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Sample records for nonsmoking heavy alcohol

  1. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    .001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...

  2. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect...... meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. RESULTS: The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before...... in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk...

  3. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  4. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yan; Ma, Dongying; Hu, Jian; Tang, Chunling; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Lei; Xin, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations and executive function (EF) skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225) in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reaction...

  5. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3 gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA concentrations and executive function (EF skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225 in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM and white matter (WM, left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P P P P P P  Conclusions Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412 may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.

  6. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    OpenAIRE

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictiv...

  7. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  8. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  9. Parenting style, religiosity, peer alcohol use, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.

  10. Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behavior among Heavy Drinking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline followback interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady vs. casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type. PMID:18648928

  11. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Moure-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.

  12. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A sizeable percentage of Hispanic youth are affected by alcohol use. Research is needed to identify specific factors placing Hispanic youth at elevated risk. Purpose: This study examined whether recent alcohol use (past 30 days) and frequent episodic heavy drinking among 7th - 12th grade Hispanic students (N = 946) in Greater…

  13. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcoholic beverage preference and risk of becoming a heavy drinker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Karoline; Andersen, Anne T; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....

  15. Proximity of off-premise alcohol outlets and heavy alcohol consumption: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-09-01

    Availability of alcohol has been associated with alcohol consumption in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally whether change in proximity to off-premise (i.e., no consumption on the premises) beer and liquor outlets is associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Distances from 54,778 Finnish Public Sector study participants' homes to the nearest off-premise beer and liquor outlets were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Between-individual analyses were used to study the effects of distance to the nearest outlet on heavy alcohol use, and within-individual analyses to study the effects of a change in distance on change in heavy use. Mean follow-up time in 2000-2009 was 6.8 (standard deviation 2.0) years. In a between-individual analysis, decrease from ≥500 m to alcohol use in women (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44), but not in men. In a within-individual analysis decrease from 500 m to 0m in log-transformed continuous distance to the nearest beer outlet increased the odds of heavy alcohol consumption in women by 13% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). For the corresponding change in distance to liquor outlet the increase was 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09). Change in distance from home to the nearest off-premise alcohol outlet affects the risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. This evidence supports policies that restrict physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytokine concentrations after heavy alcohol consumption in people with and without a hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, S.J.; Hogewoning, A.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369403649; De Zeeuw, R.; Bosma, Else R.; Bouwmeester, N.H.; Lukkes, M.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: After an evening of heavy alcohol consumption, next day alcohol hangovers are commonly experienced. However, about 20 to 25% of the people claim not to have a hangover, despite heavy alcohol consumption [1]. It has been suggested that not experiencing alcohol hangovers may increase the risk

  17. Subjective and Neural Responses to Intravenous Alcohol in Young Adults with Light and Heavy Drinking Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We ...

  18. Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Impaired Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aoi; Cui, Renzhe; Kitamura, Akihiko; Liu, Keyang; Imano, Hironori; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease, but heavy alcohol consumption increases its risk. Endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, few population-based studies have examined a potential effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function. This study included 404 men aged 30-79 years who were recruited from residents in 2 communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study in 2013 and 2014. We asked the individuals about the frequency and volume of alcohol beverages and converted the data into grams of ethanol per day. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements during reactive hyperemia. We performed cross-sectional analysis of alcohol consumption and %FMD by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, baseline brachial artery diameter, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, smoking, antihypertensive medication use, and community. Individuals who drank ≥ 46 g/day ethanol had a lower age-adjusted mean %FMD than non-drinkers (p<0.01). Compared with non-drinkers, the age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of low %FMD (<5.3%) for former, light (<23.0 g/day ethanol), moderate (23.0-45.9 g/day ethanol), and heavy (≥ 46.0 g/day ethanol) drinkers were 1.61 (0.67-3.89), 0.84 (0.43-1.66), 1.09 (0.52-2.25), and 2.99 (1.56-5.70), respectively. The corresponding multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.76 (0.69-4.50), 0.86 (0.42-1.76), 0.98 (0.45-2.12), and 2.39 (1.15-4.95), respectively. Heavy alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in Japanese men.

  19. The population attributable risk of hypertension from heavy alcohol consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Larbi, E B; Stamler, J; Dyer, A; Cooper, R; Paul, O; Shekelle, R B; Lepper, M

    1984-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and hypertension was studied in 11,899 men aged 40-55 years. The prevalence of hypertension among heavy drinkers was significantly higher than among those who did not drink heavily. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of five or more drinks daily or four or more drinks daily. A total of 136 persons fulfilled the five drinks or more per day definition and 230, the four drinks daily definition. The population-attributable risk of hypertension co...

  20. Predicting Heavy Alcohol Use in College Students: Interactions Among Socialization of Coping, Alcohol Use Onset, and Physiological Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin

    2016-05-01

    Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  3. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A

