WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonsocial exploratory activity

  1. Vocal activities reflect the temporal distribution of bottlenose dolphin social and non-social activity in a zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alice; Lemasson, Alban; Boye, Martin; Hausberger, Martine

    2017-12-01

    Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months. All subjects performed more non-agonistic social interactions and play in the morning than in the afternoon. The different categories of vocalizations were distributed non-randomly throughout the day, with more chirps in the afternoon, when the animals were "less social." The most striking result was the strong correlation between activities and the categories of vocalizations produced. The results confirm the association between burst pulses and whistles with social activities, but also reveal that both are also associated with solitary play. More chirps were produced when dolphins were engaged in socio-sexual behaviors, emphasizing the need for further questioning about the function of this vocal category. This study reveals that: (i) in a group kept in zoological management, social activities are mostly present in the morning; and (ii) the acoustic signals produced by dolphins may give a reliable representation of their current activities. While more studies on the context of signal production are needed, our findings provide a useful tool for understanding free ranging dolphin behavior when they are not visible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Understanding Nonsocial Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Alicia J.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Nonsocial play continues to be perceived as a behavior that is detrimental young children's development. The research evidence in this area is mixed but lends itself to a more positive view of nonsocial play. Despite the substantial amount of literature available, the terminology used fails to be consistent and may prove to be distracting and…

  3. Dissociation of social and nonsocial anxiety in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is a common symptom in fragile X patients. However, an anxiety-prone phenotype in mouse models of fragile X syndrome is not clear. In most studies of fmr1 knockout mice, decreased anxiety-like responses in exploratory-based models are found, but mice also exhibit abnormal social interactions. We hypothesize the coexistence of elevated social anxiety and reduced nonsocial anxiety in fmr1 knockout mice. In the present study, we applied an automated three-chambered social approach method...

  4. Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS...... that enables designers and engineers to iteratively construct and manipulate form-active hybrid assembly topology on the fly. The pipeline implements Kangaroo2's projection-based methods for modelling hybrid structures consisting of slender beams and cable networks. A selection of design modelling sketches...

  5. Nonsocial Play in Preschoolers: Necessarily Evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the social, cognitive, and social-cognitive correlates of nonsocial play in 122 four-year-olds observed for 20 minutes during free play. Subjects were given a role-taking test and tests of social and impersonal problem-solving skills. Sociometric popularity and social competence, as rated by teachers, were also assessed. (Author/RH)

  6. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  7. Serum amylase and lipase activities after exploratory laparotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, J R; Bell, G

    1989-09-01

    Serum amylase and lipase activities and creatinine concentration were determined before surgery, and at 1 and 2 days after exploratory laparotomy in 24 dogs. Examination of all viscera was done during each laparotomy, but a surgical procedure was not performed. The mean serum activities for lipase were: before surgery, 0.71 (0.0 to 2.0) Cherry Crandall units (CCU)/L; 1 day after surgery, 2.1 (0.0 to 4.5) CCU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1.19 (0.0 to 3.9) CCU/L. The mean serum activities for amylase were: before surgery, 1,958 (1,027 to 3,426) IU/L; 1 day after surgery, 1,538 (937 to 2,659) IU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1,663 (1,066 to 2,274) IU/L. Serum creatinine concentrations before surgery, 1 day after surgery, and 2 days after surgery were 0.88 (0.2 to 1.7) mg/dl, 0.78 (0.4 to 1.3) mg/dl, and 0.78 (0.3 to 1.3) mg/dl, respectively. Mean preoperative, day-1, and day-2 serum amylase activities and serum creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from each other. Mean preoperative and day-2 serum lipase activities did not differ significantly; however, mean serum lipase activity was significantly greater when day 1 activities were compared with preoperative activities (P = 0.0002). Post-mortem examinations revealed no gross or histologic evidence of pancreatitis in any dog. The results of this study show that a 3 or more fold increase in serum lipase activity may occur after routine exploratory laparotomy in dogs without clinical signs or gross evidence of pancreatitis. Histologic evidence of pancreatitis was not found in the right pancreatic lobes in any dog.

  8. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  9. Exploratory Talk in the Early Years: Analysing Exploratory Talk in Collaborative Group Activities Involving Younger Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eira Wyn

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative group work has the potential for providing rich opportunities for children to learn through talk with peers; however, in practice, little effective engagement in learning is observed within authentic learning contexts. Exploratory talk is associated with high levels of cognitive challenge within collaborative group work. Detailed…

  10. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans?Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the developme...

  11. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants’ investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. PMID:23141075

  12. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Using an Exploratory Internet Activity & Trivia Game to Teach Students about Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…

  14. Complexities of Emotional Responses to Social and Nonsocial Affective Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Peterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia.METHOD: Galvanic skin response (GSR and facial electromyography (fEMG were recorded in medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ and demograph-ically-matched healthy controls (CO while they viewed social and non-social im-ages from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symp-tom severity in the SZ, and schizotypy in CO were assessed.RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with schizophrenia were more positive in their va-lence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, GSR was greater in schizophrenia, suggesting differential awareness or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to nonsocial vs. social imag-es were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in SZ and disor-ganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced fEMG. Greater corruga-tor fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions.CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their GSR and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in schizophrenia and under-score the complexities of emotion processing in health and

  15. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity,...

  16. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  17. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  18. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  19. Similarity-based grouping to support teachers on collaborative activities in exploratory learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio; Mavrikis, M.; Geraniou, E.; Poulovassilis, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-based tool that helps teachers group their students for collaborative activities in the classroom, the challenge being to organise groups of students based on their recent work so that their collaboration results in meaningful interactions. Students first work on an exploratory task individually, and then the computer suggests possible groupings of students to the teacher. The complexity of the tasks is such that teachers would require too long a time to create...

  20. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  1. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    -systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued....... [1] The research project: Actors and Avatars Communicating in Virtual Worlds – an Empirical Analysis of Actors’ Sense-making Strategies When Based on a Communication Theoretical Approach’ (2006-2007) is supported...

  2. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  3. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  4. Social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia - An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Ł; Wichniak, A; Jarkiewicz, M; Schudy, A; Gola, M; Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Łojek, E

    2016-09-01

    Despite social cognitive dysfunction that may be observed in patients with schizophrenia, the knowledge about social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia is scant. The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioural responses to neutral and negative stimuli with (faces, people) and without (animals, objects) social content in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a visual oddball paradigm with either negative or neutral pictures from the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) as targets while EEG was recorded. Half of the stimuli within each category presented social content (faces, people). Negative stimuli with social content produced lower N2 amplitude and higher mean LPP than any other type of stimuli in both groups. Despite differences in behavioural ratings and alterations in ERP processing of affective stimuli (lack of EPN differentiation, decreased P3 to neutral stimuli) SCZ were still able to respond to specific categories of stimuli similarly to HC. The pattern of results suggests that with no additional emotion-related task demands patients with schizophrenia may present similar attentional engagement with negative social stimuli as healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. University Support in the Development of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity: An Exploratory Study from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical literature has explored the potential benefits of the interaction between universities and entrepreneurs and there is some empirical evidence that supports the positive impact of entrepreneurship education in the subsequent propensity to become an entrepreneur. The purpose of this paper is study if higher education for entrepreneurship is reflected in entrepreneurship activities at the regional level. Replicating the methodology used by Coduras, Urban, Rojas and Martínez (2008 in Spain, we compare, in an exploratory way, the experience in Chile using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. The main results indicate that there is low interaction between entrepreneurs and universities and there is not enough impact to significantly affect entrepreneurial activity. Moreover, entrepreneurship education does not increase intentions to be an entrepreneur.

  6. Behavioral evidence for differences in social and non-social category learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eGamond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait… or non-social (tall, thin. Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission.

  7. Practice leadership and active support in residential services for people with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J; Mansell, J; Ashman, B; Ockenden, J; Iles, R; Whelton, B

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesised that a key factor determining the quality of active support was 'practice leadership' - provided by the first-line manager to focus staff attention and develop staff skills in providing direct support to enable people with intellectual disabilities to have a good quality of life. This exploratory study focused on what levels of practice leadership were found and its role in explaining variation in active support. Relevant aspects of management, including practice leadership, were assessed by questionnaires administered to staff in residential settings alongside observational measures of active support and resident engagement in meaningful activity. Relationships between these variables were explored using regression and post hoc group comparisons. There was wide variation, with average levels of practice leadership being low, though improving over the period studied. Practice leadership had a significant impact on active support, but was fully mediated by the effect of quality of management. When the quality of management was higher better practice leadership did produce a significant difference in active support. However, higher quality of management on its own did not produce better active support. A number of limitations are acknowledged and further research is required. Practice leadership appears to be an important factor in enabling staff to provide active support but as part of generally good management. Given the rather low levels found, attention needs to be given to the training, career development and support of practice leaders and also to how to protect their time from their many other responsibilities. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-07-25

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.

  9. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children. PMID:28757577

  10. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  11. Increased reward value of nonsocial stimuli in children and adolescents with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K Watson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used an econometric choice task to estimate the implicit reward value of social and nonsocial stimuli related to restricted interests in children and adolescents with (n=12 and without (n=22 ASD. Mixed effects logistic regression analyses revealed that children and adolescents with ASD were willing to receive less cash payout to view restricted interest stimuli, whereas children and adolescents without ASD were indifferent to cash payouts to view these images. Groups did not differ in valuation of social images or nonsocial images unrelated to restricted interests. Our findings reveal that individuals with ASD assign enhanced reward value of nonsocial stimuli related to restricted interests in ASD. These results suggest that motivational accounts of ASD should also consider the reward value of restricted interests in addition to that of social stimuli (Dichter & Adolphs, 2012.

  12. Selection on non-social traits limits the invasion of social cheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew D; Quigley, Benjamin J Z; Brown, Sam P; Buckling, Angus

    2012-01-01

    While the conditions that favour the maintenance of cooperation have been extensively investigated, the significance of non-social selection pressures on social behaviours has received little attention. In the absence of non-social selection pressures, patches of cooperators are vulnerable to invasion by cheats. However, we show both theoretically, and experimentally with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, that cheats may be unable to invade patches of cooperators under strong non-social selection (both a novel abiotic environment and to a lesser extent, the presence of a virulent parasite). This is because beneficial mutations are most likely to arise in the numerically dominant cooperator population. Given the ubiquity of novel selection pressures on microbes, these results may help to explain why cooperation is the norm in natural populations of microbes. PMID:22639835

  13. Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Hofer, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the "managing emotions" branch and thus in the "strategic" EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the "managing emotions" branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently, non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrothermal activity in the Tulancingo-Acoculco Caldera Complex, central Mexico. Exploratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Hernandez, Aida [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, CFE, Alejandro Volta 655, 58290 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico); Garcia-Estrada, Gerardo; Palma-Guzman, Hugo; Quijano-Leon, Jose L. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, CFE, Alejandro Volta 655, 58290 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Partida, Eduardo [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Mineral alteration and fluid inclusion studies of drill cuttings and core samples indicate that the sedimentary basement rocks and the volcanic rocks associated with Tulancingo-Acoculco Caldera Complex have been the site of two distinct and major hydrothermal events. The complex, located in the eastern portion of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is formed by the Pliocene Tulancingo Caldera and the younger (Pleistocene) Acoculco Caldera, which developed within the older depression. The volcanic rocks are underlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The earliest important hydrothermal event occurred during the emplacement of Mid-Tertiary granitic intrusions that metamorphosed the sedimentary rocks; these intrusives are not exposed at the surface. However, granitic rocks were encountered at the bottom of exploratory borehole EAC-1, drilled within the Caldera Complex. The second main event occurred during the formation of the Tulancingo and Acoculco Calderas. Both episodes lead to secondary mineralization that reduced the permeability of the reservoir rocks. A possible third hydrothermal event may be associated with the recent magmatic activity within the Acoculco Caldera.Thermal logs from well EAC-1 display a conductive thermal gradient with maximum temperatures exceeding 300 C at 2000 m depth. Although there are no active thermal springs in the area, there is extensive fossil surface hydrothermal alteration and cold gas discharges with high He{sup 3}/He{sup 4} ratios. (author)

  15. Using Infiniscope Exploratory Activities in an Online Astronomy Lab Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Anbar, Ariel; Tamer, A. Joseph; Hunsley, Diana; Young, Patrick A.; Center for Education Through eXploration

    2018-01-01

    With the growth of online astronomy courses, it has become necessary to design different strategies for students to engage meaningfully with astronomy content. In contrast to some of the previously designed “cookbook”-style lab exercises, the strategy of these Infiniscope activities is to provide an experience where the students explore and discover the content for themselves. The Infiniscope project was created by ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration and NASA’s Science Mission Directorate as part of the NASA Exploration Connection project. As part of this project, online activities on topics such as asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects, eclipses, and Kepler’s Laws were designed and created for middle school (grades 6-8) and informal education settings. This poster discusses adapting these activities to the undergraduate non-science major setting. In fall 2017, the Infiniscope activities, such as Small Worlds and Kepler’s Laws, will be incorporated into an Arizona State University online astronomy course, AST 113, which is the laboratory component for the Introduction to Solar System Astronomy course sequence. This course typically enrolls about 800-900 students per semester with a combination of students who are online only as well as those who also take in person classes. In this type of class, we cannot have any in-person required sessions and all content must be delivered online asynchronously. The use of the Infiniscope exploratory exercises will provide students with the ability to use NASA data in a hands-on manner to discover the solar system for themselves.

  16. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  17. Is it about "pink" or about "girls"? The inherence heuristic across social and nonsocial domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D; Sullivan, Kathleen R

    2014-10-01

    The inherence heuristic provides an intriguing and novel explanation for early thought in a variety of domains. Exploring similarities and differences in inherent reasoning across social and nonsocial domains can help us understand the role that inherent thinking plays in the development of human reasoning and the process by which more elaborate essentialist reasoning develops.

  18. Brief Report: Cognitive Control of Social and Nonsocial Visual Attention in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCriscio, Antoinette Sabatino; Miller, Stephanie J.; Hanna, Eleanor K.; Kovac, Megan; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sasson, Noah J.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Troiani, Vanessa; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2016-01-01

    Prosaccade and antisaccade errors in the context of social and nonsocial stimuli were investigated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 19) a matched control sample (n = 19), and a small sample of youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 9). Groups did not differ in error rates in the prosaccade condition for any stimulus…

  19. Differential Effects of Social and Non-Social Reward on Response Inhibition in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in the field of clinical and developmental psychopathology is whether cognitive control processes, such as response inhibition, can be specifically enhanced by motivation. To determine whether non-social (i.e. monetary) and social (i.e. positive facial expressions) rewards are able to differentially improve response inhibition…

  20. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.

  1. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Plass, T; Mühlbacher, M; Welte, A-S; Fleischhacker, W W; Hofer, A

    2017-01-01

    The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.

  2. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods: an evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; van Baalen, E-J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms, robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones

  3. Comparing Social Worker and Non-Social Worker Outcomes: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a review of the literature comparing the outcomes of social workers with those of non-social workers. The review was commissioned by NASW's Texas Chapter to examine empirical evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of social work to possibly support efforts to educate employers and the public about the value of…

  4. Neural Mechanisms of Encoding Social and Non-Social Context Information in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Kukolja, Juraj; Kohls, Gregor; Muller, Kristin; Piefke, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Schulte-Ruther, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often fail to attach context to their memories and are specifically impaired in processing social aspects of contextual information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulatory influence of social vs. non-social context on neural mechanisms during encoding in ASD. Using…

  5. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  6. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  7. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M andO 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M andO 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M andO 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  8. Coagulation activation anc microparticle-associated coagulant activity in cancer patients An exploratory prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kleinjan, Ankie; Berckmans, René J.; Mackman, Nigel; Manly, David; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Richel, Dick J.; Büller, Harry R.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Cancer increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Here, we investigated the contribution of microparticle (MP)-dependent procoagulant activity to the prothrombotic state in these patients. In 43 cancer patients without VIE at study entry and 22 healthy volunteers, markers of in vivo and

  9. The Effects of Methionine-Enriched and Vitamins (Folate, Pyridoxine and Cobalamine-Deficient Diet on Exploratory Activity in Rats - A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailovic Natasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased homocysteine levels induced by methionine nutritional overload (twice as standard and deficiency of the vitamins folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine, which plays an important role in homocysteine metabolism in anxiety-related behaviour, expressed by means of exploratory activity in rats. Twenty-three male Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old, 100±15 g body weight were divided into three groups: control (n=8, methionine-enriched (Meth+, 7.7 g of methionine/kg chow, n=7 and methionine-enriched vitamin-deficient (Meth+Vit-, 7.7 g of methionine/ kg chow, deficient in folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine - 0.08, 0.01 and 0.01 mg/kg, n=8. All animals had free access to food and water for 30 days. Behavioural testing was performed using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. Standard parameters for vertical exploratory activity, the number of rearings and the number of head-dippings, as well as the total exploratory activity (summarizing overall exploratory activity in the EPM were significantly reduced following 30 days of methionine nutritional overload (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. A methionine-enriched diet coupled with a reduction in some B vitamins resulted in a more pronounced decline in exploratory drive observed in the EPM test compared to the control (p<0.01. The decline in total exploratory activity associated with vitamin deficiency was significant compared to the Meth+ group (p<0.05. The results of this study highlight the important role of homocysteine in the modulation of exploratory activity in rats. Decreased exploratory drive induced by both a methionine-enriched and vitamin-deficient diet could be attributed to an anxiogenic effect of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  10. A general approach-avoidance hypothesis of oxytocin: accounting for social and non-social effects of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2014-11-01

    We critically reexamine extant theory and empirical study of Oxytocin. We question whether OT is, in fact, a "social neuropeptide" as argued in dominant theories of OT. We critically review human and animal research on the social and non-social effects of Oxytocin, including behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging studies. We find that extant (social) theories of Oxytocin do not account for well-documented non-social effects of Oxytocin. Furthermore, we find a range of evidence that social and non-social effects of Oxytocin may be mediated by core approach-avoidance motivational processes. We propose a General Approach-avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO). We argue that the GAAO may provide a parsimonious account of established social and non-social effects of Oxytocin. We thus re-conceptualize the basic function(s) and mechanism(s) of action of Oxytocin. Finally, we highlight implications of the GAAO for basic and clinical research in humans

  11. Common and distinct neural features of social and non-social reward processing in autism and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, John A; Rittenberg, Alison; Hughes, Lauren; Damiano, Cara R; Sabatino, Antoinette; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor; Bodfish, James W; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are both characterized by social dysfunction, but no study to date has compared neural responses to social rewards in ASDs and SAD. Neural responses during social and non-social reward anticipation and outcomes were examined in individuals with ASD (n = 16), SAD (n = 15) and a control group (n = 19) via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses modeling all three groups revealed increased nucleus accumbens (NAc) activation in SAD relative to ASD during monetary reward anticipation, whereas both the SAD and ASD group demonstrated decreased bilateral NAc activation relative to the control group during social reward anticipation. During reward outcomes, the SAD group did not differ significantly from the other two groups in ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation to either reward type. Analyses comparing only the ASD and SAD groups revealed greater bilateral amygdala activation to social rewards in SAD relative to ASD during both anticipation and outcome phases, and the magnitude of left amygdala hyperactivation in the SAD group during social reward anticipation was significantly correlated with the severity of trait anxiety symptoms. Results suggest reward network dysfunction to both monetary and social rewards in SAD and ASD during reward anticipation and outcomes, but that NAc hypoactivation during monetary reward anticipation differentiates ASD from SAD.

  12. Sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to visual and auditory affect across social and non-social domains in Williams syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.

  13. Sensitivity of the Autonomic Nervous System to Visual and Auditory Affect Across Social and Non-Social Domains in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Dering, Benjamin; Neumann, Dirk; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Grichanik, Mark; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of “peaks and valleys” of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD) group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR) reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:23049519

  14. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  15. Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Biro, Szilvia; Levelt, Claartje; Huijbregts, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Barriers to, and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sébastien; Quantin, Xavier; Ninot, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has a positive effect on the cardiorespiratory fitness, lung cancer symptoms, and quality of life of lung cancer patients. The aim of our study was to identify barriers to, and facilitators of PA in lung cancer patients. We collected data from five patients diagnosed with primary, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were receiving chemotherapy. Choosing a qualitative approach, we conducted an exploratory analysis using the thematic analysis technique to process the data. Seven barriers to, and facilitators of PA were identified and grouped into four categories. We found that psychological and social factors affect patients' willingness and ability to engage in PA, while physiological and environmental factors have an impact on the duration, intensity, and regularity of their PA. Our study highlighted some of the effects that the barriers to PA have on the practice of it in our patient group. Our findings may be used by professionals to design adapted PA programs.

  17. Anomalies in social behaviors and exploratory activities in an APPswe/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-10-24

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deficits in social communication, associated with generalized apathy or agitation, as well as social memory. To assess social behaviors in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1 bigenics relative to non-transgenic controls, the 3-chamber test was used, together with open-field and elevated plus-maze tests of exploration. APPswe/PS1 mice were less willing to engage in social interaction than wild-type, avoiding an unfamiliar stimulus mouse, probably not due to generalized apathy because in both tests of exploratory activity the mutants were hyperactive. This study reveals reduced "sociability" combined with hyperactivity in an APPswe/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory activities and physics learning at high school: an exploratory study in portuguese settings

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    Margarida Saraiva-Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present findings of an exploratory study, included in a wider investigation which intends to promote meaningful learning of physics concepts, based on experimental work and supported by metacognition tools. The aim of this research was to recognize promoting learning situations in Physics lab. Interviews and questionnaires were applied to teachers and students from four Lisbon high schools. Results show that lab work in physics has a low frequency and, generally, has a demonstration format. Both teachers and students recognize potentialities of lab work to promote learning. Learning is poor when students just observe and/or accomplish commands. Both teachers and students consider the relation theory/experimentation and students doing themselves as fundamental to achieve better learning. In addition to pointing out several problems concerning lab work, teachers envisage it in a very traditional way. So, innovative strategies and methodologies, such as computer use and open-ended problems, pointed by research in science investigation as promoting learning, are left aside.

  19. Two-year-olds with autism orient to nonsocial contingencies rather than biological motion

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    Klin, Ami; Lin, David J.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Ramsay, Gordon; Jones, Warren

    2009-01-01

    Typically-developing human infants preferentially attend to biological motion within the first days of life1. This ability is highly conserved across species2,3 and is believed to be critical for filial attachment and for detection of predators4. The neural underpinnings of biological motion perception are overlapping with brain regions involved in perception of basic social signals such as facial expression and gaze direction5, and preferential attention to biological motion is seen as a precursor to the capacity for attributing intentions to others6. However, in a serendipitous observation7, we recently found that an infant with autism failed to recognize point-light displays of biological motion but was instead highly sensitive to the presence of a non-social, physical contingency that occurred within the stimuli by chance. This observation raised the hypothesis that perception of biological motion may be altered in children with autism from a very early age, with cascading consequences for both social development and for the lifelong impairments in social interaction that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorders8. Here we show that two-year-olds with autism fail to orient towards point-light displays of biological motion, and that their viewing behavior when watching these point-light displays can be explained instead as a response to non-social, physical contingencies physical contingencies that are disregarded by control children. This observation has far-reaching implications for understanding the altered neurodevelopmental trajectory of brain specialization in autism9. PMID:19329996

  20. Oxytocin attenuates social and non-social avoidance: Re-thinking the social specificity of Oxytocin.

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    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2017-07-01

    Re-examining decades of the social construal of Oxytocin, the General Approach-Avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO) predicts that Oxytocin will modulate responding to emotionally-evocative and personally-relevant social and non-social stimuli due to its action on the neural substrate of approach and avoidance motivation. We report the first critical experimental test of GAAO predictions by means of a double-blind intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin vs. placebo in 90 healthy adults (N=90, 50% women). As predicted, we found that among men and women for whom negative emotion (anxious arousal) is motivationally-relevant, intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin reduced behavioral avoidance of emotionally-evocative negatively-valenced social and non-social stimuli, but not closely matched emotionally-neutral stimuli. Findings cannot be explained by extant social theories of Oxytocin. We discuss the implications of the present findings for basic and translational clinical Oxytocin research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria-Antonietta; Therme, Pierre; Cury, François

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. One hundred forty-three patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables. The adjusted model evidenced an excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.92; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.076; P = .014). Results showed that intention to practice exercise was positively linked with openness to experience and negatively with present fatalist time perspective. Moreover, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found to be linked with future time perspective, which was positively related with intention to practice physical activity. The present exploratory study with patients suffering from cancer underlined the importance of considering jointly time perspective dimensions and personality factors for health behavior recommendations. Based on our results, we propose some reflections on practice to help nurses and physicians increase patient's motivation to be physically active. Taking into account patients' personality and time perspective, we would be able to propose specific awareness messages and offer short interventions to have an impact on patients' motivation to practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Examining the reinforcing value of stimuli within social and non-social contexts in children with and without high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melissa C; Allman, Melissa J; Hagopian, Louis P; Triggs, Mandy M; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; DeLeon, Iser G

    2017-10-01

    One of the key diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder includes impairments in social interactions. This study compared the extent to which boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys "value" engaging in activities with a parent or alone. Two different assessments that can empirically determine the relative reinforcing value of social and non-social stimuli were employed: paired-choice preference assessments and progressive-ratio schedules. There were no significant differences between boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys on either measure. Moreover, there was a strong correspondence in performance across these two measures for participants in each group. These results suggest that the relative reinforcing value of engaging in activities with a primary caregiver is not diminished for children with autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Restriction in participation in leisure activities after joint replacement: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Livesey, Christine; Blom, Ashley W

    2012-03-01

    currently, assessment of outcomes after joint replacement is predominantly centred on impairment and activity limitation (e.g. walking), with little consideration of participation restriction. structured telephone interviews about participation in leisure activities were conducted with 56 total hip replacement (THR) and 60 total knee replacement (TKR) patients before and 1 year after joint replacement. before surgery, THR patients participated in 209 leisure activities, with an average of four leisure activities per person. TKR patients participated in 171 leisure activities, with an average of three leisure activities per person. The leisure activities were coded into four categories: sports/exercise, hobbies, social activities and holidays. Between 89 and 95% of leisure activities were rated as important by THR and TKR patients prior to surgery. Before surgery, THR patients rated 82% of leisure activities as difficult to perform because of joint problems, which decreased to 25% of leisure activities by 1-year after surgery. TKR patients rated 86% of leisure activities as difficult to perform because of joint problems, which decreased to 32% after surgery. this research highlights that participation in leisure activities is important to patients undergoing joint replacement, but that approximately a quarter of patients are unable to perform their valued leisure activities after surgery.

  4. Active Use of Parks in Flanders (Belgium: An Exploratory Observational Study

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    Linde Van Hecke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parks have the potential to increase physical activity at the community level by providing opportunities to be active. In order to inform interventions to promote physical activity in parks, insight is needed concerning park user characteristics, the activity level of park users, the types of activities performed and associations between park areas and temporal variables with observed physical activity levels. Park user characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and activity level were recorded within pre-defined park areas in two parks in Ghent (Belgium using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. Most park users were male, adult, and engaged in vigorous-intensity physical activity (48%. Most popular activities were biking (38%, sitting (23% and walking (15%; accordingly, trails were used most and had the highest levels of physical activity compared to other park areas. Parks were used least frequently in the morning, during the weekend and by seniors. Therefore, active park use during morning periods, on weekend days and by seniors should be promoted and urban planners should consider that different park areas can possibly elicit varying activity levels among park users.

  5. Recognition memory for social and non-social odors: differential effects of neurotoxic lesions to the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Leila M; Allen, Timothy A; Ly, Denise; Fortin, Norbert J

    2012-01-01

    The contributions of the hippocampus (HC) and perirhinal cortex (PER) to recognition memory are currently topics of debate in neuroscience. Here we used a rapidly-learned (seconds) spontaneous novel odor recognition paradigm to assess the effects of pre-training N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions to the HC or PER on odor recognition memory. We tested memory for both social and non-social odor stimuli. Social odors were acquired from conspecifics, while non-social odors were household spices. Conspecific odor stimuli are ethologically-relevant and have a high degree of overlapping features compared to non-social household spices. Various retention intervals (5 min, 20 min, 1h, 24h, or 48 h) were used between study and test phases, each with a unique odor pair, to assess changes in novelty preference over time. Consistent with findings in other paradigms, modalities, and species, we found that HC lesions yielded no significant recognition memory deficits. In contrast, PER lesions caused significant deficits for social odor recognition memory at long retention intervals, demonstrating a critical role for PER in long-term memory for social odors. PER lesions had no effect on memory for non-social odors. The results are consistent with a general role for PER in long-term recognition memory for stimuli that have a high degree of overlapping features, which must be distinguished by conjunctive representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  7. Perceiving emotion in non-social targets : The effect of trait empathy on emotional contagion through art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrova, O.; Meckel, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the role of trait empathy in emotional contagion through non-social targets—art objects. Studies 1a and 1b showed that high- (compared to low-) empathy individuals are more likely to infer an artist’s emotions based on the emotional valence of the artwork and, as a result, are

  8. Decreased exploratory activity in a mouse model of 15q duplication syndrome; implications for disturbance of serotonin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Tamada

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have garnered significant attention as an important grouping of developmental brain disorders. Recent genomic studies have revealed that inherited or de novo copy number variations (CNVs are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of ASDs. In a previous report from our laboratory, we generated mice with CNVs as a model of ASDs, with a duplicated mouse chromosome 7C that is orthologous to human chromosome 15q11-13. Behavioral analyses revealed paternally duplicated (patDp/+ mice displayed abnormal behaviors resembling the symptoms of ASDs. In the present study, we extended these findings by performing various behavioral tests with C57BL/6J patDp/+ mice, and comprehensively measuring brain monoamine levels with ex vivo high performance liquid chromatography. Compared with wild-type controls, patDp/+ mice exhibited decreased locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field test, Y-maze test, and fear-conditioning test. Furthermore, their decreased activity levels overcame increased appetite induced by 24 hours of food deprivation in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Serotonin levels in several brain regions of adult patDp/+ mice were lower than those of wild-type control, with no concurrent changes in brain levels of dopamine or norepinephrine. Moreover, analysis of monoamines in postnatal developmental stages demonstrated reduced brain levels of serotonin in young patDp/+ mice. These findings suggest that a disrupted brain serotonergic system, especially during postnatal development, may generate the phenotypes of patDp/+ mice.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Contextual Cues of Violence in an Active Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Pfeiffer, Karin; Winn, Brian

    2014-04-01

    With the expanded genres of active videogames, one inevitably raises the question of whether it is worthwhile to use active videogames to promote physical activity if games involve violent themes. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effects of contextual cues of violence in an active videogame on (1) state hostility, (2) perceived arousal, (3) game enjoyment, (4) perceived effort in the game, and (5) activity intensity in the game. A one-factor between-subjects experiment with three conditions (minimal, moderate, and extreme contextual cues of violence) of playing an in-house-developed active videogame was conducted. Activity intensity was objectively measured using the ActiGraph (Pensacola, FL) model GT3X accelerometer. Psychological outcomes were measured using established scales. We did not find that the level of contextual cues of violence had any effect on the outcome variables, although the moderate level of contextual cues of violence resulted in a greater amount of feeling mean (P=0.011) and unsociable (P=0.038) among the players immediately after gameplay than players in the minimal contextual cues of violence condition. We did not find any statistically significant difference among the three conditions in terms of enjoyment, perceived arousal, or activity intensity. This study empirically examined the effects of contextual cues of violence in active videogames on player hostility, arousal, and enjoyment after gameplay as well as their physical activity intensity during gameplay. These findings provide some initial evidence to guide active videogame designers and researchers on how to design the games to be more engaging and thus elicit more activities among the players.

  10. An exploratory pilot study of nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, C F; Soudry, I

    2000-12-01

    Over the past three decades, active euthanasia and abortion have received increasing international attention. Since both these practices are relevant to the role of the nurse-midwife, it is important to know what influences their attitudes towards them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: 1, to survey the attitudes of nurse-midwives' to active euthanasia and its legalization; 2, to determine the relationship between nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization, and attitudes toward abortion, self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation. The study setting was an international midwifery conference and the sample consisted of 139 nurse-midwives attending the conference. The majority of nurse-midwives displayed a positive attitude toward active euthanasia and its legalization. In addition, there was a positive relationship between their attitude to abortion and active euthanasia. Self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation were significantly related to attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization. An interesting positive relationship between country of practice and attitudes to euthanasia was also found. Nurse-midwives practicing in countries with more liberal euthanasia and assisted suicide legislation were more supportive of active euthanasia. With the increasing acceptance of active euthanasia's legalization, the results of this study pose some ethical questions that nurse-midwives internationally will have to consider.

  11. Associations of physical activity with driving-related cognitive abilities in older drivers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Ferreira, Inês; Melo, Filipe; Godinho, Mário

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between hysical activity and driving-related cognitive abilities of older drivers. Thirty-eight female and male drivers ages 61 to 81 years (M = 70.2, SD = 5.0) responded to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and were assessed on a battery of neuropsychological tests, which included measures of visual attention, executive functioning, mental status, visuospatial ability, and memory. A higher amount of reported physical activity was significantly correlated with better scores on tests of visual processing speed and divided visual attention. Higher amounts of physical activity was significantly associated with a better composite score for visual attention, but its correlation with the composite score for executive functioning was not significant. These findings support the hypothesis that pzhysical activity is associated with preservation of specific driving-related cognitive abilities of older adults.

  12. Social cues trigger differential immune investment strategies in a non-social insect, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe D; Siva-Jothy, Michael T; Evison, Sophie E F

    2018-02-01

    Social immunization (SI) is a horizontal transfer of immunity that protects naive hosts against infection following exposure to infected nestmates. While mainly documented in eusocial insects, non-social species also share similar ecological features which favour the development of group-level immunity. Here, we investigate SI in Tenebrio molitor by pairing naive females with a pathogen-challenged conspecific for 72 h before measuring a series of immune and fitness traits. We found no evidence for SI, as beetles who cohabited with a live pathogen-challenged conspecific were not better protected against bacterial challenge. However, exposure to a heat-killed-bacteria-challenged conspecific appeared to increase pathogen tolerance, which manifested in differential fitness investment. Our results together suggest that T. molitor do respond to immune-related cues in the social environment, despite not showing a classic immunization response as predicted. © 2018 The Author(s).

  13. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  14. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

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    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  15. Management Activity Linkages to Innovation Deconstruction: An Exploratory Study of the Furniture Industry in Croatia

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    Andreja Pirc Barčić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate leaders often view innovation as a key contributor to superior profits, market sharing, and competitive positioning. However, confusion regarding the definition of innovation, how to create it, and how to implement it remains. In countries that are recent European Union members, little research has been done on innovation and how innovation is related to corporate management activities. In this study, the linkages were examined in the Croatian furniture industry. The first part of the study was to deconstruct innovation into three components: product innovation, production process innovation, and human resource innovation. The second part of the study evaluates the relationships between these innovation components and four company management activities/factors (research and development investments, company flexibility, export activity, and the Internet usage were examined. Scale testing resulted in valid deconstruction measures of innovation. Hypothesized correlations between innovation components and company management factors were supported, although the results were not fully consistent with those of previous studies.

