic approximation is not applicable to describing the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented deformed nuclei and that the angular distribution of protons in the laboratory frame does not coincide with that in the internal coordinate frame. It is demonstrated that these angular distributions coincide only if the adiabatic and the semiclassical approximation are simultaneously valid

  8. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Haight, R.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, C.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9 Be, C, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonable good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP

  9. Nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a short introduction to the physics of the nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles for students of physics. Important facts and model imaginations on the structure, the decay, and the scattering of nuclei, the 'zoology' of the hadrons and basic facts of hadronic scattering processes, a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics and the most important processes of lepton and parton physics, as well as the current-current approach of weak interactions and the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory are presented. (orig.) With 153 figs., 10 tabs [de

  10. Octupole shapes in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements show the presence of strong octupole correlations in thecyround states and low-lying states of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei in the RaPa region. Evidence for octupole correlations is provided by the observation of parity doublets and reductions in M1 matrix elements, decoupling parameters, and Coriolis matrix elements Involving high-j states. Enhancement of E1 transition rates has also been observed for some of the octupole deformed nuclei. The most convincing argument for octupole deformation is provided by the similarities of the reduced alpha decay rates to the two members of parity doublets

  11. Exotic Nuclei Arena in JHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1991-12-01

    The Exotic Nuclei Arena planned in Japanese Hadron Project aims to accelerate various unstable nuclei produced in 1-GeV proton-induced reactions up to 6.5 MeV/u by means of heavy-ion linacs. The present status of research and development for the Earena is briefly reported. The construction of the prototype facility to accelerate unstable beams up to 0.8 MeV/u is planned in 1992-94, in which the existing cyclotron in INS is used as the primary accelerator. (author)

  12. Spinodal decomposition of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[LNS, Catania (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Multifragmentation of atomic nuclei is discussed. It is shown that this description of the dynamics of first order phase transitions in infinite and finite system is now partially achieved. An important conclusion is that in some specific cases well-defined collective motions were initiating the self-organisation of the unstable matter in fragments. In the case of finite systems the possible signals kept from this early fragmentation stage can inform on the possible occurrence of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. (K.A.). 21 refs.

  13. Spinodal decomposition of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1996-01-01

    Multifragmentation of atomic nuclei is discussed. It is shown that this description of the dynamics of first order phase transitions in infinite and finite system is now partially achieved. An important conclusion is that in some specific cases well-defined collective motions were initiating the self-organisation of the unstable matter in fragments. In the case of finite systems the possible signals kept from this early fragmentation stage can inform on the possible occurrence of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. (K.A.)

  14. Are there superheavy atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, G.

    1982-04-01

    The author presents a populary introduction to the formation of nuclei with special regards to superheavy nuclei. After a general description of the methods of physics the atomic hypothesis is considered. Thereafter the structure of the nucleus is discussed, and the different isotopes are considered. Then radioactivity is described as an element transmutation. Thereafter the thermonuclear reactions in the sun are considered. Then the synthesis of elements using heavy ion reactions is described. In this connection the transuranium elements and the superheavy elements are considered. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Symmetry energy and surface properties of neutron-rich exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidarov, M. K.; Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Moya de Guerra, E. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-23

    The symmetry energy, the neutron pressure and the asymmetric compressibility of spherical Ni, Sn, and Pb and deformed Kr and Sm neutron-rich even-even nuclei are calculated within the coherent density fluctuation model using the symmetry energy as a function of density within the Brueckner energy-density functional. The correlation between the thickness of the neutron skin and the characteristics related with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is investigated for isotopic chains of these nuclei in the framework of the deformed self-consistent mean-field Skyrme HF+BCS method. The mass dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness are also studied together with the role of the neutron-proton asymmetry. The studied correlations reveal a smoother behavior in the case of spherical nuclei than for deformed ones. We also notice that the neutron skin thickness obtained for {sup 208}Pb with SLy4 force is found to be in a good agreement with the recent data. In addition to the interest that this study may have by itself, we give some numerical arguments in proof of the existence of peculiarities of the studied quantities in Ni and Sn isotopic chains that are not present in the Pb chain.

  16. Coulomb Excitation of Neutron-Rich $A\\approx$140 Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    Van duppen, P L E

    2002-01-01

    Investigating the isospin dependence of the product between the B( E2; 0$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow 2_{1}^{+}$)-value and the 2$_{1}^{+}$-excitation energy E$_{2^{+}}$ in even-even nuclei around $A\\!\\approx$140 one observes a rather smooth trend close to the valley of stability but clear indication for a reduction from the extrapolated B(E2)-values by one order of magnitude for some very neutron-rich nuclei. While close to the valley of stability the strong neutron-proton interaction results in an equilibration of the neutron and proton deformations with a predominate isoscalar character of the collective 2$^{+}$ excitation, it is conceivable that more loosely bound neutrons cannot polarize a close-to-magic proton core that well any more. This might result in a decoupling of the shape of the outer neutrons from the core and in a strong isovector admixture to the lowest lying 2$^{+}$ level. In this way the 2$^{+}$ -energies could be further lowered in neutron-rich nuclei, while the quadrupole moments of the proton c...

  17. The mechanism of total disintegration of heavy nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the total disintegration of atomic nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei is considered. The passage of energetic hadrons through layers of intranuclear matter, accompanied by emission of fast nucleons with kinetic energies from about 20 up to about 500 MeV from definite local small regions in the nuclei around projectile courses in them, allows one to explain simply the occurrence of the total destruction of nuclei involved in the collisions. Light nuclei may be totally disintegrated by fast hadrons and nuclei; heavier nuclei may be totally disintegrated only in central collisions of nuclei with similar mass numbers

  18. Critical temperature for shape transition in hot nuclei within covariant density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Niu, Y. F.

    2018-05-01

    Prompted by the simple proportional relation between critical temperature for pairing transition and pairing gap at zero temperature, we investigate the relation between critical temperature for shape transition and ground-state deformation by taking even-even Cm-304286 isotopes as examples. The finite-temperature axially deformed covariant density functional theory with BCS pairing correlation is used. Since the Cm isotopes are the newly proposed nuclei with octupole correlations, we studied in detail the free energy surface, the Nilsson single-particle (s.p.) levels, and the components of s.p. levels near the Fermi level in 292Cm. Through this study, the formation of octupole equilibrium is understood by the contribution coming from the octupole driving pairs with Ω [N ,nz,ml] and Ω [N +1 ,nz±3 ,ml] for single-particle levels near the Fermi surfaces as it provides a good manifestation of the octupole correlation. Furthermore, the systematics of deformations, pairing gaps, and the specific heat as functions of temperature for even-even Cm-304286 isotopes are discussed. Similar to the relation between the critical pairing transition temperature and the pairing gap at zero temperature Tc=0.6 Δ (0 ) , a proportional relation between the critical shape transition temperature and the deformation at zero temperature Tc=6.6 β (0 ) is found for both octupole shape transition and quadrupole shape transition for the isotopes considered.

  19. Neutron-proton pairing effect on the proton-rich nuclei moment of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, D.; Ami, I.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2008-01-01

    The neutron-proton (n-p) pairing effect on the nuclear moment of inertia is studied within the BCS approximation in the isovector case. An analytical expression of the moment of inertia is established by means of the cranking model. This expression generalizes the usual BCS one (i.e. when only the pairing between like-particles is considered). The moment of inertia of N = Z even-even nuclei, for which experimental values are known, i.e., such as 32 ≤ A ≤ 80, has been numerically evaluated, with and without inclusion of the n-p pairing effect. The used single-particle and Eigen-states are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It turns out that the inclusion of the n-p pairing improves the obtained values when compared to the usual BCS approximation, since the average discrepancies with the experimental data are respectively 7% and 37%. (authors)

  20. Neutron-proton pairing effect on the proton-rich nuclei moment of inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, D.; Ami, I.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB, Algiers (Algeria); Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, COMENA, Algiers (Algeria)

    2008-07-01

    The neutron-proton (n-p) pairing effect on the nuclear moment of inertia is studied within the BCS approximation in the isovector case. An analytical expression of the moment of inertia is established by means of the cranking model. This expression generalizes the usual BCS one (i.e. when only the pairing between like-particles is considered). The moment of inertia of N = Z even-even nuclei, for which experimental values are known, i.e., such as 32 {<=} A {<=} 80, has been numerically evaluated, with and without inclusion of the n-p pairing effect. The used single-particle and Eigen-states are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It turns out that the inclusion of the n-p pairing improves the obtained values when compared to the usual BCS approximation, since the average discrepancies with the experimental data are respectively 7% and 37%. (authors)

  1. Description of rotating N=Z nuclei in terms of isovector pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Frauendorf, S.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the rotating N=Z even-even nuclei in the mass A=68-80 region has been performed within the frameworks of the cranked relativistic mean field, cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theories, and cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. Most of the experimental data are well accounted for in the calculations. The present study suggests the presence of strong isovector np pair field at low spin, whose strength is defined by the isospin symmetry. At high spin, the isovector pair field is destroyed and the data are well described by the calculations assuming zero pairing. No clear evidence for the existence of the isoscalar t=0 np pairing has been obtained in the present investigation performed at the mean field level

  2. Scissors and unique-parity modes of M1 excitation in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the possible modes of M1 excitation in deformed even-even nuclei are studied in terms of the particle-number-conserved Nilsson + BCS formalism with the standard parameters. The spurious motion with respect to the rotation is removed. In addition to the Scissors mode, the Unique-Parity Spin and Normal-Parity Spin modes are suggested, although the latter may be fragmented to a large extent. The Scissors mode carries most of the orbital strength, while the others the spin strength. The proton Unique-Parity (i.e. Oh 11/12 ) Spin mode for 164 Dy is obtained just below Ex = 3 MeV with B(M1) ∼ 0.2 μ 2 N ) in the sum rule limit. This is in a good agreement to the recent experimental data

  3. Isospin Mixing in Nuclei Around N ∼ Z and the Superallowed β-Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satula, W.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rafalski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches that use one-body densities as dynamical variables, such as Hartree-Fock or the density functional theory (DFT), break isospin symmetry both explicitly, by virtue of charge-dependent interactions, and spontaneously. To restore the spontaneously broken isospin symmetry, we implemented the isospin-projection scheme on top of the Skyrme-DFT approach. This development allows for consistent treatment of isospin mixing in both ground and exited nuclear states. In this study, we apply this method to evaluate the isospin impurities in ground states of even-even and odd-odd N ∼ Z nuclei. By including simultaneous isospin and angular-momentum projection, we compute the isospin-breaking corrections to the 0 + → 0 + superallowed β-decay. (authors)

  4. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  5. Cluster structure in Cf nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shailesh K.; Biswal, S.K.; Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the availability of advance experimental facilities, it is possible to probe the nuclei upto their nucleon level very precisely and analyzed the internal structure which will help us to resolve some mysterious problem of the decay of nuclei. Recently, the relativistic nuclear collision, confirmed the α cluster type structure in the 12 C which is the mile stone for the cluster structure in nuclei. The clustering phenomena in light and intermediate elements in nuclear chart is very interesting. There is a lot of work done by our group in the clustering behaviour of the nuclei. In this paper, the various prospectus of clustering in the isotopes of Cf nucleus including fission state is discussed. Here, 242 Cf isotope for the analysis, which is experimentally known is taken. The relativistic mean field model with well established NL3 parameter set is taken. For getting the exact ground state configuration of the isotopes, the calculation for minimizing the potential energy surface is performed by constraint method. The clustering structure of other Cf isotopes is discussed

  6. Nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall

    2013-01-01

    A review of nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei using radioactive beams or techniques developed for radioactive beams is given. We discuss Big Bang nucleosynthesis, with special focus on the lithium problem, aspects of neutrino-physics, helium-burning and finally selected examples of studies...