    2015-12-01

    Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright

  5. The effects of the therapeutic workplace and heavy alcohol use on homelessness among homeless alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Greater Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Porges, Eric C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) consumption and aging remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function METHODS: Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy EtOH drinkers were classified using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (EtOH heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to nondrinkers, and moderate drinkers (EtOH low, n = 45). Of the total population, 53.3% had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Heavy current EtOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (ps alcohol dependence was associated with poorer function in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (ps alcohol consumption is associated with significant impairment in a number of neurocognitive domains, history of alcohol dependence, even in the absence of heavy current alcohol use, is associated with lasting negative consequences for neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  8. Association of water softness and heavy alcohol consumption with higher hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Mark; Riva, Antonio; Marks, Peter; Williams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that regional variations in the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease are contributed to by regional variations in 'softness' of drinking water, i.e. its mineral content. Annual hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease per 100,000 population in the 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) existing in England over the period 2003-2006 were compared with regional measures of water hardness, alcohol consumption and social deprivation. As corroborative evidence, the same relations were examined for hospital admission rates for osteoporosis, a disorder with an already established link with calcium deficiency in drinking water (as well as with heavy drinking). Hospital admissions rates for alcoholic liver disease were higher in predominant-soft-water SHAs than with hard water SHAs. These areas, with one exception, were also associated with high alcohol consumption, but not with greater social deprivation. Hospital admission rates for osteoporosis were found to vary in a way similar to that for alcoholic liver disease, with significant correlations with soft water and alcohol consumption. Given experimental evidence that magnesium deficiency can aggravate liver damage from alcohol, soft water with its low magnesium concentration may be a factor additional to alcohol consumption in the development of liver damage. The parallel findings with osteoporosis admissions, explainable by low calcium and magnesium levels present in soft water, along with the known effect of heavy drinking on bone metabolism, provide corollary support for the hypothesis linking soft water with the pathogenesis of these two diseases.

  9. Subjective and Neural Responses to Intravenous Alcohol in Young Adults with Light and Heavy Drinking Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover alcohol challenge study comparing functional magnetic resonance imaging and subjective response to intravenously administered 6% v/v ethanol to a target blood alcohol concentration of 0.08% or placebo between HDs and social drinkers (SDs). During the imaging, we presented emotional cues in order to measure how emotion modulated the effects of alcohol on the brain's reward circuitry. We found that, at equivalent blood alcohol concentrations, HDs reported lower subjective alcohol effects than SDs. Alcohol significantly activated the nucleus accumbens in SDs, but not in HDs. Self-reported ratings of intoxication correlated with striatal activation, suggesting that activation may reflect subjective experience of intoxication. Fearful faces significantly activated the amygdala in the SDs only, and this activation was attenuated by alcohol. This study shows that HDs not only experience reduced subjective effects of alcohol, but also demonstrate a blunted response to alcohol in the brain's reward system. Our findings indicate that reduced subjective and neural response to alcohol in HDs may be suggestive of either the development of tolerance to alcohol, or of pre-existing decreased sensitivity to alcohol's effects. PMID:21956438

  10. Predictors of heavy drinking after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease in Denmark (1990-2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Gerds, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    incidence of heavy drinking among patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease in Denmark 1990-2013. We then analyzed pre-transplant demographic and psychiatric characteristics as predictors of post-transplant heavy drinking. Information was obtained from medical records, from nationwide registries...

  11. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  12. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  13. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  14. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  15. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and alcohol problems in heavy drinkers: moderation by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eTartter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol use in young adults has been prospectively associated with a host of psychosocial and alcohol-related problems. Recent studies have supported the interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism and adverse environmental factors, as a predictor of alcohol use and the development of alcohol dependence. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms in combination with the serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results revealed a significant genotype by depressive symptom interaction, such that heavier alcohol use was associated with depressive symptoms in L allele homozygotes but not among S allele carriers. These results remained significant after controlling for ethnicity and gender effects. These findings extend the emerging literature supporting 5-HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems in the context of co-occurring symptoms of depression.

  16. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  17. Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15-16 year old students in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Andersson, Barbro; Choquet, Marie; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Morgan, Mark; Rapinett, Gertrude

    2003-03-01

    Frequency of heavy alcohol use among adolescents is examined by family structure and propensity toward heavy alcohol use on the individual level, and by alcohol availability and drinking patterns among adolescents on the societal level. The analysis includes direct effects and moderating effects of societal-level indicators on individual-level associations between family structure and frequency of heavy alcohol use. The study drew upon self-reports from 34,001 students in Cyprus, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom participating in the 1999 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study. Distinctions were drawn between adolescents living with both parents, a single mother, a single father, a mother and stepfather, a father and stepmother, and neither biological parent. The multilevel analysis estimated the effects of societal-level factors on the intercepts and slopes of individual-level regression models. Adolescents living with both biological parents engaged less frequently in heavy alcohol use than those living in any other arrangements. Living with a single mother was associated with less heavy drinking than living with a single father or with neither biological parent. National beer sales figures and societal patterns of heavy adolescent alcohol use predicted more frequent heavy drinking and greater effects of living in nonintact families. Adolescent heavy drinking is more common in all types of nonintact families. The adverse effect of living in nonintact families is greater in societies where alcohol availability is greater and where adolescents drink more heavily.

  18. Negative affect is associated with alcohol, but not cigarette use in heavy drinking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    Co-use of alcohol and cigarettes is highly prevalent, and heavy drinking smokers represent a large and difficult-to-treat subgroup of smokers. Negative affect, including anxiety and depressive symptomatology, has been associated with both cigarette and alcohol use independently, but less is known about the role of negative affect in heavy drinking smokers. Furthermore, while some studies have shown negative affect to precede substance use, a precise biobehavioral mechanism has not been established. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, to test whether negative affect is associated with alcohol and cigarette use in a large community sample of heavy drinking smokers (n=461). And second, to examine craving as a plausible statistical mediator of the association between negative affect and alcohol and/or cigarette use. Hypothesis testing was conducted using a structural equation modeling approach with cross-sectional data. Analysis revealed a significant main effect of negative affect on alcohol use (β=0.210, p0.10) in this sample. Mediational analysis revealed that alcohol craving was a full statistical mediator of this association (paffect and alcohol use after accounting for alcohol craving. These results are consistent with a negative reinforcement and relief craving models of alcohol use insofar as the experience of negative affect was associated with increased alcohol use, and the relationship was statistically mediated by alcohol craving, presumably to alleviate negative affect. Further longitudinal or experimental studies are warranted to enhance the causal inferences of this mediated effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived racial discrimination, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol abstinence among African American and White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jeannette; Peralta, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables. African American students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to engage in HED compared to their White counterparts. Results also suggest that students who believe their drinking will solicit race-based police bias have lower odds of engaging in HED and greater odds of alcohol abstention. We conclude that unsolicited policing, experienced by African Americans generally, and White Americans on campuses, explains effect sizes.