  16. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool--Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Fatigue and Physical Activity in Canadian Thyroid Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhashemi, Ahmad; Jones, Jennifer M; Goldstein, David P; Mina, Daniel Santa; Thabane, Lehana; Sabiston, Catherine M; Chang, Eugene K; Brierley, James D; Sawka, Anna M

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue is common among cancer survivors, but fatigue in thyroid cancer (TC) survivors may be under-appreciated. This study investigated the severity and prevalence of moderate and severe fatigue in TC survivors. Potential predictive factors, including physical activity, were explored. A cross-sectional, written, self-administered TC patient survey and retrospective chart review were performed in an outpatient academic Endocrinology clinic in Toronto, Canada. The primary outcome measure was the global fatigue score measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-7 day (IPAQ-7). Predictors of BFI global fatigue score were explored in univariate analyses and a multivariable linear regression model. The response rate was 63.1% (205/325). Three-quarters of the respondents were women (152/205). The mean age was 52.5 years, and the mean time since first TC surgery was 6.8 years. The mean global BFI score was 3.5 (standard deviation 2.4) out of 10 (10 is worst). The prevalence of moderate-severe fatigue (global BFI score 4.1-10 out of 10) was 41.4% (84/203). Individuals who were unemployed or unable to work due to disability reported significantly higher levels of fatigue compared to the rest of the study population, in uni-and multivariable analyses. Furthermore, increased physical activity was associated with reduced fatigue in uni- and multivariable analyses. Other socio-demographic, disease, or biochemical variables were not significantly associated with fatigue in the multivariable model. Moderate or severe fatigue was reported in about 4/10 TC survivors. Independent predictors of worse fatigue included unemployment and reduced physical activity.

  18. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  19. Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera in healthy volunteers

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    Ashwinikumar A Raut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (WS, a "rasayana" drug, is recommended for balavardhan and mamsavardhan. The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers (12M:6F, age:18-30 years, and BMI: 19-30 were enrolled. After baseline investigations, they received WS capsules (Rx (aqueous extract, 8:1 daily in two divided doses with increase in daily dosage every 10 days for 30 days (750 mg/day x10 days, 1 000 mg/day x 10 days, 1 250 mg/day x 10 days. Volunteers were assessed for symptoms/signs, vital functions, hematological and biochemical organ function tests. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force. Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Lean body weight and fat% were computed from skin fold thickness measurement. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA, McNemar′s test, and paired t test were employed. All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. In six subjects, improvement in quality of sleep was found. Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.

  20. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenboon, Nutcha; Zanello, Giacomo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Jones, Caroline O H; Kosaikanont, Romyen; Praphattong, Pollavat; Manohan, Pathompong; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Keomany, Sommay; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Lienert, Jeffrey; Xayavong, Thipphaphone; Warapikuptanun, Penporn; Khine Zaw, Yuzana; U-Thong, Patchapoom; Benjaroon, Patipat; Sangkham, Narinnira; Wibunjak, Kanokporn; Chai-In, Poowadon; Chailert, Sirirat; Thavethanutthanawin, Patthanan; Promsutt, Krittanon; Thepkhamkong, Amphayvone; Sithongdeng, Nicksan; Keovilayvanh, Maipheth; Khamsoukthavong, Nid; Phanthasomchit, Phaengnitta; Phanthavong, Chanthasone; Boualaiseng, Somsanith; Vongsavang, Souksakhone; Greer, Rachel C; Althaus, Thomas; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Intralawan, Daranee; Wangrangsimakul, Tri; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Ariana, Proochista

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients’ healthcare-seeking pathways? RQ2: Will people’s exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices? RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities? Methods We apply an interdisciplinary analytical framework that draws on the public health, medical anthropology, sociology and development economics literature. Our research involves social surveys of treatment-seeking behaviour among rural dwellers in northern Thailand (Chiang Rai) and southern Lao PDR (Salavan). We sample approximately 4800 adults to produce district-level representative and social network data. Additional 60 cognitive interviews facilitate survey instrument development and data interpretation. Our survey data analysis techniques include event sequence analysis (RQ1), multilevel regression (RQ1–3), social network analysis (RQ2) and latent class analysis (RQ3). Discussion Social research in AMR is nascent, but our unprecedentedly detailed data on microlevel treatment-seeking behaviour can contribute an understanding of behaviour beyond awareness and free choice, highlighting, for example, decision-making constraints, problems of marginalisation and lacking access to healthcare and competing ideas about desirable behaviour. Trial registration number NCT

  1. An exploratory study; the therapeutic effects of premixed activated charcoal-sorbitol administration in patients poisoned with organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo; Song, Kyounghwan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of activated charcoal (AC) mixed with cathartics for gastric decontamination in the management of organophosphate (OP) poisoning remain unknown due to limited clinical evidence. This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of premixed AC-sorbitol as a treatment for OP poisoning. This retrospective observational case study included patients who either did not receive AC-sorbitol or received a single dose of AC-sorbitol within 24 h after OP ingestion. The patients were divided into three groups: no AC-sorbitol treatment, patients who received AC-sorbitol within 1 h of OP ingestion, and patients who received AC-sorbitol more than 1 h after OP ingestion. Mortality, the development of respiratory failure, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were used as outcome measurements for effectiveness, whereas aspiration pneumonia and electrolyte imbalance were employed as safety measurements. Among 262 patients with OP poisoning, 198 were included. Of these, 133 patients did not receive AC-sorbitol, whereas 14 and 51 patients received AC-sorbitol within 1 h or more than 1 h after ingestion, respectively. The time from ingestion to hospital arrival and time from ingestion to administration of atropine and pralidoxime differed among the groups, whereas other characteristics, including age, amount ingested, and type of ingested OP, were similar among the groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the administration of AC-sorbitol was not associated with outcome measures for effectiveness and did not significantly increase either aspiration pneumonia or electrolyte imbalances during hospitalization. The administration of AC-sorbitol exerted neither beneficial nor harmful effects on the outcomes of OP-poisoned patients regardless of the time from OP ingestion to administration, compared with those of patients who did not receive AC-sorbitol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients who received AC-sorbitol; further qualified

  2. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Roberto; Carnaghi, Carlo; Strosberg, Jonathan; Fazio, Nicola; Singh, Simron; Herbst, Fabian; Ridolfi, Antonia; Pavel, Marianne E; Wolin, Edward M; Valle, Juan W; Oh, Do-Youn; Yao, James C; Pommier, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of lung or gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67; P <0.00001) in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) on everolimus activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) were analyzed and reported. A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54%) had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control), 77 (25%) received chemotherapy, and 63 (21%) were previously exposed to radiotherapy. Patients who received everolimus had longer median PFS compared with placebo, regardless of previous SSA (with SSA: 11.1 vs 4.5 months [HR, 0.56 {95% CI, 0.37-0.85}]; without SSA: 9.5 vs 3.7 months [0.57 {0.36-0.89}]), chemotherapy (with chemotherapy: 9.2 vs 2.1 months [0.35 {0.19-0.64}]; without chemotherapy: 11.2 vs 5.4 months [0.60 {0.42-0.86}]), or radiotherapy (with radiotherapy: 9.2 vs 3.0 months [0.47 {0.24-0.94}]; without radiotherapy: 11 vs 5.1 months [0.59 {0.42-0.83}]) exposure. The most frequent drug-related adverse events included stomatitis (59%-65%), fatigue (27%-35%), and diarrhea (24%-34%) among the subgroups. These results suggest that everolimus improves PFS in patients with advanced, progressive lung or GI NET, regardless of prior therapies. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus in NET.

  3. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzzoni R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Buzzoni,1 Carlo Carnaghi,2 Jonathan Strosberg,3 Nicola Fazio,4 Simron Singh,5 Fabian Herbst,6 Antonia Ridolfi,7 Marianne E Pavel,8 Edward M Wolin,9 Juan W Valle,10 Do-Youn Oh,11 James C Yao,12 Rodney Pommier13 1IRCCS Foundation, National Institute of Tumors, Milan, Italy; 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy; 3Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 4European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; 5Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma S.A.S., Rueil-Malmaison, France; 8Medizinische Klinik 1, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 9Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Bronx, NY, USA; 10Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, The Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK; 11Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 12University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 13Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET of lung or gastrointestinal (GI tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35–0.67; P<0.00001 in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy on everolimus activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized (2:1 to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were analyzed and reported. Results: A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54% had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control, 77 (25% received

  4. Patterns of Fitbit Use and Activity Levels Throughout a Physical Activity Intervention: Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Weiner, Lauren S

    2018-02-05

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of technology-based activity trackers to promote behavior change. However, little is known about how individuals use these trackers on a day-to-day basis or how tracker use relates to increasing physical activity. The aims were to use minute level data collected from a Fitbit tracker throughout a physical activity intervention to examine patterns of Fitbit use and activity and their relationships with success in the intervention based on ActiGraph-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 42 female breast cancer survivors randomized to the physical activity intervention arm of a 12-week randomized controlled trial. The Fitbit One was worn daily throughout the 12-week intervention. ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer was worn for 7 days at baseline (prerandomization) and end of intervention (week 12). Self-reported frequency of looking at activity data on the Fitbit tracker and app or website was collected at week 12. Adherence to wearing the Fitbit was high and stable, with a mean of 88.13% of valid days over 12 weeks (SD 14.49%). Greater adherence to wearing the Fitbit was associated with greater increases in ActiGraph-measured MVPA (b interaction =0.35, PHartman, Sandahl H Nelson, Lauren S Weiner. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  5. The Preparation of Young People with Special Needs for an Active Adult Life--An Exploratory Study. 2nd Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Fernando, Comp.; Kropveld, Peter, Comp.

    An exploratory study sought to examine the special educational needs of young people with disabilities preparing for the transition from school to adulthood. Major issues addressed were citizenship (social and life skills), the world of work, and recreation. Students aged 14 and above from several European countries who were perceived as having…

  6. Reward anticipation and processing of social versus nonsocial stimuli in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; Carver, Leslie J

    2014-12-01

    How children respond to social and nonsocial rewards has important implications for both typical and atypical social-cognitive development. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to process rewards differently than typically developing (TD) individuals. However, there is little direct evidence to support this claim. Two event-related potentials were measured. The stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) was utilized to measure reward anticipation, and the feedback related negativity (FRN) was utilized to measure reward processing. Participants were 6- to 8-year-olds with (N = 20) and without (N = 23) ASD. Children were presented with rewards accompanied by incidental face or nonface stimuli. Nonface stimuli were composed of scrambled face elements in the shape of arrows, controlling for low-level visual properties. Children with ASD showed smaller responses while anticipating and processing rewards accompanied by social stimuli than TD children. Anticipation and processing of rewards accompanied by nonsocial stimuli was intact in children with ASD. This is the first study to measure both reward anticipation and processing in ASD while controlling for reward properties. The findings provide evidence that children with autism have reward anticipation and processing deficits for social stimuli only. Our results suggest that while typically developing children find social stimuli more salient than nonsocial stimuli, children with ASD may have the opposite preference. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Characterization of excitatory and inhibitory neuron activation in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex following palatable food ingestion and food driven exploratory behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald P Gaykema

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is implicated in aspects of executive function, that include the modulation of attentional and memory processes involved in goal selection. Food-seeking behavior has been shown to involve activation of the mPFC, both during the execution of strategies designed to obtain food and during the consumption of food itself. As these behaviors likely require differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex, we hypothesized that the pattern of neuronal activation would also be behavior dependent. In this study we describe, for the first time, the expression of Fos in different layers and cell types of the infralimbic/dorsal peduncular (IL/DP and prelimbic/anterior cingulate (PL/AC subdivisions of mouse mPFC following both the consumption of palatable food and following exploratory activity of the animal directed at obtaining food reward. While both manipulations led to increases of Fos expression in principal excitatory neurons relative to control, food-directed exploratory activity produced a significantly greater increase in Fos expression than observed in the food intake condition. Consequently, we hypothesized that mPFC interneuron activation would also be differentially engaged by these manipulations. Interestingly, Fos expression patterns differed substantially between treatments and interneuron subtype, illustrating how the differential engagement of subsets of mPFC interneurons depends on the behavioral state. In our experiments, both vasoactive intestinal peptide- and parvalbumin-expressing neurons showed enhanced Fos expression only during the food-dependent exploratory task and not during food intake. Conversely, elevations in arcuate and paraventricular hypothalamic fos expression were only observed following food intake and not following food driven exploration. Our data suggest that activation of select mPFC interneurons may be required to support high cognitive demand states while being dispensable during

  8. Sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III to everyday activity impairments in dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David

    2017-10-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most frequently used cognitive measures for dementia severity and linked to deficits in everyday functioning. Recently, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) increasingly substitute for the MMSE. However, there are no specific cutoffs in the ACE-III for mild dementia. The objectives of this exploratory study were to assess the sensitivity of each scale to everyday functioning and to examine the cutoffs between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. People with mild dementia completed the MMSE, MoCA and ACE-III, whilst informal carers completed the Revised Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities for Dementia to rate their relative's initiative and performance of instrumental activities of daily living and the Katz activities of daily living scale. Data were analysed using correlation analysis, raw score comparisons, Cohen's kappa and receiver operating characteristics analysis. Thirty-three dyads completed the measures. The ACE-III was the most sensitive tool for everyday functioning performance, whilst its language subscale was specifically related to initiation of activities. The most suitable cutoff on the ACE-III between mild and moderate dementia was 61. Findings suggest the ACE-III more efficiently identifies everyday functional impairments. Further research is required to confirm these exploratory analyses of the cutoff between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. Both functional impairment and stage of dementia are needed in the diagnostic process and in the clinical assessment of people with dementia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  10. Counselor Attitudes toward and Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Private Substance Use Disorder Treatment Centers: A Comparison of Social Workers and Non-Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E.; Kintzle, Sara; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that may be associated with variation in social workers' perceptions of effectiveness, perceptions of acceptability, and use of psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs) for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) in comparison to other SUD counselors who are non-social workers. A national…

  11. Adaptation of social and non-social cues to direction in adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical adults with autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Rees, Geraint

    2018-01-01

    Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, individuals with lower susceptibility to adaptation aftereffects, i.e. more 'veridical' perception, showed higher levels of autistic traits across social and non-social stimuli. Furthermore, adaptation aftereffects were predictive of sensory sensitivity. In Experiment 2, only adaptation to eye-gaze was diminished in adults with ASD, and this was related to difficulties categorizing eye-gaze direction at baseline. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores negatively predicted lower adaptation for social (head and eye-gaze direction) but not non-social (chair) stimuli. These results suggest that the relationship between adaptation and the broad socio-cognitive processing style captured by 'autistic traits' may be relatively domain-general, but in adults with ASD diminished adaptation is only apparent where processing is most severely impacted, such as the perception of social attention cues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of aripiprazole versus risperidone on brain activation during planning and social-emotional evaluation in schizophrenia: A single-blind randomized exploratory study.

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    Liemburg, Edith J; van Es, Frank; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2017-10-03

    Impaired function of prefrontal brain networks may be the source of both negative symptoms and neurocognitive problems in psychotic disorders. Whereas most antipsychotics may decrease prefrontal activation, the partial dopamine D2-receptor agonist aripiprazole is hypothesized to improve prefrontal function. This study investigated whether patients with a psychotic disorder would show stronger activation of prefrontal areas and associated regions after treatment with aripiprazole compared to risperidone treatment. In this exploratory pharmacological neuroimaging study, 24 patients were randomly assigned to either aripiprazole or risperidone. At baseline and after nine weeks treatment they underwent an interview and MRI session. Here we report on brain activation (measured with arterial spin labeling) during performance of two tasks, the Tower of London and the Wall of Faces. Aripiprazole treatment decreased activation of the middle frontal, superior frontal and occipital gyrus (ToL) and medial temporal and inferior frontal gyrus, putamen and cuneus (WoF), while activation increased after risperidone. Activation increased in the ventral anterior cingulate and posterior insula (ToL), and superior frontal, superior temporal and precentral gyrus (WoF) after aripiprazole treatment and decreased after risperidone. Both treatment groups had increased ventral insula activation (ToL) and middle temporal gyrus (WoF), and decreased occipital cortex, precuneus and caudate head activation (ToL) activation. In conclusion, patients treated with aripiprazole may need less frontal resources for planning performance and may show increased frontotemporal and frontostriatal reactivity to emotional stimuli. More research is needed to corroborate and extend these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Sorger, Bettina; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Kan, Cornelis C; Goebel, Rainer; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group) attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session), during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study's small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies. ISRCTN12390961.

  14. Benefits of social vs. non-social feedback on learning and generosity. Results from the Tipping Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eColombo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although much work has recently been directed at understanding social decision-making, relatively little is known about how different types of feedback impact adaptive changes in social behavior. To address this issue quantitatively, we designed a novel associative learning task called the Tipping Game, in which participants had to learn a social norm of tipping in restaurants. Participants were found to make more generous decisions from reward feedback in the form of facial expressions, in comparison to reward feedback in the form of symbols such as ticks and crosses. Furthermore, more participants displayed learning in the condition where they received social reward feedback than participants in the non-social condition. Modeling results showed that the pattern of performance displayed by participants receiving social reward feedback could be explained by a lower sensitivity to economic costs.

  15. Use of exploratory factor analysis to ascertain the correlation between the activities of rheumatoid arthritis and infection by human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, Natalja; Kadisa, Anda; Lejnieks, Aivars; Mikazane, Helena; Kozireva, Svetlana; Murovska, Modra

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a possible correlation between the clinical activities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RA patients were organized into two groups: 100 patients in the main group and 97 in the RA(DAS28) group. Four subgroups were defined from the main group according to the presence or absence of certain infection-specific markers: group I comprised 43 patients who had IgG antibodies against B19; group II, 25 patients with active B19 infection (B19-specific IgM antibodies and/or plasma viremia); group III, 19 patients with latent/persistent B19 infection (virus-specific sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes' DNA with or without B19-specific IgG antibodies), and group IV, 13 patients without infection markers. The RA(DAS28) group was divided into four subgroups similarly to the main group: group I, 35; group II, 31; group III, 19; and group IV, 12 patients. Disease-specific clinical values in both groups were analyzed employing EFA, and the RA(DAS28) group was additionally assessed using Disease Activity Score (DAS)28. RA activity was higher in patients who had markers of B19 infection. The highest activity of RA in both study groups was in patients with latent/persistent infection. In the RA(DAS28) group, according to DAS28, the highest activity of RA was in patients with active B19 infection. Using EFA and DAS28, a correlation between the clinical activity of RA and B19 infection was confirmed. These data suggest that EFA is applicable for medico-biological studies. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Rodrigues, Domingos Sávio; Rodrigues, Daniela; Pontes, Victoria Bottino

    2015-06-20

    Pimpinella anisum L. is considered one of the first plants used for medicinal purposes. Pharmacological actions of the plant on the central nervous system have been proven but previous analyses have focused on anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions. In traditional medicine worldwide, the use of Pimpinella is commonly recommended as a tranquilizer, although no scientific information supporting this use is available. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the central actions of the plant to observe behavioral responses, with an emphasis on the emotional component. To investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Seeds of Pimpinella were extracted with distilled water, concentrated and freeze-dried yielding the aqueous extract(AE). Rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. Individual observations were performed in an open field and the parameters locomotor activity, rearing, grooming and defecation were recorded. In elevated plus maze test, rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. The parameters arm entries, total time spent in open and closed arms; and total number of arrivals at the end of an open or closed arm were recorded for each rat. Among the parameters assessed with the open field test, only rearing was reduced in the AE 0.5 g/kg group. When AE 1.0 g/kg was administered, only the initiation of exploratory activity was delayed, without impairing the animals' general activity. The highest dose of AE (2.0 g/kg) induced a reduction in the animals' habituation during the open field test within the same session, as evidenced by the maintenance of high levels of peripheral locomotion and rearing throughout the test. On the elevated plus maze test, no alterations were observed in the responses of the animals relative to

  17. Exploratory Data Analysis of Acceleration Signals to Select Light-Weight and Accurate Features for Real-Time Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Won Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR recognizes users’ activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR or long data-window (DW to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz and a small DW (3 s. The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  18. Exploratory data analysis of acceleration signals to select light-weight and accurate features for real-time activity recognition on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Seok-Won

    2013-09-27

    Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR) recognizes users' activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification) is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR) or long data-window (DW) to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR) process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz) and a small DW (3 s). The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  19. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  20. Combined cognitive-strategy and task-specific training improves transfer to untrained activities in sub-acute stroke: An exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach compared to usual outpatient rehabilitation on activity and participation in people less than 3 months post stroke. Methods An exploratory, single blind, randomized controlled trial with a usual care control arm was conducted. Participants referred to 2 stroke rehabilitation outpatient programs were randomized to receive either Usual Care or CO-OP. The primary outcome was actual performance of trained and untrained self-selected activities, measured using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Additional outcomes included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), the Stroke Impact Scale Participation Domain, the Community Participation Index, and the Self Efficacy Gauge. Results Thirty-five (35) eligible participants were randomized; 26 completed the intervention. Post-intervention, PQRS change scores demonstrated CO-OP had a medium effect over Usual Care on trained self-selected activities (d=0.5) and a large effect on untrained (d=1.2). At a 3 month follow-up, PQRS change scores indicated a large effect of CO-OP on both trained (d=1.6) and untrained activities (d=1.1). CO-OP had a small effect on COPM and a medium effect on the Community Participation Index perceived control and the Self-Efficacy Gauge. Conclusion CO-OP was associated with a large treatment effect on follow up performances of self-selected activities, and demonstrated transfer to untrained activities. A larger trial is warranted. PMID:25416738

  1. An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive theory. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-depressed participants with a history of relapsing depression are protected from relapse by participating in the course. This exploratory study examined the acceptability and effectiveness of MBCT for patients in primary care with active symptoms of depression and anxiety Methods 13 patients with recurrent depression or recurrent depression and anxiety were recruited to take part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted three months after completing the MBCT programme. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Beck depression inventories (BDI-II and Beck anxiety inventories (BAI provided quantitative data and were administered before and three months after the intervention. Results The qualitative data indicated that mindfulness training was both acceptable and beneficial to the majority of patients. For many of the participants, being in a group was an important normalising and validating experience. However most of the group believed the course was too short and thought that some form of follow up was essential. More than half the patients continued to apply mindfulness techniques three months after the course had ended. A minority of patients continued to experience significant levels of psychological distress, particularly anxiety. Statistically significant reductions in mean depression and anxiety scores were observed; the mean pre-course depression score was 35.7 and post-course score was 17.8 (p = 0.001. A similar reduction was noted for anxiety with a mean pre-course anxiety score of 32.0 and mean post course score of 20.5 (p = 0.039. Overall 8/11 (72% patients showed improvements in BDI and 7/11 (63% patients showed improvements in BAI. In general the results

  2. What type of narrative do children prefer in active video games? An exploratory study of cognitive and emotional responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) is critical in preventing childhood obesity, and lowering risk of certain cancers. Active video games (AVGs) provide an innovative promising method for increasing PA and enhancing health outcomes, especially among children. While AVGs could prevent childhood obesity, a child's...

  3. Habituation of exploratory activity in aged rats: effects of pyritinol Habituação da atividade exploratória em ratos idosos: efeitos do piritinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto DeLucia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (Ach is a neurotransmitter considered to play a critical role in processes underlying behavior, learning, and memory. Pyritinol (pyrithioxine, Encephabolâ, PRT is a nootropic drug that increases cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Behavioral habituation following multiple exposures to an open field is an experimental paradigm frequently used to assess the cognitive actions of drugs. In this paradigm the decrease of exploratory activity as a function of repeated exposure to the same environment is taken as an index memory. In the present study, effects PRT administrated to aged rats in powder form added to the diet (200 mg /kg / day, p.o., for 14 days were evaluated in the habituation to an open field. A total of 18 aged rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups control (vehicle-treated rats, n = 8 and experimental group (PRT-treated rats, n = 10 and were used in the following procedure. In the exploratory task, the post-training treatment with PRT significantly decreased the number of total area crossings and rears when compared to the control group, indicating habituation. PRT treatment enhanced retention in the total number of area crossings and rears when compared with control animals. Taken together, the data of present study suggest that muscarinic cholinergic systems could be involved in the effect of PRT in habituation of exploratory activity to an open field in aged rats.A acetilcolina é um neurotransmissor que desempenha considerável papel crítico nos processos subjacentes ao comportamento, aprendizagem e memória. Piritinol (piritioxina, Encefabolâ, PRT é um fármaco nootrópico que aumenta a transmissão colinérgica no sistema nervoso central. Habituação comportamental seguida de múltipla exposição no campo aberto é um paradigma experimental freqüentemente usado na avaliação das ações cognitivas de fármacos. Neste paradigma, a diminuição da atividade exploratória em fun

  4. The relationship between meeting vigorous physical activity recommendations and burnout symptoms among adolescents: an exploratory study with vocational students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine; Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-04-01

    This study examines how students who met the current recommendations for vigorous physical activity (VPA) of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) differ from peers who did not reach these standards with regard to self-reported burnout, before and after controlling for light physical activity and moderate physical activity. A sample of 144 vocational students (Mage =16.2 years, SD = 1.13, 98 males) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and the School Burnout Inventory. Bivariate correlations revealed that only VPA was associated with reduced burnout. Both the ACSM and CDC guidelines were useful to identify significant differences in burnout symptoms between students who met versus did not meet the standards. Health policy makers should develop strategies to integrate more VPA into the lives of adolescent students so as to reach a minimum of 60 min per week.

  5. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koivisto, H.; Leinonen, H.; Puurula, M.; Hafez, H. S.; Barrera Alquicer, Glenda; Stridh, M. L.; Waagepetersen, H. S.; Tiainen, M.; Soininen, P.; Zilberter, Y.; Tanila, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 16 (2016), s. 41 ISSN 1663-4365 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer’s disease * aging * memory * explorative activity * glycogen Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2016

  6. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; G?mez-Caravaca, Ana Mar?a; Fern?ndez-Guti?rrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds ...

  7. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  8. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  9. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  10. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: an exploratory prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Francis, Jill J; Campbell, Neil C; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2011-07-15

    The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilitation and goal conflict contribute to predicting primary care health professionals' provision of physical activity advice to patients with hypertension, over and above predictors of behaviour from the theory of planned behaviour. Using a prospective predictive design, at baseline we invited a random sample of 606 primary care health professionals from all primary care practices in NHS Grampian and NHS Tayside (Scotland) to complete postal questionnaires. Goal facilitation and goal conflict were measured alongside theory of planned behaviour constructs at baseline. At follow-up six months later, participants self-reported the number of patients, out of those seen in the preceding two weeks, to whom they provided physical activity advice. Forty-four primary care physicians and nurses completed measures at both time points (7.3% response rate). Goal facilitation and goal conflict improved the prediction of behaviour, accounting for substantial additional variance (5.8% and 8.4%, respectively) in behaviour over and above intention and perceived behavioural control. Health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care can be predicted by perceptions about how their conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours help and hinder giving advice, over and above theory of planned behaviour constructs. Incorporating features of multiple goal pursuit into the theory of planned behaviour may help to better understand health professional behaviour.

  11. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Neil C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilitation and goal conflict contribute to predicting primary care health professionals' provision of physical activity advice to patients with hypertension, over and above predictors of behaviour from the theory of planned behaviour. Methods Using a prospective predictive design, at baseline we invited a random sample of 606 primary care health professionals from all primary care practices in NHS Grampian and NHS Tayside (Scotland to complete postal questionnaires. Goal facilitation and goal conflict were measured alongside theory of planned behaviour constructs at baseline. At follow-up six months later, participants self-reported the number of patients, out of those seen in the preceding two weeks, to whom they provided physical activity advice. Results Forty-four primary care physicians and nurses completed measures at both time points (7.3% response rate. Goal facilitation and goal conflict improved the prediction of behaviour, accounting for substantial additional variance (5.8% and 8.4%, respectively in behaviour over and above intention and perceived behavioural control. Conclusions Health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care can be predicted by perceptions about how their conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours help and hinder giving advice, over and above theory of planned behaviour constructs. Incorporating features of multiple goal pursuit into the theory of planned behaviour may help to better

  12. Will they like me? Neural and behavioral responses to social-evaluative peer feedback in socially and non-socially anxious females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Melle J W; Harrewijn, Anita; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2018-03-07

    The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to social-evaluative feedback processing in social anxiety. Twenty-two non-socially and 17 socially anxious females (mean age = 19.57 years) participated in a Social Judgment Paradigm in which they received peer acceptance/rejection feedback that was either congruent or incongruent with their prior predictions. Results indicated that socially anxious participants believed they would receive less social acceptance feedback than non-socially anxious participants. EEG results demonstrated that unexpected social rejection feedback elicited a significant increase in theta (4-8 Hz) power relative to other feedback conditions. This theta response was only observed in non-socially anxious individuals. Together, results corroborate cognitive-behavioral studies demonstrating a negative expectancy bias in socially anxiety with respect to social evaluation. Furthermore, the present findings highlight a functional role for theta oscillatory dynamics in processing cues that convey social-evaluative threat, and this social threat-monitoring mechanism seems less sensitive in socially anxious females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrition-dependent fertility response to juvenile hormone in non-social Euodynerus foraminatus wasps and the evolutionary origin of sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Mettler, Alexander; Donajkowski, Kellie

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) proposes that the ovarian cycle in solitary insects provides the basis for social evolution, so similar mechanisms are predicted to influence reproductive plasticity in social and solitary species. Specifically, reproductive plasticity in social species originated via modification of nutrition-dependent fertility response to juvenile hormone (JH) in solitary insects. Testing this prediction requires information about the factors that influence fertility in non-social relatives of the eusocial hymenoptera. However, no previous studies have examined how JH or nutritional condition influence fertility in Eumenines, the non-social group most closely related to social wasps. Here, we find support for the RGPH, as JH increases Euodynerus foraminatus fertility. Fertility is also condition-dependent, as heavy E. foraminatus are more fertile than light E. foraminatus. In addition, we measure the factors associated with mating success in E. foraminatus, finding that multiple factors influence mating success, including male weight, male mating experience, and female age. There is also higher variance in male than female reproductive success, suggesting that males may experience substantial sexual selection in this species. Overall, the relationships between JH, body weight, and fertility in E. foraminatus support the RGPH for the origin of sociality by demonstrating that there are strong parallels in the mechanisms that mediate fertility of social and non-social wasps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  15. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  16. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  17. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: Innovative Experiences from South African Non-Social Security Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ashu Tako Nyenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibility of some social security institutions; inappropriateness of some current appeal institutions; the lack of a systematic approach in establishing appeal institutions; a limited scope of jurisdiction and powers of adjudication institutions; inconsistencies in review and/or appeal provisions in various laws; an unavailability of alternative dispute resolution procedures; and an absence of institutional independence of adjudication institutions or forums. The system is therefore in need of reform. In developing an appropriate system, much can be learned from innovative experiences in comparative South African non-social security jurisdictions on the establishment of effective and efficient dispute resolution frameworks. Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition regulation and consumer protection jurisdictions have been established to realise the constitutional rights of their users (especially the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action. They thus provide a benchmark for the development of the South African social security dispute resolution system.

  18. Perceiving emotion in non-social targets: The effect of trait empathy on emotional contagion through art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrova, Olga; Meckel, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the role of trait empathy in emotional contagion through non-social targets-art objects. Studies 1a and 1b showed that high- (compared to low-) empathy individuals are more likely to infer an artist's emotions based on the emotional valence of the artwork and, as a result, are more likely to experience the respective emotions themselves. Studies 2a and 2b experimentally manipulated artists' emotions via revealing details about their personal life. Study 3 experimentally induced positive vs. negative emotions in individuals who then wrote literary texts. These texts were shown to another sample of participants. High- (compared to low-) empathy participants were more like to accurately identify and take on the emotions ostensibly (Studies 2a and 2b) or actually (Study 3) experienced by the "artists". High-empathy individuals' enhanced sensitivity to others' emotions is not restricted to social targets, such as faces, but extends to products of the human mind, such as objects of art.

  19. Time distortion when users at-risk for social media addiction engage in non-social media tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing concern over the addictiveness of Social Media use. Additional representative indicators of impaired control are needed in order to distinguish presumed social media addiction from normal use. (1) To examine the existence of time distortion during non-social media use tasks that involve social media cues among those who may be considered at-risk for social media addiction. (2) To examine the usefulness of this distortion for at-risk vs. low/no-risk classification. We used a task that prevented Facebook use and invoked Facebook reflections (survey on self-control strategies) and subsequently measured estimated vs. actual task completion time. We captured the level of addiction using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale in the survey, and we used a common cutoff criterion to classify people as at-risk vs. low/no-risk of Facebook addiction. The at-risk group presented significant upward time estimate bias and the low/no-risk group presented significant downward time estimate bias. The bias was positively correlated with Facebook addiction scores. It was efficacious, especially when combined with self-reported estimates of extent of Facebook use, in classifying people to the two categories. Our study points to a novel, easy to obtain, and useful marker of at-risk for social media addiction, which may be considered for inclusion in diagnosis tools and procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An exploratory study of the relation of population density and agricultural activity to hematologic malignancies in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Patricia L; Watkins, John M

    2013-02-01

    Established risk factors for hematologic cancers include exposure to ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and genetic mutation; however, the potential roles of environmental and sociological factors are not well explored. As North Dakota engages in significant agricultural activity, the present investigation seeks to determine whether an association exists between the incidence of hematologic cancers and either population density or agricultural occupation for residents of south central North Dakota. The present study is a retrospective analysis. Cases of hematologic malignancies and associated pre-malignant conditions were collected from the regional Central North Dakota Cancer Registry, and analysis of study-specific demographic factors was performed. Significantly higher incidence of hematologic cancers and pre-malignant disorders was associated with residence in an "urban" county and rural city/town. Within the latter designation, there was a higher rate of self-reported agricultural occupation (40% vs 10%, P Dakota supports the need for more detailed prospective research centered on agricultural exposures.

  1. An Exploratory Study on a Chest-Worn Computer for Evaluation of Diet, Physical Activity and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smartphones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases.

  2. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennariikka eKoivisto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.

  3. Men's Preferences for Physical Activity Interventions: An Exploratory Study Using a Factorial Survey Design Created With R Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Gamble, Abigail; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-01

    Effective exercise interventions are needed to improve quality of life and decrease the impact of chronic disease. Researchers suggest males have been underrepresented in exercise intervention studies, resulting in less understanding of their exercise practices. Findings from preference survey methods suggest reasonable association between preference and behavior. The purpose of the research described in this article was to use factorial survey, a preference method, to identify the characteristics of exercise interventions most likely to appeal to male participants, so preferences might be incorporated into future intervention research. The research was guided by the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory, such that variations in individual, environmental, and behavioral factors were incorporated into vignettes. Participants included 53 adult male nonadministrative staff and contract employees at a public university in the Southeastern United States, who each scored 8 vignettes resulting in 423 observations. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of the factors. Participants scored vignettes that included exercising with a single partner, playing basketball, and exercising in the evening higher than vignettes with other options. Qualitative analysis of an open response item identified additional alternatives in group size, participant desire for coaching support, and interest in programs that incorporate a range of activity alternatives. Findings from this research were consistent with elements of social cognitive theory as applied to health promotion. Factorial surveys potentially provide a resource effective means of identifying participants' preferences for use when planning interventions. The addition of a single qualitative item helped clarify and expand findings from statistical analysis.