  7. Particle detection from oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.; Moor, P. de; Schuurmans, P.; Severijns, N.; Vanderpoorten, W.; Vanneste, L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of particle emission from nuclei that have been spin oriented by cryogenical means. Experiments and recent developments with detectors in the low temperature environment and their on-line application are reviewed. The most recent results are mentioned. Some phenomena to be unraveled in future studies are pointed out. (orig.)

  8. Rotational damping motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egido, J.L.; Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The recently proposed model to explain the mechanism of the rotational motion damping in nuclei is exactly solved. When compared with the earlier approximative solution, we find significative differences in the low excitation energy limit (i.e. Γ μ 0 ). For the strength functions we find distributions going from the Wigner semicircle through gaussians to Breit-Wigner shapes. (orig.)

  9. Percolation and multifragmentation of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakov, S.Yu.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A method to build the 'cold' nuclei as percolation clusters is suggested. Within the framework of definite assumptions of the character of nucleon-nucleon couplings breaking resulting from the nuclear reactions as description of the multifragmentation process in the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies is obtained. 19 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions

  11. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  12. The predictive accuracy of analytical formulas and semiclassical approaches for α decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. L.; Bao, X. J.; Guo, S. Q.

    2018-02-01

    Systematic calculations on the α decay half-lives are performed by using three analytical formulas and two semiclassical approaches. For the three analytical formulas, the experimental α decay half-lives and {Q}α values of the 66 reference nuclei have been used to obtain the coefficients. We get only four adjustable parameters to describe α decay half-lives for even-even, odd-A, and odd-odd nuclei. By comparison between the calculated values from ten analytical formulas and experimental data, it is shown that the new universal decay law (NUDL) foumula is the most accurate one to reproduce the experimental α decay half-lives of the superheavy nuclei (SHN). Meanwhile it is found that the experimental α decay half-lives of SHN are well reproduced by the Royer formula although many parameters are contained. The results show that the NUDL formula and the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM2) with consideration of the preformation factor can give fairly equivalent results for the superheavy nuclei.

  13. A systematic study of superheavy nuclei for Z = 114 and beyond using the relativistic mean field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, S.K.; Wu, Cheng-Li; Praharaj, C.R.; Gupta, Raj K.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the structural properties of even-even, neutron deficient, Z=114-126, superheavy nuclei in the mass region A ∼ 270-320, using an axially deformed relativistic mean field model. The calculations are performed with three parameter sets (NL1, TM1 and NL-SH), in order to see the dependence of the structural properties on the force used. The calculated ground state shapes are found to be parameter dependent. For some parameter sets, many of the nuclei are degenerate in their ground state configuration. Special attention is given to the investigation of the magic structures (spherical shell closures) in the superheavy region. We find that some known magic numbers are absent and new closed shells are predicted. Large shell gaps appear at Z=80, 92, (114), 120 and 138, N=138, (164), (172), 184, (198), (228) and 258, irrespective of the parameter sets used. The numbers in parenthesis are those which correspond to relatively smaller gaps. The existence of new magic numbers in the valley of superheavy elements is discussed. It is suggested that nuclei around Z=114 and N = 164 ∼ 172 could be considered as candidates for the next search of superheavy nuclei. The existence of superheavy islands around Z=120 and N=172 or N 184 double shell closure is also discussed

  14. Clinical Long-Term Outcome and Reinterventional Rate After Uterine Fibroid Embolization with Nonspherical Versus Spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvnjak, Stevo, E-mail: stevo.duvnjak@rsyd.dk [Odense University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Denmark); Ravn, Pernille [Odense University Hospital, Department of Gynecology (Denmark); Green, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Odense Patient Data Explorative Network (Denmark); Andersen, Poul Erik [Odense University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and frequency of reinterventions in patients with uterine fibroids treated with embolization at a single center using polyvinyl alcohol microparticles.MethodsThe study included all patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with spherical (s-PVA) and nonspherical (ns-PVA) polyvinyl alcohol microparticles during the period January 2001 to January 2011. Clinical success and secondary interventions were examined. Hospital records were reviewed during follow-up, and symptom-specific questionnaires were sent to all patients.ResultsIn total, 515 patients were treated with UFE and 350 patients (67 %) were available for long-term clinical follow-up. Median time of follow-up was 93 (range 76–120.2) months. Eighty-five patients (72 %) had no reinterventions during follow-up in the group embolized with ns-PVA compared with 134 patients (58 %) treated with s-PVA. Thirty-three patients (28 %) underwent secondary interventions in the ns-PVA group compared with 98 patients (42 %) in s-PVA group (χ{sup 2} test, p < 0.01).ConclusionsSpherical PVA particles 500–700 µm showed high reintervention rate at long-term follow-up, and almost one quarter of the patients underwent secondary interventions, suggesting that this type of particle is inappropriate for UFE.

  15. Theoretical calculations of the deposition of non-spherical particles in the upper airways of the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Robert; Hofmann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    In the contribution presented here a computer model for the description of non-spherical particle deposition in the upper human respiratory tract is introduced. The theoretical approach is mainly based on the principle of the aerodynamic diameter, whose calculation was carried out according to most current scientific findings. With the help of this parameter deposition patterns for various particle categories (fibers and oblate disks) and breathing conditions (sitting, light-work and hard-work breathing) were simulated. Concerning cylindrical fibers with a diameter ≥ 1 μm, an increase of the aspect ratio β (i.e. particle length/particle diameter) causes a significant enhancement of deposition in the uppermost regions of the respiratory tract (oropharynx, larynx, trachea). This effect is additionally intensified by an increase of the inhalative flow. Regarding the oblate disks with a diameter ≥ 1 μm, any decrease of the aspect ratio leads to an enhancement of deposition in the deeper lung regions, representing an effect contrary to that observed for fibers. An increase of the inhalative flow only induces a limited decrease of the effect. (orig.)

  16. Study of non-spherical bubble oscillations near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoyu; Cegla, Frederic; Mettin, Robert; Holsteyns, Frank; Lippert, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of acoustically driven bubbles with a wall is important in many applications of ultrasound and cavitation, as the close boundary can severely alter the bubble dynamics. In this paper, the non-spherical surface oscillations of bubbles near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field are investigated experimentally and numerically. The translation, the volume, and surface mode oscillations of bubbles near a flat glass surface were observed by a high speed camera in a standing wave cell at 46.8 kHz. The model approach is based on a modified Keller-Miksis equation coupled to surface mode amplitude equations in the first order, and to the translation equations. Modifications are introduced due to the adjacent wall. It was found that a bubble's oscillation mode can change in the presence of the wall, as compared to the bubble in the bulk liquid. In particular, the wall shifts the instability pressure thresholds to smaller driving frequencies for fixed bubble equilibrium radii, or to smaller equilibrium radii for fixed excitation frequency. This can destabilize otherwise spherical bubbles, or stabilize bubbles undergoing surface oscillations in the bulk. The bubble dynamics observed in experiment demonstrated the same trend as the theoretical results.

  17. Cavitation nuclei measurements - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billet, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of cavitation nuclei has been the goal of many cavitation research laboratories and has resulted in the development of many methods. Two significantly different approaches have been developed. One is to measure the particulate-microbubble distribution by utilizing acoustical, electrical or optical methods. The other approach measures a liquid tension and a rate of cavitation events for a liquid in order to establish a cavitation susceptibility. Comparisons between various methods indicate that most methods are capable of giving an indication of the nuclei distribution. Measurements obtained in the ocean environment indicate an average of three bubbles per cubic centimeter are present; whereas, water tunnel bubble distributions vary from much less than one to over a hundred per cubic centimeter

  18. Phonon operators in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru

  19. Phonon operators for deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator

  20. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  1. Moessbauer effects on oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayouti, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Standard nuclear orientation methods (not sensitive to the polarization) do not give information on the sign of the magnetic moment. Mossbauer effect separates right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized components, thus its detection on oriented nuclei (T approximately 10 mK) gives the sign of the magnetic moment of oriented state. In this thesis we applied this method to study the 3/2 - ground states of 191 Pt and 193 Os, which are in the prolate-oblate transition region, where assignement of experimental levels to theoretical states is often umbiguous. We show that for those nuclei the sign of the magnetic moment is the signature of the configuration, and its determination establishes the correspondance between experimental and theoretical levels [fr

  2. Clusters in nuclei. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is presently one of the domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics facing both the greatest challenges and opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physics decided to team up in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This first volume, gathering seven extensive lectures, covers the follow topics: - Cluster Radioactivity - Cluster States and Mean Field Theories - Alpha Clustering and Alpha Condensates - Clustering in Neutron-rich Nuclei - Di-neutron Clustering - Collective Clusterization in Nuclei - Giant Nuclear Molecules By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical nature of presentation throughout, these lectures will both serve as a reference and as advanced teaching material for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  3. Mesons and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.