  20. A microsimulation cost-utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Richard M; Zaric, Gregory S

    2016-05-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a public health intervention that has been shown to be effective in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. The aim of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of implementing universal alcohol SBI in primary care in Canada. We developed a microsimulation model of alcohol consumption and its effects on 18 alcohol-related causes of death. The model simulates a Canadian population. The model simulates individuals and their alcohol consumption on a continuous scale starting from age 17 years to death. The reference case assumes no SBI in Canada. The base case assumes screening was conducted using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at a threshold score of 8. Additional analyses included evaluating SBI using the AUDIT at threshold scores between 4 and 8 or the Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) at threshold scores between 3 and 7. The model estimates the direct health-care costs, life years gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, which are then used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SBI versus no SBI. SBI with AUDIT (at a threshold score of 8) had an ICER of $8729/QALY. Our results suggest that using AUDIT thresholds between 8 and 4, inclusive, would be cost-effective for the whole population, as well as for men and women individually. Our results suggest that the AUDIT-C would be cost-effective at thresholds of 7 to 3, inclusive, for men, women and the whole population. In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective for men and women at Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) thresholds of 8 and lower and at Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) thresholds of 7 and lower. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Relative effects of heavy alcohol use and hepatitis C in decompensated chronic liver disease in a hospital inpatient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Abed, Jean; Aristy, Jose David; Munot, Khushboo; Suneja, Upma; Engelson, Ellen S; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-03-01

    Heavy alcohol use has been hypothesized to accelerate disease progression to end-stage liver disease in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we estimated the relative influences of heavy alcohol use and HCV in decompensated chronic liver disease (CLD). Retrospectively, 904 patients with cirrhotic disease admitted to our hospitals during January 2010-December 2012 were identified based on ICD9 codes. A thorough chart review captured information on demographics, viral hepatitis status, alcohol use and progression of liver disease (i.e. decompensation). Decompensation was defined as the presence of ascites due to portal hypertension, bleeding esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy or hepatorenal syndrome. Heavy alcohol use was defined as a chart entry of greater than six daily units of alcohol or its equivalent. 347 patients were included based on our selection criteria of documented heavy alcohol use (n = 215; 62.0%), hepatitis titers (HCV: n = 182; 52.5%) and radiological evidence of CLD with or without decompensation (decompensation: n = 225; 64.8%). Independent of HCV infection, heavy alcohol use significantly increased the risk of decompensation (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.75, p < 0.02) relative to no heavy alcohol use. No significance was seen with age, sex, race, HIV, viral hepatitis and moderate alcohol use for risk for decompensation. Additionally, dose-relationship regression analysis revealed that heavy, but not moderate alcohol use, resulted in a three-fold increase (p = 0.013) in the risk of decompensation relative to abstinence. While both heavy alcohol use and HCV infection are associated with risk of developing CLD, our data suggest that heavy, but not moderate, alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk for hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis than does HCV infection.

  2. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  3. Correlates of heavy alcohol consumption at Rhodes University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the extent to which students typically overestimate normative drinking and to determine whether these estimates are uniquely implicated in alcohol consumption over and above the role of the various demographic and family variables. Method: An online survey was used to obtain a sample of 2 177 ...

  4. Religiosity, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Vicarious Learning Networks among Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that religiosity may protect against risky alcohol and drug use behaviors among adolescents, but the social mechanics underpinning the relationship are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between religiosity, heavy drinking, and social norms among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, using the…

  5. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  6. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions in heavy and light drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, RW; van Woerden, N; Smulders, FTY; de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (h 24) strongly

  7. Postintervention Effects of "Click City®: Alcohol" on Changing Etiological Mechanisms Related to the Onset of Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Judith S.; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah H.; Gunn, Barbara; Christiansen, Steven M.; Jacobs, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, is the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Youth who engage in heavy drinking are likely to experience a number of problems associated with their use. In 2015, U.S. prevalence of heavy drinking was 17% among 12th graders. These data suggest a clear need for…

  8. Lack of tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Hays, Lon R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol tolerance is observed as a diminished response to a given dose as a function of repeated administrations of the drug. Research has consistently shown that heavier drinkers display reduced reactions to alcohol (i.e., tolerance) compared with lighter drinkers. However, the majority of this work has focused primarily on measures of motor performance, whereas the development of tolerance to alcohol's impairing effects on cognitive processes, such as inhibitory mechanisms of behavioral control, remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between drinking habits and the degree to which alcohol affects drinkers' inhibitory control and motor coordination. Fifty-two non-dependent drinkers reported their recent drinking patterns. Their inhibitory control and motor coordination were measured in response to placebo and 0.65 g/kg alcohol. Alcohol significantly impaired inhibitory control and motor coordination compared with placebo. Moreover, greater quantity and frequency of recent consumption predicted less alcohol impairment of motor coordination. However, there was no relationship between recent drinking habits and the degree of impairment of inhibitory control. These findings suggest that tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol might not readily develop as a result of recent, heavy drinking.