  4. Testing the effect of text messaging cues to promote physical activity habits: a worksite-based exploratory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, M; d'Arripe-Longueville, F; Radel, R

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to test the efficacy of text messaging cues (SMS) to promote physical activity (PA) habit formation in the workplace. Employees (N = 49; 28 females and 21 males, Mage = 47.5 ± 8.29 years) were randomized into two parallel groups: a PA group enrolled in a 28-week supervised PA program and a PA+SMS group enrolled in the same PA program with text messaging cues received before their PA sessions. The exercise habit was assessed every week from self-reports on an online application. PA maintenance and several physical fitness measures were also assessed prior to and after the intervention to evaluate its general impact. Mixed model analysis of the 603 observations indicated a small but significant effect of the SMS cues on the speed at which participants engaged in PA behaviors, as the significant interaction effect revealed that the slope of the exercise habit over time was slightly steeper in the PA+SMS group (B = 0.0462, P = 0.0001) than in the PA group (B = 0.0216, P = 0.01). SMS delivery had a marginal effect on the maintenance of PA behaviors 1 year after the intervention. The results suggest that text messaging can help to form PA habits at the workplace and might facilitate long-term maintenance of PA behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fluctuation - a common but neglected pattern of physical activity behaviour: An exploratory review of studies in recent 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Borui; Duan, Yanping; Huang, Wendy Yajun; Brehm, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is beneficial for physical and psychological well-being, yet many people do not achieve these health benefits due to irregular PA participation which is also known as fluctuation. Limited attention has been given to the phenomenon of fluctuation in the PA behaviour literature. The aim of this review was to explore and to map definitions, measurements, behavioural evidence, and factors related to PA fluctuation. Eligible studies were initially identified by a systematic search of articles conducted in four databases: Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus between January 1996 and March 2016. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set to check the eligibility of all articles. Additional articles were included by manual searching and expert recommendation. Fifteen articles were finally included. Definitions of fluctuation are understood from two perspectives, either as a stage in the process of behaviour change, or as a particular PA phenomenon consisting of lapse and readoption. Common features were extracted: behavioural irregularity, high risk of drop-out, intention and readiness for PA, low automaticity, and limited self-regulation. Furthermore, fluctuation identification was summarised in three approaches such as stage algorithm, self-identified PA lapse and readoption, and prospective within-person variation in meeting the PA guidelines. Regarding the empirical evidence, this review found that people in PA fluctuation were significantly distinct from those in preparation and maintenance of PA behavioural performance, as well as distinct in psychosocial features. Notwithstanding the limitations, this review has provided valuable insight into the phenomenon of PA fluctuation.

  6. Treatment with subthreshold doses of caffeine plus trihexyphenidyl fully restores locomotion and exploratory activity in reserpinized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Villanueva-Toledo, Jairo; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Alvarez-Cervera, Fernando; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2004-09-09

    Trihexyphenidyl (THP) is a drug commonly used to reduce parkinsonian symptoms. An important side effect of this agent is memory impairment. Since caffeine enhances the potency of THP to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy, caffeine may be used as an adjuvant of lower doses of THP, in order to improve its antiparkinsonian effects without causing memory disruption. To further assess the synergism between caffeine and THP, both drugs were tested in reserpinized rats, another preclinical model of Parkinson's disease. Four groups of rats (n = 7) were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). A control group (n = 7) was treated only with the vehicle for reserpine (dimethylsulphoxide). The spontaneous locomotor behavior was tested 24 h later in a box with infrared sensors, 30 min after receiving one of the following treatments: distilled water (1 ml/kg), caffeine (1 mg/kg), THP (0.1 mg/kg) or caffeine plus THP. The levels of horizontal locomotion (14 +/- 5%) and vertical exploration (15 +/- 10%) were significantly lower in reserpinized rats treated with distilled water, compared with the mean activity values (100%) recorded in animals pretreated only with the vehicle for reserpine. The reserpine-induced hypokinesia was neither reversed by caffeine alone nor by THP alone. However, the combination of caffeine plus THP restored locomotion (141 +/- 19%) and vertical exploration (82 +/- 17%) to levels not significantly different to those of non-reserpinized rats. Moreover, the time-course of locomotion and exploration displayed the characteristic habituation over time, in which short-term memory processes are involved. Also, the thigmotaxis index indicated that the combined treatment did not induce anxiety-like behavior. Hence, these results support the proposal that low, subthreshold doses of caffeine plus THP have the potential to alleviate the motor disabilities in parkinsonian patients, with a low risk of causing anxiety or memory impairment.

  7. Exploratory studies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL's institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation

  8. Managing exploratory innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Charue-Duboc , Florence; Aggeri , Franck; Chanal , Valérie; Garel , Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Although the concept of exploration has been widely used in management research since James March's seminal article, the literature on exploration remains rather fuzzy. The question of exploration is dominated by the literature on ambidexterity but this research actually says little about concretely managing exploratory innovation itself, although this appears to be a central concern of most industrial firms today. Based on a material (twenty presentations made in a research seminar the autho...

  9. Exploratory orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal

  10. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  11. Comparing the effects of tofacitinib, methotrexate and the combination, on bone marrow oedema, synovitis and bone erosion in methotrexate-naive, early active rheumatoid arthritis: results of an exploratory randomised MRI study incorporating semiquantitative and quantitative techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conaghan, Philip G.; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Bowes, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of tofacitinib-an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-with or without methotrexate (MTX), on MRI endpoints in MTX-naive adult patients with early active RA and synovitis in an index wrist or hand. METHODS: In this exploratory......, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + MTX, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + placebo (tofacitinib monotherapy), or MTX + placebo (MTX monotherapy), for 1 year. MRI endpoints (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score...... differences in RAMRIS bone marrow oedema (BME) at month 6 were -1.55 (90% CI -2.52 to -0.58) for tofacitinib + MTX and -1.74 (-2.72 to -0.76) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both ptofacitinib + MTX...

  12. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  13. An Exploratory Study of 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Summer Camp Participants’ Attitudes and Intentions Towards Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cater

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing problem among children, particularly school-aged youth. Research suggests children are especially prone to inactivity in the summer months when access to structured school-time and extra-curricular activities is reduced. Community programs like residential summer camps offer an excellent environment for engaging children in enjoyable physical activities while also helping them learn to be more physically active when they return home. Pre-existing attitudes often influence how much change a program inspires in an individual. The purpose of this study was to explore 4th, 5th, and 6th grade summer camp participants’ attitudes towards physical activity. Results of this study indicate that youth have a fairly neutral, though positive, attitude towards physical activity and that parental support of physical activity is still extremely important, even at this age. Campers also indicated relatively high intentions to remain physically active in the two weeks after the camp ended

  14. Use of the Pyrithiamine-Induced Thiamine Deficient Animal Model of Korsakoff’s Syndrome for Exploratory Research Activities in Undergraduate Physiological Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert W.; Hill, Jonathan E.; Sandusky, Leslie A.; Marino, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience laboratory activities frequently focus on exercises that build student’s wet/dry laboratory skills, foster critical thinking, and provide opportunities for hands-on experiences. Such activities are, without a doubt, extremely important, but sometimes fall short of modeling actual research and often lack the ‘unknown’ hypothetical nature accompanying empirical studies. In this article we report a series of research activities using an animal model of Korsakoff’s syndrome in a Physiological Psychology course. The activities involve testing hypotheses regarding performance of animals with experimentally-induced Korsakoff’s syndrome and the effectiveness of glucose as a memory-enhancer in this model. Students were given a set of 24 articles for use in answering a series of laboratory report questions regarding the activities. At the conclusion of the course, students were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess the effectiveness of the laboratory activities. Results of the laboratory exercises indicated that locomotor activity, environmental habituation, and anxiety were unaffected in the Korsakoff condition, and glucose had no effect. Results of performance in the T-maze indicated that Korsakoff animals had significantly fewer spontaneous alternations than controls, but Korsakoff animals given glucose did not reveal this difference. Results of the student assessments indicated that the activities were considered educational, challenging, and more interesting than standard laboratory activities designed to reproduce reliable phenomena. PMID:23494173

  15. Evaluating the impact of land-use density and mix on spatiotemporal urban activity patterns: an exploratory study using mobile phone data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, C.G.W.; Rietveld, P.; Koomen, E.; Tranos, E.

    2014-01-01

    Dense and mixed land-use configurations are assumed to encourage high and prolonged activity levels, which in turn are considered to be important for the condition of urban neighbourhoods. We used mobile phone usage data recorded in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as a proxy for urban activity to test

  16. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  17. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  18. Exploratory study on the effects of a robotic hand rehabilitation device on changes in grip strength and brain activity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Pegritz, Sandra; Pargfrieder, Christa; Reiter, Gudrun; Wurm, Walter; Gattringer, Thomas; Linderl-Madrutter, Regina; Neuper, Claudia; Fazekas, Franz; Grieshofer, Peter; Enzinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The brain mechanisms underlying successful recovery of hand fuenction after stroke are still not fully understood, although functional MRI (fMRI) studies underline the importance of neuronal plasticity. We explored potential changes in brain activity in 7 patients with subacute to chronic stroke (69 ± 8 years) with moderate- to high-grade distal paresis of the upper limb (Motricity Index: 59.4) after standardized robotic finger-hand rehabilitation training, in addition to conventional rehabilitation therapy for 3 weeks. Behavioral and fMRI assessments were carried out before and after training to characterize changes in brain activity and behavior. The Motricity Index (pre: 59.4, post: 67.2, P hand increased significantly after rehabilitation. On fMRI, active movement of the affected (left) hand resulted in contralesional (ie, ipsilateral) activation of the primary sensorimotor cortex prior to rehabilitation. After rehabilitation, activation appeared "normalized," including the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA). No changes and no abnormalities of activation maps were seen during movement of the unaffected hand. Subsequent region-of-interest analyses showed no significant ipsilesional activation increases after rehabilitation. Despite behavioral improvements, we failed to identify consistent patterns of functional reorganization in our sample. This warrants caution in the use of fMRI as a tool to explore neural plasticity in heterogeneous samples lacking sufficient statistical power.

  19. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  20. To be active through indoor-climbing: an exploratory feasibility study in a group of children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Thor; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    functional and cognitive benefits of 3 weeks of intensive climbing training in 11 children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 11-13 years and six of their TD peers.Method: The study was designed as a feasibility and interventional study. We evaluated the amount of time spent being physically active during the 9...... in cognitive abilities or psychological well-being in any of the groups.Conclusions: These findings show that it is possible to use climbing as means to make children with CP physically active. The improved motor abilities obtained through the training is likely reflected by increased synchronization between...... be challenged functionally and cognitively, making climbing of great potential interest in (re) habilitation settings. However, until now only few research projects have investigated the feasibility of climbing as a potential activity for heightening physical activity in children with CP and the possible...

  1. Effects of aripiprazole versus risperidone on brain activation during planning and social-emotional evaluation in schizophrenia : A single-blind randomized exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith J.; van Es, Frank; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Impaired function of prefrontal brain networks may be the source of both negative symptoms and neurocognitive problems in psychotic disorders. Whereas most antipsychotics may decrease prefrontal activation, the partial dopamine D2-receptor agonist aripiprazole is hypothesized to improve prefrontal

  2. Effect of Sex and Body Mass Index on Children's Physical Activity Intensity during Free Play at an Indoor Soft Play Center: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle A

    2017-09-12

    Background : Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods : Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results : Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% ( n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly ( p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions : Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities.

  3. Effect of Sex and Body Mass Index on Children’s Physical Activity Intensity during Free Play at an Indoor Soft Play Center: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods: Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results: Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% (n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly (p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions: Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities. PMID:28895904

  4. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koops Willem JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students’ activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students’ decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Methods Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students’ postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Results Twenty-four papers (51.6% were revised after the online discussion. The

  5. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Willem J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; de Leng, Bas A; Snoeckx, Luc H E H

    2012-08-20

    Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students' activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students' decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students' postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Twenty-four papers (51.6%) were revised after the online discussion. The discussions of the revised papers showed significantly higher

  6. An exploratory study of how sports and recreation industry personnel perceive the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese J

    2014-01-01

    To explore the perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity among children with disability in physical activity and community sports from the perspective of sports and recreation industry personnel. A convenient sample of 24 participants was recruited from delegates attending a symposium on physical activity for organisations in the sport and recreation sector in Victoria, Australia. The participants completed a brief questionnaire. Data were analysed by content analysis using an inductive approach. The participants reported 25 facilitators and 20 barriers to participation for children with disability. The top five reported facilitators were: welcoming providers, support and encouragement from parents or others, inclusive providers, adaptable approaches and accessibility of facilities. The top five reported barriers were: inaccessible facilities, non-inclusive providers, transport, lack of relevant opportunities and cost. Sports industry personnel share a similar perspective to families of potential barriers and facilitators to engagement by children with disability in physical activity and community sports. Policy change was not considered as a facilitator of physical activity, even though four of the top five facilitators identified could be implemented through local policy change. Implications for Rehabilitation There are multiple factors that interact with each other which influence the participation by children with disability in physical activity and community sports. The sports and recreation industry should consider policy change as a relevant way to facilitate participation by children with disability in physical activity. More professional development and disability engagement opportunities for sports and recreation industry personnel may help address some of the barriers to participation for children with disability experience.

  7. Trenching as an exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory trenching. Trenching is the most definitive of all subsurface exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safely and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography.Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  8. An economic and financial exploratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.H.; Kirman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic

  9. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  10. An Exploratory Analysis of the Smoking and Physical Activity Outcomes From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Exercise Assisted Reduction to Stop Smoking Intervention in Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom Paul; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Green, Colin; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Economically disadvantaged smokers not intending to stop may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing their smoking. This study assessed the effects of a behavioral intervention promoting an increase in physical activity versus usual care in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Disadvantaged smokers who wanted to reduce but not quit were randomized to either a counseling intervention of up to 12 weeks to support smoking reduction and increased physical activity (n = 49) or usual care (n = 50). Data at 16 weeks were collected for various smoking and physical activity outcomes. Primary analyses consisted of an intention to treat analysis based on complete case data. Secondary analyses explored the impact of handling missing data. Compared with controls, intervention smokers were more likely to initiate a quit attempt (36 vs. 10%; odds ratio 5.05, [95% CI: 1.10; 23.15]), and a greater proportion achieved at least 50% reduction in cigarettes smoked (63 vs. 32%; 4.21 [1.32; 13.39]). Postquit abstinence measured by exhaled carbon monoxide at 4-week follow-up showed promising differences between groups (23% vs. 6%; 4.91 [0.80; 30.24]). No benefit of intervention on physical activity was found. Secondary analyses suggested that the standard missing data assumption of "missing" being equivalent to "smoking" may be conservative resulting in a reduced intervention effect. A smoking reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged smokers which involved personal support to increase physical activity appears to be more effective than usual care in achieving reduction and may promote cessation. The effect does not appear to be influenced by an increase in physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An exploratory study of the effects of spatial working-memory load on prefrontal activation in low- and high-performing elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; van Beek, Arenda H E A; Reijs, Babette L R; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kessels, Roy P C

    2014-01-01

    Older adults show more bilateral prefrontal activation during cognitive performance than younger adults, who typically show unilateral activation. This over-recruitment has been interpreted as compensation for declining structure and function of the brain. Here we examined how the relationship between behavioral performance and prefrontal activation is modulated by different levels of working-memory load. Eighteen healthy older adults (70.8 ± 5.0 years; MMSE 29.3 ± 0.9) performed a spatial working-memory task (n-back). Oxygenated ([O2Hb]) and deoxygenated ([HHb]) hemoglobin concentration changes were registered by two functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels located over the left and right prefrontal cortex. Increased working-memory load resulted in worse performance compared to the control condition. [O2Hb] increased with rising working-memory load in both fNIRS channels. Based on the performance in the high working-memory load condition, the group was divided into low and high performers. A significant interaction effect of performance level and hemisphere on [O2Hb] increase was found, indicating that high performers were better able to keep the right prefrontal cortex engaged under high cognitive demand. Furthermore, in the low performers group, individuals with a larger decline in task performance from the control to the high working-memory load condition had a larger bilateral increase of [O2Hb]. The high performers did not show a correlation between performance decline and working-memory load related prefrontal activation changes. Thus, additional bilateral prefrontal activation in low performers did not necessarily result in better cognitive performance. Our study showed that bilateral prefrontal activation may not always be successfully compensatory. Individual behavioral performance should be taken into account to be able to distinguish successful and unsuccessful compensation or declined neural efficiency.

  12. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  13. Bi-phasic activation of the primary motor cortex by pain and its relation to pain-evoked potentials - an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisler, Lee-Bareket; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Sinai, Alon; Sprecher, Elliot; Chistyakov, Andrei V; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Moscovitz, Nadav; Granovsky, Yelena

    2017-06-15

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is a known target for brain stimulation aimed at pain alleviation in chronic pain patients, yet the mechanisms through which analgesia occurs, and the exact pain-motor interrelations are not fully understood. We used noxious contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and cortical source analysis to further explore the relevance of M1 in pain processing. Twenty-four healthy young females received brief noxious heat stimuli to their left non-dominant volar forearm, simultaneously with CHEPs recordings. Thereafter, the pain-evoked activity of M1 and a control area in the occipital cortex (OC) was analyzed and estimated using sLORETA (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). This analysis revealed two phases of M1 pain-evoked activation (phase 1: the peak at 261.5±25.7ms; phase 2: the peak at 381.3±28.3ms). Canonical correlations revealed that M1, but not the OC, was the main factor contributing to the relation with the CHEPs components. In detail, the activity magnitude of M1 first and second phases was related to the N2 and P2 amplitude, respectively. The latency of the second phase was associated with both N2 and P2 latencies. In relation to pain, the latency of M1's first activity phase was positively correlated with pain ratings, suggesting pain interference to synchronized activity in M1. Our results confirm the established relevance of the primary motor cortex to pain processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  15. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-12-30

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  16. To be active through indoor-climbing: an exploratory feasibility study in a group of children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Thor; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    beneficial effects of climbing activities in populations with functional and/or cognitive challenges. The aim of this study was therefore to test the feasibility of an intensive 3 weeks indoor-climbing training program in children with CP and typically developing (TD) peers. In addition we evaluated possible...... indoor-climbing training sessions, and climbing abilities were measured. The participants were tested in a series of physiological, psychological and cognitive tests: two times prior to and one time following the training in order to explore possible effects of the intervention.Results: The children...... in cognitive abilities or psychological well-being in any of the groups.Conclusions: These findings show that it is possible to use climbing as means to make children with CP physically active. The improved motor abilities obtained through the training is likely reflected by increased synchronization between...

  17. Amygdala activity associated with social choice in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Takuma; Mensah-Brown, Kobina; Sobota, Rosanna; Lin, Robert; Featherstone, Robert; Siegel, Steven J

    2017-08-14

    Studies suggest that the amygdala is a key region for regulation of anxiety, fear and social function. Therefore, dysfunction of the amygdala has been proposed as a potential mechanism for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. This may be due to NMDA receptor-mediated hypofunction, which is thought to be related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study, electroencephalographic amygdala activity was assessed in mice during the three-chamber social test. This activity was also evaluated following exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Vehicle-treated mice spent significantly more time in the social than the non-social chamber. This social preference was eliminated by ketamine. However, ketamine-treated mice spent significantly less time in the social chamber and significantly more time in the nonsocial chamber than vehicle-treated mice. There were no significant differences in induced powers between social and non-social chamber entries in vehicle-treated mice, except for theta frequencies, which featured greater induced theta power during non-social chamber entry. Ketamine eliminated differences in induced theta power between social and non-social chamber entries. Moreover, ketamine increased the induced gamma power during social chamber entry compared to that of vehicle-treated mice. All other frequency ranges were not significantly influenced by zone or drug condition. All significant findings were upon entry to chambers not during interaction. Results suggest that impaired function of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission can induce social impairments and amygdala dysfunction, similar to the pattern in schizophrenia. Future studies will utilize this method to evaluate mechanisms of social dysfunction and development of treatments of social impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  19. Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Physical activity and exercise dependence during inpatient treatment of longstanding eating disorders: an exploratory study of excessive and non-excessive exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rø, Øyvind; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Martinsen, Egil W

    2010-04-01

    To describe changes in physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence score during treatment of eating disorders (ED), and to explore correlations among changes in PA, exercise motivation, exercise dependence score and ED psychopathology in excessive and non-excessive exercisers. Thirty-eight adult females receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified participated in this prospective study. Assessments included accelerometer assessed PA, Exercise Dependence Scale, Reasons for Exercise Inventory, ED Examination, and ED Inventory. Amount of PA was significantly reduced in non-excessive exercisers during treatment, in excessive exercisers there was a trend towards reduced amount of PA from admission to discharge. In excessive exercisers, reduced ED psychopathology was correlated with reduction in exercise dependence score and perceived importance of exercise to regulate negative affects, but not with importance of exercise for weight/appearance. These associations were not found in non-excessive exercisers. Excessive exercise is an important issue in longstanding ED, and the excessive exercising patients need help to develop alternative strategies to regulate negative affects.

  1. An economic and financial exploratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  2. An economic and financial exploratory

    OpenAIRE

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European...

  3. Trenching as a exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safetly and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography. Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  4. Comparing the effects of tofacitinib, methotrexate and the combination, on bone marrow oedema, synovitis and bone erosion in methotrexate-naive, early active rheumatoid arthritis: results of an exploratory randomised MRI study incorporating semiquantitative and quantitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaghan, Philip G; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bowes, Michael A; Wu, Chunying; Fuerst, Thomas; van der Heijde, Désirée; Irazoque-Palazuelos, Fedra; Soto-Raices, Oscar; Hrycaj, Pawel; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhang, Richard; Wyman, Bradley T; Bradley, John D; Soma, Koshika; Wilkinson, Bethanie

    2016-06-01

    To explore the effects of tofacitinib-an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-with or without methotrexate (MTX), on MRI endpoints in MTX-naive adult patients with early active RA and synovitis in an index wrist or hand. In this exploratory, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + MTX, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + placebo (tofacitinib monotherapy), or MTX + placebo (MTX monotherapy), for 1 year. MRI endpoints (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score (RAMRIS), quantitative RAMRIS (RAMRIQ) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI) were assessed using a mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Treatment differences with ptofacitinib + MTX and -1.74 (-2.72 to -0.76) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both ptofacitinib + MTX and -0.52 (-1.46 to 0.41) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both p>0.05 vs MTX monotherapy). Treatment differences in RAMRIQ synovitis were statistically significant at month 3, consistent with DCE MRI findings. Less deterioration of RAMRIS and RAMRIQ erosive damage was seen at months 6 and 12 in both tofacitinib groups versus MTX monotherapy. These results provide consistent evidence using three different MRI technologies that tofacitinib treatment leads to early reduction of inflammation and inhibits progression of structural damage. NCT01164579. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Effect of Novel, School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) on Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescents: Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts) - An Exploratory Controlled Before-And-After Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kathryn L; Azevedo, Liane B; Bock, Susan; Weston, Matthew; George, Keith P; Batterham, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training holds promise for cardiometabolic health promotion in adolescents, but sustainable interventions must be practical and engaging. We examined the effect of a school-based multi-activity low-volume high-intensity interval training intervention on adolescents' cardiometabolic health. In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, 101 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) were recruited from four schools; two were designated as intervention sites (n = 41), and two as control (n = 60). The intervention comprised 4 to 7 repetitions of 45 s maximal effort exercise (basketball, boxing, dance and soccer drills) interspersed with 90-s rest, thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Outcomes were non-fasting blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, resting blood pressure, physical activity, twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control) was estimated for each outcome. Using magnitude-based inferences, we calculated the probability that the true population effect was beneficial, trivial, and harmful against a threshold for the minimum clinically important difference of 0.2 between-subject SDs. Mean (± SD) attendance for the intervention (expressed as percentage of available intervention sessions [n = 30]) was 77 ± 13%. Post-intervention, there were likely beneficial effects for triglycerides (-26%; 90% confidence interval -46% to 0%), waist circumference (-3.9 cm; -6.1 cm to -1.6 cm) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+16 min; -5 to 38 min), and a possibly beneficial effect for twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance (+5 shuttles; -1 to 11 shuttles) in intervention participants (vs controls). The role of elevated triglycerides and waist circumference in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome development underlines the importance of our

  6. Effect of Novel, School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT on Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescents: Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts - An Exploratory Controlled Before-And-After Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Weston

    Full Text Available Low-volume high-intensity interval training holds promise for cardiometabolic health promotion in adolescents, but sustainable interventions must be practical and engaging. We examined the effect of a school-based multi-activity low-volume high-intensity interval training intervention on adolescents' cardiometabolic health.In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, 101 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years were recruited from four schools; two were designated as intervention sites (n = 41, and two as control (n = 60. The intervention comprised 4 to 7 repetitions of 45 s maximal effort exercise (basketball, boxing, dance and soccer drills interspersed with 90-s rest, thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Outcomes were non-fasting blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, resting blood pressure, physical activity, twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control was estimated for each outcome. Using magnitude-based inferences, we calculated the probability that the true population effect was beneficial, trivial, and harmful against a threshold for the minimum clinically important difference of 0.2 between-subject SDs.Mean (± SD attendance for the intervention (expressed as percentage of available intervention sessions [n = 30] was 77 ± 13%. Post-intervention, there were likely beneficial effects for triglycerides (-26%; 90% confidence interval -46% to 0%, waist circumference (-3.9 cm; -6.1 cm to -1.6 cm and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+16 min; -5 to 38 min, and a possibly beneficial effect for twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance (+5 shuttles; -1 to 11 shuttles in intervention participants (vs controls. The role of elevated triglycerides and waist circumference in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome development underlines the importance of our

  7. Update of the exploratory report Acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bont PFH; Janus JA; Pronk MEJ; Ros JPM; ECO; PPCbv; ACT; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The report is an update of the exploratory report acrolein (Slooff et al., 1991) that served as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory meeting on acrolein in March 1992. The meeting supported the conclusion that priority should be given to the compartment air and to the risks to humans.

  8. Entrepreneurs’ Exploratory Perseverance in Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlfeld, K.S.; Urbig, Diemo; Weitzel, Utz

    We introduce “exploratory perseverance” as a novel construct that captures perseverant behavior in settings in which several alternatives can be explored and evaluated. We suggest that entrepreneurs display exploratory perseverance reflected by a tendency to keep exploring broader sets of

  9. "SIGA OS EXEMPLOS" DOS ALUNOS: APRENDIZAGENS EM AULAS EXPLORATÓRIO-INVESTIGATIVAS NO 4o. ANO DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL. "FOLLOW THE EXAMPLES" OF STUDENTS: LEARNING IN EXPLORATORY-INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITIES IN THE 4TH GRADE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamonato, Maiza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa, que objetiva analisar as aprendizagens de uma professora e de seus alunos a partir de aulas exploratório-investigativas com conteúdo geométrico, desenvolvidas em um 4º ano do Ensino Fundamental. A professora participava de um curso de formação contínua e parte das aulas realizou-se junto com a primeira autora desse artigo que era formadora no referido curso. Os dados foram constituídos em videogravações e respectivas transcrições, narrativas orais e escritas da professora, diários de campo da pesquisadora, registros escritos dos alunos e fotografias. O diálogo com a literatura teve como interlocutor diversas pesquisas que tratam da exploração-investigação matemática em aulas do Ensino Fundamental e da aprendizagem do professor adulto, sujeito de sua permanente formação. O foco da análise deu-se em três atividades desenvolvidas. Os resultados apontam que para os alunos houve aprendizagens de conteúdos geométricos, envolvendo conceitos de figuras geométricas planas, ao uso da régua e a novos modos de participação em um contexto de argumentação e negociação de significados, permeados pela oralidade e pela escrita. Além disso, para a professora as aprendizagens centraram-se nos modos de conduzir tais aulas, favorecendo a participação das crianças para questionar e argumentar sobre as suas próprias produções ou de seus colegas e relacionaram-se à sua autonomia em decidir as prioridades na escolha das atividades e no gerenciamento do tempo em sala de aula. Destaca-se que as aulas sobre figuras geométricas planas podem partir dos exemplos feitos pelos próprios alunos, distanciando-se de um ensino de representações prontas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning of a teacher and her students in classes with exploratory-investigative geometrical content, developed in the 4th year of primary education. The teacher participated of a continuous

  10. Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Drilling supervision procedure for the Exploratory Shaft Facility: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Drilling supervision will be undertaken in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) for boreholes drilled primarily for the purpose of hydrologic testing, downhole mechanical/thermal testing, sampling for laboratory testing, and for the placement of instrumentation. The primary purpose of this procedure is documentation of drilling activities prescribed by other procedures. Supervision of drilling includes designation of positions of authority, lines of communication, and methodology of supervising, monitoring, and documenting drilling and associated activities. The rationale for the specific applications of core drilling is provided by the test procedures for each activity. 2 figs

  12. Sociometric Indicators of Leadership: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Report 2015 Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis Elizabeth R. Uhl U.S. Army...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0001 5b...objectives and a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the wearable sensor technology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leadership ; Social Network; Sociometric

  13. Exploratory boreholes Juchlistock-Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Keusen, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the completion of missing geological, hydrogeological and rock-mechanical data about a suitable site for the intended Nagra rock laboratory at Grimsel. To this aim, 6 horizontal boreholes of 100 m length and 86 mm diameter were drilled. The cores, extracted practically without loss, and mechanical data for the main investigation was an extensive evaluation of the lithographic discontinuities and anisotropies, because they are the main determinant of the hydrogeological conditions of the locality. The area is dominated by granites and granodiorite which are of variable biotite content, lamprophyres and aplites. The largest part of the investigated mountain region consists of compact unclefted rock. 478 of the 600 bore meters, i.e. about 80 % of the drilled mountain, have no open clefts. Only 22 of the 600 bore meters (3.6 %0 contain more than five clefts per meter, at which the open clefts in the boreholes SB1 and SB5 appear more frequently. At the remaining exploratory boreholes in 90 % of the mountain ther are no open clefts. 15 refs., 52 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning / La lecture active en ligne: étude exploratoire sur les outils d'annotation en ligne pour l'apprentissage par l’enquête

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyan Lu; Liping Deng

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool – Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they perceived Diigo; and whether how they used Diigo was related to how they perceived it. Using annotation data and surveys in which students reported ...

  15. Fibromyalgia family and relationship impact exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Richards, Karen Lee; Chambers, Janet F; Bhowmick, Amrita

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is frequently associated with impairments in activities of daily living and work disability. Limited data have investigated the impact of fibromyalgia on relationships with family and friends. This exploratory study was designed to survey a large community sample of adults with fibromyalgia about the impact on the spouse/partner, children and close friends. A 40-question, multiple-choice survey was made available online for a two-month period, with potential participants recruited through fibromyalgia and migraine community websites. Items included questions about demographics, fibromyalgia symptoms, comorbid mood disturbance and relationship impact, including the Relationship Assessment Scale. The survey was completed by 6,126 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Using updated diagnostic criteria from the American College of Rheumatology, 91% satisfied the criteria for fibromyalgia (Fibromyalgia Severity score ≥13 and pain ≥3 months). Half of participants endorsed that fibromyalgia had mildly to moderately damaged relationship(s) with their spouse(s)/partner(s) or contributed to a break-up with a spouse or partner. Half of participants scored as not being satisfied with their current spouse/partner relationship, with satisfaction negatively affected by the presence of mood disturbance symptoms and higher fibromyalgia severity. Relationships with children and close friends were also negatively impacted for a substantial minority of participants. In addition to physical impairments that are well documented among individuals with fibromyalgia, fibromyalgia can result in a substantial negative impact on important relationships with family and close friends. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Social Entrepreneurship in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Entrepreneurship is an all-encompassing nomenclature, used for depicting the process of, bringing about social change on a major and impactful scale compared to a traditional Non-Governmental Organization (NGO.  It is an increasingly important concept in the study of voluntary, non-profit and not-for -profit organizations. Earlier, organizations addressing key social issues were assumed to be idealistic, philanthropic with entrepreneurial skills. Social Entrepreneurship in India is emerging primarily because the government is very keen on its promotion, not necessarily by funding it or by advising on it but by enabling it. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the private sector with clearly earmarked funds and full-fledged action teams have played an important role in sprucing up the image of Social Entrepreneurship. The focus of the paper is to study the growing trends of Social Entrepreneurship in India and the new initiatives taken by various Social Entrepreneurs. It also gives a brief idea of different Theories of Social Entrepreneurship. Efforts are made to provide information and an exploratory study, related to the support activities of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurial ventures in India. This may be beneficial in future empirical studies of the subject. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, NGO, Corporate Social Responsibility, India.

  17. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, Nicholas H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulkarni, Akshay G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorscher, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Habing, Clayton D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mathis, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beller, Zachary J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  18. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning / La lecture active en ligne: étude exploratoire sur les outils d'annotation en ligne pour l'apprentissage par l’enquête

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool – Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they perceived Diigo; and whether how they used Diigo was related to how they perceived it. Using annotation data and surveys in which students reported on their use and perceptions of Diigo, we found that although the tool facilitated individual annotations, the two classes used and perceived it differently. Overall, the study showed Diigo to be a promising tool for enhancing active reading in the inquiry learning process. Cette étude vise à concevoir et à faciliter la lecture active chez les élèves du secondaire grâce à l’outil d'annotation en ligne Diigo. Deux classes avec des niveaux de rendement scolaire différents ont été retenues afin qu’on examine leur manière d’annoter et leur perception de Diigo. Nous avons voulu déterminer si les deux classes diffèrent dans leur façon d’utiliser Diigo, leur perception de Diigo, et si leur manière d’utiliser Diigo était liée à leur perception. En utilisant les données d'annotation et d'enquêtes dans lesquelles les élèves relataient leur utilisation et leur perception de Diigo, nous avons constaté que, même si l'outil a facilité les annotations individuelles, les deux classes l’ont utilisé et perçu différemment. Dans l'ensemble, l'étude a montré que Diigo est un outil prometteur pour l'amélioration de la lecture active dans le processus d'apprentissage par enquête.

  19. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  20. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R ampersand D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R ampersand D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics

  2. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  3. Exploratory multivariate analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Husson, Francois; Pages, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Full of real-world case studies and practical advice, Exploratory Multivariate Analysis by Example Using R focuses on four fundamental methods of multivariate exploratory data analysis that are most suitable for applications. It covers principal component analysis (PCA) when variables are quantitative, correspondence analysis (CA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) when variables are categorical, and hierarchical cluster analysis.The authors take a geometric point of view that provides a unified vision for exploring multivariate data tables. Within this framework, they present the prin

  4. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other entity...