    1980-01-01

    A short review of the topic of mesons in nuclei is exposed paying particular attention to the relationship between several mesonic processes. Special emphasis is put into the microscopic pictures that can ultimately relate all these processes with the elementary coupling of mesons to the nuclear hadronic components. The importance of the short range part of the nuclear interaction opens the doors to a more basic understanding in terms of the quark components of nucleons and isobars. (orig.)

  4. Exclusive photoreactions on light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.

    1989-08-01

    The mechanism of photon absorption on light nuclei in the Δ-resonance region is discussed. The present status of experimental results is briefly summarized. A recent data from 1.3-GeV Tokyo ES using a π sr spectrometer is introduced. Exclusive measurements of the photodisintegration of 3 He and 4 He may be a clear way to identify 2N, 3N and 4N absorptions. (author)

  5. Fission barriers of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Planeta, R.; Blann, M.; Komoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental fission excitation functions for compound nuclei /sup 52/Fe, /sup 49/Cr, /sup 46/V, and /sup 44/Ti formed in heavy-ion reactions are analyzed in the Hauser-Feshbach/Bohr-Wheeler formalism using fission barriers based on the rotating liquid drop model of Cohen et al. and on the rotating finite range model of Sierk. We conclude that the rotating finite range approach gives better reproduction of experimental fission yields, consistent with results found for heavier systems

  6. The creation of new nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Hessberger, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the last 60 years physicists have created 20 artificial elements beyond uranium. In 1934 Enrico Fermi predicted the creation of new elements by bombarding atoms with neutrons. This method led to the discovery of neptunium (Z=93), plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium (Z=100). In fact the capture of a neutron is followed by a beta-decay which increases the atomic number (Z) by one unit. Beyond Z=100 beta-decay no more occurs so a new approach was necessary. Between the American Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Russian Dubna Institute a fierce competition broke out to produce new elements by bombarding transuranium nuclei with light elements such as helium, carbon, nitrogen. This new method required heavy equipment: ion accelerator and detectors but led to the creation of all the elements from Z=101 to Z=106. A new idea was to provoke the fusion of heavy nuclei such as lead and bismuth with colliding argon, nickel or zinc ion beams. This method called 'cold fusion' opened the way to reach the nuclei beyond Z=107. In 1996 the element Z=112 was the last discovered. The next step could be the element Z=114 for which a particular stability is expected. (A.C.)

  7. Radii of nuclei off stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to determine systematically the radii of the nuclei produced through the projectile fragmentation process in high energy heavy-ion collision. The measurement of total reaction cross section using the projectile fragments of a single nuclide on a target give information about nuclear radii. The production cross section of the fragments is appreciable for many nuclides. Therefore, it is possible to map systematically the reaction radii of the nuclei which can be produced as the projectile fragments. In an experiment using the projectile fragments as the incident beam, the cross section can be expressed as a function of the radii of a projectile and a target. An experiment with He-8 produced by the fragmentation of C-12 is proposed. The He-8 has four neutrons in the p-3/2 orbit outside the He-4 core. Proton and neutron distributions for He isotopes were calculated on the basis of the Hartree-Fock method. The information related to this kind of distribution can be obtained by the proposed experiment. The nuclear structure effect is seen in the nuclear radii of other unstable nuclei. The experimental examples of the isotope shift measurement and the excitation energy are presented. (Kato, T.)

  8. Density functional theory of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory of nuclei has come to draw attention of scientists in the field of nuclear structure because the theory is expected to provide reliable numerical data in wide range on the nuclear chart. This article is organized to present an overview of the theory to the people engaged in the theory of other fields as well as those people in the nuclear physics experiments. At first, the outline of the density functional theory widely used in the electronic systems (condensed matter, atoms, and molecules) was described starting from the Kohn-Sham equation derived on the variational principle. Then the theory used in the field of nuclear physics was presented. Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation by using Skyrme interaction was explained. Comparison of the results of calculations and experiments of binding energies and ground state mean square charge radii of some magic number nuclei were shown. The similarity and dissimilarity between the two streams were summarized. Finally the activities of the international project of Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF) which was started recently lead by US scientist was reported. This project is programmed for five years. One of the applications of the project is the calculation of the neutron capture cross section of nuclei on the r-process, which is absolutely necessary for the nucleosynthesis research. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Thermodynamical description of excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.

    1989-01-01

    In heavy ion collisions it has been possible to obtain composite systems at rather high excitation energies corresponding to temperatures of several MeV. The theoretical studies of these systems are based on concepts borrowed from thermodynamics or statistical physics, such as the temperature. In these lectures, we present the concepts of statistical physics which are involved in the physics of heavy ion as they are produced nowadays in the laboratory and also during the final stage of a supernova collapse. We do not attempt to describe the reaction mechanisms which yield such nuclear systems nor their decay by evaporation or fragmentation. We shall only study their static properties. The content of these lectures is organized in four main sections. The first one gives the basic features of statistical physics and thermodynamics necessary to understand quantum mechanics at finite temperature. In the second one, we present a study of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear physics. A phenomenological approach of the stability of hot nuclei follows. The microscopic point of view is proposed in the third part. Starting from the basic concepts derived in the first part, it provides a description of excited or hot nuclei which confirms the qualitative results of the second part. Furthermore it gives a full description of most properties of these nuclei as a function of temperature. Finally in the last part, a microscopic derivation of the equation of state of nuclear matter is proposed to study the collapse of a supernova core

  10. Exotic Nuclei and Yukawa's Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu; Suzuki, Toshio; Utsuno, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    In this plenary talk, we will overview the evolution of the shell structure in stable and exotic nuclei as a new paradigm of nuclear structure physics. This shell evolution is primarily due to the tensor force. The robust mechanism and some examples will be presented. Such examples include the disappearance of existing magic numbers and the appearance of new ones. The nuclear magic numbers have been believed, since Mayer and Jensen, to be constants as 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, ... This turned out to be changed, once we entered the regime of exotic nuclei. This shell evolution develops at many places on the nuclear chart in various forms. For example, superheavy magic numbers may be altered. Thus, we are led to a new paradigm as to how and where the nuclear shell evolves, and what consequences arise. The evolution of the shell affects weak process transitions, and plays a crucial role in deformation. The π and ρ mesons generate tensor forces, and are the fundamental elements of such intriguing phenomena. Thus, physics of exotic nuclei arises as a manifestation of Yukawa's forces

  11. Isospin asymmetry dependence of the α spectroscopic factor for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seif, W. M.; Shalaby, M.; Alrakshy, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Both the valence nucleons (holes) and the isospin asymmetry dependencies of the preformation probability of an α-cluster inside parents radioactive nuclei are investigated. The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model of an α-decay process for the even-even spherical parents nuclei with protons number around the closed shell Z 0 = 82 and neutrons number around the closed shells Z 0 = 82 and Z 0 = 126. The microscopic α-daughter nuclear interaction potential is calculated in the framework of the Hamiltonian energy density approach based on the SLy4 Skyrme-like effective interaction. Also, the calculations based on the realistic effective M3Y-Paris nucleon-nucleon force have been used to confirm the results. The calculations then proceed to find the assault frequency and the α penetration probability within the WKB approximation. The half-lives of the different mentioned α decays are then determined and have been used in turn to find the α spectroscopic factor. We found that the spectroscopic factor increases with increasing the isospin asymmetry of the parent nuclei if they have valence protons and neutrons. When the parent nuclei have neutron or proton holes in addition to the valence protons or neutrons, then the spectroscopic factor is found to decrease with increasing isospin asymmetry. The obtained results show also that the deduced spectroscopic factors follow individual linear behaviors as a function of the multiplication of the valence proton (N p ) and neutron (N n ) numbers. These linear dependencies are correlated with the closed shells core (Z 0 ,N 0 ). The same individual linear behaviors are obtained as a function of the multiplication of N p N n and the isospin asymmetry parameter, N p N n I. Moreover, the whole deduced spectroscopic factors are found to exhibit a nearly general linear trend with the function N p N n /(Z 0 +N 0 ).

  12. The colours of Hubble Sc galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskudaryan, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The colorimetric data on the nuclei of the Sc galaxies are given. Comparison of the following parameters: color of a nucleus, integral color of a galaxy, Byurakan class, and spectral type of normal spirals gives the possibility to conclude: (1) The colors of the nuclei of the Sc galaxies have a high dispersion in its values. In all Byurakan classes the galaxies with intensely red and blue nuclei occur; (2) Some Sc galaxies exhibit a discrepancy between the spectral and morphological types. The results of colorimetry of nuclei indicate that almost all such Sc galaxies have intensely red nuclei which, naturally, provide for these late spectral types. It can be assumed that the intensely red color of the nuclei of such Sc galaxies is a result of a new type of activity of these nuclei; and (3) some Sc galaxies show the characteristics of the Markarian objects

  13. Exotic light nuclei and nuclei in the lead region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppelier, N.A.F.M.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods are discussed for modifying, or renormalizing, a truncated nuclear hamiltonian such that the wave functions obtained by diagonalizing this modified or effective hamiltoniandescribe the nucleus as well as possible: deriving the hamiltonian directly from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction between free nucleons; parametrizing the hamiltonian in terms of a number of parameters and determining these parameters from a least-squares fit of calculated properties to experimental data; approximating the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction between two nucleons in a nucleus by a simple analytic expression. An effective hamiltonian derived following the second method is applied in a theoretical study of exotic nuclei in the region of Z=2-9 and A=4-30 and the problem of the neutron halo in 11 Li is discussed. Results of shell-model calculations of 20i Pb and nuclei in its neighbourhood are presented in which an effective hamiltonian was employed derived with the last method. The quenching of M1 strength in 208 Pb, and the spectroscopic factors measured in proton knock-out reactions could be described quite satisfactory. Finally, a method is presented for deriving the effective hamiltonian directly from the realistic NN interaction with algebraic techniques. (H.W.). 114 refs.; 34 figs.; 12 tabs.; schemes

  14. The effect of non-sphericity on mass and anisotropy measurements in dSph galaxies with Schwarzschild method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Łokas, Ewa L.; Valluri, Monica

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work we confirmed the reliability of the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild orbit-superposition method to recover the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of spherical dwarf galaxies. Here, we investigate the effect of its application to intrinsically non-spherical objects. For this purpose we use a model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy formed in a numerical simulation of a major merger of two discy dwarfs. The shape of the stellar component of the merger remnant is axisymmetric and prolate which allows us to identify and measure the bias caused by observing the spheroidal galaxy along different directions, especially the longest and shortest principal axis. The modelling is based on mock data generated from the remnant that are observationally available for dwarfs: projected positions and line-of-sight velocities of the stars. In order to obtain a reliable tool while keeping the number of parameters low we parametrize the total mass distribution as a radius-dependent mass-to-light ratio with just two free parameters we aim to constrain. Our study shows that if the total density profile is known, the true, radially increasing anisotropy profile can be well recovered for the observations along the longest axis whereas the data along the shortest axis lead to the inference of an incorrect, isotropic model. On the other hand, if the density profile is derived from the method as well, the anisotropy is always underestimated but the total mass profile is well recovered for the data along the shortest axis whereas for the longest axis the mass content is overestimated.