  9. Linking masculinity to negative drinking consequences: the mediating roles of heavy episodic drinking and alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.

  10. Web-Based Alcohol Intervention: Study of Systematic Attrition of Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Theda; Ostergaard, Mathias; Cooke, Richard; Scholz, Urte

    2017-06-28

    Web-based alcohol interventions are a promising way to reduce alcohol consumption because of their anonymity and the possibility of reaching a high numbers of individuals including heavy drinkers. However, Web-based interventions are often characterized by high rates of attrition. To date, very few studies have investigated whether individuals with higher alcohol consumption show higher attrition rates in Web-based alcohol interventions as compared with individuals with lower alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the attrition rate and predictors of attrition in a Web-based intervention study on alcohol consumption. The analysis of the predictors of attrition rate was performed on data collected in a Web-based randomized control trial. Data collection took place at the University of Konstanz, Germany. A total of 898 people, which consisted of 46.8% males (420/898) and 53.2% females (478/898) with a mean age of 23.57 years (SD 5.19), initially volunteered to participate in a Web-based intervention study to reduce alcohol consumption. Out of the sample, 86.9% (781/898) were students. Participants were classified as non-completers (439/898, 48.9%) if they did not complete the Web-based intervention. Potential predictors of attrition were self-reported: alcohol consumption in the last seven days, per week, from Monday to Thursday, on weekends, excessive drinking behavior measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and drinking motives measured by the Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R SF). Significant differences between completers and non-completers emerged regarding alcohol consumption in the last seven days (B=-.02, P=.05, 95% CI [0.97-1.00]), on weekends (B=-.05, P=.003, 95% CI [0.92-0.98]), the AUDIT (B=-.06, P=.007, 95% CI [0.90-0.98], and the status as a student (B=.72, P=.001, 95% CI [1.35-3.11]). Most importantly, non-completers had a significantly higher alcohol consumption compared with completers. Hazardous

  11. Neighborhood or School? Influences on Alcohol Consumption and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Bakken, Anders; von Soest, Tilmann

    2017-11-28

    Little is known about the relative influences of neighborhood and school on the alcohol socialization process. Survey data from the Young in Oslo Study (N = 10,038, mean age 17.1 years, 52% girls) were used to investigate the details of such influences, using cross-classified multilevel models. School and neighborhood contexts were equally important for ordinary alcohol use; however, neighborhood influences were mainly explained by individual and family factors, whereas peer-based sociocultural processes played a key role in explaining school effects. Neither context had much impact on heavy episodic drinking. The study suggests that "privileged" youth may be at risk of high alcohol consumption. Parental influences and peer-based sociocultural aspects of the school milieu should be considered in prevention efforts.

  12. Perceptions of Heavy Drinking College Students about a Sleep and Alcohol Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol internet-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences. PMID:24924956

  13. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.

  14. Accounting for the association of family conflict and heavy alcohol use among adolescent girls: the role of depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Kelly, Adrian B; Toumbourou, John W

    2013-05-01

    Heavy alcohol use increases dramatically at age 14, and there is emerging cross-sectional evidence that when girls experience family conflict at younger ages (11-13 years) the risk of alcohol use and misuse is high. This study evaluated the role of family conflict and subsequent depressed mood in predicting heavy alcohol use among adolescent girls. This was a three-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments (modal ages 12, 13, and 14 years). The participants (N = 886, 57% female) were from 12 metropolitan schools in Victoria, Australia, and participants completed questionnaires during school class time. The key measures were based on the Communities That Care Youth Survey and included family conflict (Wave 1), depressed mood (Wave 2), and heavy alcohol use (Wave 3). Control variables included school commitment, number of peers who consumed alcohol, whether parents were living together, and ethnic background. With all controls in the model, depressed mood at Wave 2 was predicted by family conflict at Wave 1. The interaction of family conflict with gender was significant, with girls showing a stronger association of family conflict and depressed mood. Depressed mood at Wave 2 predicted heavy alcohol use at Wave 3. Girls may be especially vulnerable to family conflict, and subsequent depressed mood increases the risk of heavy alcohol use. The results support the need for gender-sensitive family-oriented prevention programs delivered in late childhood and early adolescence.

  15. Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related injuries: An open cohort study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year -1 for females and 0.036year -1 for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations.

  17. Asian American and White College Students' Heavy Episodic Drinking Behaviors and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-08-23

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Heavy Alcohol Use and Assaults: With Adjustment for the Effects of Unmeasured Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence.

  19. Motor response programming and movement time in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  1. Heavy alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation. The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Fumihiko; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Cui, Renzhe; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sankai, Tomoko; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

     Evidence regarding the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is currently limited in Asian populations.  Between 1991 and 1995, a total of 8,602 Japanese men and women aged 30-80 years took part in the first examination of the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS), a population-based cohort study in Japanese communities. An interviewer obtained detailed information on weekly alcohol intake. During the follow-up period, the incidence of AF was ascertained from annual ECG records, the subject's medical history of AF, and cardiovascular disease surveillance. The hazard ratios (HRs) of incident AF and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relative to the never-drinking group were calculated with adjustment for potential confounding factors by using the Cox proportional hazard model. During a median follow-up period of 6.4 years, 296 incidents of AF occurred. A higher incidence of AF was observed among participants with an ethanol intake >69g/day, compared with never-drinkers. Compared with the never-drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (CIs) of past, light (69g/day) drinkers were 1.30 (0.68-2.49), 0.89 (0.60-1.32), 1.19 (0.73-1.95), 1.36 (0.79-2.35), and 2.90 (1.61-5.23), respectively.  Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of AF. 