  5. Exploratory Practice and Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; Smith, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), a soft systems approach developed in management studies (see Checkland, 1981), can be usefully linked with Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research for language classrooms. Some compatible SSM and EP characteristics, in tandem, could enhance continual efforts to…

  6. Exploratory research and development FY90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G.

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER ampersand D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR ampersand D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER ampersand D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report

  7. Exploratory research and development FY90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report.

  8. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  9. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  10. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Paradox Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Paradox Basin located in the southeastern part of Utah. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Permian Basin in Texas and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  11. Use of tactile feedback to control exploratory movements to characterize object compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhe; Fishel, Jeremy A; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been shown to be good at using active touch to perceive subtle differences in compliance. They tend to use highly stereotypical exploratory strategies, such as applying normal force to a surface. We developed similar exploratory and perceptual algorithms for a mechatronic robotic system (Barrett arm/hand system) equipped with liquid-filled, biomimetic tactile sensors (BioTac(®) from SynTouch LLC). The distribution of force on the fingertip was measured by the electrical resistance of the conductive liquid trapped between the elastomeric skin and a cluster of four electrodes on the flat fingertip surface of the rigid core of the BioTac. These signals provided closed-loop control of exploratory movements, while the distribution of skin deformations, measured by more lateral electrodes and by the hydraulic pressure, were used to estimate material properties of objects. With this control algorithm, the robot plus tactile sensor was able to discriminate the relative compliance of various rubber samples.

  12. Using Web-Based Exploratory Tasks to Develop Intercultural Competence in a Homogeneous Cultural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This study adapted web-based exploratory tasks using WebQuests as a means of enabling students to understand and reflect on both the target and their own culture. Learners actively used various authentic resources selected to meet their linguistic and cognitive needs to complete the tasks. The aim of this study was to help Japanese university…

  13. Undesigning the Internet: An exploratory study of reducing everyday Internet connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdicks, Kelly; Ringenson, Tina; Pargman, Daniel; Kuppusamy, Vishnupriya; Lago, Patricia; Penzenstadler, Birgit; Easterbrook, Steve; Venters, Colin; Ishtiaque Ahmed, Syed

    Internet connectivity is seamlessly integrated into many of our everyday habits and activities. Despite this, previous research has highlighted that our rather excessive Internet use is not sustainable or even always socially benecial. In this paper, we carried out an exploratory study on how

  14. Infants with Down Syndrome and Their Interactions with Objects: Development of Exploratory Actions after Reaching Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    During infant development, objects and their functions are learned by means of active exploration. Factors that may influence exploration include reaching and grasping ability, object properties and the presence of developmental disorders. We assessed the development of exploratory actions in 16 typically-developing (TD) infants and 9 infants with…

  15. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  16. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  17. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  18. Academic procrastination: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Karina Nobre Sampaio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination has been understood as a dynamic phenomenon, which involves personal, behavioral and environmental issues and is characterized by the postponement of non-strategic actions. This behavior may affect the academic performance of the students. The present study aimed to describe the procrastination among university students, and identify activities that are more or less delayed and feelings reported to be procrastinating.The results indicate the frequency of procrastination among university students, as well as a list of academic tasks and unpleasant feelings postponed to procrastinate.

  19. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  20. Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Hoaglin, David C; Tukey, John W

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of variance is presented as an exploratory component of data analysis, while retaining the customary least squares fitting methods. Balanced data layouts are used to reveal key ideas and techniques for exploration. The approach emphasizes both the individual observations and the separate parts that the analysis produces. Most chapters include exercises and the appendices give selected percentage points of the Gaussian, t, F chi-squared and studentized range distributions.

  1. Planning representation for automated exploratory data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Amant, Robert; Cohen, Paul R.

    1994-03-01

    Igor is a knowledge-based system for exploratory statistical analysis of complex systems and environments. Igor has two related goals: to help automate the search for interesting patterns in data sets, and to help develop models that capture significant relationships in the data. We outline a language for Igor, based on techniques of opportunistic planning, which balances control and opportunism. We describe the application of Igor to the analysis of the behavior of Phoenix, an artificial intelligence planning system.

  2. Otolith dysfunction alters exploratory movement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Philip A; Cherep, Lucia A; Donaldson, Tia N; Brockman, Sarah N; Trainer, Alexandria D; Yoder, Ryan M; Wallace, Douglas G

    2017-05-15

    The organization of rodent exploratory behavior appears to depend on self-movement cue processing. As of yet, however, no studies have directly examined the vestibular system's contribution to the organization of exploratory movement. The current study sequentially segmented open field behavior into progressions and stops in order to characterize differences in movement organization between control and otoconia-deficient tilted mice under conditions with and without access to visual cues. Under completely dark conditions, tilted mice exhibited similar distance traveled and stop times overall, but had significantly more circuitous progressions, larger changes in heading between progressions, and less stable clustering of home bases, relative to control mice. In light conditions, control and tilted mice were similar on all measures except for the change in heading between progressions. This pattern of results is consistent with otoconia-deficient tilted mice using visual cues to compensate for impaired self-movement cue processing. This work provides the first empirical evidence that signals from the otolithic organs mediate the organization of exploratory behavior, based on a novel assessment of spatial orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the Reinforcing Value of Stimuli within Social and Non-Social Contexts in Children with and without High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melissa C.; Allman, Melissa J.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Triggs, Mandy M.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder includes impairments in social interactions. This study compared the extent to which boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys "value" engaging in activities with a parent or alone. Two different assessments that can empirically determine the relative…

  4. Design considerations for the Yucca Mountain project exploratory shaft facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, R.L. Sr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the regulatory/requirements challenges of this project which exist because this is the first facility of its kind to ever be planned, characterized, designed, and built under the purview of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency. The regulations and requirements that flow down to the Architect/Engineer (A/E) for development of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design are voluminous and unique to this project. The subsurface design and construction of the ESF underground facility may eventually become a part of the future repository facility and, if so, will require licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Fenix and Scisson of Nevada-Yucca Mountain Project (FSN-YMP) group believes that all of the UMP design and construction related activities, with good design/construct control, can be performed to meet all engineering requirements, while following a strict quality assurance program that will also meet regulatory requirements

  5. Project management plan for exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) provides the basic guidance and describes the organizational structure and procedures for the design, construction, and testing of a large-diameter Exploratory Shaft (ES) in tuffaceous media as a major element within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, which is a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, US Department of Energy (DOE). The PMP encompasses activities identified as construction phase and in situ phase testing to be conducted from the ES through September 30, 1986. Specific topics addressed are the ES project objectives, the management organization and responsibilities, functional support requirements, work plan (including quality assurance aspects), work breakdown structure, milestone schedule, logic diagram, performance criteria, cost estimates, management control systems, procurement plan, test plan, and environmental, health and safety plans

  6. Functional analysis of the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.A.; Mozhi, T.A.; Kumar, P.N.; Senderling, M.S.; Lemeshewsky, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Physical System Requirements - Exploratory Studies Facility' (PSR-ESF) was developed as part of an improved management structure and procedure initiative by the OCRWM for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. This paper discusses the development of the PSR-EF document. Based on a functional analysis approach, this document includes results in the form of boundary diagrams, function hierarchy trees, function description tables containing a compilation of requirements, architecture tree and tables, and functional flow diagrams. The approach used ensures the flowdown and traceability of relevant requirements for the ESF design process

  7. Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Design Basis Study is a scoping/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages and disadvantages of a larger second shaft. Recommendations are proposed concerning water and methane inflow values, facility layout, second shaft size, ventilation, and gassy mine requirements. 75 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Exploratory portals of research data in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Blas Nicoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a powerful tool to enhance research in education: ‘exploratory portals’, supporting effective storage, sharing and exploration of large sets of research data. The workflow is the following: data are gathered by a research group; they are then classified according to a taxonomy (the one that best fits the group’s research interest; once uploaded in the portal, they can be ‘explored’ via a combination of faceted search (enriched by Boolean operators and data mining techniques. The system can thus answer in a few seconds to sophisticated user’s queries that otherwise would require hours; it can save a session’s results and materials for sharing with other scholars or for further investigation. The paper presents a case study of exploratory portal, dealing with data on (technology-based education. The portal has effectively been used by five different research groups, to run complex investigations of data about technology integration into schools.

  9. Effect of ketamine on exploratory behaviour in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akillioglu, Kubra; Melik, Emine Babar; Melik, Enver; Boga, Ayper

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on exploratory locomotion behaviours in the Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice, which differ in their locomotion behaviours. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine at three different doses (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, 0.1 ml/10 gr body weight) was performed on adult male Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. The same volume of saline was applied to the control group. The open-field and elevated plus maze apparatus were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion. In the open-field test, Balb/c mice less spend time in the centre of the field and was decreased locomotor activity compared to C57BL/6 mice (pmice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in locomotor activity and an increase in the amount of time spent in the centre in the open-field test, compared to the control group (pmice, ketamine treatment (1 and 10 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity (pmice, the three different doses of ketamine application each caused a decrease in the frequency of centre crossing (pmice compared to C57BL/6 mice (pmice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in the open-arm activity (pmice (pmice. In contrast, a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine decreased exploratory locomotion in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, hereditary factors may play an important role in ketamine-induced responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-000111) (CRWMS M and O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M and O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the

  11. Cultural differences in human brain activity: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2014-10-01

    Psychologists have been trying to understand differences in cognition and behavior between East Asian and Western cultures within a single cognitive framework such as holistic versus analytic or interdependent versus independent processes. However, it remains unclear whether cultural differences in multiple psychological processes correspond to the same or different neural networks. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of 35 functional MRI studies to examine cultural differences in brain activity engaged in social and non-social processes. We showed that social cognitive processes are characterized by stronger activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, lateral frontal cortex and temporoparietal junction in East Asians but stronger activity in the anterior cingulate, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula in Westerners. Social affective processes are associated with stronger activity in the right dorsal lateral frontal cortex in East Asians but greater activity in the left insula and right temporal pole in Westerners. Non-social processes induce stronger activity in the left inferior parietal cortex, left middle occipital and left superior parietal cortex in East Asians but greater activations in the right lingual gyrus, right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus in Westerners. The results suggest that cultural differences in social and non-social processes are mediated by distinct neural networks. Moreover, East Asian cultures are associated with increased neural activity in the brain regions related to inference of others' mind and emotion regulation whereas Western cultures are associated with enhanced neural activity in the brain areas related to self-relevance encoding and emotional responses during social cognitive/affective processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).

  13. The Effects of an 8-Week Stabilization Exercise Program on Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Thickness and Activation as Measured With Ultrasound Imaging in Patients With Low Back Pain: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Gagnon, Dany H; Henry, Sharon M; Preuss, Richard; Dumas, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Lumbar stabilization exercise programs (LSEP) produce positive effects on clinical outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms remain relatively unexplored. Psychological and neuromuscular mechanisms can be involved, such as a better activation of the lumbar multifidus, which represents one possibility. To determine the following: (1) the effect of an LSEP on lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and activation, as measured with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), in patients with low back pain (LBP); (2) the correlation between RUSI measures and any change in clinical outcomes following the LSEP; and (3) the reliability of RUSI measures in control subjects over 8 weeks. One-arm clinical trial with healthy subjects as a control group; reliability study. LSEP delivered in a clinical setting; outcomes measured in a laboratory setting. A total of 34 patients with nonacute LBP and 28 healthy control subjects. Outcomes were measured before and after an 8-week LSEP in patients with LBP, and at the same time interval (without treatment, to assess reliability) in control subjects. Pain numeric rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index (function), as well as RUSI measures for the lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles at 3 vertebral levels (L5-S1, L4-5, and L3-4) during rest (static) and dynamic contractions (percent thickness change). Patients did not show systematic changes in RUSI measures relative to controls, even though RUSI impairments were observed at baseline (dynamic measure at L5-S1) and even though patients had significant improvements in pain and disability. Correlational analyses with these clinical outcomes suggested that patients had reduced muscle thickness at baseline that was associated with a greater reduction in disability following LSEP; however, LM activation measured at baseline showed the opposite. Static RUSI measures showed excellent reliability at the L4-5 and L3-4 levels, whereas dynamic measures were not reliable. Patients showed less muscle activation

  14. Exploratory behaviour, emotional wellbeing and childcare quality in preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Barandiaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children exploratory behaviour and the quality of structural childcare and process in preschools. The study also examined how childcare quality affects the relationship between emotional wellbeing and exploratory behaviour. The sample comprised 206 children from 40 classrooms in 20 preschools, together with their teachers. The children's age ranged between 37 and 64 months (M = 50.96, SD = 6.54. The results indicated that children cared for by more sensitive teachers engaged in more exploratory behavior. However, no moderating effect was found of teacher sensitivity on the positive relationship between exploratory behavior and wellbeing. Finally, some factors linked to the quality of structural childcare also influenced exploratory behavior, although to a lesser extent.

  15. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...] Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to the... entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program to [[Page 5028

  16. Undesigning the Internet : An exploratory study of reducing everyday Internet connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Widdicks, Kelly Victoria; Ringenson, Tina; Pargman, Daniel; Kuppusamy, Vishnupriya; Lago, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Internet connectivity is seamlessly integrated into many of our everyday habits and activities. Despite this, previous research has highlighted that our rather excessive Internet use is not sustainable or even always socially beneficial. In this paper, we carried out an exploratory study on how Internet disconnection affects our everyday lives and whether such disconnection is even possible in today’s society. Through daily surveys, we captured what Internet use means for ten participants and...

  17. The Exploratory Modeling Workbench : An open source toolkit for exploratory modeling, scenario discovery, and (multi-objective) robust decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in model-based decision support under deep uncertainty, reflected in a variety of approaches being put forward in the literature. A key idea shared among these is the use of models for exploratory rather than predictive purposes. Exploratory modeling aims at exploring

  18. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  19. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  20. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computed distributions of residual shaft drilling and construction water in the exploratory facilities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Peterson, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is studying the feasibility of constructing a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada. One activity of site characterization is the construction of two exploratory shafts. This paper contains the results of engineering analytical calculations of the potential distribution of residual construction water in the exploratory shafts and drifts and numerical calculations of the movement of the residual water and how the movement is affected by drift ventilation. In all cases the increase in rock saturation resulting from the construction water was extremely small. 11 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  2. Applying a Framework for Student Modeling in Exploratory Learning Environments: Comparing Data Representation Granularity to Handle Environment Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Lauren; Conati, Cristina; Kardan, Samad; Roll, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Interactive simulations can facilitate inquiry learning. However, similarly to other Exploratory Learning Environments, students may not always learn effectively in these unstructured environments. Thus, providing adaptive support has great potential to help improve student learning with these rich activities. Providing adaptive support requires a…

  3. An Exploratory Analysis of American Indian Children's Cultural Engagement, Fluid Cognitive Skills, and Standardized Verbal IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  5. Inter-subject phase synchronization for exploratory analysis of task-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Nomi, Jason S; Vij, Shruti G; Chang, Catie; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-08-01

    Analysis of task-based fMRI data is conventionally carried out using a hypothesis-driven approach, where blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) time courses are correlated with a hypothesized temporal structure. In some experimental designs, this temporal structure can be difficult to define. In other cases, experimenters may wish to take a more exploratory, data-driven approach to detecting task-driven BOLD activity. In this study, we demonstrate the efficiency and power of an inter-subject synchronization approach for exploratory analysis of task-based fMRI data. Combining the tools of instantaneous phase synchronization and independent component analysis, we characterize whole-brain task-driven responses in terms of group-wise similarity in temporal signal dynamics of brain networks. We applied this framework to fMRI data collected during performance of a simple motor task and a social cognitive task. Analyses using an inter-subject phase synchronization approach revealed a large number of brain networks that dynamically synchronized to various features of the task, often not predicted by the hypothesized temporal structure of the task. We suggest that this methodological framework, along with readily available tools in the fMRI community, provides a powerful exploratory, data-driven approach for analysis of task-driven BOLD activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of Educational Management for the Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Md. Mamun Habib

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research addresses educational management model for the universities. Its applicability was successfully verified and validated through survey data from leading tertiary educational institutions around the world. The proposed model was developed based on the analysis of literature, past theoretical frameworks, interviews with stakeholders. Model constructs were identified and confirmed by 493 respondents, representing university administrators, faculty and staffs, employers, and graduates. The resulting model was subsequently evaluated for accuracy and validity by multiple linear regression (MLR analysis and the structural equation modeling (SEM technique. The study revealed education development, education assessment, research development, and research assessment as four main activities in educational management. Four aspects of each activity, namely programs establishment, university culture, faculty capabilities, and facilities were investigated at strategic, planning, and operating levels. The conceptual model for the universities provides a novel approach for prospective investors or current university administrators to review and appraise their performance toward fulfillment of ultimate goals, i.e. producing high-caliber graduates and high-impact research outcomes for the betterment of the society. The research model represents two contributions to the society including human resource contribution and research contribution.

  7. The Emergence of Inclusive Exploratory Talk in Primary Students' Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Antti; Hilppo, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine a prominent type of classroom talk, exploratory talk, in primary school peer interactions. Exploratory talk has been shown to be productive in facilitating problem solving and fostering school achievement. However, within the growing body of research concerning exploratory talk, the relation between exploratory talk and…

  8. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Exploratory Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intro to exploratory data analysis. Overview of variable distributions, scatter plots, correlation analysis, GIS datasets. Use of conditional probability to examine stressor levels and impairment. Exploring correlations among multiple stressors.

  9. Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and developmental issues facing HIV and AIDS affected adolescents living in a residential care facility. Myrthe Van Vilsteren, Sadiyya Haffejee, Rabia Patel, Brett Bowman ...

  10. Dragon exploratory system on Hepatitis C Virus (DESHCV)

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava Seshadri; Maqungo, Monique; Christoffels, Alan G.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system

  11. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social marketing ... The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the ... shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts.

  12. Learning morphological phenomena of Modern Greek an exploratory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsanis, Y.; Dimitrios, A. Kokkinos; Manousopoulou, A.G.; Papakonstantinou, G.

    1996-01-01

    Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993) and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995). Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intellig...

  13. The Search Performance Evaluation and Prediction in Exploratory Search

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory search for complex search tasks requires an effective search behavior model to evaluate and predict user search performance. Few studies have investigated the relationship between user search behavior and search performance in exploratory search. This research adopts a mixed approach combining search system development, user search experiment, search query log analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to resolve the knowledge gap. Through this study, it is shown that expl...

  14. Culture's influence on consumers : exploratory behavior and risk taking

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    This theoretical paper addresses the influence of culture on risk taking and exploratory behavior. The cultural dimensions of long-term orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and masculinity (Hofstede, 1984, 2001) are hypothesized to influence risk-taking behavior in general, and, through it, exploratory consumption behavior, risk taking, and risk attitudes and perception towards specific products. We also propose an empirical study to test the emergent model. Fu...

  15. The local embeddedness of lifestyle entrepreneur: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Saleilles , Séverine; Gomez-Velasco , Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct an exploratory study, based on four exploratory cases, of lifestyle entrepreneurship. Our inquiry is focused on the topic of local embeddedness: Does the location chosen for self satisfaction comply with the local embeddedness theory or does it have a specific relationship with the territory concept? It appears that the cases are integrated in a context that is not manifested in territorial but functional terms. This mixed embeddedness can be explained by a...

  16. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  18. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  19. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  20. Psychobiological Correlates of Vaginismus: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, Elisa; Scavello, Irene; Cipriani, Sarah; Palma, Manuela; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2017-11-01

    Evidence concerning the determinants of vaginismus (V), in particular medical conditions, is inconclusive. To investigate, in a cohort of subjects consulting for female sexual dysfunction, whether there is a difference in medical and psychosocial parameters between women with V and women with other sexual complaints. A series of 255 women attending our clinic for female sexual dysfunction was consecutively recruited. V was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Lifelong and acquired V cases were included. Patients underwent a structured interview and physical, gynecologic, laboratory, and clitoral ultrasound examinations; they completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS), and the Body Uneasiness Test. V was diagnosed in 20 patients (7.8%). Women with V were significantly younger than the rest of the sample (P Vaginismus: An Exploratory Analysis. J Sex Med 2017;14:1392-1402. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  2. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  3. Microcap M&A: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Turpie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of accounting and finance literature has been devoted to the study of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As dominated by discussions relating to the gains and losses that accrue from transactions involving large public companies. This paper makes a unique contribution to the literature by investigating the M&A experience of microcap businesses. Transactions involving microcap M&A are substantially different to those involving large companies on a number of dimensions. This paper explores the determinants of microcap M&A success and pitfalls and problems from an integration perspective. Due to the paucity of research in the area an exploratory research design is employed, conducting interviews with five CEOs of companies that had each managed multiple transactions. We find microcap M&As are successful when measured against identified goals but generally take longer and cost more than expected. Further, culture and communication are key issues in determining success/failure. We also find the in-house management of integration aspects is problematic for these businesses and suggest this warrants further study.

  4. Impaired exploratory eye movements in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-03-01

    Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States); Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, NRAO Headquarters, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bassett, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 7 Fairway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Behroozi, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Jong, R. S. de [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hopp, U., E-mail: papovich@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc{sup 3} at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  6. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; Jong, R. S. de; Gawiser, E.; Hopp, U.

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc 3 at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  7. Non-negative Tensor Factorization for Robust Exploratory Big-Data Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, Boian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Djidjev, Hristo Nikolov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, large multidimensional datasets are being accumulated in almost every field. Data are: (1) collected by distributed sensor networks in real-time all over the globe, (2) produced by large-scale experimental measurements or engineering activities, (3) generated by high-performance simulations, and (4) gathered by electronic communications and socialnetwork activities, etc. Simultaneous analysis of these ultra-large heterogeneous multidimensional datasets is often critical for scientific discoveries, decision-making, emergency response, and national and global security. The importance of such analyses mandates the development of the next-generation of robust machine learning (ML) methods and tools for bigdata exploratory analysis.

  8. Environmental effects of exploratory drilling offshore Canada : environmental effects monitoring data and literature review : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, G.; Ellis, J.

    2004-10-01

    This study examined pertinent environmental effects monitoring (EEM) information and data associated with offshore exploratory and development drilling in Canada. Two approaches were used: (1) a review of scientific literature was conducted to provide a synthesis of knowledge concerning interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment; and (2) a review of pertinent Canadian EEM data was conducted to evaluate interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment. Virtually all the east coast Canadian data reviewed in the study related to the effects of multiple wells. Although the effects of drilling waste were a primary focus, the effects of accidental discharges, lights and flaring, atmospheric emissions and noise emissions were also considered. Changes in the diversity and abundance of benthic organisms were detected within 1000 metres of many drill sites. The fine particles in drilling wastes contributed to the environmental effects observed around drilling platforms, and elevated body burden concentrations of drill waste indicators were detected over larger scales in a wide range of taxonomic groups. The results of laboratory and field studies suggested a lower potential for toxicity on commercial finfish and shellfish species. However, it was observed that measuring the effects of elevated concentrations of contaminants remained a challenge due to high levels variability in literature studies. A precautionary approach to the management of seismic surveys was recommended. It was concluded that the potential cumulative impacts of exploration drilling should be considered in the context of other anthropogenic activities. 138 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Use of tactile feedback to control exploratory movements to characterize object compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eSu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been shown to be good at using active touch to perceive subtle differences in compliance. They tend to use highly stereotypical exploratory strategies, such as applying normal force to a surface. We developed similar exploratory and perceptual algorithms for a mechatronic robotic system (Barrett arm/hand system equipped with liquid-filled, biomimetic tactile sensors (BioTac® from SynTouch LLC. The distribution of force on the fingertip was measured by the electrical resistance of the conductive liquid trapped between the elastomeric skin and a cluster of four electrodes on the flat fingertip surface of the rigid core of the BioTac. These signals provided closed-loop control of exploratory movements, while the distribution of skin deformations, measured by more lateral electrodes and by the hydraulic pressure, were used to estimate material properties of objects. With this control algorithm, the robot plus tactile sensor was able to discriminate the relative compliance of various rubber samples.

  10. Mining concepts of health responsibility using text mining and exploratory graph analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Sofia; Golino, Hudson

    2018-05-24

    Occupational therapists need to know about people's beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities. The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people's views of health and responsibility at different ages. A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables. The fit of the structure estimated via the exploratory graph analysis was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory graph analysis estimated three dimensions of health responsibility: (1) creating good health habits and feeling good; (2) thinking about one's own health and wanting to improve it; and 3) adopting explicitly normative attitudes to take care of one's health. The comparison between the three dimensions among age groups showed, in general, that children and adolescents, as well as the old elderly (>73 years old) expressed ideas about personal responsibility for health less than young adults, adults and young elderly. Occupational therapists' knowledge of the concepts of health responsibility is of value when working with a patient's health, but an identified challenge is how to engage children and older persons.

  11. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  12. Competencies of Track and Field coaches. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tripolitsioti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a questionnaire to identify the knowledge and skills needed by track and field coaches in Greece to perform their role. Following standard procedures, an instrument with 42 items was constructed. Three hundred and forty nine Greek track and field coaches, who have been working 15+-2.8 y in the first and second division, aged 45+-4.4 y, participated in the study and rated the items of the questionnaire according to a Likert scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors comprising 22 competency statements: a field management techniques (7 items, b sport science (5 items, c injury prevention/crisis management (3 items; d biology (3 items; and e field training (4 items. The internal validity revealed a Cronbach’s alpha factor of 0.894 with subscales ranging from 0.657 to 0.886. Results also showed that demonstrating an understanding of specific inherent risks of sport activity and an understanding of psychology were the top rated competencies, while preparing a budget proposal and utilizing effective office procedures to handle registrations, reports, notices, etc., were the lower rated competencies. It is concluded that the questionnaire developed in this study is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the competencies of track and field coaches in Greece.

  13. Transition Icons for Time-Series Visualization and Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Paul V; Baharloo, Raheleh; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Manini, Todd M; Tighe, Patrick J; Rashidi, Parisa

    2018-03-01

    The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices that temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time-series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods that can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time-series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients. Our framework, which we call transition icons, renders common patterns in a visual format useful for understanding the shared behavior within groups of time series. Transition icons are adept at detecting and displaying subtle differences and similarities, e.g., between measurements taken from patients receiving different treatment strategies or stratified by demographics. We introduce various methods that collectively allow for exploratory analysis of groups of time series, while being free of distribution assumptions and including simple heuristics for parameter determination. Our technique extracts discrete transition patterns from symbolic aggregate approXimation representations, and compiles transition frequencies into a bag of patterns constructed for each group. These transition frequencies are normalized and aligned in icon form to intuitively display the underlying patterns. We demonstrate the transition icon technique for two time-series datasets-postoperative pain scores, and hip-worn accelerometer activity counts. We believe transition icons can be an important tool for researchers approaching time-series data, as they give rich and intuitive information about collective time-series behaviors.

  14. The physiology of the normal human breast: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dixie; Gordon, Eva J; Casano, Ashley; Lahti, Sarah Michelle; Nguyen, Tinh; Preston, Alex; Tondre, Julie; Wu, Kuan; Yanase, Tiffany; Chan, Henry; Chia, David; Esfandiari, Mahtash; Himmel, Tiffany; Love, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    The physiology of the nonlactating human breast likely plays a key role in factors that contribute to the etiology of breast cancer and other breast conditions. Although there has been extensive research into the physiology of lactation, few reports explore the physiology of the resting mammary gland, including mechanisms by which compounds such as hormones, drugs, and potential carcinogens enter the breast ducts. The purpose of this study was to explore transport of exogenous drugs into ductal fluid in nonlactating women and determine if their concentrations in the fluid are similar to those observed in the breast milk of lactating women. We selected two compounds that have been well characterized during lactation, caffeine and cimetidine. Caffeine passively diffuses into breast milk, but cimetidine is actively transported and concentrated in breast milk. After ingestion of caffeine and cimetidine, 14 nonlactating subjects had blood drawn and underwent ductal lavage at five time points over 12 h to measure drug levels in the fluid and blood. The concentrations of both caffeine and cimetidine in lavage fluid were substantially less than those observed in breast milk. Our results support recent evidence that the cimetidine transporter is not expressed in the nonlactating mammary gland, and highlight intriguing differences in the physiology and molecular transport of the lactating and nonlactating breast. The findings of this exploratory study warrant further exploration into the physiology of the nonlactating mammary gland to elucidate factors involved in disease initiation and progression.

  15. Community Pharmacists’ Awareness of Intimate Partner Violence: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang, M.D., Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a serious public health problem, impacting more than 12 million people in the United States each year. The only know effective health care intervention is routine screening for IPV exposure; however, this intervention has been poorly adopted. Expansion of screening efforts to the community pharmacy setting provides an opportunity to have a substantial impact on the health and well-being of pharmacy patients. However, little is known about pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to IPV.Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of community pharmacists’ current level of knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and intentions related to IPV and to IPV screening.Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was conducted. Surveys were distributed via email. Descriptive analyses of survey responses were conducted.Results: A total of 144 community pharmacists completed the survey. Results indicated most (67.4% had no IPV education/training. Participants were significantly more willing to conduct screening with targeted patients compared to all patients. (X2=129.62; df=36; p<0.0001. There was strong agreement with interest in and willingness to participate in continuing education.Conclusions: Most respondents indicated relatively low levels of IPV knowledge and training and very little current IPV screening activity. Continuing education on IPV should be considered for pharmacists to increase knowledge and awareness of IPV.

  16. Environmental issues and solutions for exploratory drilling in sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Chevron USA Production Company (CPDN), the National Forest Service (FS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) successfully utilized a multi-disciplinary team approach to design and implement innovative environmental solutions to drill the 8,000 foot deep, Hunter Creek exploratory well. The project was located in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, less than 20 miles from Grand Teton National Park. Acquiring permission from the FS, the BLM, and ultimately, the public to drill the Hunter Creek well involved substantial teamwork in identifying many potential, environmental pitfalls. Creative, workable and cost-effective mitigation measures employed at Hunter Creek included: utilizing a helicopter and limiting vehicle use of an existing road, conducting environmental and safety training, an erosion control and reclamation plan, designing an environmentally friendly, near-zero-discharge drilling location, initiating a water quality monitoring program to establish baseline data and to ensure protection of surface and ground water, designing a waste minimization plan, identifying threatened and endangered and special status species possibly affected by project activities, and ensuring compliance with all mitigation measures and Federal and State regulations. The Hunter Creek project successfully demonstrates that oil and gas exploration can be conducted with a soft footprint in environmentally sensitive areas if mitigation measures are front-end loaded in the project and honored by all personnel involved. Teamwork, training and communication were found to be indispensable components of achieving success at Hunter Creek

  17. Shopping versus Nature? An Exploratory Study of Everyday Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tony P; Fischer, Anke; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing volume of empirical research shows that being in nature is important for human wellbeing, the definition of what constitutes an 'experience in nature,' and how this is different from other types of experiences, is very often left implied. In this paper we contrast everyday experiences involving nature with a category of everyday experience in which most people regularly partake. We present an exploratory study in which people ( N = 357) were explicitly asked to describe a memory they had of an everyday 'experience which involved nature,' as well as an everyday 'experience which involved shopping.' The open-ended responses to these questions were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Nature experiences were generally found to be more positive than shopping experiences, and they were more likely to be rated as 'peaceful' and 'active' compared to shopping experiences. Follow-up analyses indicate a significant interaction between experience category (nature or shopping), and the relationship between connectedness to nature and the amount of pleasure associated with that experience: The more strongly connected to nature a respondent was, the larger the disparity between the pleasantness of the shopping experience and that of the experience in nature tended to be.

  18. Mapping Smart Regions. An Exploratory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an exploratory approach aimed at extending the ranking procedures normally used in studying the socioeconomics determinants of smart growth at the regional level.   Most of these studies adopt a methodological procedure which essentially consists of the following steps: a identification of the pertinent elementary indicators according to the study objectives; b data selection and processing; c combination of the elementary indicators by multivariate statistical techniques aimed at obtaining a robust synthetic index to rank the observation units. In the procedure a relational dimension is mainly subsumed in the system oriented perspective adopted in selecting the indicators which would best represent the system determinants depending on the goals of the analysis (step a.  In order to get deeper insights into the smartness profile of the European regions, this study makes an effort to account of the relational dimension also in steps b and c of the procedure. The novelties of the proposed approach are twofold. First, by computing region-to-region distances associated with the selected indicators it extends the conventional ranking procedure (step c. Second, it uses a relational database (step b, dealing with the regional participation to the FP7-ICT project, to modify the distances and investigate its impact on the interpretation of the regional positioning.  The main results of this exercise seem to suggest that regional collaborations would have a positive role in regional convergence process. By providing an opportunity to get contacts with the areas endowed with a comparatively more robust smartness profile, regions may have a chance to enhance their own smartness profile.

  19. Best practices in road transport: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández Vázquez-Noguerol

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Road transport aspects are becoming increasingly important due to their high impact on economic, environmental and social sustainability. Considering the triple bottom line approach, best practices play a fundamental role within organisations. The purpose of this paper is to analyse several sustainable initiatives in road transport adopted by companies. Design/methodology/approach: The findings were developed and evaluated based on empirical data captured through a survey of 98 professionals involved in logistics and transport activities. Additionally, key literature on transport initiatives was reviewed to supplement the framework for the implementation of best practices in road transport. Findings: The exploratory study shows the importance of each best practice and determines the level of implementation of each initiative, comparing the results among different dealers (retailers, wholesalers, carriers and manufacturers, type of transport fleet and companies’ revenues. Research limitations/implications: The sample of 98 companies was based on simple search filters and the group is not wholly representative of all sectors. Respondents were mainly managers from Spain involved in logistics and transport activities. Surveyed companies included manufacturing, retailers, wholesalers and third-party logistics providers. Practical implications: The most common best practices in road transport are identified, including initiatives related to: efficiency, reusability, safety, optimization, emissions, waste and recycling. Initiatives that influence road transport are ranked by their degree of implementation in the companies analysed.  Social implications: Implementation of some of these best practices may help lessen negative impacts of road transport on society and the environment. Originality/value: The study results indicate which practices are most frequently used and their level of implementation depending on companies’ roles in the

  20. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area

  1. Subconscious responses to fear-appeal health warnings: An exploratory study of cigarette packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Boshoff

    2017-04-01

    Aim: In this exploratory study, the ability of fear-based pictures and text messages on cigarette packaging to create emotional arousal among consumers is explored. Methods: Galvanic skin response and eye-tracking methodologies were used. Results: The results indicate that both fear-based pictures and fear-based text messages activated arousal among consumers. Conclusion: The extent of arousal is influenced (at least to some extent by both gender and whether or not the viewer is a smoker.

  2. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  3. Exploratory Bi-factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    OpenAIRE

    Jennrich, Robert L.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford (1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler (2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis that does not require one to provide an explicit bi-factor structure a priori. They use exploratory factor analysis and a bi-factor rotation criterion designed to produce a rotated loading mat...