  15. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Raj; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved

  16. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Raj, E-mail: rajdas@nhs.net; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Manyonda, Issac [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Gynaecology (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  17. On the impact of non-sphericity and small-scale surface roughness on the optical properties of hematite aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Nousiainen, Timo; Mauno, Paeivi

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comparative modelling study to investigate how different morphological features influence the optical properties of hematite aerosols. We consider high-order Chebyshev particles as a proxy for aerosol with a small-scale surface roughness, and spheroids as a model for nonspherical aerosols with a smooth boundary surface. The modelling results are compared to those obtained for homogeneous spherical particles. It is found that for hematite particles with an absorption efficiency of order unity the difference in optical properties between spheres and spheroids disappears. For optically softer particles, such as ice particles at far-infrared wavelengths, this effect can be observed for absorption efficiencies lower than unity. The convergence of the optical properties of spheres and spheroids is caused by absorption and quenching of internal resonances inside the particles, which depend both on the imaginary part of the refractive index and on the size parameter, and to some extent on the real part of the refractive index. By contrast, small-scale surface roughness becomes the dominant morphological feature for large particles. This effect is likely to depend on the amplitude of the surface roughness, the relative significance of internal resonances, and possibly on the real part of the refractive index. The extinction cross section is rather insensitive to surface roughness, while the single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and the Mueller matrix are strongly influenced. Small-scale surface roughness reduces the backscattering cross section by up to a factor of 2-3 as compared to size-equivalent particles with a smooth boundary surface. This can have important implications for the interpretation of lidar backscattering observations.

  18. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1984-02-01

    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  19. Microscopic structure for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The microscopic structure for light nuclei e.g. 4 He, 7 Li and 8 Be is considered in the frame work of the generator coordinate method (GCM). The physical interpretation of our GCM is also discussed. The GC amplitudes are used to calculate the various properties like charge and magnetic RMS radii, form factors, electromagnetic moments, astrophysical S-factor, Bremsstrahlung weighted cross sections, relative wavefunctions and vertex functions etc. All the calculated quantities agree well with the values determined experimentally. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Microscopic properties of superdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Lennart B

    1999-04-01

    Many high spin rotational bands in superdeformed nuclei have been found in the A 140 - 150 region, but so far no linking transitions to known normal-deformed states have been found in these nuclei. Therefore, configuration and spin assignments have to be based on indirect spectroscopic information. Identical bands were first discovered in this region of superdeformed states. At present, some identical bands have also been found at normal deformation, but such bands are more common at superdeformation. Recently lifetime measurements have given relative quadrupole moments with high accuracy. Spectroscopic quantities are calculated using the configuration constrained cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model with the modified oscillator potential. In a statistical study the occurrence of identical bands is tested. Comparing superdeformed and normal deformed nuclei, the higher possibility for identical bands at superdeformation is understood from calculated reduced widths of the E{sub {gamma}} and J{sup (2)} distributions. The importance of high-N orbitals for identical bands is also discussed. Additivity of electric quadrupole moment contributions in the superdeformed A - 150 region is discussed with the nucleus {sup 152}Dy as a `core`. In analytic harmonic oscillator calculations, the effective electric quadrupole moment q{sub eff}, i.e. the change in the total quadrupole moment caused by the added particle, is expressed as a simple function of the single-particle mass, quadrupole moment q{sub {nu}}. Also in realistic calculations, simple relations between q{sub eff} and q{sub {nu}} can be used to estimate the total electric quadrupole moment, e.g. for the nucleus {sup 142}Sm, by adding the effect of 10 holes, to the total electric quadrupole moment of {sup 152}Dy. Furthermore, tools are given for estimating the quadrupole moment for possible configurations in the superdeformed A - 150 region. For the superdeformed region around {sup 143}Eu, configuration and spin assignments

  1. Application of the interacting boson model to collective states in medium heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, U.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the interacting boson model a systematic description of even-even isotopes of the medium heavy elements selenium, krypton, and strontium is given. The number of the free parameters could be kept very small by the determination of the physically relevant terms of the general model Hamiltonian. The variation of the collectivity from spherical to deformed, γ-soft nuclei could be mainly derived from the influence of the number of valence nucleons. All model parameters vary smoothly as function of the valence particle number and in qualitative agreement with predictions of a simplified microscopical model. Odd nuclei were studied in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Beside the phenomenological description of odd-even rubidium, technetium, and silver isotope this part of the thesis is occupied mainly by the microscopical theory of the boson-fermion model. The effect of the antisymmetrization of the last, odd particle with the core nucleons is discussed. The microscopic theory is supplemented by the derivation of the so called Pauli term from the interaction of identical nucleons. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Flocard, H.; Garcia Borge, M.J.; Nowacki, F.; Rombouts, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Marques, F.M.; Lacroix, D.; Dessagne, P.; Gaeggeler, H.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements

  3. On the distribution of quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Panebrattsev, V.S.; Stavinskij, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the data on cumulative proton, deuteron and nuclear fragment production in hadr on-nucleon reactions and deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering quark distributions in light, intemediate and heavy nuclei have been investigated. Conditions of limiting fragmentation of hadrons and nuclei in the studied processes have been investigated to obtain quark-parton structure functions (Gs 2 ) of the studied hadrons or nuclei. Invariant differential cross sections of π + , π - , K + meson production on aluminium, deuterium and lead nuclei and their dependence on scale variable at the transverse momentum value Psub(T) approximately 0 have been obtained. Properties of structure functions G 2 and behaviour of different nuclei differential cross sections of limiting fragmentation have been investigated. It is concluded that considered regularities testify to the presence of multiquark states in nuclei, different by its structure from nUcleons

  4. Barriers in the energy of deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interaction energy between two nuclei considering to their deformations is studied. Coulomb and nuclear in-teraction energies, as well as the deformation energies of both nuclei, are taken into account at evaluation of the interaction energy. It is shown that the barrier related to the interaction energy of two nuclei depends on the de-formations and the height of the minimal barrier is evaluated. It is obtained that the heavier nucleus-nucleus sys-tems have large deformation values at the lowest barrier. The difference between the barrier between spherical nuclei and the lowest barrier between deformed nuclei increases with the mass and the charge of the interacting nuclei.

  5. Chiral doublet bands in odd-A nuclei 103,105Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Bin; Wang Shouyu; Zhang Shuangquan; Meng Jie

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a phenomenon of general interest in chemistry, biology and particle physics. Since the pioneering work of nuclear chirality in 1997 [1] , much effort has been devoted to further explore this interesting phenomenon. Following the observation of chiral doublet bands in N = 75 isotones [2] more candidates have been reported over more than 20 nuclei experimentally in A∼100, 130 and 190 mass regions including odd-odd, odd-A and even-even nuclei. However, the identification and the intrinsic mechanism of candidate chiral doublet bands are still under debate. Although various versions of particle rotor model (PRM) and titled axis cranking model (TAC) had been applied to study chiral bands, the essential starting point for understanding their properties is based on the ideal picture, i.e. one particle and one hole coupled with a γ = 30 rigid triaxial rotor. On the other hand, from the investigation of semiclassical TAC based on the mean field, it is shown that the chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei are not always consistent with the static chirality, but mixed with the character of dynamic chirality. Thus it is necessary to construct a fully quantal model for the description of chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei, which is aimed to understand the properties of chiral doublet bands in real nuclei, and to present clearly the picture and character of chiral motion [3] . Recently, we have developed the multi-particle multi-hole coupled with the triaxial rotor model, which is able to describe the nuclear rotation related to many valence nucleons. Adopting this model, chirality in odd-A nuclei 103,105 Rh with πg 9/2 -1 ⊗νh 11/2 2 configuration and in odd-A nucleus 135 Nd with πh 11/2 2 ⊗νh 11/2 1 configuration [4] are studied in a fully quantal approach. For the chiral doublet bands, the observed energies and the B(M1) and B(E2) values are reproduced very well. Root mean square values of the angular momentum components

  6. Laser method of free atom nuclei orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Orientation process of free atom (atoms in beams) nuclei, scattering quanta of circularly polarized laser radiation is considered. A method for the evaluation of nuclei orientation parameters is developed. It is shown that in the process of pumping between the ground and first excited atomic states with electron shell spins J 1 and J 2 , so that J 2 = J 1 + 1, a complete orientation of nuclei can be attained

  7. Are there multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Scmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are presented favouring the idea that multiquark bags do eXist in nuclei. Such hypothesis makes possible to reveal the relationship among three different scopes of phenomena: deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nUclei, large q 2 (where q 2 is a square of momentum transfer) behaviour of the form factors of light nuclei and yield of cumulative proton.s

  8. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  9. Possible existence of backbending in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Szymanski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities for the backbending effect to occur in actinide nuclei are studied using the pairing-self-consistent independent quasiparticle method. The Hamiltonian used is that of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus monopole pairing term. The results of the calculations explain why there is no backbending in most actinide nuclei and simultaneously suggest that in some light neutron deficient nuclei around Th and 22 Ra a backbending effect may occur

  10. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  11. Nuclei at the limits of particle stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The properties and synthesis of nuclei at the limits of particle stability are reviewed. Nuclear reactions were induced and studied by means of the 'exotic' nuclear beams, i.e. beams of radioactive drip-line nuclei. The beams are mostly generated in heavy-ion projectile fragmentation. The cases of both neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei are discussed. (K.A.) 270 refs.; 13 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Selfconsistent calculations for hyperdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Luo, W.D. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    Properties of the hyperdeformed nuclei in the A {approximately} 170 mass range are re-examined using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the SOP parametrization. A comparison with the previous predictions that were based on a non-selfconsistent approach is made. The existence of the {open_quotes}hyper-deformed shell closures{close_quotes} at the proton and neutron numbers Z=70 and N=100 and their very weak dependence on the rotational frequency is suggested; the corresponding single-particle energy gaps are predicted to play a role similar to that of the Z=66 and N=86 gaps in the super-deformed nuclei of the A {approximately} 150 mass range. Selfconsistent calculations suggest also that the A {approximately} 170 hyperdeformed structures have neglegible mass asymmetry in their shapes. Very importantly for the experimental studies, both the fission barriers and the {open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} barriers (that separate the hyperdeformed structures from those with smaller deformations) are predicted to be relatively high, up to the factor of {approximately}2 higher than the corresponding ones in the {sup 152}Dy superdeformed nucleus used as a reference.