  2. Brief alcohol intervention by newly trained workers versus leaflets: comparison of effect in older heavy drinkers identified in a population health examination survey: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders B Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake.......To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake....

  3. Racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems: differences by gender and level of heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E; Kerr, William C

    2014-06-01

    While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking (HD), particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and developing specific, targeted interventions. This study addresses these questions and examines disparities in specific types of alcohol problems across racial-gender groups. Using 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey data (N = 7,249 current drinkers), gender-stratified regression analyses were conducted to assess black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in alcohol dependence and negative drinking consequences at equivalent levels of HD. HD was measured using a gender-specific, composite drinking-patterns variable derived through factor analysis. Analyses were replicated using adjusted-alcohol consumption variables that account for group differences in drink alcohol content based on race/ethnicity, gender, age, and alcoholic beverage. Compared with white men, black and Hispanic men had higher rates of injuries/accidents/health and social consequences, and marginally greater work/legal consequences (p racial/ethnic disparities. Interventions focused on reducing HD might not address disparities in alcohol-related problems that exist at low levels of HD. Future research should consider the potential role of environmental and genetic factors in these disparities. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.

  5. Implicit strategy affects learning in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Mattson, Sarah N

    2004-09-01

    Learning and memory deficits are commonly reported in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Our recent work suggested that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure retained information as well as controls on a verbal learning test but not on a test of nonverbal learning and memory. To better understand the cause of this differential pattern of performance, the current study re-analyzed data from our previous study to determine if the presence of an implicit learning strategy may account, at least in part, for the finding of spared retention. The current study examined verbal learning and memory abilities in 35 children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and 34 nonexposed controls (CON) matched for age (9-16 years), sex, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Groups were compared on two measures of verbal learning, one with an implicit strategy (California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version; CVLT-C) and one without (Verbal Learning subtest of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning; VL-WRAML). Children with FASD learned less information overall than children in the CON group. Both groups learned a greater percentage of information and reached a learning plateau earlier on the CVLT-C compared with the VL-WRAML. Groups also showed comparable rates of retention after a delay on the CVLT-C. In contrast, on the VL-WRAML, children with FASD showed poorer retention rates than children in the CON group. Interestingly, children with FASD did not differ from children in the CON group on CVLT-C semantic clustering scores for learning trials 1 through 3, and greater utilization of semantic clustering was correlated with better learning and memory performance in both groups. This overall pattern of results was not related to overall intellectual level. The finding of spared retention of verbal information on the CVLT-C in our earlier studies may be related to test characteristics of the CVLT-C rather than a finding of spared verbal

  6. Single-Session Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jennifer E; Tanner-Smith, Emily E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief, single-session interventions to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. A comprehensive literature search identified 73 studies comparing the effects of single-session brief alcohol intervention with treatment-as-usual or no-treatment control conditions on alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimates were used to synthesize 662 effect sizes, estimating the average overall effect of the interventions and the variability in effects across a range of moderators. An overall mean effect size of ḡ = 0.18, 95% CI [0.12, 0.24] indicated that, on average, single-session brief alcohol interventions significantly reduced alcohol use among heavy drinking college students relative to comparison conditions. There was minimal variability in effects associated with study method and quality, general study characteristics, participant demographics, or outcome measure type. However, studies using motivational enhancement therapy/motivational interviewing (MET/MI) modalities reported larger effects than those using psychoeducational therapy (PET) interventions. Further investigation revealed that studies using MET/ MI and feedback-only interventions, but not those using cognitive-behavioral therapy or PET modalities, reported average effect sizes that differed significantly from zero. There was also evidence that long-term effects were weaker than short-term effects. Single-session brief alcohol interventions show modest effects for reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students and may be particularly effective when they incorporate MET/MI principles. More research is needed to directly compare intervention modalities, to develop more potent interventions, and to explore the persistence of long-term effects.

  7. Beyond the "Binge" threshold: heavy drinking patterns and their association with alcohol involvement indices in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Beattie, Melissa; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2008-02-01

    Despite its ubiquity, the term "Binge" drinking has been controversial. Among other things, the grouping of drinkers into a single risk category based on a relatively low threshold may not capture adequately the nature of problem drinking behaviors. The present study is an initial examination of the utility of delineating heavy drinkers into three groups; those who typically drink below the traditional "Binge" cutoff (less than 4+/5+ drinks per occasion for women/men), those who met traditional "Binge" drinking criteria, and a higher "Binge" cutoff of 6+/7+ (women, men). We examined differences in drunkenness, drinking frequency, and unique types of alcohol problems. Participants (N=356; 184 women) were regularly drinking college students at a mid-sized U.S. university who completed a battery of self-report measures including a calendar of daily alcohol consumption, and the 8-domain Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). Estimated Blood Alcohol Levels (eBALs) were calculated. We found that the standard 4+/5+ drink "Binge" cutoff distinguishes drinkers across some but not all indices of alcohol involvement. "Binge" drinkers differed from their "Non-Binge" counterparts on eBAL, but for other indicators (drinking frequency, total alcohol consequences), only "Heavy Binge" drinkers differed significantly from "Non-Binge" drinkers. Importantly, "Heavy Binge" drinkers experienced higher levels of those specific consequences associated with more problematic alcohol involvement. Findings suggest that not all "Binge" drinkers drink alike, are equally drunk, or experience similar consequences. As such, there may be utility in distinguishing among heavy drinkers, in order to focus appropriately on those at greatest risk for different types of consequences.