  4. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV's). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EV's. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  5. Ventilation design for Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurani, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada approximately 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, is currently the site of intensive surface-based and underground investigations. The investigations are required to determine if the site is suitable for long term isolation of the Nation's high level nuclear waste inventory. A major component of the program is the Exploratory Studies Facility, or ESF. The ESF, when completed, will consist of approximately 25,600 meters of tunnels and drifts. The network of tunnels and drifts will house and support a wide array of testing programs conceived to provide physical information about the site. Information on geologic, geomechanical, and hydrologic data will be used in the repository design if the site is found suitable. Besides a few special requirements, the general ESF ventilation criteria during construction are similar to that of commercial tunneling and mining operations. The minimum air velocity at the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) and other active mining faces is 0.51 meter per second (m/s) (100 feet per minute [fpm]). Airways, estimated leakages and ventilation controls are converted into equivalent resistances for input to mine ventilation network computer simulations. VNETPC Version 3.1 computer software is used to generate the ventilation models for optimized system design and component selection. Subsequently, actual performance of the ventilation system will be verified and validated to comply with applicable nuclear regulatory quality assurance requirements. Dust control in the ESF is dependent on effective dust collection, enclosure, and airflow dilution. Minimum use of water, as feasible, is necessary to avoid adding moisture to the potential repository horizon. The limitation of water use for test drilling and TBM operation, and the rigid compliance with applicable federal and state regulations, make the ESF a ventilation design challenge

  6. Empowered to Play: A Case Study Describing the Impact of Powered Mobility on the Exploratory Play of Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonday, Amshuda; Gretschel, Pam

    2016-03-01

    Exploratory play is one of the most vital ways in which children learn about their environment and develop. It is well documented that limited mobility restricts a child's ability to engage in their environment through exploratory play. In this study, a qualitative, collective case study design explored the impact of powered mobility on the exploratory play of two children with physical disabilities. Data were collected from the children, their parents and their siblings through participant observation and in-depth, informal interviews. This paper focuses on two themes: Opportunity to Play revealed how powered mobility increased opportunities for the children to become more actively engaged in exploratory play with others across a wider array of contexts, and My Child was Transformed highlighted significant changes in the affect and motivation of each child, which seemed to be linked to their increased internal control over their play choices. The findings suggest that the provision of powered mobility is a key contributor promoting the participation of physically disabled children in exploratory play. Because of undergraduate curricular constraints, a limitation of this study was that data were only confined to 2 months; affecting the depth of data gained that prolonged engagement would have offered. The study recommends for occupational therapy practice that occupational therapists advocate for easier access to powered mobility through governmental and policy means. The study also recommends further research be conducted on the experiences of the caregivers on how these powered mobility devices have influenced their day-to-day occupations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Normal social seeking behavior, hypoactivity and reduced exploratory range in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Lawrence T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angelman syndrome (AS is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe developmental delay with mental retardation, a generally happy disposition, ataxia and characteristic behaviors such as inappropriate laughter, social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity. The majority of AS cases are due to loss of the maternal copy of the UBE3A gene. Maternal Ube3a deficiency (Ube3am-/p+, as well as complete loss of Ube3a expression (Ube3am-/p-, have been reproduced in the mouse model used here. Results Here we asked if two characteristic AS phenotypes - social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity - are reproduced in the Ube3a deficient mouse model of AS. We quantified social-seeking behavior as time spent in close proximity to a stranger mouse and activity as total time spent moving during exploration, movement speed and total length of the exploratory path. Mice of all three genotypes (Ube3am+/p+, Ube3am-/p+, Ube3am-/p- were tested and found to spend the same amount of time in close proximity to the stranger, indicating that Ube3a deficiency in mice does not result in increased social seeking behavior or social dis-inhibition. Also, Ube3a deficient mice were hypoactive compared to their wild-type littermates as shown by significantly lower levels of activity, slower movement velocities, shorter exploratory paths and a reduced exploratory range. Conclusions Although hyperactivity and social-seeking behavior are characteristic phenotypes of Angelman Syndrome in humans, the Ube3a deficient mouse model does not reproduce these phenotypes in comparison to their wild-type littermates. These phenotypic differences may be explained by differences in the size of the genetic defect as ~70% of AS patients have a deletion that includes several other genes surrounding the UBE3A locus.

  8. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  9. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  10. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  11. Caring Leadership in Schools: Findings from Exploratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Murphy, Joseph; Smylie, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article (1) analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership and (2) reports the results of an exploratory analysis of the relationship of caring principal leadership to school-level supports for student academic learning.…

  12. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Gulf Interior Region of the United States (Louisiana and Mississippi). Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Permian Basin in Texas) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in-situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homoqeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptural design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  13. Sustaining Latina Student Organizations: An Exploratory Instrumental Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the exploratory case study methodology, the author examines the conditions that support and limit a Latina-based student organization at a predominately White institution of higher education. Seven organizational structures were found to influence the organization's ability to advance its aims, from interviews, documents, observations,…

  14. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory tools in groundwater surveys. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... An analysis of the spatial variation of these parameters indicates that the EC and pH values of groundwater allow us to make deductions not only on the changes in the ...

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  16. An exploratory survey of male and female learner opinions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory survey was undertaken to determine whether secondary school learners have certain preferences regarding the biology they study at school and whether learners from co-educational and single-sex schools hold the same opinions. A survey schedule comprising two components was developed. The first ...

  17. Ignition potential of muzzle-loading firearms: An exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Haston; Mark A. Finney; Andy Horcher; Philip A. Yates; Kahlil Detrich

    2009-01-01

    The National Technology and Development Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, was asked to conduct an exploratory study on the ignition potential of muzzle-loading firearms. The five independent variables investigated include projectile type, powder type, powder load, patch thickness, and patch lubricant treatment. Indoor testing was performed...

  18. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  19. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  20. Exploratory Manipulation and Play in the Human Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    Reports a series of studies conducted to investigate possible differences in the exploratory manipulation and play behavior of human infants 7-1/2- 11-1/2 months of age as a function of the attributes of the stimulus, the familiarity of the subject with the stimuli, the age and sex of the infants, and individual differences. (Author/CS)

  1. An Exploratory Product Evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This study is an exploratory product evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme (MMSP). A mixed methodology was used to explore intended, unintended, positive and negative outcomes for four Key Stage 2 (KS2) children with motor skills difficulties who participated in the MMSP. The children's motor skills, social skills and self-esteem…

  2. English Language Learners in Higher Education: An Exploratory Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jamie; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an exploratory conversation between a newly hired assistant professor of ESOL Education and one of her graduate level students taking the methods and materials course. The graduate student was an English learner (international student), and therefore offered this new professor an opportunity to explore her practice of…

  3. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  4. Hidden multiplicity in exploratory multiway ANOVA: Prevalence and remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, A.O.J.; van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Matzke, D.; Steingroever, H.; Wetzels, R.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Waldorp, L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Many psychologists do not realize that exploratory use of the popular multiway analysis of variance harbors a multiple-comparison problem. In the case of two factors, three separate null hypotheses are subject to test (i.e., two main effects and one interaction). Consequently, the probability of at

  5. Characterization testing support requirements for the exploratory shaft facility at Yucca mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.; Klkins, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The National waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended on December 22, 1987, requires that before proceeding to sink exploratory shafts at the Yucca Mountain site, the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) shall submit to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and to the Governor of Nevada or Legislature of the State of Nevada, for their review and comment, a general plane for the characterization activities to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain site. DOE submitted a Site Characterization Plan in December of 1988. This plan outlines activities to be undertaken by DOE to characterize the Yucca Mountain site as potentially the first national repository for the permanent isolation of high-level radioactive waste as well as the quality assurance (QA) program that will be applied on this project. The DOE plans to utilize an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) to gain access to the underground environment and conduct characterization, construction, and mining-method evaluation and performance-related tests. This paper identifies the types of ESF tests to be performed, test requirements with respect to facility design, and the management of the testing program. An important ESF test program element is the design, installation, and management of an Integrated Data System (IDS), an automated system for collecting and recording test data for many of the tests. The rationale used in developing the facility and methodology used to develop testing and IDS requirements are also discussed in this paper

  6. An exploratory examination of philanthropy in the New Zealand, Spanish and US wine industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Forbes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study provides an insight into the concept of philanthropy and how it is applied in the context of wineries. Researchers in three nations interviewed winery owners or managers to obtain qualitative data; this data was categorised to identify common themes, similarities and differences across wineries or nations. Our findings indicate that all the wineries are undertaking philanthropic activities, ranging from donations of wine, time, cash or facilities, to organising or participating in events. These activities are primarily driven by altruistic rather than strategic motivations, and the predominant benefits achieved from philanthropy are personal satisfaction rather than financial. Although only a small number of wineries were interviewed (11, this study of philanthropy is unique as it has examined both small and large businesses operating in a single industry sector, across multiple nations. Whilst the small sample is an obvious limitation of this study, future quantitative research with a larger sample will determine the degree to which these exploratory findings can be deemed to represent the global wine industry. Keywords: Philanthropy, Wine industry, Motives, Benefits, Cross-cultural

  7. Modeling in support of Corridor Resources Old Harry exploratory drilling environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    During offshore petroleum activities, oil spills can occur and lead to significant environmental impacts. Corridor Resources Inc. is in the process of obtaining a license for exploratory drilling activities in the Old Harry and the aim of this study is to determine what would be the behavior and trajectory of any oil spill from these activities. Two types of spill were studied, sub-sea and surface spills. Modeling was carried out using Cohasset oil from the Scotian Basin, the properties of which are thought to be close to those of Old Harry oil, and the blowout rates were determined using reservoir information. Results showed that subsea blowouts would result in wide and thin surface slicks near the source while surface blowouts would be narrow and thick; surface slicks would persist over a 5km range from the source before dispersion.

  8. Internet usage among women with breast cancer: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Koski, S; Hanson, J; Bruera, E D; Mackey, J R

    2000-07-01

    An increasing number of breast cancer patients are accessing the Internet for medical information. A survey was administered to breast cancer patients and their families attending follow-up outpatient clinics in a comprehensive cancer care center to explore their frequency of Internet use, their motivation for online activity, the type of information they sought, and the perceived impact of the information they found on the Internet on their medical care. The survey was conducted over a 4-month period. A total of 107 surveys were returned. Seventy-nine of these (74%) were from patients while 28 (26%) were from family members and friends. Thirty-four of the patient responses (43%) indicated that the patient had used the Internet to look for cancer-related information. Patients who had used the Internet to access cancer-related information were significantly younger (P = 0.007), better educated (P = 0.027), and less satisfied with the amount of treatment-related information given by caregivers than those patients who had not used the Internet to access cancer-related information (P = 0.032). The majority of patient Internet users desired more information on their cancer and its treatment (91%), looked up information that was presented to them by their clinicians (66%), researched other treatment options (63%), and obtained more information on "alternative treatments" (63%). Patient Internet users generally found the cancer-related information on the Internet to be useful, and the majority discussed Internet-derived information with their health care providers and perceived that clinicians listened to such information. However, 53% were undecided about the trustworthiness of the medical information obtained via the Internet. Internet nonusers commonly lacked Internet access (53%) or were unfamiliar with the Internet (33%), but few (13%) distrusted Internet-derived information. This exploratory study underscores the need for more research in this area, specifically

  9. Geologic Results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Vicki S.; Eichelberger, John C.; Keskinen, Mary J.; Layer, Paul W.

    1992-03-24

    As a deep well in the center of a major Quaternary caldera, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) provides a new perspective on the relationship between hydrothermal circulation and a large crustal magma chamber. It also provides an important test of models for the subsurface structure of active continental calderas. Results will impact geothermal exploration, assessment, and management of the Long Valley resource and should be applicable to other igneous-related geothermal systems. Our task is to use the cuttings and core from LVEW to interpret the evolution of the central caldera region, with emphasis on evidence of current hydrothermal conditions and circulation. LVEW has reached a depth of 2313 m, passing through post-caldera extrusives and the intracaldera Bishop Tuff to bottom in the Mt. Morrison roof pendant of the Sierran basement. The base of the section of Quaternary volcanic rocks related to Long Valley Caldera was encountered at 1800 m of which 1178 m is Bishop Tuff. The lithologies sampled generally support the classic view of large intercontinental calderas as piston-cylinder-like structures. In this model, the roof of the huge magma chamber, like an ill-fitting piston, broke and sank 2 km along a ring fracture system that simultaneously and explosively leaked magma as Bishop Tuff. Results from LVEW which support this model are the presence of intact basement at depth at the center of the caldera, the presence of a thick Bishop Tuff section, and textural evidence that the tuff encountered is not near-vent despite its central caldera location. An unexpected observation was the presence of rhyolite intrusions within the tuff with a cumulative apparent thickness in excess of 300 m. Chemical analyses indicate that these are high-silica, high-barium rhyolites. Preliminary {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses determined an age of 626 {+-} 38 ka (this paper). These observations would indicate that the intrusions belong to the early post-collapse episode of

  10. The Impact of Student Self-Efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in "River City," a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and…

  11. Technical correspondence in support of an evaluation of the hydrologic effects of exploratory shaft facility construction at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, A.C.; Eaton, R.R.; Russo, A.J.; Lewin, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    This document comprises four letter reports containing information that has been used in preparing the plan to characterize the site of the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain. The Yucca Mountain Project is studying the feasibility of constructing a high-level nuclear waste repository in the Topopah Spring Unit of the Paintbrush Tuff. One activity of site characterization is the construction of two exploratory shafts. The information in this report pertains to (1) engineering calculations of the potential distribution of residual water from constructing the exploratory shafts and drifts, (2) numerical calculations predicting the movement of the residual construction water from the shaft walls into the rock, (3) numerical calculations of the movement of the residual water and how the movement is affected by ventilation, and (4) measurement of the movement of water into a welded tuff core when a pulse of water pressure is applied to a laboratory test sample for a short time (100 min)

  12. Characterizing the technology firm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Goldman, Arieh

    Technology firms occupy a central position in modern economies. They drive economic growth, productivity gains and have created new industries and innovative products. Many will agree that technology firms are distinguished from others in their emphasis on technological activities. Since this

  13. Exploratory Landscape Metrics for Agricultural Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, E; de Noronha, M.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic growth and urban change have been an increasing concern for decision makers in recent decades. The monitoring, mapping, and analysis of agricultural land use change, especially in areas where urban change has been high, is crucial. The collision between traditional economic activities

  14. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  15. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-05-23

    To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability

  16. SUBLIMINAL MARKETING: AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    HUSSIN HEJASE; BASSAM HAMDAR; GEORGE FARHA; ROULA BOUDIAB; NOURI BEYROUTI

    2013-01-01

    Marketing advertising is one of the fundamental activities performed by all businesses. Millions of dollars are budgeted to attract new customers and to retain current customers. However, there has been a continuous debate among marketers about the use of subliminal messages in advertising. Many believe in the power of the subconscious and propose that subliminal messages are hidden in ads and are addressed to that hidden part of the brain. Although researches in this field have not proven th...

  17. An Exploratory Study Investigating How and Why Managers Use Tablets to Support Managerial Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers are often mobile and a large proportion of their work is dealing with decisions. Although many managers currently use tablet computers in their work, there is little research on the use of tablets for managerial decision-support. This exploratory study aims to investigate the ways in which managers use tablets to support their decision-making and the reasons why they do so. Using Task-Technology Fit theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 managers, 17 of whom used tablets for their work-related decision-making. The study reveals managers’ tablet usage patterns in terms of location, tablet applications, decision activities and types. This study has also found that a range of tablet characteristics and decision-task characteristics affect managers’ use of tablets to support decision-making at work. This exploratory study contributes to both academia and industry by providing evidence on the tablet decision-support area, and affording organisations, tablet vendors and tablet application developers informative findings for further improvement in the provision of tablet-based decision support.

  18. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EVs). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL`s Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

  19. Towards peer education prevention of school dropout: An exploratory analysis of an action-research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.

  20. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  1. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  2. THE EWOM ON FACEBOOK: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF CONSUMER MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah do Espírito Santo Serra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the gratifications sought (manifest and latent motives and those obtained from Facebook users who engage in practices of electronic Word of mouth (eWOM presents and defends the relevance of an exploratory qualitative study as a first step of research based on the theory of uses and gratifications. The text provides a detailed account and justification of the research design and reports the overall results more relevant research.

  3. Joint Venture Manufacturing in China : an Exploratory Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lihong; Goffin, Keith

    1999-01-01

    International joint venture (IJV) manufacturing is important for both the Chinese economy and a large number of foreign investors. A review of the literature from both Western and Chinese researchers showed that although the purpose and advantages of IJV manufacturing in China are known, a vital aspect – operations management – has largely been ignored. Therefore, exploratory interviews with managers at six companies were conducted to investigate the operations management is...

  4. Career exploration in Mozambique : exploratory study with secondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Ussene, Camilo; Taveira, Maria do Céu

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a larger research project on the evaluation of career intervention needs in Mozambique. It consists of an exploratory study of the career exploration process of Mozambican students attending the 12th grade. The results of the construct validity and clustering analyses of the responses to the Career Exploration Survey (CES; Stumpf, Colarelli, & Hartman, 1983) are discussed, in the light of the career exploration theory and empirical research, namely the cognitive-motiva...

  5. Gender inequality and economic growth in Spain: an exploratory analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Martín, Rafael; Guijarro Garvi, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the geometric variant of the Gender-Related Development Index with that of the Human Development Index for Spanish provinces (EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics-3, NUTS-3) in 1959, 1981, and 1999. The main objective is to carry out an exploratory analysis of the relationship between these indices and two alternative indices of gender inequality--the Relative Status of Women and the Gender Inequality Index. An analysis of the relationship between thes...

  6. Digital Storytelling and Employer Branding. An Exploratory Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia CRIȘAN; Dumitru BORȚUN

    2017-01-01

    Our paper aims at explaining what is digital storytelling and its particular methodology, and how its use in the organizational settings could influence the employer branding. For such purpose, the authors have conducted an exploratory research, where a group of participants has been asked to rate their interest in a company, after viewing solely the online commercial communication (website and Facebook account), while another group has viewed two digital stories produced by two employees of ...

  7. The extended teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study. Study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.; Nihlwing, Christer; Helgar, Stein; Olsen, Asle; Kvilesjoe, Hans Oeyvind; Meyer, Geir; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-09-01

    The report documents the study plan for the Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study, which is performed within the Extended Teamwork HRP research program. The purpose of the research program is to generate ideas on how teamwork in nuclear power plants may be affected by the introduction of new operational concepts. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study contributes with empirical knowledge on the effect of a new operational concept, implying increased automation levels, changed operator roles, redefined competence requirements to the operators, and new technologies to support co-operation, on teamwork. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study covered occurrences during the early transition phase, i.e., from the time the operators are introduced to the possible future operational environment, to the time they have completed the twelve scenarios comprised by the study. The study assessed how familiarity with operation in the possible future operational environment may affect the extent and quality of co-operation. The report accounts for the motivation for performing the exploratory study, and explains the research question. It describes the theoretical approach, which is based on Co-operation Theory, the human-centered automation approach, and theories on co-operation across distances, and introduces the concept extended teamwork. It also describes the method applied: it provides a detailed description of the possible future operational environment, including requirements with respect to autonomy and authority - both for humans and for automatic agents, and describes the technology applied to support co-operation in the control-room team. In addition, all measurement techniques applied in the study are accounted for (system logs, questionnaires, interviews, etc.). (Author)

  8. Trade Mark Cluttering: An Exploratory Report Commissioned by UKIPO

    OpenAIRE

    von Graevenitz, Georg; Greenhalgh, Christine; Helmers, Christian; Schautschick, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the problem of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The report consists of two parts: the first presents a conceptual discussion of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The second part provides an exploratory empirical analysis of trade mark applications at the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) and the European trade mark office (OHIM). This part contains results of a descriptive and an econometric analysis. According to our definition, cluttering arises where fir...

  9. An Exploratory Note on Interstate Living-Cost Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    1985-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to identify factors that systematically influence interstate living-cost differentials. Living costs refer to the average cost of living for a four-person family in each of the 50 states. For the year 1977, the living cost level is found to be an increasing function of population density, average income, and the degree of urbanization, while being a decreasing function of the presence of right-to-work laws.

  10. The Measurand Framework: Scaling Exploratory Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; MacLean, L. S.; Kappler, K. N.; Bleier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005 QuakeFinder (QF) has acquired a unique dataset with outstanding spatial and temporal sampling of earth's time varying magnetic field along several active fault systems. This QF network consists of 124 stations in California and 45 stations along fault zones in Greece, Taiwan, Peru, Chile and Indonesia. Each station is equipped with three feedback induction magnetometers, two ion sensors, a 4 Hz geophone, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. Data are continuously recorded at 50 Hz with GPS timing and transmitted daily to the QF data center in California for analysis. QF is attempting to detect and characterize anomalous EM activity occurring ahead of earthquakes. In order to analyze this sizable dataset, QF has developed an analytical framework to support processing the time series input data and hypothesis testing to evaluate the statistical significance of potential precursory signals. The framework was developed with a need to support legacy, in-house processing but with an eye towards big-data processing with Apache Spark and other modern big data technologies. In this presentation, we describe our framework, which supports rapid experimentation and iteration of candidate signal processing techniques via modular data transformation stages, tracking of provenance, and automatic re-computation of downstream data when upstream data is updated. Furthermore, we discuss how the processing modules can be ported to big data platforms like Apache Spark and demonstrate a migration path from local, in-house processing to cloud-friendly processing.

  11. Charting the expansion of strategic exploratory behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Sasse, Stephanie F; Garrad, Megan C; Drysdale, Andrew T; Abi Akar, Nadine; Insel, Catherine; Wilson, Robert C

    2017-02-01

    Although models of exploratory decision making implicate a suite of strategies that guide the pursuit of information, the developmental emergence of these strategies remains poorly understood. This study takes an interdisciplinary perspective, merging computational decision making and developmental approaches to characterize age-related shifts in exploratory strategy from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 149 12-28-year-olds who completed a computational explore-exploit paradigm that manipulated reward value, information value, and decision horizon (i.e., the utility that information holds for future choices). Strategic directed exploration, defined as information seeking selective for long time horizons, emerged during adolescence and maintained its level through early adulthood. This age difference was partially driven by adolescents valuing immediate reward over new information. Strategic random exploration, defined as stochastic choice behavior selective for long time horizons, was invoked at comparable levels over the age range, and predicted individual differences in attitudes toward risk taking in daily life within the adolescent portion of the sample. Collectively, these findings reveal an expansion of the diversity of strategic exploration over development, implicate distinct mechanisms for directed and random exploratory strategies, and suggest novel mechanisms for adolescent-typical shifts in decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Exploratory shaft facility: It's role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Exploratory shaft facility: It`s role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Regulatory capture by default: Offshore exploratory drilling for oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a form of regulatory capture that occurs when significant ambiguity exists regarding the environmental protection standards for new types of activities in the marine environment. To begin with, there is little research that categorizes the typologies of regulatory capture despite the ubiquity of the phenomenon. After a discussion of theoretical approaches to regulatory capture, I describe the operative definition and theory appropriate to the situation related to authorization of oil and natural gas production in Israel following the discovery of large offshore reserves in 2010. This approach, embodying several facets of existing typologies, is applied to decisions made authorizing construction of the Gabriella offshore exploratory drilling platform. The analysis highlights the nature of capture in the absence of clear agency jurisdiction over new activities located in offshore environs organized as temporal and spatial “vacuums”. I conclude that comprehensive marine spatial planning would result in less capture and the development of more capture-resistant regulations. - Highlights: • Regulatory capture occurs when ambiguity exists about environmental protection standards for new types of activities in the marine environment. • A typology is developed from theories of regulatory capture (RC) and applied to cases of offshore exploratory drilling. • The typology is applied to offshore natural gas reserves discovered in 2010 offshore of Israel in the Mediterranean Sea. • Temporal aspects (anachronistic laws and regulations) and spatial aspects (jurisdictional ambiguity) have created regulatory vacuums leading to RC. • Comprehensive marine spatial planning would result in less capture and the development of more capture-resistant regulations

  15. Medical tourism market trends - an exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Florența Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often called medical travel because it includes the act of travelling to different countries for medical reasons. An increasing significant element in medical service trade is patient circulation at cross-border level with a view to obtaining necessary health services; this circulation generated a new phenomenon, namely medical tourism. Studying the scientific literature we find new medical tourism trends in connection with globalization and liberalization. The countries that decided to promote this niche tourism are aware of the huge economic benefits brought by this. Analyzing published data by tourism medical organizations associated to indicators of economic development, we find two aspects: the success of a medical tourism destination is influenced by the economical level of the receiving countries, but, at the same time, it is also a growth factor for developing economies if it is included in their national strategy. We intend to find the answer of several questions: trends in medical tourism development are involving only medical service trade, or a combination of specific activities of many sectors? Is the medical tourism acting in favor of developing economies? This study aims to notice the development trends of the medical tourism based on the published figures and on the experience of major destinations and to highlight the importance of the medical tourism for the developing economies.

  16. Exploratory X-ray Monitoring of z>4 Radio-Quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-09-01

    We propose to extend our exploratory X-ray monitoring project of some of the most distant radio-quiet quasars by obtaining one snapshot observation per Cycle for each of four sources at z>4. Combining these observations with six available X-ray epochs per source will provide basic temporal information over rest-frame timescales of 3-5 yr. We are supporting this project with Swift monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at z=1.3-2.7 to break the L-z degeneracy and test evolutionary scenarios of the central engine in active galactic nuclei. Our ultimate goal is to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of luminous quasars at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as the benchmark for X-ray variability studies of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  17. An Exploratory Study of Reintegration of Women Following Obstetric Fistula Surgery in West Pokot, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Khisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, obstetric fistula has been eradicated in developed countries although it continues to pose challenges to women living in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The condition continues to contribute to maternal morbidity in Kenya, causing immense physical and psychological suffering and disrupts women’s socioeconomic life. Following corrective surgery, experiences of Pokot women in their quest for social reintegration, a broadly neglected aspect of their healing process, are documented in an exploratory study. Primary data were collected over a 2-month period in rural Kenya using in-depth interviews with women who had undergone surgery and key informants. Thematic data analysis based on grounded theory revealed avenues for reintegration including successful surgery, family and community support, counseling, follow-up care, income generating activities, and skill training.

  18. Global innovation networks and university-firm interactions: an exploratory survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Britto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Global Innovation Networks has contributed to identify changes in the innovation activities of multinational corporations. Although university-firm interactions are seen as an important factor for the emergence of GINs, their role has received limited attention. This paper aims to fill this gap in two ways. First, it carries out an exploratory analysis of an original survey dataset, of firms in three industrial sectors from nine developed and developing countries. Second, the paper analyses whether the role of universities in global innovation networks is related to national systems of innovation with varying degrees of maturity. Multiple correspondence analysis and a Probit model are used to establish the relevance of key factors in driving GINs. The results identify distinctive profiles constructed mainly according to firm characteristics, but reflecting country specific patterns of association. The Probit model confirms that internationalization processes and the existence of local interactions substantially increase the probability of interactions with international institutions.

  19. Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

    2014-03-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P student satisfaction with anatomy, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, reading after class and near exam time, and duration of sleeping periods near exam time (R = 0.773, R(2) = 0.598, P student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P satisfaction.

  20. An Exploratory Analysis of Game Telemetry from a Pediatric mHealth Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rema; Gupta, Disha; Sri Prakash, Bhargav; Krishnan, Chelladurai; Panchatcharam, K

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a growing epidemic, with unhealthy eating habits and poor physical activity being major contributors. While video and mobile games have been shown to have a positive impact on behavior change in children, the mechanisms underlying game play that impact outcomes of interest are poorly understood. This research aims to examine the impact of a novel mobile gaming app on the design of behavioral interventions by learning from the rich and unique game telemetry generated from a randomized controlled trial of the app use by school children. In this exploratory analysis, we extract a partial dataset to build and analyze chronological sequences of game plays to understand key patterns in the game mechanics that players utilize as they navigate the game, and possible implications of the results.

  1. Modular Organization of Exploratory Force Development Under Isometric Conditions in the Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jinsook; Lee, Sang Wook; Wilger, Kevin D

    2018-01-31

    Muscle coordination of isometric force production can be explained by a smaller number of modules. Variability in force output, however, is higher during exploratory/transient force development phases than force maintenance phase, and it is not clear whether the same modular structure underlies both phases. In this study, eight neurologically-intact adults isometrically performed target force matches in 54 directions at hands, and electromyographic (EMG) data from eight muscles were parsed into four sequential phases. Despite the varying degree of motor complexity across phases (significant between-phase differences in EMG-force correlation, angular errors, and between-force correlations), the number/composition of motor modules were found equivalent across phases, suggesting that the CNS systematically modulated activation of the same set of motor modules throughout sequential force development.

  2. Exploratory structural assessment in craniocervical dystonia: Global and differential analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Vilany

    Full Text Available Our goal was to investigate the cortical thickness and subcortical volume in subjects with craniocervical dystonia and its subgroups.We studied 49 subjects, 17 with cervical dystonia, 18 with blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia, and 79 healthy controls. We performed a whole group analysis, followed by a subgroup analysis. We used Freesurfer software to measure cortical thickness, subcortical volume and to perform a primary exploratory analysis in the craniocervical dystonia group, complemented by a region of interest analysis. We also performed a secondary analysis, with data generated from Freesurfer for subgroups, corrected by false discovery rate. We then performed an exploratory generalized linear model with significant areas for the previous steps using clinical features as independent variables.The primary exploratory analysis demonstrated atrophy in visual processing regions in craniocervical dystonia. The secondary analysis demonstrated atrophy in motor, sensory, and visual regions in blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia, as well as in limbic regions in cervical dystonia. Cervical dystonia patients also had greater cortical thickness than blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia patients in frontal pole and medial orbitofrontal regions. Finally, we observed an association between precuneus, age of onset of dystonia and age at the MRI exam, in craniocervical dystonia; between motor and limbic regions and age at the exam, clinical score and time on botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia and sensory regions and age of onset and time on botulinum toxin in blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia.We detected involvement of visual processing regions in craniocervical dystonia, and a pattern of involvement in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia, including motor, sensory and limbic areas. We also showed an association of cortical thickness atrophy and younger onset age, older age at the MRI exam, higher clinical

  3. Exploratory experiments and experientia literata: (re thinking experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Cardoso Raicik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Francis Bacon is sometimes referred to as the first experimental philosopher, and his philosophy is usually tied to the common empirical-inductive idea. In order to show a new Baconian image, this article analyzes parts of his main work, the Novum Organum, and presents his concept of experientia literata, little known. In addition, it explicit counterpoints between some considerations presented by Bacon, particularly about the literata experientia, and certain conceptions of the "new experimentalism", especially in light of the concept of exploratory experimentation outlined by Steinle. Finally, it approaches some implications of these reflections for science teaching.

  4. Early Returns: Exploratory Data Analysis of the 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    provide an opportunity for those surveyed to offer insight and provide suggestions on future implementation of Lonergan studies. The 2011 West Coast Methods Institute (WCMI) paper is an exploratory data analysis of the current valid survey sample: n=98 to date. The WCMI presentation offers summary survey......Initially inspired by a 2009 Boston College Lonergan Fellow’s survey interest in the international use of Lonergan’s empirical method in the social sciences, the Global Lonergan Survey (GLS) is a data collection instrument available on the Internet since January 2010. This paper details the survey...

  5. A decision analysis of an exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Gnirk, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) is planned to support the characterization of a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV. The selection of a design for the ESF is a critical decision, because the ESF design may affect the accuracy of characterization testing and subsequent repository design. The assist the design process, a comparative evaluation was conducted to rank 34 alternative relied on techniques from formal decision analysis, including decision trees and multiattribute utility analysis (MUA). The results helped to identify favorable design features and convinced the Department of Energy to adopt the top-ranked option as the preferred ESF design

  6. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Freese, J.M.; Akhil, A.A.; Lott, S.E.

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1989. 4 refs., 84 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Co-exploratory climate risk workshops: Experiences from urban Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steynor

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the context for a place-based co-exploratory analysis of climate risks, the elements and steps incorporated in the approach, reflections on the effectiveness of this approach in addressing multi-stressor, place-based decision-making and the challenges that still remain in further refining the approach. The co-exploration approach is complementary to the objectives of the Global Framework for Climate Services and provides lessons for uptake of climate information into urban adaptation planning in Africa.

  8. Self-care among healthcare social workers: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J Jay; Lianekhammy, Joann; Pope, Natalie; Lee, Jacquelyn; Grise-Owens, Erlene

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest in self-care, few studies have explicitly examined the self-care practices of healthcare social workers. This exploratory study investigated self-care among practitioners (N = 138) in one southeastern state. Overall, data suggest that healthcare social workers only moderately engaged in self-care. Additionally, analyses revealed significant differences in self-care practices by financial stability, overall health, and licensure status, respectively. Interestingly, perceived health status and current financial situation were significant predictors for overall self-care practices. After a brief review of the literature, this narrative will explicate findings, elucidate discussion points, identify salient implications, and conclude with areas for future research.

  9. Researching primary engineering education: UK perspectives, an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of primary level engineering initiatives were interviewed. Three main concepts were identified during the analysis of findings, each relevant to primary engineering education. These were pedagogic issues, exposure to engineering within the curriculum and children's interest. The paper concludes that the opportunity to make a real difference to children's education by stimulating their engineering imagination suggests this subject area is of particular value.

  10. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kotsanis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Samples and Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is an extremely popular method for determining the underlying factor structure for a set of variables. Due to its exploratory nature, EFA is notorious for being conducted with small sample sizes, and recent reviews of psychological research have reported that between 40% and 60% of applied studies have 200 or fewer observations. Recent methodological studies have addressed small size requirements for EFA models; however, these models have only considered complete data, which are the exception rather than the rule in psychology. Furthermore, the extant literature on missing data techniques with small samples is scant, and nearly all existing studies focus on topics that are not of primary interest to EFA models. Therefore, this article presents a simulation to assess the performance of various missing data techniques for EFA models with both small samples and missing data. Results show that deletion methods do not extract the proper number of factors and estimate the factor loadings with severe bias, even when data are missing completely at random. Predictive mean matching is the best method overall when considering extracting the correct number of factors and estimating factor loadings without bias, although 2-stage estimation was a close second.

  12. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff

  13. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; King, J.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Mudd, R.W.; Richardson, A.M.; Calovini, J.C.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Emerson, D.O.

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts' structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  15. Factors defining the mentoring competencies of clinical midwives: An exploratory quantitative research study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Yuri; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Yanai, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Clinical education is an extremely important process in cultivating healthcare professionals, and the quality of educators has a major impact on the quality of future practitioners. Although practicing clinical midwives contribute to the education of pre-registered midwives and those qualified within the past year (new midwives), the factors defining the educational competencies of clinical midwives have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that define the mentoring competencies of clinical midwives involved in educating new midwives. An exploratory quantitative research study. Questionnaires were distributed to 694 midwives who had previously conducted educational activities with new midwives at the 63 facilities whose administrator or nurse manager in charge of all staff, including midwives, consented to participate. Of the 694 midwives, 464 (66.9%) returned the questionnaire and 451 (65.1%) valid responses were analyzed. Exploratory factor analyses were performed on the following three concepts: [competency as a professional], [competency as an educator], and [personal characteristics]. [Competency as a professional] consisted of two factors: and ; [competency as an educator] consisted of four factors: , , and ; and [personal characteristics consisted of three factors: exercising leadership> , and . These three concepts were defined by a total of nine sub-concepts (factors), and 41 items were extracted with a reliability coefficient (Cronbach's α) of 0.944 CONCLUSIONS: "Mentoring competencies of clinical midwives (MCCM)" are defined by three concepts and nine sub-concepts, which can be evaluated by 41 items regarding the behavior, thoughts, and characteristics that clinical midwives exhibit when they educate new midwives in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploratory Long-Range Models to Estimate Summer Climate Variability over Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Mulenga, Henry M.; Mason, Simon J.