  13. Mass-23 nuclei in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P R; Amos, K; Van der Kniff, D; Canton, L; Karataglidis, S; Svenne, J P

    2015-01-01

    The formation of mass-23 nuclei by radiative capture is of great interest in astrophysics. A topical problem associated with these isobars is the so-called 22 Na puzzle of ONe white dwarf novae, where the abundance of 22 Na observed is not as is predicted by current stellar models, indicating there is more to learn about how the distribution of elements in the universe occurred. Another concerns unexplained variations in elements abundance on the surface of aging red giant stars. One method for theoretically studying nuclear scattering is the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) formalism. Studies to date have used a simple collective-rotor prescription to model the target states which couple to projectile nucleons. While, in general, the target states considered all belong to the ground state rotor band, for some systems it is necessary to include coupling to states outside of this band. Herein we discuss an extension of MCAS to allow coupling of different strengths between such states and the ground state band. This consideration is essential when studying the scattering of neutrons from 22 Ne, a necessary step in studying the mass-23 nuclei mentioned above. (paper)

  14. The Microwave Radiative Properties of Falling Snow Derived from Nonspherical Ice Particle Models. Part II: Initial Testing Using Radar, Radiometer and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Tian, Lin; Grecu, Mircea; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Johnson, Benjamin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Wang, James R.; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two different particle models describing the structure and electromagnetic properties of snow are developed and evaluated for potential use in satellite combined radar-radiometer precipitation estimation algorithms. In the first model, snow particles are assumed to be homogeneous ice-air spheres with single-scattering properties derived from Mie theory. In the second model, snow particles are created by simulating the self-collection of pristine ice crystals into aggregate particles of different sizes, using different numbers and habits of the collected component crystals. Single-scattering properties of the resulting nonspherical snow particles are determined using the discrete dipole approximation. The size-distribution-integrated scattering properties of the spherical and nonspherical snow particles are incorporated into a dual-wavelength radar profiling algorithm that is applied to 14- and 34-GHz observations of stratiform precipitation from the ER-2 aircraft-borne High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar. The retrieved ice precipitation profiles are then input to a forward radiative transfer calculation in an attempt to simulate coincident radiance observations from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR). Much greater consistency between the simulated and observed CoSMIR radiances is obtained using estimated profiles that are based upon the nonspherical crystal/aggregate snow particle model. Despite this greater consistency, there remain some discrepancies between the higher moments of the HIWRAP-retrieved precipitation size distributions and in situ distributions derived from microphysics probe observations obtained from Citation aircraft underflights of the ER-2. These discrepancies can only be eliminated if a subset of lower-density crystal/aggregate snow particles is assumed in the radar algorithm and in the interpretation of the in situ data.

  15. Scattering by non-spherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength - A new semi-empirical theory. [atmospheric radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J. B.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Mie theory, which is generally used to describe the scattering behavior of particles at a certain wavelength, is only rigorously correct for spherical particles. Particles found as atmospheric constituents, with the exception of cloud droplets, are, however, decidedly nonspherical. An investigation is, therefore, conducted regarding the significant ways in which the scattering behavior of irregularly shaped particles differs from that of spheres. A systematic method is formulated for treating the real scalar scattering behavior. A description is presented of a new semiempirical theory based on simple physical principles and data obtained in laboratory measurements, which successfully reproduces the single scattering phase function for a wide range of particle shapes, sizes, and refractive indices.

  16. The asymptotic hadron spectrum, anti-nuclei, hyper-nuclei and quark phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    The only hope of determining the hadronic spectrum in the high mass region is through a study of matter produced in very high energy nuclear collisions. Along the way, exotic nuclei, i.e., anti-nuclei and hyper-nuclei may be produced in appreciable numbers, and the detection of a quark phase may be possible. (orig.) [de

  17. Gamow-Teller decay of T = 1 nuclei to odd-odd N = Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisetskiy, A F [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Gelberg, A [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Institute of Physical and Chemical Reasearch (RIKEN), Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Brentano, P von [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Transition strengths of Gamow-Teller decay of T{sub z} = {+-}1 nuclei to N = Z odd-odd nuclei have been calculated in a two-nucleon approximation for spherical and deformed nuclei. The results obtained for the latter are quite close to the values obtained by full-space shell-model calculations and to the experiment.

  18. Simultaneous projection of particle-number and angular momentum BCS wave-functions in the rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Benhamouda, N.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that the BCS wave-functions are neither eigen-functions of the particle-number operator nor of the angular momentum operator. In a previous paper, we have developed a particle-number projection before variation method (of FBCS type). This discrete projection method is based on the SBCS wave-function. The aim of the present contribution is to perform a subsequent angular momentum projection by means of the Peierls-Yoccoz method. The general expression of the system energy, after the double projection, is established in the case of axial symmetry. For practical calculations, an approximation method is introduced. It leads to a semi-classical form of the rotational energy. The rotational spectra have been evaluated numerically for some even-even rare-earth nuclei. The single-particle energies and eigen-states are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. The obtained results are compared on one hand, to the experimental data, and on the other hand, to the theoretical spectra evaluated by a particle-number projection after variation method (of PBCS type). For all studied nuclei, the spectra determined by the FBCS method reproduce the experimental data better than those of the PBCS method. However, even if the present method is satisfying for low angular momenta, the agreement with the experimental data is lesser for I ≥ 8, particularly for the lighter studied nuclei. (authors)

  19. The core-quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei and applications to candidates for gamma-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the properties of isomers that may be viable candidates for a gamma-ray laser requires the use of the most accurate save functions possible. The majority of models that have been used to estimate the properties of isomers are applicable to only selected regions of the nuclear mass table. In particular, the Bohr-Mottelson model of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei will fail if the even-even core is not strongly deformed or if the deformations are changing strongly as a function of mass. This paper reports how the problem is overcome in a new core- quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei. The model introduces the pairing interaction ab initio; the odd-A states are mixtures of particle and hole states. The core may be soft towards deformation or axial asymmetry and may change rapidly as a function of mass. Thus, the model is ideally suited for application to the region of transitional nuclei such as the Te, La, and Os regions

  20. Composite hadrons and relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lectures are presented describing a model of hadronic scattering at large momentum transfer, either transverse or longitudinal. This model emphasizes in this regime the importance of forces involving the interchange of constituents of the hadrons, hence its name, the constituent interchange model CIM. The CIM is a rearrangement of standard perturbation theory to take into account the fact that the binding force is very strong in color singlet states (singlet dominance). The hard scattering expansion, incoherence problems, nuclear wave functions and counting rules, interaction between nuclei, pion and proton yields and form factors, structure functions and nonscaling, massive lepton pairs, hadrons at large transverse momentum, and quark-quark scattering are treated. 49 references

  1. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  2. Order against chaos in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Order and chaos and order-to-chaos transition are treated in terms of nuclear wave functions. A quasiparticle-phonon interaction is responsible for the fragmentation of one- and many-quasiparticle and phonon states and for the mixing of closely spaced states. Complete damping of one-quasiparticle states cannot be considered as a transition to chaos due to large many-quasiparticle or quasiparticle-phonon terms in their wave functions. An experimental investigation of the strength distribution of many-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states should uncover a new region of a regularity in nuclei at intermediate excitation energy. A chaotic behaviour of nuclear states can be shifted to higher excitation energies. ((orig.))

  3. Relativistic description of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters

  4. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  5. Cavitation Nuclei: Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish astrophysicist and Nobel Prize winner Hannes Alfven said: Theories come and go - the experiment is here forever. Often a theory, which we set up to describe an observed physical phenomenon, suffers from the lack of knowledge of decisive parameters, and therefore at best the theory...... becomes insufficient. Contrary, the experiment always reveals nature itself, though at prevailing experimental conditions. With essential parameters being out of control and even maybe unidentified, apparently similar experiments may deviate way beyond our expectations. However, these discrepancies offer...... us a chance to reflect on the character of the unknown parameters. In this way non-concordant experimental results may hold the key to the development of better theories - and to new experiments for the testing of their validity. Cavitation and cavitation nuclei are phenomena of that character....

  6. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    the flow into and within a granular medium composed of spherical and non-spherical shapes under wave forcing. It is concluded that variations in grain shape orientation within a bed appear to control the amount of flow that can be accumulated by the pores, which was illustrated in a conceptual model.

  7. Investigation of the surface terminations of icosahedral AlPdMn quasicrystal based on a modified non-spherical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fengmei; Zou Huamin; Wang Jianbo; Wang Renhui

    2004-01-01

    The atomic positions are obtained from a modified non-spherical model of icosahedral AlPdMn quasicrystal (Fang et al 2003 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 4947) by the cut method. The four-shell pseudo-Mackay clusters (PMCs) were searched for in a box of 400 A x 400 A x 400 A. The results show that the number of atoms in the fourth shell, an icosidodecahedron, of the pseudo-Mackay cluster can vary from 15 to 30 because of the cluster overlap, and about 99.96% of the total atoms are included in such incomplete pseudo-Mackay clusters. The characteristics of the atom distribution in the planes perpendicular to a fivefold axis indicate that the planes, which are 1.56 A apart from their neighbouring planes, are expected to be the terminal surfaces. If one such a plane and its closest neighbouring plane, between which the spacing is 0.48 A, are considered as a thin layer or a corrugated surface, these layers are also the layers with the maximum density. The pair of corrugated surfaces that are 1.56 A apart have almost identical chemical composition. These planes form terraces that follow the rule of the Fibonacci sequence with two step heights, 6.60 and 4.08 A. On the corrugated surfaces perpendicular to a fivefold axis the pentagonal holes arise from the interspaces of adjacent incomplete PMCs. For the atomic planes normal to a twofold axis, the planes with spacing of 1.48 A from their adjacent planes might be expected to be the terminal surfaces, which form terraces with step heights of 6.28 and 3.88 A following the rule of the Fibonacci sequence. For the atomic planes normal to a threefold axis, the planes with spacing of 0.86 A from their adjacent planes might be expected to be the terminal surfaces. No similar results were found for the atomic layers perpendicular to a pseudo-twofold axis

  8. Femtometer toroidal structures in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.L.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.; Schiavilla, R.; Arriaga, A.