  8. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  9. Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul; Agius, Paul A; Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Lim, Megan S C; Wright, Cassandra J C; Room, Robin

    2017-08-01

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD. Longitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately 1 year apart. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25 years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks (ASD: 10 g ethanol) in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of seven ASD for females in a single occasion in the previous year). Random digit-dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual-specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed. Changes in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Likelihood Ratio χ 2 (2) = 24.4, P Event-specific characteristics are important predictors of the number of drinks consumed during risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and illustrate the importance of event contexts when considering interventions targeting RSOD. The total number of drinks consumed in a RSOD session appears to rise independently with the duration of the drinking event, the number of drinking locations and the number of different types of beverage consumed. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Self-Regulation, Alcohol Consumption, and Consequences in College Student Heavy Drinkers: A Simultaneous Latent Growth Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, John T.P.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Lower levels of self-regulation have been associated with higher rates of alcohol-related consequences. Self-regulation refers to the effortful ability to plan and achieve delayed adaptive outcomes through goal-directed behavior, and this skill may play a role in adaptive behavioral change. The purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study was to test predictions from self-regulation theory about the relationship among self-regulation and weekly alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences over 12 months. Method: Participants were 170 heavy drinking college students who provided data on alcohol use and consequences at baseline and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month assessments. Results: Using a simultaneous latent growth model, self-regulation ability predicted the amount of initial alcohol-related consequences, the rate of change for alcohol-related consequences, and the rate of change for drinks per week. In contrast, self-regulation was not related to the initial level of alcohol use. Conclusions: Collectively, these results suggest that lower self-regulation ability functions as a risk factor for experiencing alcohol-related consequences and attenuates naturally occurring reductions in alcohol use and consequences over time for heavier drinking college students. PMID:19371488

  11. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Prystupa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  12. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the nucleus accumbens identifies DNA methylation signals differentiating low/binge from heavy alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Juanes, Rita; Wilhelm, Larry J; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Betsy

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol-use disorders encompass a range of drinking levels and behaviors, including low, binge, and heavy drinking. In this regard, investigating the neural state of individuals who chronically self-administer lower doses of alcohol may provide insight into mechanisms that prevent the escalation of alcohol use. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that stabilizes adaptations in gene expression and has been associated with alcohol use. Thus, we investigated DNA methylation, gene expression, and the predicted neural effects in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) of male rhesus macaques categorized as "low" or "binge" drinkers, compared to "alcohol-naïve" and "heavy" drinkers based on drinking patterns during a 12-month alcohol self-administration protocol. Using genome-wide CpG-rich region enrichment and bisulfite sequencing, the methylation levels of 2.6 million CpGs were compared between alcohol-naïve (AN), low/binge (L/BD), and heavy/very heavy (H/VHD) drinking subjects (n = 24). Through regional clustering analysis, we identified nine significant differential methylation regions (DMRs) that specifically distinguished ANs and L/BDs, and then compared those DMRs among H/VHDs. The DMRs mapped to genes encoding ion channels, receptors, cell adhesion molecules, and cAMP, NF-κβ and Wnt signaling pathway proteins. Two of the DMRs, linked to PDE10A and PKD2L2, were also differentially methylated in H/VHDs, suggesting an alcohol-dose independent effect. However, two other DMRs, linked to the CCBE1 and FZD5 genes, had L/BD methylation levels that significantly differed from both ANs and H/VHDs. The remaining five DMRs also differentiated L/BDs and ANs. However, H/VHDs methylation levels were not distinguishable from either of the two groups. Functional validation of two DMRs, linked to FZD5 and PDE10A, support their role in regulating gene expression and exon usage, respectively. In summary, the findings demonstrate that L/BD is associated with unique

  15. Heavy alcohol use, marijuana use, and concomitant use by adolescents are associated with unique and shared cognitive decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Jennifer L; Hanson, Karen L; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-09-01

    To assess recovery of cognitive effects, we investigated neuropsychological performance after 1 month of monitored abstinence in teens with histories of heavy episodic drinking, protracted marijuana use, or concomitant use of alcohol and marijuana. Adolescents (ages 16-18 years) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; n=24), marijuana use (MJ; n=20), both heavy alcohol and marijuana use (HED+MJ; n=29), and socio-demographically similar control teens (CON; n=55) completed a neuropsychological battery following 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Groups were similar on 5th grade standardized test scores, suggesting comparable academic functioning before onset of substance use. Relative to CON, HED showed poorer cognitive flexibility (p=.006), verbal recall (p=.024), semantic clustering (p=.011), and reading skills (p=.018). MJ performed worse than CON on inhibition task accuracy (p=.015), cued verbal memory (p=.031), and psychomotor speed (p=.027). Similar to HED youth, HED+MJ showed differences relative to CON on cognitive flexibility (p=.024) and verbal recall (p=.049). As with MJ teens, HED+MJ showed poorer task accuracy (p=.020). Unique to the HED+MJ group was poorer working memory (p=.012) relative to CON. For all substance using participants, worse performance across domains correlated with more lifetime use of alcohol and of marijuana, more withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, and earlier age of onset of marijuana use (psperformance in specific cognitive domains.