    1999-07-01

    Teleconnection predictors are explored using multivariate regression models in an effort to estimate southern African summer rainfall and climate impacts one season in advance. The preliminary statistical formulations include many variables influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) such as tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Atmospheric circulation responses to ENSO include the alternation of tropical zonal winds over Africa and changes in convective activity within oceanic monsoon troughs. Numerous hemispheric-scale datasets are employed to extract predictors and include global indexes (Southern Oscillation index and quasi-biennial oscillation), SST principal component scores for the global oceans, indexes of tropical convection (outgoing longwave radiation), air pressure, and surface and upper winds over the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Climatic targets include subseasonal, area-averaged rainfall over South Africa and the Zambezi river basin, and South Africa's annual maize yield. Predictors and targets overlap in the years 1971-93, the defined training period. Each target time series is fitted by an optimum group of predictors from the preceding spring, in a linear multivariate formulation. To limit artificial skill, predictors are restricted to three, providing 17 degrees of freedom. Models with colinear predictors are screened out, and persistence of the target time series is considered. The late summer rainfall models achieve a mean r2 fit of 72%, contributed largely through ENSO modulation. Early summer rainfall cross validation correlations are lower (61%). A conceptual understanding of the climate dynamics and ocean-atmosphere coupling processes inherent in the exploratory models is outlined.Seasonal outlooks based on the exploratory models could help mitigate the impacts of southern Africa's fluctuating climate. It is believed that an advance warning of drought risk and seasonal rainfall prospects will

  17. Psychophysiological and stress responses to competition in team sport coaches: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J; Davison, G; Robinson, P

    2013-10-01

    Examinations of stress in coaches have mainly been qualitative and focused on chronic stressors. This exploratory study examined stress responses in coaches during competition, including psychological and physiological indices. Using reversal theory, we examined metamotivational state profiles during competition. Ten male team sport coaches (mean age 39.8 ± 13.12 years) reported levels of subjective stress, pleasant and unpleasant emotions, metamotivational state, and provided saliva samples, on a competition day: 15 min prior to the pre-match team talk; start of the match; end of the first half; start of the second half, and end of the match, then at equivalent times on a noncompetition day. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha-amylase activity. On competition day, alpha-amylase activity was significantly higher, as were subjective stress, arousal, and unpleasant emotions. Prior to and during active play, participants were mainly in the conformist, alloic (other-oriented), and mastery states, and at the end of the match, in the telic and sympathy states. Only 22 metamotivational state reversals were observed, mostly at the start and end of the match. The elevated levels of subjective stress, alpha-amylase activity, and unpleasant emotions suggest that educational programs may be useful for some coaches to manage psychological states during competition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 75 FR 48305 - Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Drilling Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This is a correction to a notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Exploratory Drilling... Exploratory Drilling Project, 800 S. 6th St., Williams, AZ 86046. Questions may also be submitted by facsimile...

  19. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling AGENCY... proposed action is to approve two Plans of Operations for exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola... San Mateo. In total, there are up to 279 drill holes that would be drilled over a period not to exceed...

  20. Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…

  1. Enrichment with Wood Blocks Does Not Affect Toxicity Assessment in an Exploratory Toxicology Model Using Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditewig, Amy C; Bratcher, Natalie A; Davila, Donna R; Dayton, Brian D; Ebert, Paige; Lesuisse, Philippe; Liguori, Michael J; Wetter, Jill M; Yang, Hyuna; Buck, Wayne R

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment in rodents may improve animal well-being but can affect neurologic development, immune system function, and aging. We tested the hypothesis that wood block enrichment affects the interpretation of traditional and transcriptomic endpoints in an exploratory toxicology testing model using a well-characterized reference compound, cyclophosphamide. ANOVA was performed to distinguish effects of wood block enrichment separate from effects of 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide treatment. Biologically relevant and statistically significant effects of wood block enrichment occurred only for body weight gain. ANOVA demonstrated the expected effects of cyclophosphamide on food consumption, spleen weight, and hematology. According to transcriptomic endpoints, cyclophosphamide induced fewer changes in gene expression in liver than in spleen. Splenic transcriptomic pathways affected by cyclophosphamide included: iron hemostasis; vascular tissue angiotensin system; hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrosis; complement activation; TGFβ-induced hypertrophy and fibrosis; monocytes, macrophages, and atherosclerosis; and platelet activation. Changes in these pathways due to cyclophosphamide treatment were consistent with bone marrow toxicity regardless of enrichment. In a second study, neither enrichment nor type of cage flooring altered body weight or food consumption over a 28-d period after the first week. In conclusion, wood block enrichment did not interfere with a typical exploratory toxicology study; the effects of ingested wood on drug level kinetics may require further consideration. PMID:24827566

  2. Evolutionary and immediate effects of crude-oil pollution: depression of exploratory behaviour across populations of Trinidadian guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, L; Dybwad, C; Rolshausen, G; Hendry, A P; Reader, S M

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced perturbations such as crude-oil pollution can pose serious threats to aquatic ecosystems. To understand these threats fully it is important to establish both the immediate and evolutionary effects of pollutants on behaviour and cognition. Addressing such questions requires comparative and experimental study of populations that have evolved under different levels of pollution. Here, we compared the exploratory, activity and social behaviour of four populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) raised in common garden conditions for up to three generations. Two of these populations originated from tributaries with a long history of human-induced chronic crude-oil pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to oil exploitation in Trinidad, the two others originating from non-polluted control sites. Laboratory-raised guppies from the oil-polluted sites were less exploratory in an experimental maze than guppies from the non-polluted sites and in a similar manner for the two independent rivers. We then compared the plastic behavioural responses of the different populations after an acute short-term experimental exposure to crude oil and found a decrease in exploration (but not in activity or shoaling) in the oil-exposed fish compared to the control subjects over all four populations. Taken together, these results suggest that both an evolutionary history with oil and an acute exposure to oil depressed guppy exploratory behaviour. We discuss whether the behavioural divergence observed represents adaptation to human-induced pollutants, the implications for conservation and the possible knock-on effects for information discovery and population persistence in fish groups.

  3. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating measures of exploratory behaviour in sows around farrowing and during lactation—A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valros, Anna; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Pöytäkangas, Merja

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies on the need to perform exploratory behaviour of sows around farrowing and during lactation, except for during the nest-building period. Exploratory behaviour in pigs may reflect appetitive foraging motivated by hunger, or appetitive behaviour related to other motivations...... in conventional crates from day 8 before expected farrowing until weaning, on day 28 after farrowing. Motivation to perform exploratory behaviour was evaluated by measuring the use of a manipulable and chewable object (a wooden device, MCO) and responses during a novel object test (NO). In addition, we studied...... if exploratory motivation is related to the energy status of the sow, measured as sow weight change during lactation, piglet weight gain, and leptin level in saliva. The exploratory motivation of sows appeared to change during the period of study. Although all sows used the MCO, the use was very low throughout...

  5. Subjective Word-Finding Difficulty Reduces Engagement in Social Leisure Activities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ likelihood of engaging in social leisure activities. Design Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Four study sites in the U.S. and France. Participants Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236) Measurements On separate questionnaires, patients were asked to 1) report whether had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty), and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of both social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Results Over half (52%) of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was uniquely related to social activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported reduced frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for covariates. In contrast, engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with higher age and depression scores, but was not related to word-finding complaints. These results were corroborated by the caregivers’ reports, and occurred above and beyond the effect of objective word-finding ability. Conclusion AD patients who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially-oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. A failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, thereby threatening the patient’s quality of life as well as increasing caregiver burden. Importantly

  6. Impact analysis on ESF design for Calico Hills penetration and exploratory drift and tuff main extension to limits of the repository block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenia, J.; Weyand, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study covers the impacts on project costs, schedule, human resources and engineering designs caused by increases in site characterization activity consisting of penetration of the Calico Hills formation by ES-1 shaft with exploratory drifting to the Ghost Dance fault and/or drifting 10,000 feet southward from the MTL ESF test complex area to the end of the future repository block

  7. Neuropharmacological activities of Ficus platyphylla stem bark in mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg) was found to produce a profound decrease in exploratory activity in mice, the extract indicated peripheral and central analgesic effects as shown by significant inhibition of acetic acid -induced writhing, and delayed onset in leptazol ...

  8. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  9. Using smartphones and tablets in higher education contexts: an exploratory study within a teacher education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmigiani Davide

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse and explore the potential opportunities offered by mobile devices to improve the higher education scenario. In particular, the study was conducted within a teacher education programme. The students attended a course called Educational Technology, which focussed on the use of mobile devices (smartphones and tablets inside and outside the classroom. We examined the impact of mobile learning on students’ university activities and the changes in the organisation of their studying activity, their learning strategies and their interaction/cooperation levels. After the course, we administered a questionnaire that highlighted some findings concerning the differences between smartphones and tablets in supporting these aspects. We found that both types of devices improved the interaction/collaboration among students and the search for information, which was useful for studying. However, the organisation of studying and the learning strategies were supported only by tablets and for specific aspects of learning. This exploratory research suggests, on the one hand, some possible solutions to improve the quality of university activities, and on the other, it underlines some difficulties that will be analysed more thoroughly in further studies.

  10. Quality of Life and Nutrition Condition of Patients Improve Under Home Parenteral Nutrition: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girke, Jutta; Seipt, Claudia; Markowski, Andrea; Luettig, Birgit; Schettler, Anika; Momma, Michael; Schneider, Andrea S

    2016-10-01

    Patients with end-stage cancer and advanced chronic bowel disease are often malnourished, which has a negative effect on patients' outcome, well-being, and activity. It is inconclusive whether these patients benefit from home parenteral nutrition. This prospective exploratory study investigates its influence on nutrition state, muscle strength, mobility, and quality of life. Patients ≥18 years old with an indication for home parenteral nutrition were included and followed for 2-24 months. Nutrition parameters, activity, and quality of life were assessed. Forty-eight patients participated (mean age 11.5 years), and 85% were severely malnourished (subjective global assessment score, class C). Four weeks after parenteral nutrition, patients with tumors demonstrated a deterioration in phase angle (from 3.9 to 3.4) and extracellular mass:body cell mass ratio (from 1.6 to 2.1), while patients with bowel disease improved (from 3.4 to 4.0 and 2.1 to 1.6, respectively); grip strength remained constant in both groups (difference: 1.11 and -2.11, respectively). Activity improved in patients with bowel disease but stayed the same in the tumor group (P = .02 and P = .33, respectively). When the groups were pooled, emotional and social functioning domain scores (P parenteral nutrition. Both groups seem to benefit from home parenteral nutrition without harmful side effects. If the indication is determined early, the patients' disease course could perhaps be improved. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. An Exploratory Study of Residents’ Perception of Place Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylidis, Dimitrios; Sit, Jason; Biran, Avital

    2014-01-01

    Studies on place image have predominantly focused on the tourists’ destination image and have given limited attention to other stakeholders’ perspectives. This study aims to address this gap by focusing on the notion of residents’ place image, whereby it reviews existing literature on residents’ place image in terms of whether common attributes can be identified, and examines the role of community-focused attributes in its measurement. Data collected from a sample of 481 Kavala residents (Greece) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The study reveals that the existing measurement tools have typically emphasized destination-focused attributes and neglected community-focused attributes. This study contributes to the residents’ place image research by proposing a more holistic measurement, which consisted of four dimensions: physical appearance, community services, social environment, and entertainment opportunities. The study also offers practical insights for developing and promoting a tourist place while simultaneously enhancing its residents’ quality of life. PMID:29708109

  12. How do humans inspect BPMN models: an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haisjackl, Cornelia; Soffer, Pnina; Lim, Shao Yi

    2016-01-01

    to initial research questions, we also indicate other research questions that can be investigated using this approach. Our qualitative analysis shows that humans adapt different strategies on how to identify quality issues. In addition, we observed several challenges appearing when humans inspect process......Even though considerable progress regarding the technical perspective on modeling and supporting business processes has been achieved, it appears that the human perspective is still often left aside. In particular, we do not have an in-depth understanding of how process models are inspected...... by humans, what strategies are taken, what challenges arise, and what cognitive processes are involved. This paper contributes toward such an understanding and reports an exploratory study investigating how humans identify and classify quality issues in BPMN process models. Providing preliminary answers...

  13. An exploratory study of neuro linguistic programming and communication anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Lois M.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is an exploratory study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its capabilities to provide a technique or a composite technique that will reduce the anxiety associated with making an oral brief or presentation before a group, sometimes referred to as Communication Apprehension. The composite technique comes from NLP and Time Line Therapy, which is an extension to NLP. Student volunteers (17) from a Communications course given by the Administrative Sciences Department were taught this technique. For each volunteer, an informational oral presentation was made and videotaped before the training and another informational oral presentation made and videotaped following the training. The before and after training presentations for each individual volunteer were evaluated against criteria for communications anxiety and analyzed to determine if there was a noticeable reduction of anxiety after the training. Anxiety was reduced in all of the volunteers in this study.

  14. Exploratory development of the reconnection launcher 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, M.; Widner, M.M.; Cnare, E.C.; Duggin, B.W.; Kaye, R.J.; Freeman, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the exploratory development phase for the reconnection launcher. This is an induction launcher which features a contractless, solid armature with either flat-plate or cylindrical geometry. The strategy for successful design is discussed, emphasizing the way we resolve the issues of ohmic heating and high-voltage requirements for high velocity. The indispensable role of a fast-running, mesh-matrix code is stressed. The authors describe three multistage launchers. One of these achieved muzzle velocity of 1 km/s with a 150-gram flat-plate projectile. The other two have launched cylindrical projectiles at 335 m/s, one with relatively heavy projectiles of 5 kg, the other with relatively light ones of 10 grams. The cylindrical projectiles can be spin-stabilized prior to launch for improved flight. We outline the potential of this technology for earth-to-orbit launch of small satellites

  15. A decision analysis of an exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Gnirk, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an Exploratory Studied Facility (ESF) is planned to support the characterization of a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV. The selection of a design for the ESF is a critical characterization decision because the ESF design may affect the accuracy of characterization testing an constrains subsequent repository design. To assist the design process, a comparative evaluation was conducted to rank 34 alternative ESF-repository designs. The evaluation relied on techniques from formal decision analysis, including decision trees and multiattribute utility analysis (MUA). The results helped to identify favorable design features and enabled the Department of Energy to adopt an improved ESF design

  16. Digital Storytelling and Employer Branding. An Exploratory Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia CRIȘAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at explaining what is digital storytelling and its particular methodology, and how its use in the organizational settings could influence the employer branding. For such purpose, the authors have conducted an exploratory research, where a group of participants has been asked to rate their interest in a company, after viewing solely the online commercial communication (website and Facebook account, while another group has viewed two digital stories produced by two employees of the company. The results of the analysis showed that participants had more positive words to describe the company after viewing the stories, but there were not differences in perception for those who were searching for a job and those who were not searching for the job when exposed solely to the web communication or digital stories.

  17. Customer Integration in Service Innovation: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Straub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prominent industry projects, as well as an extensive literature suggest the importance of customer integration for companies’ innovation success. This appears to be especially true for service firms, which inherently build on customer interaction. Despite this appreciation of the approach, there are comparably few empirical analyses of the positive and negative effects of customer integration. In this exploratory study, we build on established customer role concepts to study the status quo of customer integration in industry, as well as reservations against the roles and negative experiences from customer integration projects. The study reveals a gap between reservations and actual negative experiences in losing know-how, as well as a positive effect of experience in customer integration on perceived benefits for the company.

  18. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety

  19. How do humans inspect BPMN models: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisjackl, Cornelia; Soffer, Pnina; Lim, Shao Yi; Weber, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Even though considerable progress regarding the technical perspective on modeling and supporting business processes has been achieved, it appears that the human perspective is still often left aside. In particular, we do not have an in-depth understanding of how process models are inspected by humans, what strategies are taken, what challenges arise, and what cognitive processes are involved. This paper contributes toward such an understanding and reports an exploratory study investigating how humans identify and classify quality issues in BPMN process models. Providing preliminary answers to initial research questions, we also indicate other research questions that can be investigated using this approach. Our qualitative analysis shows that humans adapt different strategies on how to identify quality issues. In addition, we observed several challenges appearing when humans inspect process models. Finally, we present different manners in which classification of quality issues was addressed.

  20. Competitive intelligence: An exploratory literature review of its positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative-exploratory literature review. The primary concern of the author is to explore the positioning of the competitive intelligence function within organisations so as to establish the best positioning. To ensure reliability of the literary exploration, only peer-reviewed journal articles were used. The findings of this article will make it possible to generalise about the best position of the competitive intelligence function and to develop some valuable propositions for future studies. The findings show that there is no single criterion on which to base the positioning of the competitive intelligence function within organisations. This article will assist business managers to understand and improve their positioning of the competitive intelligence function. This article has therefore academic value.

  1. Considering Materials Management in Construction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Dakhli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While materials count for a considerable amount of construction costs, the way materials are managed seems to be improvised rather than approached methodically. This study investigates the practice of novel techniques used to manage materials in the construction industry. Techniques that have already proven themselves to be efficient ways to manage the production pace within the industry include the pull system, Just-In-Time, Kitting and off-site fabrication. These are explained and assessed in the context of the French construction industry through an exploratory study, supported by a questionnaire completed by contractors. The results reveal that a clear plan to manage materials on-site is lacking among the respondents, creating common inventory problems. This research provides evidence to support the central role played by an efficient management of material flow on-site. It also highlights the obstacles that hinder the adoption of innovative techniques, such as sub-contractor coordination.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Presenteeism in Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presenteeism has been an emerging research era, where many exploratory questions may be produced. Literature is not very definitive for the conceptualization of the construct in many aspects. There are few studies about the reasons, measurement approaches and positive outcomes of the concept. Studies conducted in Turkish context are even fewer. Paper combines two studies; first study aims to investigate different conceptualizations, possible reasons, negative and positive outcomes of presenteeism. The purpose of the second study is to find out how those concepts structure and relate to each other. Findings provide useful insights for reasons, outcomes and criteria of presenteeism. They also indicate different conceptualization of the concept and there are significant relationships between variables according to the research.    

  3. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  4. Dragon exploratory system on Hepatitis C Virus (DESHCV)

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-06-01

    Even though Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) cDNA was characterized about 20 years ago, there is insufficient understanding of the molecular etiology underlying HCV infections. Current global rates of infection and its increasingly chronic character are causes of concern for health policy experts. Vast amount of data accumulated from biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and other biological analyses allows for novel insights into the HCV viral structure, life cycle and functions of its proteins. Biomedical text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system on Hepatitis C Virus (DESHCV), a biomedical text-mining and relationship exploring knowledgebase was developed by exploring literature on HCV. The pre-compiled dictionaries existing in the dragon exploratory system (DES) were enriched with biomedical concepts pertaining to HCV proteins, their name variants and symbols to make it suitable for targeted information exploration and knowledge extraction as focused on HCV. A list of 32,895 abstracts retrieved via PubMed database using specific keywords searches related to HCV were processed based on concept recognition of terms from several dictionaries. The web query interface enables retrieval of information using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, generating text-derived association networks and hypotheses, which could be tested to identify potentially novel relationship between different concepts. Such an approach could also augment efforts in the search for diagnostic or even therapeutic targets. DESHCV thus represents online literature-based discovery resource freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/DESHCV/ and its mirror site http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deshcv/. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pilgrimage to Wellness: An Exploratory Report of Rural African American Clergy Perceptions of Church Health Promotion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A.; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl LeMay; Ellison, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Churches serve a vital role in African American communities and may be effective vehicles for health promotion in rural areas where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited than other communities. Endorsement by church leadership is often necessary for the approval of programs and activities within churches; however, little is known about how church leaders perceive their respective churches as health promotion organizations. The purpose of this exploratory pilot was to report perceptions of church capacity to promote health among African American clergy leaders of predominantly African American rural churches. The analysis sample included 27 pastors of churches in Eastern NC who completed a survey on church health promotion capacity and perceived impact on their own health. Capacities assessed included perceived need and impact of health promotion activities, church preparedness to promote health, health promotion actions to take, and the existence and importance of health ministry attributes. The results from this pilot study indicated a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Conducting health programs, displaying health information, collaborations within the church (i.e., kitchen committee working with the health ministry), partnerships outside of the church, and funding were most commonly reported needed capacities. Findings from this exploratory work lay the foundation for the development of future, larger observational studies that can specify some of the key factors associated with organizational change and ultimately health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157

  6. Exploratory wine consumer behavior in a transitional market: The case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schaefer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates exploratory behavior among wine consumers in Poland where the country's wine culture is in a state of rapid change. This study investigates the extent to which demographics, values, and wine preferences relate to exploratory behavior.Data obtained from 198 Polish wine consumers was used in the analysis. Exploratory behavior was measured using the VARSEEK scale adapted to wine. Other measures included the Schwartz Value Inventory, wine knowledge and involvement, and measures relevant for wine purchasing behavior. Demographic variables were also used to profile consumers.The findings show that Polish wine consumers’ level of exploratory behavior is not related to demographics, but is influenced by personal values. The consumers who were most likely to engage in exploratory behavior valued creativity, fun, and risk taking and were less concerned about behaving properly. They also had more global outlook as they were more likely to purchase wine in other countries and desired more wines from regions outside Poland.The findings are useful for wine marketers when developing strategies for wine consumers in transitional markets based on their unique needs and expectations.This is the first known research conducted in Poland focusing on wine consumers’ exploratory behavior and subsequent wine preferences. Keywords: Polish wine market, Consumer behavior, Exploratory behavior, Consumer segmentation

  7. Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Cerebral Responses to Conflict Anticipation: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Hu, Sien; Maisano, Julianna R; Chao, Herta H; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-01-01

    Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response. Regional brain activations to conflict anticipation were correlated to novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence, as assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, with age and gender as covariates, in a whole-brain linear regression. Results showed that increased anticipation of the stop signal is associated with activations in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPL), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilateral thalamus, with men showing greater activation in the IPL than women. NS correlated negatively to activity in the anterior pre-SMA, right IPL, and MFG/lOFC, and HA correlated negatively to activity in the thalamus during conflict anticipation. In addition, the negative association between NS and MFG/lOFC activity was significant in men but not in women. Thus, NS and HA traits are associated with reduced mobilization of cognitive control circuits when enhanced behavioral control is necessary. The findings from this exploratory study characterize the influence of NS and HA on proactive control and provide preliminary evidence for gender differences in these associations.

  8. An exploratory study on awareness towards institutional social responsibility in Indian higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Social responsibility (ISR in context to a Higher Educational Institution has been defined as the ethical practice in transference of knowledge, and the active participation in betterment of quality of life in the society. It is an offshoot of the concept of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR, but unlike CSR, it is neither mandatory nor actively monitored or researched in Indian context. However, awareness towards aspects of ISR has been increasing, especially in Indian Universities. Indian Universities adopt practices related to Adoption of Villages, Awareness Drives, Environmental Care and rural Education initiatives. Critics often see ISR as an unnecessary burden; review of literature from around the world suggests that ISR practices contribute to increased accountability towards exploitation of resources by Educational Institutes as well as better reputation of Educational Institutes in the society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception towards the concept of ISR in Educational Institutes in India. The paper opted for a questionnaire-based exploratory survey of 50 faculty members, across Private Universities in Rajasthan. The findings suggest lacking awareness but a significant acceptance of need of ISR practices. The paper includes implications for the Universities to include ISR practices in their strategy to address its obligations to the society and simultaneously gain a competitive advantage.

  9. Inventory and perspectives of chronic disease management programs in Switzerland: an exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Peytremann-Bridevaux

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe chronic disease management programs active in Switzerland in 2007, using an exploratory survey. Methods: We searched the internet (Swiss official websites and Swiss web-pages, using Google, a medical electronic database (Medline, reference lists of pertinent articles, and contacted key informants. Programs met our operational definition of chronic disease management if their interventions targeted a chronic disease, included a multidisciplinary team (≥2 healthcare professionals, lasted at least six months, and had already been implemented and were active in December 2007. We developed an extraction grid and collected data pertaining to eight domains (patient population, intervention recipient, intervention content, delivery personnel, method of communication, intensity and complexity, environment, clinical outcomes. Results: We identified seven programs fulfilling our operational definition of chronic disease management. Programs targeted patients with diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, obesity, psychosis and breast cancer. Interventions were multifaceted; all included education and half considered planned follow-ups. The recipients of the interventions were patients, and healthcare professionals involved were physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and case managers of various backgrounds. Conclusions: In Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare insurance coverage and little incentive to develop new healthcare strategies, chronic disease management programs are scarce. For future developments, appropriate evaluations of existing programs, involvement of all healthcare stakeholders, strong leadership and political will are, at least, desirable.

  10. Knowledge flow and exchange in interdisciplinary primary health care teams (PHCTs): an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L.; Wathen, C. Nadine; Kothari, Anita; Day, Adam M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Improving the process of evidence-based practice in primary health care requires an understanding of information exchange among colleagues. This study explored how clinically oriented research knowledge flows through multidisciplinary primary health care teams (PHCTs) and influences clinical decisions. Methods: This was an exploratory mixed-methods study with members of six PHCTs in Ontario, Canada. Quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed with social network analysis (SNA) using UCINet. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed with content analysis procedures using NVivo8. Results: It was found that obtaining research knowledge was perceived to be a shared responsibility among team members, whereas its application in patient care was seen as the responsibility of the team leader, usually the senior physician. PHCT members acknowledged the need for resources for information access, synthesis, interpretation, or management. Conclusion: Information sharing in interdisciplinary teams is a complex and multifaceted process. Specific interventions need to be improved such as formalizing modes of communication, better organizing knowledge-sharing activities, and improving the active use of allied health professionals. Despite movement toward team-based models, senior physicians are often gatekeepers of uptake of new evidence and changes in practice. PMID:23646028

  11. CAPABILITIES AND ACTORS IN ERP SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN CORPORATE USERS OF SAP ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Zwicker

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ERP systems are now an important component of information technology architecture in most large and medium sized companies. As such, it is inevitable that the activities undertaken to align this component to business requirements, conduct its evolution and ensure its performance and availability become increasingly important to companies’ IT areas. Success of these activities relies upon knowledge and participation of various actors inside and outside the IT area, imposing challenges not observed in internally developed systems. This paper proposes a model for the analysis of ERP systems management based on a previous work on the subject with the inclusion of the IT capabilities model and a description of the actors (stakeholders involved in the process of using an ERP system in a company. The proposed model is the basis for an exploratory survey conducted with 85 Brazilian companies whose results also comprise this text. The results suggest that only part of the capabilities is present and only part of the actors effectively participates on the ERP systems management effort.

  12. African American fathers’ perspectives on their children’s health education: A qualitative, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eOdum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate African American fathers’ perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health.Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n=3 and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included African American fathers (n=20 with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79, with at least one child between 6-18 years old.Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1 appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents; (2 participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive; (3 participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints; and (4 paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet.Conclusion: Understanding African American fathers’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.

  13. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Their Children's Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate African-American fathers' (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers' behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children's health. This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n = 3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n = 20) with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18 years old. Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants' children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants' paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants' perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Understanding AAFs' perceived and desired role in their children's health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.

  14. African-American Fathers’ Perspectives on Their Children’s Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate African-American fathers’ (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health. Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n = 3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n = 20) with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18 years old. Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Conclusion: Understanding AAFs’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities. PMID:25538938

  15. Nonmotor Symptoms Groups in Parkinson's Disease Patients: Results of a Pilot, Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Perez Lloret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMS like neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbances or autonomic symptoms are a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD. To explore the existence of groups of NMS and to relate them to PD characteristics, 71 idiopathic non-demented PD out-patients were recruited. Sleep was evaluated by the PD Sleep Scale (PDSS. Several neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal and urogenital symptoms were obtained from the NMSQuest. Sialorrhea or dysphagia severity was obtained from the Unified PD Rating Scale activities of daily living section. MADRS depression scale was also administered. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the presence of 5 factors, explaining 70% of variance. The first factor included PDSS measurement of sleep quality, nocturnal restlessness, off-related problems and daytime somnolence; the second factor included nocturia (PDSS and nocturnal activity; the third one included gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms; the forth one included nocturnal psychosis (PDSS, sialorrhea and dysphagia (UPDRS; and the last one included the MADRS score as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sleep disorders correlated with presence of wearing-off, nocturia with age >69 years, and nocturnal psychosis with levodopa equivalent dose or UPDRS II score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms correlated with UPDRS II+III score and non-tricyclic antidepressants. These results support the occurrence of significant NMS grouping in PD patients.

  16. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  17. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  18. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcharoen, E.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  19. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  20. A comparison between nailfold capillaroscopy patterns in adulthood in juvenile and adult-onset systemic sclerosis: A EUSTAR exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Smith, Vanessa; Cutolo, Maurizio; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus on capillaroscopy. In this retrospective exploratory study, series of patients with juvenile-onset SSc were matched with series of adult-onset SSc having the same gender and autoantibody profile. 30 of 123 patients with juvenile-onset and 2108 of 7133 with adult-onset SSc had data on capillaroscopy. Juvenile-onset SSc showed scleroderma pattern more frequently than adult-onset SSc (93.3% and 88%). The OR was 2.44 and 95% CI 0.57-10.41. An active scleroderma pattern was present in 58% of juvenile- and 61% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 0.91 and 95% CI 0.28-2.93. The late scleroderma pattern was present in 61% of juvenile- and 55.5% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 1.06 and 95% CI 0.34-3.56. This is the first exploratory study on the comparison of capillaroscopy between juvenile- and adult-onset SSc in adulthood. Juvenile-onset SSc had an increase prevalence of scleroderma pattern, but a similar distribution of the three patterns was suggested. Further studies are needed to define this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endothelial ErbB4 deficit induces alterations in exploratory behavior and brain energy metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Lu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Qi-Bing; Tian, Yun; Ye, Wei-Feng; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Tao, Rong-Rong; Han, Feng; Lu, Ying-Mei

    2017-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is present throughout the primate brain and has a distinct functional profile. In this study, we investigate the potential role of endothelial ErbB4 receptor signaling in the brain. Here, we show that the endothelial cell-specific deletion of ErbB4 induces decreased exploratory behavior in adult mice. However, the water maze task for spatial memory and the memory reconsolidation test reveal no changes; additionally, we observe no impairment in CaMKII phosphorylation in Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice, which indicates that the endothelial ErbB4 deficit leads to decreased exploratory activity rather than direct memory deficits. Furthermore, decreased brain metabolism, which was measured using micro-positron emission tomography, is observed in the Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice. Consistently, the immunoblot data demonstrate the downregulation of brain Glut1, phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), and TIGAR in the endothelial ErbB4 conditional knockout mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that endothelial ErbB4 plays a critical role in regulating brain function, at least in part, through maintaining normal brain energy homeostasis. Targeting ErbB4 or the modulation of endothelial ErbB4 signaling may represent a rational pharmacological approach to treat neurological disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reduction in salivary α-amylase levels following a mind-body intervention in cancer survivors--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether salivary α-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels would be positively modulated by sleep-focused mind-body interventions in female and male cancer survivors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 57 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance received either a Sleep Hygiene Education (SHE; n=18) control, or one of two experimental mind-body interventions, namely, Mind-Body Bridging (MBB; n=19) or Mindfulness Meditation (MM; n=20). Interventions were three sessions each conducted once per week for three consecutive weeks. Saliva cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline and 1 week after the last session. Participants also completed a sleep scale at the same time points when saliva was collected for biomarker measurement. Our study revealed that at post-intervention assessment, mean sAA levels upon awakening ("Waking" sample) declined in MBB compared with that of SHE. Mean Waking cortisol levels did not differ among treatment groups but declined slightly in SHE. Self-reported sleep improved across the three interventions at Post-assessment, with largest improvements in the MBB intervention. In this exploratory study, sleep focused mind-body intervention (MBB) attenuated Waking sAA levels, suggesting positive influences of a mind-body intervention on sympathetic activity in cancer survivors with sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploratory Research to Demonstrate the Feasibility of Conducting Crew Coordination Training in the OH-58 Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeller, J

    2001-01-01

    This document provides the results of exploratory research to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting crew coordination training in the OH-58 aircraft, using the Army's Aircrew Coordination Exportable Training Course...

  4. An exploratory study of healthcare professionals' perceptions of interprofessional communication and collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Kim J.; Seller-Boersma, Annamarike; Simons, Robert; Steenbruggen, Jeanet; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2017-01-01

    Interprofessional communication and collaboration during hospitalisation is critically important to provide safe and effective care. Clinical rounds are an essential interprofessional process in which the clinical problems of patients are discussed on a daily basis. The objective of this exploratory

  5. An exploratory study of healthcare professionals' perceptions of interprofessional communication and collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Kim J.; Seller-Boersma, Annamarike; Simons, Robert; Steenbruggen, Jeanet; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Buurman, Bianca M.

    Interprofessional communication and collaboration during hospitalisation is critically important to provide safe and effective care. Clinical rounds are an essential interprofessional process in which the clinical problems of patients are discussed on a daily basis. The objective of this exploratory

  6. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  7. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  8. Exploring the potential of combining participative backcasting and exploratory scenarios for robust strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de Jilske Olda; Kok, Kasper; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke Alberttine

    2017-01-01

    Literature critiques current predictive scenario approaches applied in the forest sector. Backcasting -a means to create normative scenarios- seems promising, but sparsely used. Combining backcasting with exploratory scenarios (combined scenario approach) seems appropriate to address these

  9. Fabrication of a Lateral Polarity GaN MESFET: An Exploratory Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes exploratory studies in the fabrication of the GaN LPH structures and their application in the fabrication of a depletion-mode metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs...

  10. Location of radiotherapy centers: An exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotteels, C.; Peeters, D.; Coucke, P.A.; Thomas, I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)

  11. Deliberative Democracy and Precautionary Public Reasoning : Exploratory Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fuji-Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Because public policy is legally binding and, perhaps more pointedly, can have pervasive social and environmental consequences for the autonomy of persons, it should be justifiable to those it could so affect. What is much more controversial, and what constitutes the basic intuitive claim of this exploratory paper, is that certain public policies should be morally justifiable to both existing and future persons. My concern is with policies in such areas as energy, climate change control, nuclear waste management, natural resources management, and genomics research and commercialization, which can no doubt improve our lives and our descendant’s lives, but which can also result in tremendous adverse effects for centuries to come. In this short paper, I suggest that the ideal of deliberative democracy provides a way of morally justifying such policies to both existing and future generations. If we take seriously the requirements of this ideal, we may have to modify our public reasoning so that it includes reasons that are generally acceptable among contemporaries as well as reasons that would be acceptable to posterity. The suggestion I make in this paper is thatintegral to the ideal of deliberative democracy in the transgenerational contextis a future-oriented and precautionary public reasoning.

  12. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Truant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.