    1996-01-01

    The two-nucleon density distributions in states with isospin T=0, spin S=1, and projection M S =0 and ±1 are studied in 2 H, 3,4 He, 6,7 Li, and 16 O. The equidensity surfaces for M S =0 distributions are found to be toroidal in shape, while those of M S =±1 have dumbbell shapes at large density. The dumbbell shapes are generated by rotating tori. The toroidal shapes indicate that the tensor correlations have near maximal strength at r 3 He, 4 He, and 6 Li. The toroidal distribution has a maximum-density diameter of ∼1 fm and a half-maximum density thickness of ∼0.9 fm. Many realistic models of nuclear forces predict these values, which are supported by the observed electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron, and also predicted by classical Skyrme effective Lagrangians, related to QCD in the limit of infinite colors. Due to the rather small size of this structure, it could have a revealing relation to certain aspects of QCD. Experiments to probe this structure and its effects in nuclei are suggested. Pair distribution functions in other T,S channels are also discussed; those in T,S=1,1 have anisotropies expected from one-pion-exchange interactions. The tensor correlations in T,S=0,1 states are found to deplete the number of T,S=1,0 pairs in nuclei and cause a reduction in nuclear binding energies via many-body effects. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Quarks and mesons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is believed to be candidate theory for the strong interactions and contains as its ingredients spinor quark fields and vector gluons, none of which can perhaps be ever liberated and detected in laboratories. A nucleus consists of nucleons bound by nuclear force which are however separately observable and which seem to preserve their identities even under extreme conditions. An intriguing question is: when compressed to high densities or heated to high temperature, at what point does a nuclear matter cease to be describable in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom, but become a plasma of quarks and gluons; and how does this transition occur. This is not an idle question. If quarks and gluons are never to be observed isolated, then it may be that at low energies (or at low densities) they are not the right variables to do physics with. Instead hadrons must be. On the other hand, asymptotic freedom - the unique property of non-abelian gauge theories to which QCD belongs that quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions get weaker at short distances - tells us that at some large matter density the matter must necessarily be in the form of quark gas interacting only weakly. This means that a change in degrees of freedom must take place. We would like to know where this occurs and how. In this talk, I would like to address to this question by discussing first the large success we have had in understanding the role that mesons play in finite nuclei and nuclear matter and then attempting to correlate nucleon and meson degrees of freedom to quark-gluon degrees of freedom. In my opinion we are now at a stage where we feel fairly confident in our understanding of nucleon-meson structure of nuclei and nuclear matter and any further progress in deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics - and strong interactions - must come from QCD or its effective version, bags or strings. (orig.)

  10. Mean-field models and exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M; Buervenich, T; Maruhn, J A; Greiner, W [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rutz, K [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, P G [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)

  11. High-spin excitations of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Furong; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Lanzhou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2004-01-01

    The authors used the cranking shell model to investigate the high-spin motions and structures of atomic nuclei. The authors focus the collective rotations of the A∼50, 80 and 110 nuclei. The A∼50 calculations show complicated g spectroscopy, which can have significant vibration effects. The A≅80 N≅Z nuclei show rich shape coexistence with prolate and oblate rotational bands. The A≅110 nuclei near the r-process path can have well-deformed oblate shapes that become yrast and more stable with increasing rotational frequency. As another important investigation, the authors used the configuration-constrained adiabatic method to calculate the multi-quasiparticle high-K states in the A∼130, 180 and superheavy regions. The calculations show significant shape polarizations due to quasi-particle excitations for soft nuclei, which should be considered in the investigations of high-K states. The authors predicted some important high-K isomers, e.g., the 8 - isomers in the unstable nuclei of 140 Dy and 188 Pb, which have been confirmed in experiments. In superheavy nuclei, our calculations show systematic existence of high-K states. The high-K excitations can increase the productions of synthesis and the survival probabilities of superheavy nuclei. (authors)

  12. Microscopic Cluster Theory for Exotic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, M; Kuehl, T; Ursescu, D; Fritzsche, S

    2006-01-01

    For a better understanding of the dynamics of complex exotic nuclei it is of crucial importance to develop a practical microscopic theory easy to be applied to a wide range of masses. In this paper we propose to calculate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei within a dynamic model based on the EoM theory

  13. Reentrainment of radioactive nuclei from filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.-D. von

    1982-01-01

    The possible relevance of atomic phenomena for the reentrainment of radioactive nuclei is discussed. The considerations are based on the coulombic fragmentation mechanism. Nuclei of potential interest in reprocessing technology are identified. Future experiments have been shown to be of definite need in this field. (author)

  14. Thermodynamics of pairing phase transition in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Afaque; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2014-01-01

    The pairing gaps, pairing energy, heat capacity and entropy are calculated within BCS (Bardeen- Cooper-Schrieffer) based quasi particle approach, including thermal fluctuations on pairing field within pairing model for all nuclei (light, medium, heavy and super heavy nuclei). Quasi particles approach in BCS theory was introduced and reformulated to study various properties. For thermodynamic behavior of nuclei at finite temperatures, the anomalous averages of creation and annihilation operators are introduced. It is solved self consistently at finite temperatures to obtain BCS Hamiltonian. After doing unitary transformation, we obtained the Hamiltonian in the diagonal form. Thus, one gets temperature dependence gap parameter and pairing energy for nuclei. Moreover, the energy at finite temperatures is the sum of the condensation energy and the thermal energy of fermionic quasi particles. With the help of BCS Hamiltonian, specific heat, entropy and free energy are calculated for different nuclei. In this paper the gap parameter occupation number and pairing energy as a function of temperature which is important for all the light, medium, heavy and super heavy nuclei is calculated. Moreover, the various thermo dynamical quantities like specific heat, entropy and free energy is also obtained for different nuclei. Thus, the thermodynamics of pairing phase transition in nuclei is studied

  15. Mean-field models and exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Rutz, K.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)

  16. Static and dynamical properties of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1990-01-01

    We briefly review our understanding of the formation of excited/hot nuclei in heavy-ion collisions at some tens of MeV/A. We recall the major theoretical frameworks used for describing as well the entrance channel of the reaction as the structure properties of hot nuclei. We finally focus on multifragmentation within insisting upon the theoretical challenge it does represent

  17. Masses of nuclei close to the dripline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Blaum, K.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Kluge, H.J.; Rodriguez, D.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mass measurements of radioactive nuclides are one of the cornerstones of our understanding of the nucleus. The Penning trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP performs direct mass measurements far away from the valley of stability, as well as high-precision measurements of key nuclei to anchor long decay chains. Both schemes provide valuable information on the dripline itself and on nuclei in its close vicinity. (orig.)

  18. Quasars, Seyfert galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the spectroscopic methods for analyzing the observed plasma in the nuclei of quasars, Seyfert galazies, and active galactic nuclei. Both the narrow-line region and the broad-line region are discussed. Physical models are presented

  19. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  20. Quantum phase transitions in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of quantum phase transitions in mesoscopic systems and applications to atomic nuclei are presented. Analysis in terms of the Interacting Boson Model shows that the main features persist even for moderate number of particles. Experimental evidence in rare-earth nuclei is discussed. New order and control parameters for systems with the same number of particles are proposed. (author)

  1. Structure and clusters of light unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En'yo, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    As it is known, cluster structures are often observed in light nuclei. In the recent evolution of unstable nuclear research (on nuclei having unbalanced number of neutron and proton) further new types of clusters are coming to be revealed. In this report, structures of light unstable nuclei and some of the theoretical models to describe them are reviewed. The following topics are picked up. 1. Cluster structure and theoretical models, 2. Cluster structure of unstable nuclei (low excited state). 3. Cluster structure of neutron excess beryllium isotopes. 4. Cluster gas like state in C isotope. 5. Dineutron structure of He isotopes. Numbers of strange nuclear structures of light nuclei are illustrated. Antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) is the recently developed theoretical framework which has been successfully used in heavy ion reactions and nuclear structure studies. Successful application of AMD to the isotopes of Be, B and C are illustrated. (S. Funahashi)

  2. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we searched for irregularities in various separation energies in the frame of mass measurement of neutron-rich nuclei at GANIL. On this basis we can summarize that the new doubly magic nuclei are 8 He, 22 O and 24 O. They are characterized by extra stability and, except 24 O, they cannot accept and bind additional neutrons. However, if we add to these nuclei a proton we obtain 9 Li and 25 F which are the core for two-neutron halo nucleus 11 Li and enables that fluorine can bound even 6 more neutrons, respectively. In that aspect the doubly magic nuclei in the neutron-rich region can form the basis either for neutron halo or very neutron-rich nuclei. (Author)