  16. Executive function predicts adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Crocker, Nicole; O'Brien, Jessica W; Deweese, Benjamin N; Roesch, Scott C; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these 2 domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, nonexposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. As part of a multisite study, 3 groups of children (8 to 18 years, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, n = 142), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 82), and typically developing controls (CON, n = 133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities, and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with 3 of the 4 EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. These results support prior research in ADHD, suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of EF. Copyright © 2012 by the Research

  17. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perception and reality: a national evaluation of social norms marketing interventions to reduce college students' heavy alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben E; Lee, Jae Eun; Seibring, Mark; Lewis, Catherine; Keeling, Richard P

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate a widely used intervention to reduce college student alcohol use, we studied student drinking patterns at colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and those that did not. We examined responses of students in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) 1997, 1999 and 2001 data sets at 37 colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and at 61 that did not. Information about the students' drinking behavior and their familiarity with social norms marketing messages at their schools was analyzed, as were college administrators' reports about the implementation of social norms marketing campaigns. Schools were grouped on the basis of student reports of exposure to programmatic materials. Trend analyses were conducted on seven standard measures of alcohol consumption, including annual and 30-day use, frequency, usual quantity and volume consumed, heavy episodic use, and drunkenness. Almost half of the CAS colleges sampled adopted social norms programs. Those that did were more likely to have large enrollments, not to be religiously affiliated and to have high rates of alcohol use. No decreases were noted in any of the seven measures of alcohol use at schools with social norms programs, even when student exposure and length of program existence were considered. Increases in measures of monthly alcohol use and total volume consumed, however, were observed at schools employing social norms programs. This study does not provide evidence to support the effectiveness of social norms marketing programs, as currently utilized, in reducing alcohol use among college students.

  19. Incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in Danish men and women with a prolonged heavy alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, M.E.; Thygesen, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have found U- or J-shaped relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular conditions. The influence of heavy drinking is, however, sparsely studied. The objective of the present study was to examine whether alcohol addicts have higher incidence......) according to sex, age and calendar time to compare subjects' cardio- and cerebrovascular incidence with that of the general population of Copenhagen. RESULTS: During the period 1977 to 2001 a total of 9,397 events of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease were observed. In both men and women, statistically...

  20. Comparison of adaptive behavior in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2009-11-01

    Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child's behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD show impairments in

  1. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  2. Brief Alcohol Intervention by Newly Trained Workers Versus Leaflets: Comparison of Effect in Older Heavy Drinkers Identified in a Population Health Examination Survey: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake. Methods: Screening of 12,364 participants in a Danish health examination survey led to 1026 heavy drinkers of whom 772 were included and randomized...

  3. Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Bae, Harold; Phibbs, Sandi; Kern, Adam C

    2017-11-01

    Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-16 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study. Seven 4-year universities in the United States. There were 10 924 undergraduate participants. One large public Oregon university participated in 2014 and 2016 (n = 588 and 1115, respectively); six universities in US states where recreational marijuana use was illegal participated both in 2016 and at least once between 2012 and 2015. Self-reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (yes/no) was regressed on time (pre/post 2015), exposure to RML (i.e. Oregon students in 2016) and covariates using mixed-effects logistic regression. Moderation of RML effects by recent heavy alcohol use was examined. Rates of marijuana use increased from pre- to post-2015 at six of the seven universities, a trend that was significant overall. Increases in rates of marijuana use were significantly greater in Oregon than in comparison institutions, but only among students reporting recent heavy alcohol use. Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol. Such alcohol misuse may be a proxy for vulnerabilities to substance use or lack of prohibitions (e.g. cultural) against it. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The impact of elevated posttraumatic stress on the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions for heavy drinking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Christopher J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G

    2013-03-01

    Brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) have been widely adopted for use with college students and are associated with significant reductions in drinking and problems. However, many students do not respond to these approaches and little is known about risk factors for poor response. The current study investigated one possible risk factor by examining the impact of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms on BAI efficacy. This study presents pooled data from two randomized clinical trials that examined the efficacy of counselor-administered BAIs compared with computerized interventions. Participants were 207 college students (53.1% women, 68.1% White/Caucasian, 16.9% with elevated post-traumatic stress) who reported past-month heavy episodic drinking. Follow-up assessments were completed six months post-intervention. Analyses testing differences in frequency of past-month heavy episodic drinking revealed a significant post-traumatic stress by time interaction (F(1,165)=8.27, p=.005) such that individuals screening positive for PTS showed larger reductions in heavy episodic drinking at follow-up. A significant three-way interaction between time, PTS, and intervention condition (F(2,167)=5.76, p=.004) was found for alcohol related consequences. Specifically, among individuals screening positive for PTS, only those that received the counselor-administered BAI showed a significant reduction in consequences at follow-up. These results suggest that overall college students with PTS may respond well to BAIs and that counselor-delivered BAIs may be more efficacious than computer-delivered interventions for reducing alcohol problems for these high-risk students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little

  6. Incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in Danish men and women with a prolonged heavy alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, Marie Engholm; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have found U- or J-shaped relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular conditions. The influence of heavy drinking is, however, sparsely studied. The objective of the present study was to examine whether alcohol addicts have higher incidence rates of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than the population in general. The cohort comprised 19,185 subjects (15,368 men and 3,817 women) who attended outpatient clinics for alcohol abusers within the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (1954 to 1992). Incidence rates were standardized (SIR) according to sex, age and calendar time to compare subjects' cardio- and cerebrovascular incidence with that of the general population of Copenhagen. During the period 1977 to 2001 a total of 9,397 events of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease were observed. In both men and women, statistically significant higher incidence rates than would be expected in a standard population were observed for cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart diseases, men: SIR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.69-1.83; women: SIR = 2.44; 95% CI 2.19-2.73) and cerebrovascular diseases (e.g., hemorrhagic stroke, men: SIR = 2.71; 95% CI 2.45-2.99; women: SIR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.18-3.48). The study indicates increased risks of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in subjects with an excessive alcohol intake.