  13. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  14. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  15. Health information-seeking among Latino newcomers - an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Courtright

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction. This exploratory study examines health information-seeking practices among Latin American newcomers to a small city in the United States. The framework locates these practices within social networks, the local institutional context and the use and non-use of information technologies. Method. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Spanish with seven immigrant workers. Interviews elicited incidents of both purposive seeking and accidental encountering of health information. Analysis. Data were coded for reference to social networks, strengths of social networks, and perceptions and uses of institutions, organizations, and technologies, treating the information incident as unit of analysis. Results. Information seeking is often assisted by both social networks and key institutions, yet the quality of the information transmitted through social networks is apt to be uneven, and newcomers are unable to obtain an adequate overview of local health care for improved decision-making. Of particular interest is the finding that the local information environment has evolved significantly in response to growing demand for Spanish-language and low-income services. Conclusion. It is particularly important for information behaviour researchers to examine the dynamic interactions among study populations and their information environments over time.

  16. Myths about autism: An exploratory study using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rachael Ps; Knott, Fiona J; Harvey, Kate N

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with autism are often stigmatised and isolated by their typically developing peers according to parental, teacher and self-reports. While quantitative studies often report negative attitudes towards individuals with autism, it is still unclear how understandings of autism influence attitudes. In this exploratory study, misconceptions or myths about autism, that is, the cognitive component of attitudes, were examined using focus groups. Purposive sampling was used to recruit undergraduate and postgraduate students, and adults with and without experience of autism, to one of the five focus groups (n = 37). Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. The data identified seven commonly held beliefs about individuals with autism. The first four were related to social interaction, such as that people with autism do not like to be touched. The fifth reflected the view that all individuals with autism have a special talent, and the final two concerned beliefs that people with autism are dangerous. The findings from this study demonstrate that people with varying experience or knowledge of autism often hold inaccurate beliefs about autism. These findings improve our understandings of lay beliefs about autism and will aid the development and implementation of interventions designed to improve lay knowledge of autism.

  17. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  18. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  19. Workplace Innovation: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovation enables the development and improvement of products, processes and services leading simultaneously to improvement in organisational performance. This study has the purpose of examining the factor structure of workplace innovation. Survey data, extracted from the 2014 APS employee census, comprising 3,125 engineering professionals in the Commonwealth of Australia’s departments were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 69.1% of the variance of the construct. CFA revealed that a two-factor structure was indicated as a validated model (GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.08, RMR = 0.02, IFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, and TLI = 0.96. Both factors showed good reliability of the scale (Individual creativity: α = 0.83, CR = 0.86, and AVE = 0.62; Team Innovation: α = 0.82, CR = 0.88, and AVE = 0.61. These results confirm that the two factors extracted for characterising workplace innovation included individual creativity and team innovation.

  20. Exploring leadership styles for innovation: an exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays a vital role in building the process, structures, and climate for an organisation to become innovative and to motivate team expectations toward innovations. This study explores the leadership styles that engineers regard as significant for innovation in the public sector. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to identify the principal leadership styles influencing innovation in the Australian Public Service (APS, using survey data extracted from the 2014 APS employee census comprising 3 125 engineering professionals in Commonwealth of Australia departments. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 77.6% of the variance of the leadership for innovation construct. In this study, the results from the EFA provided a clear estimation of the factor structure of the measures for leadership for innovation. From the results, the two factors extracted were transformational leadership and consideration leadership. In transformational leadership, a leader values organisational objectives, inspires subordinates to perform, and motivates followers beyond expected levels of work standards. Consideration leadership refers to the degree to which a leader shows concern and expressions of support for subordinates, takes care of their welfare, treats members as equals, and displays warmth and approachability. These findings highlight the role of leadership as the most critical predictor when considering the degree to which subordinates strive for creativity and innovation. Both transformational and consideration leadership styles are recommended to be incorporated into management training and development programs. This study also recommends that Commonwealth departments recruit supervisors who have both of these leadership styles before implementing innovative projects.

  1. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  2. An exploratory sequential design to validate measures of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Margarita G; Delgado, Ana R

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploratory and sequential mixed methods approach in validating measures of knowledge of the moral emotions of contempt, anger and disgust. The sample comprised 60 participants in the qualitative phase when a measurement instrument was designed. Item stems, response options and correction keys were planned following the results obtained in a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the interviews. In the quantitative phase, the scale was used with a sample of 102 Spanish participants, and the results were analysed with the Rasch model. In the qualitative phase, salient themes included reasons, objects and action tendencies. In the quantitative phase, good psychometric properties were obtained. The model fit was adequate. However, some changes had to be made to the scale in order to improve the proportion of variance explained. Substantive and methodological im-plications of this mixed-methods study are discussed. Had the study used a single re-search method in isolation, aspects of the global understanding of contempt, anger and disgust would have been lost.

  3. The Case For Corporate Responsibility: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy da Piedade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder demands and the introduction of the ‘triple bottom line’ as a means of reporting corporate performance, make it critical that South African companies assess why they should undertake corporate responsibility initiatives. This exploratory study (part two of a two-part study investigated the issues that are being or should be addressed by companies under the banner of corporate responsibility and the reasons for this. The views of a convenience snowball sample of consultants, academics and practitioners of corporate responsibility, was gained by means of a Delphi technique. Content analysis was employed to categorise the views into themes. The findings indicate the need for corporate responsibility action in the areas of ecology, the environment, health and well-being, building human capital and in the encouragement of economic development. Cost benefit and defensive arguments dominate the case for corporate responsibility. There is little indication that organisations have identified the opportunity of corporate responsibility initiatives to increase innovation and organisational learning and its contribution to risk management. Recommendations are made regarding the assessment of investment in this area.

  4. An exploratory study on attitudes toward inclusive education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Erin

    2005-06-01

    This exploratory study examined the attitudes toward inclusive education among Russian teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities (n=176). The results indicated that while there were no significant differences among teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities on overall attitudes toward inclusive education, there were significant differences in perspectives about the possible time-frame for implementing inclusive education. Generally speaking, school administrators and teachers tended to express the belief that inclusive education could be a reality even today, though many of this group thought that it might be a question of the near future or undefined future. Both groups of parents tended to think that inclusive education could occur in an undefined future. There were significant differences among the three groups about perceptions of responsibility for implementing inclusive education. Administrators, teachers and parents of students with disabilities viewed it as a responsibility of the school, while parents of students without disabilities viewed it as the government's duty. Further, the majority of respondents reported the lack of necessary conditions in schools and the lack of government policies and finances as the main barriers to inclusive education. These findings suggest two areas of intervention to promote the implementation of inclusive education in Russia: physical accessibility of schools and government support.

  5. Representations of Mathematics, their teaching and learning: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margarida Graça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an exploratory study, the first of the four phases of a more inclusive research, which aims at understanding the way to promote, in a Mathematics teachers’ group, a representational evolution leading to a practice that allows a Mathematical meaningful learning of Mathematics. The methodology of this study is qualitative. Data gathering was based on questioning; all the subjects of the sample (n=48 carried out a projective task (a hierarchical evocation test and answered a written individual questionnaire. Data analysis was based in a set of categories previously defined. The main purpose of this research was to identify, to characterize and to describe the representations of Mathematics, their teaching and learning, in a group of 48 subjects, from different social groups, in order to get indicators for the construction of the instruments to be used in to the next phases of the research. The main results of this study are the following: (1 we were able to identify and characterize different representations of the teaching and learning of Mathematics, in what respects its epistemological, pedagogical, emotional and sociocultural dimensions; (2 we were also able to identify limitations, difficulties and items to be included or rephrased in the instruments used.

  6. Choice attributes in restaurant services: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derli Luís Angnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are about one million of bars and restaurants that generate around six millions of jobs in Brazil. Among the most important reasons to choose a restaurant are the service attributes. Attributes are judgments the client makes about the performance and quality of the service provided. The identification of restaurant choice attributes is important in order to propose a higher value to services and to make marketing strategies. This article aims to identify the choice attributes of service quality in restaurants. The methodology employed was a qualitative exploratory study based on interviews made using the critical incident technique. It was used a sample of 72 restaurant customers. The content analysis technique was used to treat and analyze the critical incidents obtained in the interviews. The result obtained was a relation of 615 critical incidents, which after being analyzed generated a list of 27 attributes that influence customer’s choice and customer’s evaluation of service quality provided in restaurants. The identified attributes can subsidize and contribute to improvement of future research and studies in the academic environment, besides contributing for the management of restaurants business.

  7. An exploratory study of punctuation in bilingual children's texts

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    Amparo Clavijo Olarte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes first and second grade children's writing and focuses on the uses of punctuation as they develop awareness of the orthographic features of texts. This exploratory study was carried out with a group of first and second grade bilingual children in a school in Tucson, Arizona. Our research project focused on observing the process bilingual children followed when writing the story of Caperucita Roja to analyse thje content of their texts in the different episodes of their stories and the use of punctuation around dialogue and narratives. The findings show that the mejority of children were aware of the use of punctuation marks in their writings. We found a direct relation between puntuation and the use of dialogue (indirect speech in children texts. Children used additional (sintactic and lexical forms in their texts that demostrate that they know the use of direct speech. children's texts exhibited very little use of punctuation in their narratives; they only used period and capital letters.

  8. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani, E-mail: rajani.pillai@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business (United States); Bezbaruah, Achintya N., E-mail: a.bezbaruah@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  9. Exploratory analysis of the copy number alterations in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Pablo; Vilela, Marco; Deus, Helena; Kim, Yong-Wan; Koul, Dimpy; Colman, Howard; Aldape, Kenneth D; Bogler, Oliver; Yung, W K Alfred; Coombes, Kevin; Mills, Gordon B; Vasconcelos, Ana T; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA) has initiated the analysis of multiple samples of a variety of tumor types, starting with glioblastoma multiforme. The analytical methods encompass genomic and transcriptomic information, as well as demographic and clinical data about the sample donors. The data create the opportunity for a systematic screening of the components of the molecular machinery for features that may be associated with tumor formation. The wealth of existing mechanistic information about cancer cell biology provides a natural reference for the exploratory exercise. Glioblastoma multiforme DNA copy number data was generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project for 167 patients using 227 aCGH experiments, and was analyzed to build a catalog of aberrant regions. Genome screening was performed using an information theory approach in order to quantify aberration as a deviation from a centrality without the bias of untested assumptions about its parametric nature. A novel Cancer Genome Browser software application was developed and is made public to provide a user-friendly graphical interface in which the reported results can be reproduced. The application source code and stand alone executable are available at (http://code.google.com/p/cancergenome) and (http://bioinformaticstation.org), respectively. The most important known copy number alterations for glioblastoma were correctly recovered using entropy as a measure of aberration. Additional alterations were identified in different pathways, such as cell proliferation, cell junctions and neural development. Moreover, novel candidates for oncogenes and tumor suppressors were also detected. A detailed map of aberrant regions is provided.

  10. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  11. AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON HISTORY OF CLUJ HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cluj-Napoca has a long and interesting history. The City of Cluj is considered the “capital of Transylvania” because it is an important academic, cultural and business center, an interesting tourist destination for various types of tourists. The present study makes an analysis regarding the hotels from Cluj during the 19th and 20th centuries. The analysis is focusing on history of the hotels, their market evolution and the stories related to those hotels. This period was chosen for this research because represent the beginnings of the Cluj hotels market. For the investigations it was used exploratory research, obtaining secondary data through different types of sources: history books, published studies, web sites and old pictures. The present research has two main objectives: the first one is to explore the Cluj history in order to identify the hotels present on the market during the 19th and 20th centuries; the second one is to revile some stories related to the hotels, owners and buildings. There were identified 11 hotels from Cluj during the 19th and 20th centuries. There were not included here the hotels build in the last part of the communist period. At present, the buildings in which were functioned the most important hotels, are on the list of historical monuments from Cluj County. It can be proposed some old pictures and interesting stories about the hotels, the buildings, the guests, in order to attract the tourists.

  12. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs

  13. Shopping versus Nature? An Exploratory Study of Everyday Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony P. Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing volume of empirical research shows that being in nature is important for human wellbeing, the definition of what constitutes an ‘experience in nature,’ and how this is different from other types of experiences, is very often left implied. In this paper we contrast everyday experiences involving nature with a category of everyday experience in which most people regularly partake. We present an exploratory study in which people (N = 357 were explicitly asked to describe a memory they had of an everyday ‘experience which involved nature,’ as well as an everyday ‘experience which involved shopping.’ The open-ended responses to these questions were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Nature experiences were generally found to be more positive than shopping experiences, and they were more likely to be rated as ‘peaceful’ and ‘active’ compared to shopping experiences. Follow-up analyses indicate a significant interaction between experience category (nature or shopping, and the relationship between connectedness to nature and the amount of pleasure associated with that experience: The more strongly connected to nature a respondent was, the larger the disparity between the pleasantness of the shopping experience and that of the experience in nature tended to be.

  14. Uses of Published Research: An Exploratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    Full Text Available Academic publications are too often ignored by other researchers. There are various reasons: Researchers know that conclusions may eventually be proved wrong; publications are sometimes retracted; effects may decline when studied later; researchers occasionally don’t seem to know about papers they have allegedly authored; there are even accusations of fraud (Cohen, 2011. In this exploratory case study, 10 papers were examined to determine the various ways they were used by others, whether there were cases of reported effects declining, and whether, among those who referenced the papers, there were suggestions that anything in the papers ought to be retracted. Findings showed that all the papers had been referenced by others (337 user publications were found, containing a total of 868 references. Other findings include the following: Single references were far more common than multiple references; applications/replications were the least common type of usage (23 occurrences, followed by contrasts/elaborations (34, and quotations (65; unlike reports regarding publications in the sciences, whether the paper was solo- or co-authored did not affect usage; appearance in a non-prestige journal was actually associated with more usage of some kinds; and well over 80% of uses were in heavily scrutinized sources (journal articles or theses/dissertations. The paper concludes with recommendations to writers about how to avoid producing publications that are ignored.

  15. OMERACT-based fibromyalgia symptom subgroups: an exploratory cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Hoskin, Tanya L; Whipple, Mary O; Clauw, Daniel J; Barton, Debra L; Benzo, Roberto P; Williams, David A

    2014-10-16

    The aim of this study was to identify subsets of patients with fibromyalgia with similar symptom profiles using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) core symptom domains. Female patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia and currently meeting fibromyalgia research survey criteria completed the Brief Pain Inventory, the 30-item Profile of Mood States, the Medical Outcomes Sleep Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R) and the Short Form-36 between 1 June 2011 and 31 October 2011. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to identify subgroups of patients with similar symptom profiles. To validate the results from this sample, hierarchical agglomerative clustering was repeated in an external sample of female patients with fibromyalgia with similar inclusion criteria. A total of 581 females with a mean age of 55.1 (range, 20.1 to 90.2) years were included. A four-cluster solution best fit the data, and each clustering variable differed significantly (P FIQ-R total scores (P = 0.0004)). In our study, we incorporated core OMERACT symptom domains, which allowed for clustering based on a comprehensive symptom profile. Although our exploratory cluster solution needs confirmation in a longitudinal study, this approach could provide a rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and intervention.

  16. Exploratory urinary metabolomics of type 1 leprosy reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayboroda, Oleg A; van Hooij, Anouk; Derks, Rico; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Dijkman, Karin; Khadge, Saraswoti; Thapa, Pratibha; Kunwar, Chhatra B; Hagge, Deanna A; Geluk, Annemieke

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and nerves. Although curable with multidrug therapy, leprosy is complicated by acute inflammatory episodes called reactions, which are the major causes of irreversible neuropathy in leprosy that occur before, during, and even after treatment. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of reactions reduces the risk of permanent disability. This exploratory study investigated whether urinary metabolic profiles could be identified that correlate with early signs of reversal reactions (RR). A prospective cohort of leprosy patients with and without reactions and endemic controls was recruited in Nepal. Urine-derived metabolic profiles were measured longitudinally. Thus, a conventional area of biomarker identification for leprosy was extended to non-invasive urine testing. It was found that the urinary metabolome could be used to discriminate endemic controls from untreated patients with mycobacterial disease. Moreover, metabolic signatures in the urine of patients developing RR were clearly different before RR onset compared to those at RR diagnosis. This study indicates that urinary metabolic profiles are promising host biomarkers for the detection of intra-individual changes during acute inflammation in leprosy and could contribute to early treatment and prevention of tissue damage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Phebus FPT-O. Exploratory containment iodine chemistry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Dickinson, S.; Edward, J.B.; Ewig, F.J.; Funke, F.; Hueber, C.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.J.; Sims, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the exploratory containment iodine chemistry calculations related to the first Phebus-FP test (benchmark exercise for explaining the reasons for code inconsistencies and realistic calculation for test preparation) are reported. Calculations have been performed by CEA/IPSN/DRS/SEMAR-Cadarache (France), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), GRS-Koeln and SIEMENS/KWU, Erlangen (Germany), AEA-Harwell (UK), Ontario Hydro-Toronto, University of Toronto and AECL-Whiteshell (Canada). The code benchmark results show that mechanistic codes (INSPECT and LIRIC) are in agreement for molecular iodine concentration in the gaseous phase, whereas empirical codes (IODE and IMPAIR) are in disagreement because they model differently HOI disproportionation and use different radiolytic constant values (iodide/iodate radiolysis). Furthermore, the molecular iodine concentrations in the gaseous phase are 10 to 100 times higher at acid pH (pH - 5) than at neutral pH (pH - 7), and the presence of organic radicals in water does not change the concentrations of inorganic iodine species. Concerning the realistic calculation, the iodine mass distribution in the containment differ from one code to another, but all codes predict that the iodine concentration in the gaseous phase is high enough to be detected by foreseen instrumentation (as was verified during the test). FPT-0 test has been performed in December 1993. Analysis of experimental results is underway and result interpretation will be available at the beginning of 1995. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. Healthy Eating Exploratory Program for the Elderly: Low Salt Intake in Congregate Meal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Kim, O Y; Ahn, J

    2016-03-01

    This study reported on an exploratory program to help the low income elderly improve healthy eating behavior, specifically by reducing salt intake. We conducted an exploratory program for 4 weeks for this study. The exploratory program involved offering menus with reduced salt and providing education on healthy eating. After the exploratory program, a survey of the elderly and in-depth interviews allowed us to evaluate the program for foodservice providers (dietitian, social workers, and volunteer workers). This study included both foodservice workers and elderly who actually used the foodservice in a congregate meal service system. This is a unique approach. A congregate meal service center in Seoul, Korea. Seventy four elderly in a congregate meal service center. Demographics were collected, and the healthy eating program and healthy eating education for elderly respondents were evaluated. The elderly showed high satisfaction with the exploratory program for healthy eating. We found no significant differences in satisfaction with the program between the elderly who attended education sessions and those who did not, but more of the elderly from the education sessions showed positive behavioral change intentions. The exploratory program influenced to reduce the salt intake of the elderly in congregate meal service. This study suggests cooperation of foodservice providers and the support of administrators is critical to the success of such programs.

  19. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Children, parents and pets exercising together (CPET): exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan; Reilly, John J; Penpraze, Victoria; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; McNicol, Lindsay; Calvert, Michael; Yam, Philippa S

    2013-11-27

    Levels of physical activity (PA) in UK children are much lower than recommended and novel approaches to its promotion are needed. The Children, Parents and Pets Exercising Together (CPET) study is the first exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) to develop and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based PA promotion in families. CPET aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a theory-driven, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Twenty-eight families were allocated randomly to either receive a 10-week dog based PA intervention or to a control group. Families in the intervention group were motivated and supported to increase the frequency, intensity and duration of dog walking using a number of behaviour change techniques. Parents in the intervention group were asked to complete a short study exit questionnaire. In addition, focus groups with parents and children in the intervention group, and with key stakeholders were undertaken. The primary outcome measure was 10 week change in total volume of PA using the mean accelerometer count per minute (cpm). Intervention and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance. Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Twenty five families were retained at follow up (89%) and 97% of all outcome data were collected at baseline and follow up. Thirteen of 14 (93%) intervention group parents available at follow up completed the study exit questionnaire and noted that study outcome measures were acceptable. There was a mean difference in child total volume of PA of 27 cpm (95% CI -70, 123) and -3 cpm (95% CI -60, 54) for intervention and control group children, respectively. This was not statistically significant. Approximately 21% of dog walking time for parents and 39% of dog walking time for children was moderate-vigorous PA. The acceptability of the CPET intervention and outcome measures was high. Using pet dogs as the agent of lifestyle change in

  1. Children, parents and pets exercising together (CPET): exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Levels of physical activity (PA) in UK children are much lower than recommended and novel approaches to its promotion are needed. The Children, Parents and Pets Exercising Together (CPET) study is the first exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) to develop and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based PA promotion in families. CPET aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a theory-driven, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9–11 year olds. Methods Twenty-eight families were allocated randomly to either receive a 10-week dog based PA intervention or to a control group. Families in the intervention group were motivated and supported to increase the frequency, intensity and duration of dog walking using a number of behaviour change techniques. Parents in the intervention group were asked to complete a short study exit questionnaire. In addition, focus groups with parents and children in the intervention group, and with key stakeholders were undertaken. The primary outcome measure was 10 week change in total volume of PA using the mean accelerometer count per minute (cpm). Intervention and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance. Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Results Twenty five families were retained at follow up (89%) and 97% of all outcome data were collected at baseline and follow up. Thirteen of 14 (93%) intervention group parents available at follow up completed the study exit questionnaire and noted that study outcome measures were acceptable. There was a mean difference in child total volume of PA of 27 cpm (95% CI -70, 123) and -3 cpm (95% CI -60, 54) for intervention and control group children, respectively. This was not statistically significant. Approximately 21% of dog walking time for parents and 39% of dog walking time for children was moderate-vigorous PA. Conclusions The acceptability of the CPET intervention and outcome measures was high. Using

  2. Lateralized behaviour of a non-social cichlid fish (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) in a social and a non-social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicki, Michele K; Reddon, Adam R; Hurd, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral lateralization, the partitioning of cognitive function preferentially into one hemisphere of the brain, is a trait ubiquitous among vertebrates. Some species exhibit population level lateralization, where the pattern of cerebral lateralization is the same for most members of that species; however, other species show only individual level lateralization, where each member of the species has a unique pattern of lateralized brain function. The pattern of cerebral lateralization within a population and an individual has been shown to differ based on the stimulus being processed. It has been hypothesized that sociality within a species, such as shoaling behaviour in fish, may have led to the development and persistence of population level lateralization. Here we assessed cerebral lateralization in convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), a species that does not shoal as adults but that shoals briefly as juveniles. We show that both male and female convict cichlids display population level lateralization when in a solitary environment but only females show population level lateralization when in a perceived social environment. We also show that the pattern of lateralization differs between these two tasks and that strength of lateralization in one task is not predictive of strength of lateralization in the other task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  4. Myth-free space advocacy part I-The myth of innate exploratory and migratory urges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the ;myth; that we have an innate drive to explore or to migrate into space. Three interpretations of the claim are considered. According to the ;mystical interpretation,; it is part of our ;destiny; as humans to explore and migrate into space. Such a claim has no rational basis and should play no role in rationally- or evidence-based space advocacy. According to the ;cultural interpretation,; exploration and migration are essential features of human culture and society. These are not universal features because there are cultures and societies that have not encouraged exploration and migration. Moreover, the cultures that have explored have seldom conducted exploration for its own sake. According to the ;biological interpretation; there is a psychological or genetic basis for exploration or migration. While there is limited genetic evidence for such a claim, that evidence suggests that genes associated with exploratory behavior were selected for subsequent to migration, making it unlikely that these genes played a role in causing migration. In none of these senses is it clearly true that we have an innate drive to explore or migrate into space; and even if we did it would be fallacious to argue that the existence of such a drive justified spaceflight activities.

  5. Sentiments and Perceptions of Business Respondents on Social Media: an Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres van Grinsven Vanessa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The perceptions and sentiments of business respondents are considered important for statistical bureaus. As perceptions and sentiments are related to the behavior of the people expressing them, gaining insights into the perceptions and sentiments of business respondents is of interest to understand business survey response. In this article we present an exploratory analysis of expressions in the social media regarding Statistics Netherlands. In recent years, social media have become an important infrastructure for communication flows and thus an essential network in our social structure. Within that network participants are actively involved in expressing sentiments and perceptions. The results of our analysis provide insights into the perceptions and sentiments that business respondents have of this national statistical institute and specifically its business surveys. They point towards the specific causes that have led to a positive or a negative sentiment. Based on these results, recommendations aimed at influencing the perceptions and sentiments will be discussed, with the ultimate goal of stimulating survey participation. We also suggest recommendations regarding social media studies on sentiments and perceptions of survey respondents.

  6. Health literacy of commercial industry managers: an exploratory qualitative study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Silja; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Nitzsche, Anika; McKee, Lorna; Pfaff, Holger

    2017-09-05

    Managers have been neglected in health literacy research. There still is little known about the health-literacy status and needs of commercial industry managers. This article reduces the existing knowledge gap by presenting findings of an exploratory qualitative study. We conducted 23 separate semi-structured interviews of managers from all management levels (low, middle and top) and experts in the field of health management and/or personnel management. The qualitative interviews were analysed according to Mayring's content analytic approach using MAXQDA. The findings indicate that managers do have considerable information levels about existing health topics and relevant problems but have difficulties of discernment as to which sources of information can be activated or accessed in a timely fashion due to work and information overload. Even those who devise strategies often fail in implementing health-literate behavior. Experts and managers had fairly consistent views on the importance of health literacy among managers. Most agreed that mental health was neglected and that company conditions were important in influencing the ability to act in a way that promoted health literacy. The findings also show that strengthening of managerial self-perception, self-regulation and self-control, raising awareness and ability to take personal responsibility for one's own health, developing skills in handling large amounts of information and fostering open and trusting communication are all essential. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF INTERMODAL TERMINALS IN BRAZIL: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Palheta Nery

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian agribusiness excels in international trade, but it has some problems as the concentration of roads in the country's transport matrix, which reduces the competitiveness of the sector. The intermodality is a solution to this problem because it uses the advantages of various modes of transport. Moreover, intermodality becomes logistics more sustainable by reducing the environmental impacts of its activities. Intermodal terminals are the links that allow intermodality, however, studies about the sustainability of the terminals are scarce. This research intended to fill this gap aiming to analyze the socio-environmental sustainability of Brazil's grains logistics intermodal terminals. The specific objectives were: to raise variables about socio-environmental sustainability in logistics terminals and to identify socio-environmental sustainability practices in logistics terminals surveyed. This used an exploratory approach. The sample was composed of 31 Brazilian intermodal terminals. It was found that the terminals are prioritizing social practices, but further studies are needed to confirm or refute the findings.

  8. Description of dynamic shared knowledge: an exploratory study during a competitive team sports interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, J; Poizat, G; Saury, J; Seve, C

    2011-02-01

    This exploratory case study describes the sharedness of knowledge within a basketball team (nine players) and how it changes during an official match. To determine how knowledge is mobilised in an actual game situation, the data were collected and processed following course-of-action theory (Theureau 2003). The results were used to characterise the contents of the shared knowledge (i.e. regarding teammate characteristics, team functioning, opponent characteristics, opposing team functioning and game conditions) and to identify the characteristic types of change: (a) the reinforcement of a previous element of shared knowledge; (b) the invalidation of an element of shared knowledge; (c) fragmentation of an element of shared knowledge; (d) the creation of a new element of shared knowledge. The discussion deals with the diverse types of change in shared knowledge and the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of common ground within the team. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present case study focused on how the cognitions of individual members of a team coordinate to produce a team performance (e.g. surgical teams in hospitals, military teams) and how the shared knowledge changes during team activity. Traditional methods to increase knowledge sharedness can be enhanced by making use of 'opportunities for coordination' to optimise team adaptiveness.

  9. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sustainable Logistics: A Literature Review and Exploratory Study of Irish Based Manufacturing Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Byrne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that the influence of environmental performance as a decision criteria in the consumption of products/ services for consumers is growing. It’s in the logistic operations where most organizations can implement green supply chain strategies. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review charting the evolution of logistics operations as it increasingly includes modern environmental concerns. Building on this the paper also presents the results of an exploratory face to face survey that was conducted to analyse attitudes to, knowledge of and preparedness among sellers but more extensively buyers of logistics services to implement sustainable logistics in Ireland. The paper shows that there is a varying degree of willingness among logistic buying organizations to implement practices to address the environmental impact of their activities. The results show that although the majority of these organizations are willing to some extent, this is not universal, with a significant proportion of organizations believing that there are hidden costs and risks associated with the implementation of sustainable logistics.

  11. Use of the concept mapping in teaching during a medical rotation of interns: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwas, Hamida; Ghédira, Habib

    2017-12-01

    Concept mapping is an excellent learning toolallowing to stimulate active learning.For this reason, the concept mapping is currently used increasingly in the medical and paramedical field. The aim of our study is to determine the contribution of teaching of medical interns by the concept mapping. Fourteen students enrolled at the same time in a medical rotation in Pulmonology were recruited for this exploratory study. Interns are divided into two groups (A and B).Both groups are taught by the clinical case method, illustrated by a concept mapping for group A interns. The evolution of the knowledge accuracy at post-testing has been greater in the group taught by the method of concept mapping: the number of correct responses increased in all participants of group A versus only 4 of group B. All students taught by concept mapping had at the post-test a note higher than or equal to 10/20 versus only three of the group taught by the method without concept map. The average score was 13 (11-15) in group A versus 10.28 (6-14) in group B. We emphasize the use of concept mapping in teaching especially in the faculty of medicine and we encourage clinicians to use this method in teaching interns in the hospital.

  12. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  14. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  15. The exploratory studies facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain - Description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecka, W.B.; Replogle, J.M.; Mckenzie, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be a 25 kilometer underground network of inclined ramps, tunnels, and test alcoves. It will serve as an underground laboratory for the execution of a testing program conceived to assess the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site to host a potential high level nuclear waste repository. This paper contains a description of the ESF, a summary of the major types of tests currently planned, and a report on the current status of the ongoing design and construction activities. The ESF is being designed and constructed in phases. Currently, the Detailed Design, or open-quotes Title II Designclose quotes is centered on the second of ten major design packages. Construction has begun on excavation of the open-quotes starter tunnelclose quotes for a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) expected to begin operation in late FY 1994. The EFS program will provide information critical to the evaluation of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site, and will house a suite of state-of-the-art tests designed to gather this information. The ESF is a one of a kind opportunity to examine, in minute detail, all facets of a sites' geology; its thermal, mechanical, and hydrologic properties; and to study the linkages between these properties

  16. Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada; Blomqvist, Charlotta

    2018-03-01

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  17. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs

  18. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] impact evaluation report: Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report assesses the impacts of integrating an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) with a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. An evaluation to identify integration impacts is described for two specific ESF configurations (Cases 1 and 2) for each of the seven sites. These configurations are an ESF which uses two of the full size repository shafts, and an ESF with one 10-ft and one 22-ft diameter shaft. An evaluation of an ESF configuration (Case 3) with two 12-ft diameter shafts at three of the seven sites is also described. These sites are Deaf Smith, Davis Canyon, and Richton Dome. A fourth evaluation (Case 4) for the Deaf Smith site only, addresses a ''fast track'' subsurface development plan to allow waste emplacement by 1998. A fifth evaluation (Case 5), provides site-specific ES locations, for the three sites included in Case 3, which are supportive of a shaft siting study prepared by ONWI. The report presents development schedules depicting construction activities and time frames commencing with receipt of the repository Construction Authorization and proceeding to initiation of emplacement operations. These schedules are site specific and are presented for each of the five cases

  19. Associations Between Dehydration, Cognitive Impairment, and Frailty in Older Hospitalized Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Morton, Margaret; Travers, Catherine; Harvey, Keren; Eeles, Eamonn

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Associations Between Dehydration, Cognitive Impairment, and Frailty in Older Hospitalized Patients: An Exploratory Study" found on pages 19-27, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the incidence of dehydration in older hospitalized

  20. E-Media Use and Preferences for Physical Activity and Public Health Information: Results of a Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Wilcox, Sara; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Friedman, Daniela B; West, Delia S

    As social media (eg, Twitter) continues to gain widespread popularity, health research and practice organizations may consider combining it with other electronic media (e-media) channels (eg, Web sites, e-newsletters) within their communication plans. However, little is known about added benefits of using social media when trying to reach public health audiences about physical activity. Learn about current use and preference for e-media communication channels among physical activity researchers and practitioners. A Web-based survey was used, open for responses from August 20, 2015, through January 5, 2016. Survey participation was voluntary and anonymous. The survey was advertised through multiple channels targeting physical activity researchers and practitioners, including announcements on professional listservs and in e-newsletters, Twitter, and posts on Facebook pages of public health organizations. A total of 284 survey respondents had complete data. Typical use of e-media to receive, seek out, and share information about physical activity and health and what appeals to researchers and practitioners for professional use. Most respondents preferred non-social media channels to social media and these preferences did not differ widely when examining subgroups such as researchers versus practitioners or social media users versus nonusers. There were few differences by respondent demographics, though younger respondents reported using social media more than older respondents. However, limiting analyses to respondents who identified as social media users, only about 1% of respondents ranked social media sources as their preferred channels for information; thus, most people would continue to be reached if communication remained largely via non-social media e-media channels. The present study supports growing evidence that careful surveying of a target audience should be undertaken when considering new communication channels, as preference and use may not support the

  1. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-04-09

    As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. We conducted a small-scale, exploratory study combining (i) an in-depth review of publicly available data on pharmaceutical firms' CSR with (ii) interviews of representatives from 6 firms, purposively selected, from the highest earning pharmaceutical firms worldwide. Corporate social responsibility differed for each firm particularly with respect to how CSR is defined, organizational structures for managing CSR, current CSR activities, and motivations for CSR. Across the firms studied, the common CSR activities were: differential pharmaceutical pricing, strengthening developing country drug distribution infrastructure, mHealth initiatives, and targeted research and development. Primary factors that motivated CSR engagement were: reputational benefits, recruitment and employee satisfaction, better rankings in sustainability indices, entrance into new markets, long-term economic returns, and improved population health. In terms of CSR strategy, firms were at different points on a spectrum ranging from philanthropic donations to integrated systemic shared value business models. CSR is of increasing importance for multinational pharmaceutical firms yet understanding of the array of CSR strategies employed and their effects is nascent. Our study points to the need to (i) develop clearer and more standardized definitions of CSR in global health (2) strengthen indices to track CSR strategies and their public health effects in developing countries and (iii) undertake more country level studies that investigate how CSR engages with

  2. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  3. Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Winkler, David W; Shaby, Ben; Munson, M Arthur; Hooker, Giles; Riedewald, Mirek; Sheldon, Daniel; Kelling, Steve