  3. Strength of Coriolis Coupling in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peker, L.K.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coriolis Coupling V/sub cor/ plays an important role in deformed nuclei. V/sub cor/ is proportional to h 2 /J[j (j + 1) -Ω (Ω + 1)]/sup 1/2/ and therefore is particularly significant in the nuclei with large j and low Ω Nilsson levels close to Fermi surface: n(i/sub 13/2/) in A = 150 to 170 rare-earth nuclei and p(i/sub 13/2/) and n(j/sub 15/2/) in A greater than or equal to 224 actinide nuclei. Because of larger j (n(j/sub 15/2/) versus n(i/sub 13/2/)) and smaller deformations (β approx. = 0.22 versus β 0.28) it was reasonable to expect that in actinide nuclei Coriolis effects are stronger than in the rare earth nuclei. Recently it was realized that the strength of observed Coriolis effects depends not only on the genuine Coriolis Coupling but also on the interplay between Coriolis ad pairing forces which leads to an interference between the wave functions of two mixing rotational bands. As a consequence the effective interaction V/sub eff/ of both bands is an oscillating function of the degree of shell filling (or chemical potential lambda F). It was shown that in the rare earth nuclei this interference strongly influenced conclusions about the trends in the Coriolis coupling strength and explained many of the observed band-mixing features (the sharpness of back banding curves, details of the blocking effect etc.). From theoretical analysis it was concluded that in the majority of actinide nuclei the effective interaction V/sub eff/ is strong, and therefore the Coriolis band-mixing have to be very strong. In this paper we would like to demonstrate that contrary to these predictions experimental data suggest that Coriolis band mixing in studied actinide nuclei is relatively weak and possibly significantly weaker than in rare earth nuclei

  4. RADIO VARIABILITY IN SEYFERT NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of 8.4 GHz radio images of a sample of eleven, early-type Seyfert galaxies with previous observations reveals possible variation in the nuclear radio flux density in five of them over a seven year period. Four Seyferts (NGC 2110, NGC 3081, MCG -6-30-15, and NGC 5273) show a decline in their 8.4 GHz nuclear flux density between 1992 and 1999, while one (NGC 4117) shows an increase; the flux densities of the remaining six Seyferts (Mrk 607, NGC 1386, Mrk 620, NGC 3516, NGC 4968, and NGC 7465) have remained constant over this period. New images of MCG -5-23-16 are also presented. We find no correlation between radio variability and nuclear radio luminosity or Seyfert nuclear type, although the sample is small and dominated by type 2 Seyferts. Instead, a possible correlation between the presence of nuclear radio variability and the absence of hundred parsec-scale radio emission is seen, with four out of five marginally resolved or unresolved nuclei showing a change in nuclear flux density, while five out of six extended sources show no nuclear variability despite having unresolved nuclear sources. NGC 2110 is the only source in our sample with significant extended radio structure and strong nuclear variability (∼38% decline in nuclear flux density over seven years). The observed nuclear flux variability indicates significant changes are likely to have occurred in the structure of the nucleus on scales smaller than the VLA beam size (i.e., within the central ∼0.''1 (15 pc)), between the two epochs, possibly due to the appearance and fading of new components or shocks in the jet, consistent with previous detection of subparsec-scale nuclear structure in this Seyfert. Our results suggest that all Seyferts may exhibit variation in their nuclear radio flux density at 8.4 GHz, but that variability is more easily recognized in compact sources in which emission from the variable nucleus is not diluted by unresolved, constant flux density radio jet emission

  5. Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.

    2009-01-01

    Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)

  6. Neutron rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sarmishtha

    2016-01-01

    The neutron rich nuclei with few particles or holes in 132 Sn have various experimental and theoretical interest to understand the evolution of nuclear structure around the doubly magic shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Some of the exotic neutron rich nuclei in this mass region are situated near waiting points in the r-process path and are of special astrophysical interest. Neutron rich nuclei near 132 Sn have been studied using fission fragment spectroscopy. The lifetime of low lying isomeric states have been precisely measured and the beta decay from the ground and isomeric states have been characterized using gamma-ray spectroscopy

  7. Coulomb energy differences in mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Silvia M

    2006-01-01

    By comparing the excitation energies of analogue states in mirror nuclei, several nuclear structure properties can be studied as a function of the angular momentum up to high spin states. They can be described in the shell model framework by including electromagnetic and nuclear isospin-non-conserving interactions. Calculations for the mirror energy differences in nuclei of the f 7/2 shell are described and compared with recent experimental data. These studies are extended to mirror nuclei in the upper sd and fp shells

  8. Bound states of Θ+ in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Cabrera, D.; Li, Q.B.; Magas, V.K.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the binding energy and the width of the Θ + in nuclei, associated to the KN and KπN components. The first one leads to negligible contributions while the second one leads to a sizeable attraction, enough to bind the Θ + in nuclei. Pauli blocking and binding effects on the KN decay reduce considerably the Θ + decay width in nuclei and medium effects associated to the KπN component also lead to a very small width, as a consequence of which one finds separation between the bound levels considerably larger than the width of the states

  9. Is there chirality in atomic nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jie

    2009-01-01

    Static chiral symmetries are common in nature, for example, the macroscopic spirals of snail shells, the microscopic handedness of certain molecules, and human hands. The concept of chirality in atomic nuclei was first proposed in 1997, and since then many efforts have been made to understand chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in atomic nuclei. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in the verification of chirality in atomic nuclei will be reviewed, together with a discussion of the problems that await to be solved in the future. (authors)

  10. Bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Aberg, S.; Patra, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bubble nuclei are characterized by a depletion of their central density, i.e. the formation of the proton or neutron void and subsequently forming proton or neutron bubble nuclei. Possibility of the formation of bubble nuclei has been explored through different nuclear models and in different mass regions. Advancements in experimental nuclear physics has led our experimental access to many new shapes and structures, which were inaccessible hitherto. In the present paper, the possibility of observing nuclear bubble in oxygen isotopes, particularly for 22 O has been studied

  11. Formation and decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1992-09-01

    The mechanisms involved in hot nuclei formation and decay and their eventual connexion with fundamental properties of nuclear matter are discussed, i.e. its equation of state is considered. After a brief review of the reactions in which hot nuclei can be formed, the variables which are used to describe them, the corresponding theoretical descriptions and their limits when extreme states are reached are discussed. Experimental evidences for hot nuclei formation are presented, with the corresponding decay properties used as signatures. (R.P.) 64 refs.; 25 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Hot nuclei: high temperatures, high angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1991-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of hot nuclei above 5 MeV temperature, concentrating mainly on the possible experimental evidences for the attainment of a critical temperature, on the existence of dynamical limitations to the energy deposition and on the experimental signatures for the formation of hot spinning nuclei. The data strongly suggest a nuclear disassembly in collisions involving very heavy ions at moderate incident velocities. Furthermore, hot nuclei seem to be quite stable against rotation on a short time scale. (author) 26 refs.; 12 figs

  13. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  14. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  15. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Christian (ed.) [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridiciplinaire Hubert Curien

    2012-07-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  16. The morphology of cometary nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Jorda, L.

    comets display residual activity or clouds of dust grains around their nuclei. Taking the residual signal into account (mostly using simple models for the brightness distribution) the size estimates of the nuclei could be improved. The (nuclear) magnitude of a comet depends on the product of its albedo and cross-section. Only in a few cases could the albedo and size of a cometary nucleus be separated by additional observation of its thermal emission at infrared wavelengths. By comparison with outer Solar System asteroids Cruikshank et al. (1985) derived a surprisingly low albedo of about 0.04. A value in clear contradiction to the perception of an icy surface but fully confirmed by the first resolved images of a cometary nucleus during the flybys of the Vega and Giotto spacecraft of comet Halley (Sagdeev et al. 1986, Keller et al. 1986). The improvements of radar techniques led to the detection of reflected signals and finally to the derivation of nuclear dimensions and rotation rates. The observations, however, are also model dependent (rotation and size are similarly interwoven as are albedo and size) and sensitive to large dust grains in the vicinity of a nucleus. As an example, Kamoun et al. (1982) determined the radius of comet Encke to 1.5 (2.3, 1.0) km using the spin axis determination of Whipple and Sekanina (1979). The superb spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is not quite sufficient to resolve a cometary nucleus. The intensity distribution of the inner coma, however, can be observed and extrapolated toward the nucleus based on models of the dust distribution. If this contribution is subtracted from the central brightness the signal of the nucleus can be derived and hence its product of albedo times cross-section (Lamy and Toth 1995, Rembor 1998, Keller and Rembor 1998; Section 4.3). It has become clear that cometary nuclei are dark, small, often irregular bodies with dimensions ranging from about a kilometre (comet Wirtanen, the target of

  17. Bariatric Arterial Embolization with Non-spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Ghrelin Suppression in a Swine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Man-Deuk, E-mail: mdkim@yuhs.ac; Han, Kichang; Muqmiroh, Lailatul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Up [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyoung Min; Kwon, Joonho; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles on systemic ghrelin levels, weight change, and gastric ulceration risk in a swine model.Materials and MethodsFrom March 2014 to February 2015, ten healthy swine were used in the study (mean weight 31.5 kg; range 24.0–41.5 kg). The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the embolized group (n = 5) in which BAE was performed and the control group (n = 5). In the embolized group, BAE was performed by selectively infusing 150–250 or 50–150 μm PVA into the gastric arteries that supplied the fundus of the stomach. In the control group, a sham procedure was performed with saline infusion. Plasma ghrelin levels were prospectively obtained at baseline and every 2 weeks thereafter. Endoscopy was performed 3 weeks after BAE to see whether any gastric ulcer occurred. To determine the durability of the occluded arteries, repeated celiac trunk angiography was performed 8 weeks after BAE. Then, all the swine were killed and necropsies were performed.ResultsThe mean post-procedure ghrelin value decreased by 370.0 pg/mL in the embolized group at week 3 (mean 536.0 ± 334.3 pg/mL) and week 5 (mean 515.0 ± 150.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05) relative to baseline (880.0 ± 559.5 pg/mL), respectively, but ghrelin levels were not significantly decreased between the embolized and control groups. There was a significant body weight change as follows: 35.1 ± 9.5 to 46.6 ± 15.7 kg and 31.8 ± 5.8 to 41.2 ± 6.6 kg at baseline and endpoint in the control and embolized groups, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between groups was not significant at endpoint. In the embolized group, ulcerations were identified in three animals (60%) and the recanalization of the embolized arteries was noted on follow-up angiography in three animals (60%), respectively.ConclusionBAE with PVA particles can transiently suppress ghrelin