    2010-12-01

    The distributions of animal populations change and evolve through time. Migratory species exploit different habitats at different times of the year. Biotic and abiotic features that determine where a species lives vary due to natural and anthropogenic factors. This spatiotemporal variation needs to be accounted for in any modeling of species' distributions. In this paper we introduce a semiparametric model that provides a flexible framework for analyzing dynamic patterns of species occurrence and abundance from broad-scale survey data. The spatiotemporal exploratory model (STEM) adds essential spatiotemporal structure to existing techniques for developing species distribution models through a simple parametric structure without requiring a detailed understanding of the underlying dynamic processes. STEMs use a multi-scale strategy to differentiate between local and global-scale spatiotemporal structure. A user-specified species distribution model accounts for spatial and temporal patterning at the local level. These local patterns are then allowed to "scale up" via ensemble averaging to larger scales. This makes STEMs especially well suited for exploring distributional dynamics arising from a variety of processes. Using data from eBird, an online citizen science bird-monitoring project, we demonstrate that monthly changes in distribution of a migratory species, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), can be more accurately described with a STEM than a conventional bagged decision tree model in which spatiotemporal structure has not been imposed. We also demonstrate that there is no loss of model predictive power when a STEM is used to describe a spatiotemporal distribution with very little spatiotemporal variation; the distribution of a nonmigratory species, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

  4. Values in nursing students and professionals: An exploratory comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, F Rosa; Roales-Nieto, Jesus Gil; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Preciado, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have explored personal values in nursing, but none has assessed whether the predictions made by the theory of intergenerational value change are true for the different generations of nursing professionals and students. This theory predicts a shift in those personal values held by younger generations towards ones focussed on self-expression. The purpose of the study was to identify intergenerational differences in personal values among nursing professionals and nursing students and to determine whether generational value profiles fit the predictions made by the theory. An exploratory comparative design with a cross-sectional survey method was used. Participants were recruited from four public hospitals and 10 Primary Care Centres in medium-size cities in Spain. A sample of 589 nurses and 2295 nursing students participated in the study. An open survey method was used to collect data that were classified grouping reported values into categories following a method of value lexicon construction and analysed by contingency tables with Pearson's χ (2) and standardized residuals. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Deans of the nursing schools and the Directors of Nursing of the institutions. Anonymity was guaranteed, participation was voluntary and participants were informed of the purpose of the study. The results can be synthesized in two age-related trends in the reporting of values among three groups of participants. First, among younger nurses and students, some nursing core values (e.g. ethical and professional) decreased in importance, while other values centred on social relationships and personal well-being increased. This study shows intergenerational change in personal values among both nursing students and young nursing professionals. Findings suggest the need to pay more attention to value training and professional socialization during the schooling period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. When general practitioners meet new evidence: an exploratory ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ole

    2017-12-01

    To explore how general practitioners (GPs) think and act when presented with new evidence in relation to planned home birth and a proposal to change information practices. Exploratory ethnographic study of GPs. The GPs were encountered one or more times during a two-year period, 2011-2013, while the author tried to set up formal focus group interviews. Dialogues about the evidence, personal experiences, values and other issues unavoidably occurred. Field notes were written concomitantly. Danish GPs, primarily in Copenhagen. Fifty Danish GPs. The GPs reacted very differently, both spontaneously and later. Spontaneous reactions were often emotional involving private and professional experiences whereas later reactions were more influenced by rational deliberations. Approximately half the GPs (n = 18) who were asked whether they would personally hand out the local information leaflet about home birth were prepared to do so. The time lag between presentation of the evidence and the GPs' decision to hand out the leaflets was up to one and a half year. A significant number of GPs were prepared to change their information practices. However, for many GPs, the new evidence challenged previous perceptions, and ample time and resources for dialogue, deliberations and adaptation to local circumstances were required to accommodate change. Changing information practices on a larger scale will require a systematic approach involving key stakeholders. Key Points Current awareness•Patients and pregnant women should receive evidence-based information about possible choices of care - also in relation to place of birth. Most important results•Doctors often find the new evidence supporting planned home birth counterintuitive and spontaneously react emotionally rather than rationally to the evidence.•The new evidence challenging previous views elicits fast, emotional reactions, later deliberate reflections, perhaps cognitive dissonance and, finally, for some, change in

  6. Self-knowledge of health teachers: A qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Bruna Pedroso; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; de Jesus, Bruna Helena

    2018-06-01

    Specific pedagogical training for teaching in the area of health emerges with the goal of creating critical and reflective professionals and as a necessary challenge to university teaching, where there is reflection on self-awareness, consciousness, and the incompleteness of being. This study aims to understand how Freire's critical consciousness is expressed in the pedagogical practice of health teachers. This study is a qualitative study that is descriptive, exploratory, and analytical. Twenty-one teachers from a public university in southern Brazil participated. Data were collected using open-ended, in-person interviews held from May to December 2013. Data systematization was based on Minayo's operative proposal. The analysis yielded 2 main categories, including the naïve critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of oppression, and the epistemological critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of freedom. The results revealed the teachers' self-knowledge, including the reasoning and motivations that made them become teachers, the characteristics considered necessary to be a teacher, the teachers' feelings in their teaching practice, and the teaching preparation required for being in the classroom from the perspective of naïve and epistemological critical consciousness. The study shows that the self-knowledge that emerged from the teachers' reports encourages new perspectives in the construction of the teacher, raising the challenge of development and transformation from naïve consciousness to epistemological consciousness, and thus contributing to a breakthrough with respect to critical and creative teacher training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advertising and the medical profession: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boshoff

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Practitioners in the legal, accounting, architectural, and medical professions are showing an increasing interest in marketing - particularly in advertising. Some professions such as accounting have already reached finality on whether advertising should be permitted. The medical profession has not given this matter any serious thought and this exploratory study aims to provide some early guidelines by analysing the perceptions of medical practitioners and in particular, the possible implications of lifting advertising restrictions. The empirical results indicate that physicians realise that patients often do not have adequate information at their disposal before choosing the practitioner of their choice. They do not seem to believe, however, that advertising is a means of overcoming this problem. Specifically, older and more experienced physicians feel that advertising will benefit neither the profession nor the public. It is surmised that the status quo will be maintained for the short and medium term. Opsomming Lede van die regs-, rekenkundige-, argiteks- en mediese professies toon toenemend belangstelling in bemarkingspraktyke - veral ten opsigte van reklame. Sommige professies soos die rekenkundiges, het reeds die vraagstuk van beperkings op reklame bevredigend aangespreek. Die mediese beroep het die aangeleentheid nog nie ondersoek nie en die verkennende studie is 'n poging om tentatiewe riglyne in die verband vas te lê. Die primere doelwit was om te bepaal wat mediese praktisyns se persepsies ten opsigte van die moontlike gevolge van reklame deur die mediese beroep is. Die empiriese resultate dui daarop dat medici besef dat pasiente dikwels nie oor voldoende inligting beskik om 'n optimale keuse van 'n geneesheer te maak nie. Tog word daar nie geglo dat reklame die probleem sal kan opios nie. Ouer en meer ervare geneeshere is veral gekant teen die opheffing van die beperking op reklamepraktyke. Daar kan dus verwag word dat die beperkings

  8. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures

  9. Construction features of the Exploratory Shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1,480-foot-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 feet, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 feet from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2,300 feet from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1,480 feet and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1,200 feet consists of the equivalent of 1,150 feet of 15- by 15-foot drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Such techniques generally classified as ''smooth blasting'' are commonly used for excavation in the construction industry

  10. Constructing the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.; Replogle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), approximately 160 km (100 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This facility is being used to obtain geological, hydrological, geomechanical, thermomechanical and geochemical information to characterize, Yucca Mountain as a potential site to isolate High-Level Radioactive Waste from the accessible environment. The ESF, when completed, will consist of two ramps from surface (North and South ramp) to the potential repository horizon formations, a drift connecting the two ramps, test alcoves, and above and below ground operational support facilities. The ramps and connecting drift are being mined by a 7.62 m (25 ft) diameter, fully shielded, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This paper describes the current status of the construction of the ESF and test alcoves. At the time of this writing, the following has been accomplished: North Ramp excavation is complete; four test alcoves have been excavated and are in use for scientific experiments; the excavation has reached the potential repository horizon; the drift connecting the two ramps is being excavated, and the excavation of a test alcove for thermal testing is in progress. The mining operations are ahead of schedule, and to date March 26, 1996, the TBM has excavated over 4623 m(15,160 ft.) without any major breakdowns or accidents. The average advance for a three shift (two mining shifts) production day has been 33.46 m (110 ft.). Maximum advance for a week was 218.3 m (716 ft.). An Alpine Miner (AM 75) roadheader is being used to excavate test alcoves. The major ground support system consists of Supper Swellex rock bolts, steel sets as required, Williams rock bolts and channels, and welded wire fabric. Various sections of the tunnel have been instrumented, and the entire excavation has been geologically mapped. To date, the site conditions have been those predicted

  11. Exploratory analysis of the copy number alterations in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Freire

    Full Text Available The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA has initiated the analysis of multiple samples of a variety of tumor types, starting with glioblastoma multiforme. The analytical methods encompass genomic and transcriptomic information, as well as demographic and clinical data about the sample donors. The data create the opportunity for a systematic screening of the components of the molecular machinery for features that may be associated with tumor formation. The wealth of existing mechanistic information about cancer cell biology provides a natural reference for the exploratory exercise.Glioblastoma multiforme DNA copy number data was generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project for 167 patients using 227 aCGH experiments, and was analyzed to build a catalog of aberrant regions. Genome screening was performed using an information theory approach in order to quantify aberration as a deviation from a centrality without the bias of untested assumptions about its parametric nature. A novel Cancer Genome Browser software application was developed and is made public to provide a user-friendly graphical interface in which the reported results can be reproduced. The application source code and stand alone executable are available at (http://code.google.com/p/cancergenome and (http://bioinformaticstation.org, respectively.The most important known copy number alterations for glioblastoma were correctly recovered using entropy as a measure of aberration. Additional alterations were identified in different pathways, such as cell proliferation, cell junctions and neural development. Moreover, novel candidates for oncogenes and tumor suppressors were also detected. A detailed map of aberrant regions is provided.

  12. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  13. Continuous Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Stroke: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Sen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive, continuous hemodynamic monitoring is entering the clinical arena. The primary objective of this study was to test the feasibility of such monitoring in a pilot sample of Emergency Department (ED stroke patients. Secondary objectives included analysis of hemodynamic variability and correlation of continuous blood pressure measurements with standard measurements. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of 7 stroke patients from a prospectively collected data set of patients that received 2 hours of hemodynamic monitoring in the ED. Stroke patients were included if hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke was confirmed by neuroimaging, and symptom onset was within 24 hours. They were excluded for the presence of a stroke mimic or transient ischemic attack. Monitoring was performed using the Nexfin device (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine CA. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 71 ± 17 years, 43% were male, and the mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS was 6.9 ± 5.5. Two patients had hemorrhagic stroke. We obtained 42,456 hemodynamic data points, including beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements with variability of 18 mmHg and cardiac indices ranging from 1.8 to 3.6 l/min/m2. The correlation coefficient between continuous blood pressure measurements with the Nexfin device and standard ED readings was 0.83. Conclusion: This exploratory investigation revealed that continuous, noninvasive monitoring in the ED is feasible in acute stroke. Further research is currently underway to determine how such monitoring may impact outcomes in stroke or replace the need for invasive monitoring. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:–0.

  14. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan to decommission and reclaim exploratory shafts and related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.F.; Schubert, J.P.; Zellmer, S.D.; Harrison, W.; Simpson, D.G.; Busch, J.S.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations are made for improving the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan for decommissioning and reclaiming exploratory shafts and other facilities associated with site characterization: (1) Discuss more comprehensively the technical aspects of activities related to decommissioning and reclamation. More detailed information will help convince the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and others that the activities as outlined in the plan are properly structured and that the stated goals can be achieved. (2) Address in considerably greater detail how the proposed activities will satisfy specific federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (3) State clearly the precise purpose of the plan, preferably at the beginning and under an appropriate heading. (4) Also under an appropriate heading and immediately after the section on purpose, describe the scope of the plan. The tasks covered by this plan and closely related tasks covered by other appropriate plans should be clearly differentiated. (5) Discuss the possible environmental effects of drilling the exploratory shaft, excavating drifts in salt, and drilling boreholes as part of site characterization. Mitigation activities should be designed to counter specific potential impacts. High priority should be given to minimizing groundwater contamination and restoring the surface to a condition consistent with the proposed land use following completion of characterization activities at sites not chosen for repository construction. (6) Define ambiguous technical terms, either in the text when first introduced or in an appended glossary

  15. Effectiveness of music therapy on focused attention, working memory and stress in Type 2 diabetes: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Tumuluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are reported in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2. Previous research has shown that music-based intervention can not only reduce hyperglycemia but also target cognitive functions as well as stress. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the effect of active participation in music therapy (MT on the cognitive deficits of DM2 patients. MT of twenty sessions was carried out with three participants with DM2. Serum cortisol, perceived stress, Color Trail Test (1 and 2, and verbal n-back (1 and 2 tests were used to measure the outcomes. Feedback was taken for the subjective ratings and satisfaction of the participants. Stress and cortisol reduced and focused attention and working memory improved in varying degrees. Subjectively, participants reported having benefitted from the intervention. This is the first attempt to investigate the effect of music-based intervention on cognitive function in DM2 patients using case study approach.

  16. Korean parents’ perceptions on the importance of computer usage for themselves and their children: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jeong LIM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many families today have access to computers that help them with their daily living activities, such asfinding employment and helping children with schoolwork. Minority families residing in the United Statesthough often do not own home computers. With a greater number of immigrant families arriving to theUnited States, questions are raised whether parents unfamiliar with the new culture view computers asimportant teaching tools for themselves and their children. An exploratory study was conducted lookingat Korean parents whose children were enrolled in a Southern California elementary school, since thisminority group consistently falls within the top ten immigrant sending countries. The study’s purpose wasto examine parent perceptions on the importance placed on computer usage for themselves and theirchildren. Findings suggest that Korean parents place a high value on computer usage and see it as vitalto job success and academic achievement.

  17. Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Focused Attention, Working Memory and Stress in Type 2 Diabetes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluri, Indira; Hegde, Shantala; Nagendra, H R

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are reported in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Previous research has shown that music-based intervention can not only reduce hyperglycemia but also target cognitive functions as well as stress. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the effect of active participation in music therapy (MT) on the cognitive deficits of DM2 patients. MT of twenty sessions was carried out with three participants with DM2. Serum cortisol, perceived stress, Color Trail Test (1 and 2), and verbal n-back (1 and 2) tests were used to measure the outcomes. Feedback was taken for the subjective ratings and satisfaction of the participants. Stress and cortisol reduced and focused attention and working memory improved in varying degrees. Subjectively, participants reported having benefitted from the intervention. This is the first attempt to investigate the effect of music-based intervention on cognitive function in DM2 patients using case study approach.

  18. Transfer of training effects in stroke patients with apraxia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusgens, Chantal; van Heugten, Caroline; Donkervoort, Mireille; van den Ende, Els; Jolles, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Wim

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the transfer of the effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia from trained to non-trained tasks. In strategy training, the occurrence of transfer is expected as the training programme is aimed, not at relearning specific tasks, but at teaching patients new ways to handle the problems resulting from the impairment. Exploratory analyses were conducted on data previously collected in a randomised controlled trial on the efficacy of the strategy training. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients were randomly assigned to a strategy training group and a group receiving occupational therapy as usual. Assessment of apraxia, motor functioning and activities of daily living (ADL) took place at baseline, after an eight-week treatment period, and five months after baseline. The primary outcome measure consisted of standardised ADL observations of trained and non-trained tasks. The analyses showed that in both treatment groups, the scores on the ADL observations for non-trained tasks improved significantly after eight weeks of training as compared with the baseline score. Change scores of non-trained activities were larger in the strategy training group as compared with the usual treatment group. By using previously collected data we are able to illustrate the potential transfer of treatment effects in a large sample of stroke patients. We found indications for the occurrence of transfer, although the study was not originally designed for the purpose of evaluating transfer. Therefore these results are worth exploring more profoundly. We will further investigate our preliminary conclusions in a new prospective study which is specifically designed to examine the transfer of training effects.

  19. Bottom-up communication. Identifying opportunities and limitations through an exploratory field-based evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.; Irvine, K.N. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Communication to promote behaviours like energy saving can use significant resources. What is less clear is the comparative value of different approaches available to communicators. While it is generally agreed that 'bottom-up' approaches, where individuals are actively involved rather than passive, are preferable to 'top-down' authority-led projects, there is a dearth of evidence that verifies why this should be. Additionally, while the literature has examined the mechanics of the different approaches, there has been less attention paid to the associated psychological implications. This paper reports on an exploratory comparative study that examined the effects of six distinct communication activities. The activities used different communication approaches, some participative and others more top-down informational. Two theories, from behavioural studies and communication, were used to identify key variables for consideration in this field-based evaluation. The evaluation aimed to assess not just which activity might be most successful, as this has limited generalisability, but to also gain insight into what psychological impacts might contribute to success. Analysis found support for the general hypothesis that bottom-up approaches have more impact on behaviour change than top-down. The study also identified that, in this instance, the difference in reported behaviour across the activities related partly to the extent to which intentions to change behaviour were implemented. One possible explanation for the difference in reported behaviour change across the activities is that a bottom-up approach may offer a supportive environment where participants can discuss progress with like-minded individuals. A further possible explanation is that despite controlling for intention at an individual level, the pre-existence of strong intentions may have an effect on group success. These suggestive findings point toward the critical need for additional and larger-scale studies

  20. Functional design criteria for an exploratory shaft facility in salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of the Functional Criteria for Design is to provide technical direction for the development of detailed design criteria for the exploratory shaft facility. This will assure that the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with the current Mission Plan as well as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and 10 CFR Part 60, which will facilitate the licensing process. The functional criteria for design are not intended to limit or constrain the designer's flexibility. The following philosophies will be incorporated in the designs: (1) The exploratory shaft will be designed to fulfill its intended purpose which is to characterize the salt site by subsurface testing; (2) the design will minimize any adverse impact which the facility may cause to the environment and any damage to the site if it should be found suitable for a repository; (3) the health and safety of the public and of the workers will be an essential factor in the design; (4) sound engineering principles and practices will be consistently employed in the design process; (5) the exploratory shaft and related surface and subsurface facilities will be designed to be economical and reliable in construction, operation, and maintenance; and (6) the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, as well as all applicable national consensus codes and standards

  1. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR's National Metrology Laboratory (NML) on a solution of the pure beta-emitting radionuclide phosphorus-32, which formed part of an international key comparison, are described. Since exploratory source...

  2. Adolescent chronic variable social stress influences exploratory behavior and nicotine responses in male, but not female, BALB/cJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; Reiss, D E; Caulfield, J I; Thomas, J L; Baker, A N; Cavigelli, S A; Kamens, H M

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions. CVSS consisted of repeated cycles of social isolation and social reorganization. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and social approach-avoidance test, respectively. Nicotine responses were assessed with acute effects on body temperature, corticosterone production, locomotor activity, and voluntary oral nicotine consumption. Adolescent stress had sex-dependent effects on nicotine responses and exploratory behavior, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in males or females. Adult CVSS males exhibited less exploratory behavior, as indicated by reduced exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test, compared to controls. Adolescent stress did not affect nicotine-induced hypothermia in either sex, but CVSS males exhibited augmented nicotine-induced locomotion during late adolescence and voluntarily consumed less nicotine during adulthood. Stress effects on male nicotine-induced locomotion were associated with individual differences in exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test. Relative to controls, adult CVSS males and females also exhibited reduced corticosterone levels at baseline and adult male CVSS mice exhibited increased corticosterone levels following an acute nicotine injection. Results

  3. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  4. CLEANing the Reward: Counterfactual Actions to Remove Exploratory Action Noise in Multiagent Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits

  5. A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gie Yong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses exploratory factor analysis and gives an overview of the statistical technique and how it is used in various research designs and applications. A basic outline of how the technique works and its criteria, including its main assumptions are discussed as well as when it should be used. Mathematical theories are explored to enlighten students on how exploratory factor analysis works, an example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output.

  6. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  7. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  8. An investigation of consumers' exploratory tendencies as motivators of their responsive behaviour to deals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Ghosh Dastidar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the motivators of consumer deal redemption behaviour is expected to enable marketers to use deals more effectively. In this study, consumers' exploratory tendencies (CET have been assessed as potential motivators of proneness to eight types of deals, during the purchase of shampoo and refrigerator—two product categories. Consumers showed varying proneness to different types of deals depending on the type of exploratory tendency that they needed to satisfy and the type of good that was on sale. These findings can enable marketers to choose the most appropriate type of deal to achieve their sales target.

  9. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990. Report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R&D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R&D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  10. Staff technical position on regulatory considerations in the design and construction of the exploratory shaft facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.; Peshel, J.; Bunting, J.

    1991-07-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared this staff technical position for the purpose of compiling and further clarifying previous staff positions on regulatory considerations in the design and construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). (The US Department of Energy (DOE) now refers to the ESF as the ''exploratory studies facility.'' DOE's change in terminology does not affect the positions taken in this guidance.) This document lists the key regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 that should be considered in the design and construction of the ESF and presents the staff position statements and corresponding discussions. 13 refs., 1 fig

  11. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage, annual report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R and D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1997. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary. The general R and D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, and establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs.

  12. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Executive summary report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R ampersand D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R ampersand D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993

  13. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  14. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  15. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interaction on cognition in schizophrenia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Fryssira, Helen; Kleisas, Spyridon; Sofocleous, Christalena; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Gazi, Anthia; Boniatsi, Lucia; Chaidemenos, Alexandros; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2013-03-14

    The investigation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-[rs4680]) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-[rs1801133]) polymorphisms' interaction might shed light into the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In an exploratory study, we hypothesized that the MTHFR 677T allele which has been related to a hypoactive MTHFR enzyme would augment the unfavorable effects of COMT Val158 homozygosity which has been associated with COMT enzyme hyperfunction. 90 schizophrenia patients and 55 healthy volunteers were assessed on psychomotor speed, pattern and spatial recognition memory (SRM), spatial working memory (SWM), attentional flexibility and planning (Stockings of Cambridge-SOC). IQ scores in a random subgroup of patients were also measured. A significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on SWM (p=0.048) and planning (p=0.026) was revealed in both groups. Among COMT-Val/Val participants, MTHFR-C/C made more SWM errors (p=0.033) and solved fewer SOC problems (p=0.025) than MTHFR-T carriers. In patients, there was a significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on full scale IQ (p=0.035): among COMT-Met carriers, MTHFR-T carriers performed significantly worse than MTHFR-C/C (p=0.021), which was driven by a COMT×MTHFR interaction involving performance IQ (p=0.047). In conclusion, COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interacted on cognition, suggesting that the MTHFR enzyme activity might moderate the effects of the COMT enzyme. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, the MTHFR T-allele attenuated the cognitive effects of COMT Val homozygosity. In this preliminary study, we propose that dopaminergic and intracellular methylation mechanisms could interact on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extent and patterns of community collaboration in local health departments: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher John W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local public health departments (LHDs in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active partnering are ongoing, and there are numerous examples of LHD collaboration with a specific organization for a specific purpose or program. However, no existing research has attempted to characterize collaboration, for the defined purpose of setting community health status priorities, between a defined population of local officials and a defined group of alternative partnering organizations. The specific aims of this study were to 1 determine the range of collaborative involvement exhibited by a study population of local public health officials, and, 2 characterize the patterns of the selection of organizations/individuals involved with LHDs in the process of setting community health status priorities. Methods Local health department officials in North Carolina (n = 53 responded to an exploratory survey about their levels of involvement with eight types of possible collaborator organizations and individuals. Descriptive statistics and the stochastic clustering technique of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM were used to characterize their collaboration. Results Local health officials vary extensively in their level of collaboration with external collaborators. While the range of total involvement varies, the patterns of involvement for this specific function are relatively uniform. That is, regardless of the total level of involvement (low, medium or high, officials maintain similar hierarchical preference rankings with Community Advisory Boards and Local Boards of Health most involved and Experts and Elected Officials least involved. Conclusion The extent and patterns of collaboration among LHDs with other community stakeholders for a specific function can be described and ultimately related to outcome measures of LHD performance.

  18. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

  19. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R ampersand D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R ampersand D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis of NRG Oncology's University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire – RTOG Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Stephanie L.; Wyatt, Gwen; Wong, Raimond K. W.; Sagar, Stephen M.; Yueh, Bevan; Singh, Anurag K.; Yao, Min; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Francis S.; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, D. Ian; Krempl, Greg A.; Chavez, Ariel; Yeh, Alexander M.; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Context The 15-item University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire – Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) modification (UW-QOL-RTOG modification) has been used in several trials of head and neck cancer conducted by NRG Oncology such as RTOG 9709, RTOG 9901, RTOG 0244, and RTOG 0537. Objectives This study is an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish validity and reliability of the instrument subscales. Methods EFA on the UW-QOL - RTOG modification was conducted using baseline data from NRG Oncology's RTOG 0537, a trial of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to measure reliability; correlation with the University of Michigan Xerostomia Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) was used to evaluate concurrent validity; and correlations between consecutive time points were used to assess test-retest reliability. Results The 15-item EFA of the modified tool resulted in 11 items split into 4 factors: mucus, eating, pain, and activities. Cronbach's α ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 for the factors and total score, consisting of all 11 items. There were strong correlations (ρ≥0.60) between consecutive time points and between total score and the XeQOLS total score (ρ>0.65). Conclusion The UW-QOL-RTOG modification is a valid tool that can be used to assess symptom burden of head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or those who have recently completed radiation. The modified tool has acceptable reliability, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability in this patient population, as well as the advantage of having being shortened from 15 to 11 items. PMID:27899312

  1. Cultural challenges to implementation of formative assessment in Saudi Arabia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wassia, Rolina; Hamed, Omayma; Al-Wassia, Heidi; Alafari, Reem; Jamjoom, Reda

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates challenges that students and faculty face to implement assessment for learning; and the activities, capabilities, enablers, and indicators which could impact performance. The study is a mixed methods research, cross-sectional, exploratory study. The study was organized through two phases of data collection and analysis (QUAL → quan). Based on qualitative focus group discussions (FGD), we first gathered data through field notes. Later, we engaged in analysis using techniques drawn from qualitative data including categorization, theme identification, and connection to existing literature. Based on this analysis, we developed a questionnaire that could provide quantitative measures based on the qualitative FGD. We then administered the questionnaire, and the quantitative data were analyzed to quantitatively test the qualitative findings. Twenty-four faculty and 142 students from the 4th and 5th clinical years participated voluntarily. Their perception of FA and the cultural challenges that hinder its adoption were evaluated through a FGD and a questionnaire. The mean score of understanding FA concept was equal in faculty and students (p = 0.08). The general challenge that scored highest was the need to balance work and academic load in faculty and the need to balance study load and training and mental anxiety in students. There was no difference between faculty and students in perceiving "learning is teacher-centered" (p = 0.481); and "past learning and assessment experience" (p = 0.322). There was a significant difference between them regarding interaction with opposite gender (p discrimination by same faculty gender". The authors suggested a "Framework of Innovation in Endorsing Assessment for Learning". It emphasizes a holisitic approach through all levels of the System: Government, Accreditation Bodies, Policy makers; Institution, and Classroom levels.

  2. Sex Education Approaches at Costa Rican Public Universities: An Exploratory Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to show the panorama and scope of the current existing sex education practices carried out by the Costa Rican public universities. It analyzes different initiatives, its theoretical approaches that guide the actions, their purposes and other relevant aspects. The analysis includes secondary information as well as the point of view of students and university staff, as inputs for decision-making aimed at improving the overall education of young people. The findings take part of an exploratory research based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies based on gender and constructionism perspective. The information was gathered via the application of a questionnaire to a specific uneven stratified cluster groups, composed by 766 enrolled undergraduate students since first semester 2011 at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The statistical margin of error was 1.5% and the confidence level of 95%. In addition, two focus groups with students and depth interviews with 16 persons were made. Data were tabulated with CSPRO software and analyzed using R software.  The findings suggest that Costa Rican universities recognize the importance of sex education as an essential part of overall development of students. Most of the initiatives are institutionalized; however, the lack of guidelines or policies on the subject, in most institutions, affects quality, consolidation and expansion of services. The need to strengthen and expand training activities on sexuality was identified as well. The students have a high opinion about the services offered, but few of them use these services, because they are perceived as less accessible and friendly. This paper concludes that it is a priority to maintain and strengthen existing initiatives on sexual education, so that they can effectively satisfy the needs of youth, with timely interventions and quality to enjoy a healthy and safe sexuality free from violence.

  3. An exploratory study on the management of business records by knowledge workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine how knowledge workers could align the creation and management of business records with organisational records management needs. Problem investigated: Knowledge workers are employed by more than one organisation at the same time. This creates problems in managing and preserving the business records created and received by knowledge workers. This article investigates how organisations should manage and preserve their business records that are created and received by knowledge workers who are employed by more than one organisation. Methodology: The importance of the management of business records in the knowledge economy was discussed and in the empirical survey data was collected through a questionnaire survey of 122 knowledge workers at an investment management company. Findings: The results of the empirical survey revealed that the majority of respondents always save business records that they create on their own personal filing systems and that they are familiar with the concept of records management. The findings provided support for the hypothesis that knowledge workers take control of managing the business records of various organisations, as their careers consist of a series of projects or assignments, irrespective of the organisation employing them. Value of research: The active role that knowledge workers can play in the management of strategic business records, underlines its key position as an information management function in organisations. Further research is needed to clarify the importance of records management in the knowledge economy. Conclusion: Knowledge workers take control of managing the business records of various organisations, as their careers consist of a series of projects or assignments while working at different organisations.

  4. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim [ed.

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV`s)and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life- cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The role of the ETR program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the Sandia Laboratories (SNL) Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/of cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR program in CY 1995. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed in this report.The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of fuel cell technology for transportation applications.

  5. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  6. Multicriteria contribution approach for the determination of energy planning politics at new exploratory frontiers of hydrocarbon; Contribuicao da abordagem multicriterio para a determinacao de politicas de planejamento energetico em novas fronteiras exploratorias de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Fabio Guimaraes; Bulhoes, Fernando Cesar Chagas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fg.rocha@petrobras. com.br, fernando.bulhoes@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper considers that, given the complexity of the involved factors (environmental, social, technological, economical and financial questions), the multi criteria approach can be viewed as important help tool in the definition of politic related to new hydrocarbon exploratory frontiers. To give subsides to this argument, it was made a bibliographical review, being highlighted the involved risks in exploitation and production activities, and the importance of taking into consideration the preferences of the individuals decision. Methodologies are presented, highlighting the different viewing of the american and french schools. A panorama of random variables involved in decision making of investments in new exploratory frontiers also is presented, emphasizing the importance their importance in the future offer petroleum and the challenges involved in that activity.

  7. The Role of Exploratory Talk in Classroom Search Engine Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon; Mercer, Neil

    2015-01-01

    While search engines are commonly used by children to find information, and in classroom-based activities, children are not adept in their information seeking or evaluation of information sources. Prior work has explored such activities in isolated, individual contexts, failing to account for the collaborative, discourse-mediated nature of search…

  8. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  9. Active Collaborative Learning through Remote Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…

  10. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Emotional Engagement and Active Learning in a Marketing Simulation: A Review and Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kear, Andrew; Bown, G Robin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This paper considers the role of emotional engagement during the use of a simulation. This is placed in the context of learning about marketing. The literature highlights questions of engagement and interactivity that are entailed in the use of these simulations. It is observed here that both the anticipation of and the process of engagement with the simulation generate emotional responses. The evidence of emotional anticipation was collected through the use of vignettes and a short...

  12. Neuroanatomical pathways underlying the effects of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal hormones on exploratory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Robert; Strazielle, Catherine

    2017-07-26

    When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field. In addition to elevated plus-maze and open-field tests, the amygdala appears as a target region for CRH-mediated anxiety in the elevated T-maze. Thus, the amygdala is the principal brain region identified with these three tests, and further research must identify the neural circuits underlying this form of anxiety.

  13. Spatial distribution of scientific activities: An exploratory analysis of Brazil, 2000–10

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Chiarini; Vanessa Parreiras Oliveira; Fabio Chaves do Couto e Silva Neto

    2014-01-01

    The literature analyzing the spatial distribution of scientific and technological production in Brazil identifies differences in the regional distribution of scientific and technological resources. In this paper, we contribute to this discussion, by analyzing the dynamics of the production of new scientific knowledge in the states that contributed the most to national scientific production in the period 2000–10: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, also known as the ...

  14. University Support in the Development of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity: An Exploratory Study from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura teórica ha estudiado los potenciales beneficios de la interacción entre universidades y emprendedores y existe cierta evidencia empírica que soporta la influencia positiva de la educación para el emprendimiento en la posterior propensión a emprender. El propósito de este artículo es estudiar si la educación específica para la creación de empresas brindada por las universidades se refleja en la actividad emprendedora a nivel regional. Replicando la metodología utilizada por Coduras, Urban, Rojas y Martínez (2008 en España, comparamos de forma exploratoria el caso en Chile usando la base de datos del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. Los principales resultados indican que hay baja interacción entre emprendedores y universidades, y no hay impacto suficiente para afectar significativamente la actividad emprendedora. Así como contar con educación para el emprendimiento en la universidad no aumentaría la probabilidad de tener intenciones de emprender.

  15. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haenssgen, MJ; Charoenboon, N; Zanello, G; Mayxay, M; Reed-Tsochas, F; Jones, COH; Kosaikanont, R; Praphattong, P; Manohan, P; Lubell, Y; Newton, PN; Keomany, S; Wertheim, HFL; Lienert, J; Xayavong, T

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. ...

  16. Why Integrating Technology Has Been Unsuccessful in Kuwait? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelaij, Bader

    2016-01-01

    In Kuwait, unsuccessful attempts to use and integrate technology into classrooms and lecture halls are currently being witnessed in schools and higher education institutions. Such failure is believed to be the consequence of various challenges, such as cultural, technical and contextual challenges. In this exploratory study, the researcher has…

  17. An Exploratory Comparative Case Study of Employee Engagement in Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive correlation between employee engagement and overall organizational performance. However, research on employee engagement specifically within higher education is limited, and even less attention has been focused on engagement within the context of Christian higher education. An exploratory comparative…

  18. The Efficiency of Infants' Exploratory Play Is Related to Longer-Term Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muentener, Paul; Herrig, Elise; Schulz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of exploratory play in infancy and its relation to cognitive development in early childhood. We assessed infants' (N = 130, mean age at enrollment = 12.02 months, SD = 3.5 months; range: 5–19 months) exploratory play four times over 9 months. Exploratory play was indexed by infants' attention to novelty, inductive generalizations, efficiency of exploration, face preferences, and imitative learning. We assessed cognitive development at the fourth visit for the full sample, and again at age three for a subset of the sample (n = 38). The only measure that was stable over infancy was the efficiency of exploration. Additionally, infants' efficiency score predicted vocabulary size and distinguished at-risk infants recruited from early intervention sites from those not at risk. Follow-up analyses at age three provided additional evidence for the importance of the efficiency measure: more efficient exploration was correlated with higher IQ scores. These results suggest that the efficiency of infants' exploratory play can be informative about longer-term cognitive development. PMID:29904360

  19. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  20. Establishing contact and gaining trust : an exploratory study of care avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gert; de Jong, Gideon; Zeelen, Jacques

    Title. Establishing contact and gaining trust: an exploratory study of care avoidance. Aim. This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the competencies especially deep-rooted personal qualities - of care providers who succeed in making contact and gaining trust with clients who are