  18. Bariatric Arterial Embolization with Non-spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Ghrelin Suppression in a Swine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Man-Deuk; Han, Kichang; Muqmiroh, Lailatul; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Gyoung Min; Kwon, Joonho; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles on systemic ghrelin levels, weight change, and gastric ulceration risk in a swine model.Materials and MethodsFrom March 2014 to February 2015, ten healthy swine were used in the study (mean weight 31.5 kg; range 24.0–41.5 kg). The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the embolized group (n = 5) in which BAE was performed and the control group (n = 5). In the embolized group, BAE was performed by selectively infusing 150–250 or 50–150 μm PVA into the gastric arteries that supplied the fundus of the stomach. In the control group, a sham procedure was performed with saline infusion. Plasma ghrelin levels were prospectively obtained at baseline and every 2 weeks thereafter. Endoscopy was performed 3 weeks after BAE to see whether any gastric ulcer occurred. To determine the durability of the occluded arteries, repeated celiac trunk angiography was performed 8 weeks after BAE. Then, all the swine were killed and necropsies were performed.ResultsThe mean post-procedure ghrelin value decreased by 370.0 pg/mL in the embolized group at week 3 (mean 536.0 ± 334.3 pg/mL) and week 5 (mean 515.0 ± 150.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05) relative to baseline (880.0 ± 559.5 pg/mL), respectively, but ghrelin levels were not significantly decreased between the embolized and control groups. There was a significant body weight change as follows: 35.1 ± 9.5 to 46.6 ± 15.7 kg and 31.8 ± 5.8 to 41.2 ± 6.6 kg at baseline and endpoint in the control and embolized groups, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between groups was not significant at endpoint. In the embolized group, ulcerations were identified in three animals (60%) and the recanalization of the embolized arteries was noted on follow-up angiography in three animals (60%), respectively.ConclusionBAE with PVA particles can transiently suppress ghrelin

  19. Large-scale evaluation of β -decay rates of r -process nuclei with the inclusion of first-forbidden transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketin, T.; Huther, L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Background: r -process nucleosynthesis models rely, by necessity, on nuclear structure models for input. Particularly important are β -decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei. At present only a single systematic calculation exists that provides values for all relevant nuclei making it difficult to test the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis models to this input. Additionally, even though there are indications that their contribution may be significant, the impact of first-forbidden transitions on decay rates has not been systematically studied within a consistent model. Purpose: Our goal is to provide a table of β -decay half-lives and β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, including first-forbidden transitions, calculated within a fully self-consistent microscopic theoretical framework. The results are used in an r -process nucleosynthesis calculation to asses the sensitivity of heavy element nucleosynthesis to weak interaction reaction rates. Method: We use a fully self-consistent covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework. The ground state of all nuclei is calculated with the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model, and excited states are obtained within the proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (p n -RQRPA). Results: The β -decay half-lives, β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, and the average number of emitted neutrons have been calculated for 5409 nuclei in the neutron-rich region of the nuclear chart. We observe a significant contribution of the first-forbidden transitions to the total decay rate in nuclei far from the valley of stability. The experimental half-lives are in general well reproduced for even-even, odd-A , and odd-odd nuclei, in particular for short-lived nuclei. The resulting data table is included with the article as Supplemental Material. Conclusions: In certain regions of the nuclear chart, first-forbidden transitions constitute a large fraction of the total decay rate and must be

  20. Consistent evaluations of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes using empirical systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Manokhin, V. N.; 小田野 直光; 長谷川 明

    2001-01-01

    (n,np)反応断面積のしきいエネルギーが(n,2n)反応断面積のしきいエネルギーよりも低い偶々核について、(n,1p)反応と(n,np)反応の両者の断面積の励起関数を矛盾なく評価するアプローチについて論じた。(n,2n)及び(n,np)反応断面積の励起関数の最大値の決定においては、Manokhinの系統式を用いるとともに、(n,2n)及び(n,np)反応のしきいエネルギーの差の質量依存性も考慮した。(n,2n)及び(n,np)反応の励起関数の計算には、Manokhinの系統式によって与えられる規格化された励起関数を用いた。いくつかの核種に対する(n,2n)及び(n,np)反応断面積の評価を行い、本研究における手法が妥当であることを明らかにした。...

  1. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  2. Perspectives of production of superheavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V., E-mail: antonenk@theor.jinr.ru; Bezbakh, A. N.; Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU–141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universität, D–35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-07

    Possible ways of production of superheavies are discussed. Impact of nuclear structure on the production of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions is discussed. The proton shell closure at Z = 120 is discussed.

  3. Nuclear Computational Low Energy Initiative (NUCLEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sanjay K. [University of Washington

    2017-08-14

    This is the final report for University of Washington for the NUCLEI SciDAC-3. The NUCLEI -project, as defined by the scope of work, will develop, implement and run codes for large-scale computations of many topics in low-energy nuclear physics. Physics to be studied include the properties of nuclei and nuclear decays, nuclear structure and reactions, and the properties of nuclear matter. The computational techniques to be used include Quantum Monte Carlo, Configuration Interaction, Coupled Cluster, and Density Functional methods. The research program will emphasize areas of high interest to current and possible future DOE nuclear physics facilities, including ATLAS and FRIB (nuclear structure and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics), TJNAF (neutron distributions in nuclei, few body systems, and electroweak processes), NIF (thermonuclear reactions), MAJORANA and FNPB (neutrino-less double-beta decay and physics beyond the Standard Model), and LANSCE (fission studies).

  4. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  5. Superheavy nuclei: a relativistic mean field outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of quasi-particle spectra in the heaviest A∼250 nuclei with spectroscopic data provides an additional constraint for the choice of effective interaction for the description of superheavy nuclei. It strongly suggests that only the parametrizations which predict Z = 120 and N = 172 as shell closures are reliable for superheavy nuclei within the relativistic mean field theory. The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied. A large central depression produces large shell gaps at Z = 120 and N = 172. The shell gaps at Z = 126 and N = 184 are favoured by a flat density distribution in the central part of the nucleus. It is shown that approximate particle number projection (PNP) by means of the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method removes pairing collapse seen at these gaps in the calculations without PNP

  6. Searching for dual active galactic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Rubinur

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Abstract. Binary or dual active galactic nuclei (DAGN) are expected from galaxy formation theories. How- ... cuss results from the multi-frequency Expanded Very .... mid-IR color using WISE observations where they have.

  7. Lipkin-Nogami method for rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magierski, P.

    1993-01-01

    The extension of Lipkin-Nogami method to the case of rotating nuclei, where the short-range attraction acting between the nucleus (pairing free) plays a significant role for the coupling scheme is discussed. 7 refs, 6 figs

  8. Collisions on relativistic nuclei: shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments are analysed which indicate the possible generation of shock waves in collisions of two nuclei. Another interpretation of these data is proposed and the concerned new experiments are discussed

  9. Non-equilibrium entropy in excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betak, E.

    1991-06-01

    The time-dependent behaviour of entropy in excited nuclei is investigated. In distinction to recent claims, it is shown that no self-organization is involved in pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs

  10. ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC NUCLEI: A NEW FRONTIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLERRAN, L.

    1999-01-01

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic nuclei provide a window on the behavior of strong interactions at asymptotically high energies. They also will allow the authors to study the bulk properties of hadronic matter at very high densities

  11. High energy particle interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.

    1978-01-01

    The recent interest in multiparticle production processes on nuclei was triggered by re-discovering their 'enigmatic simplicity' which has been known to cosmic ray physicists for over 20 years: the mean multiplicity and angular distributions of relativistic secondaries produced on nuclei do not differ markedly from what emerges from p-p collisions. The author considers how such reactions may provide a way of obtaining details of hadron structure. (Auth.)

  12. Electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu

    1989-01-01

    Two topics of electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei are discussed. The first topic is the M1 excitation from well-deformed heavy nuclei, and the other is the sudden increase of the isotope shift as a function of N in going away from the closed shell. These problems are considered in terms of the particle-number projected (Nilsson-) BCS calculation. (author)

  13. Hot nuclei, limiting temperatures and excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.

    1986-09-01

    Hot fusion nuclei are produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (20-100 MeV/U). Information on the maximum excitation energy per nucleon -and temperatures- indicated by the experimental data is compared to the predictions of static and dynamical calculations. Temperatures around 5-6 MeV are reached and seem to be the limit of formation of thermally equilibrated fusion nuclei

  14. Electron scattering and collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear collective degrees of freedom are investigated through the study of the radial dependance of their wave function. Inelastic electron scattering is shown to be the appropriate tool to extract such a detailed information. Some recent results on spherical as well as deformed nuclei are discussed and the most recent extensions to the mean field approach are compared to these data in order to clarify the present status of our understanding of the dynamical properties of complex nuclei

  15. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  16. Determining properties of baryon resonances in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.; Chen, C.M.; Ernst, D.J.; Jiang, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Meson-nucleus and photon-nucleus interactions are important sources of information about the medium modifications of baryon resonances in nuclei. Indications of how large the medium effects are for resonances above the Δ 33 (1232) are provided by it combined analysis of photonuclear and pion cross sections in the GeV range of energies. Tile existing data indicate a possible 10-20% renormalization of the pion coupling to higher-lying resonances in nuclei

  17. Nuclei far off the stability line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyes, T.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of the formation of some ''exotic'' nuclei far off the stability line were reviewed in addition to the relevant results of research in this field. Results in beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, heavy-ion-spectroscopy, achievements in the fields of measuring the atomic mass, the moment, and the radius of the nuclei as well as some astronomical aspects were described. (Z.P.)

  18. Thomas Fermi model of finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguta, J.; Rafelski, J.

    1977-01-01

    A relativistic Thomas-Fermi model of finite-nuclei is considered. The effective nuclear interaction is mediated by exchanges of isoscalar scalar and vector mesons. The authors include also a self-interaction of the scalar meson field and the Coulomb repulsion of the protons. The parameters of the model are constrained by the average nuclear properties. The Thomas-Fermi equations are solved numerically for finite, stable nuclei. The particular case of 208 82 Pb is considered in more detail. (Auth.)

  19. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The uncharted regions of the (N,Z) plane contain information that can answer many questions of fundamental importance for science: How many protons and neutrons can be clustered together by the strong interaction to form a bound nucleus? What are the proton and neutron magic numbers of the exotic nuclei? What are the properties of very short-lived exotic nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios? What is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nucleus that has a very large neutron excess? Nuclear life far from stability is different from that around the stability line; the promised access to completely new combinations of proton and neutron numbers offers prospects for new structural phenomena. The main objective of this talk is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities of research with exotic nuclei. The covered topics will include: Theoretical challenges; Skins and halos in heavy nuclei; Shape coexistence in exotic nuclei; Beta-decays of neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  20. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.