  7. Minimum Pricing of Alcohol versus Volumetric Taxation: Which Policy Will Reduce Heavy Consumption without Adversely Affecting Light and Moderate Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. Methods We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010–22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. Findings The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20–1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10–2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86–16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64–2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10–10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46–0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19–413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76–121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55–574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79–175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. Conclusions While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers. PMID:24465368

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  9. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  10. Risk modifying effect of social capital on measures of heavy alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, harms, and secondhand effects: national survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2005-04-01

    To examine associations between social capital and individual risk for alcohol abuse and harms and identify protective effect mechanisms. Multilevel multivariate analysis with individual level data from a national panel survey of drinking and a contextual measure of social capital reflecting college mean aggregate reports of student volunteerism. Outcomes include heavy episodic (binge) drinking, frequent drinking, frequent drunkenness, diagnosable alcohol abuse, intentional drunkenness, acquisition of binge drinking, harms, secondhand effects from others' drinking. United States, 119 four year colleges. Representative samples of youth ages 18-24 surveyed in 1997 and 1999 using an anonymous mailed questionnaire (total n = 27 687). Students from colleges with higher levels of social capital reported reduced risks for binge drinking (adjusted OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, p = 0.002), frequent drunkenness (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98, p = 0.04), acquisition of binge drinking in college (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.95, p = 0.03), and alcohol abuse (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91, p = 0.02) in multilevel multivariate analyses that controlled for individual volunteering, the measure on which social capital was based. Higher levels of social capital protected against multiple drinking related harms (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90, p = 0.02) and secondhand drinking effects (adjusted OR, 0.30, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.58, p = 0.0003). Significant cross level interactions exist between fraternity/sorority membership and social capital for measures of risky drinking. Harm reduction primarily reflects consumption modification. Social capital exerts strong protective effects on alcohol abuse and harm in college including among high risk students.

  11. Drinking and desired self-images: path models of self-image goals, coping motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. High AST/ALT ratio may indicate advanced alcoholic liver disease rather than heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblom, H; Berggren, U; Balldin, J; Olsson, R

    2004-01-01

    To assess the place of AST/ALT ratio (the ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase) as a diagnostic marker in medical populations. Laboratory tests were viewed retrospectively in three groups of patients: 313 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to an alcohol and drug treatment unit for treatment of withdrawal (W) symptoms, 78 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence consecutively admitted to surgical or medical wards with various primary somatic (S) diagnoses (e.g. respiratory, gastrointestinal and metabolic), and 48 consecutive patients with alcohol abuse or dependence admitted to surgical or medical wards for treatment of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis and its complications (C). Comparison between groups was made of the pattern of patients' AST/ALT ratios using, for Groups S and C, laboratory data from patients' first admission for their condition. There was a significant rise in the AST/ALT ratio from the W to the S patients, and from the S to the C patients. In the W group, the ratio was or = 2. In the C group, 69% had a ratio > or = 2, and 8% a ratio < or = 1.0. The mean ratio was midway in the S group. In the C group, there was a progressive decline in aspartate (AST/ALT) ratios after admission. Most patients with high alcohol consumption but without severe liver disease do not have an AST/ALT ratio above 1. High AST/ALT ratio suggests advanced alcoholic liver disease.

  13. The Low Level of Response to Alcohol-Based Heavy Drinking Prevention Program: One-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Clausen, Peyton; Fromme, Kim; Skidmore, Jessica; Shafir, Alexandra; Kalmijn, Jelger

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking is common on college campuses, with a marked increase from high school to freshman year. Programs addressing heavy campus drinking often personalize prevention protocols to fit a student's demography and prior drinking characteristics. Few efforts have individualized approaches to address a person's vulnerability through his or her low level of response (low LR) to alcohol. This article describes the recently completed 55-week outcome in drinking quantities and problems for the >90% of 500 participants in a prevention program at a U.S. university (62% female, mean age = 18 years) who completed a 4-week series of 50-minute videos delivered via the Internet. We evaluated whether, for low LRs, participation in an educational approach that focused on a low LR (the LR-based [LRB] condition) was associated with better outcomes than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) general education or with a no-intervention control condition. Using a mixed-design analysis of variance and focusing on the most closely ethnically matched high and low LR pairs, students with low LRs in the LRB condition demonstrated the greatest decreases in usual and maximum drinks over the 55 weeks, especially when compared with closely ethnically matched students with high LRs. Low LR controls showed the highest drinking values over time. This study underscores the potential importance of targeting a person's specific preexisting vulnerability toward heavy drinking when he or she enters college. The approach can be used in a relatively inexpensive protocol of video education sessions delivered via the Internet.

  14. Social learning theory and the effects of living arrangement on heavy alcohol use: results from a national study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Gryczynski, Jan

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between living arrangement and heavy episodic drinking among college students in the United States. Using social learning theory as a framework, it was hypothesized that vicarious learning of peer and family alcohol-use norms would mediate the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking. Analyses were conducted using data from the 2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, a national survey of full-time undergraduate students attending 4-year colleges or universities in the United States (N = 10,008). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between heavy episodic drinking and various measures of living arrangement and vicarious learning/social norms. Mediation of the effects of living arrangement was tested using both indirect and direct methods. Both student living arrangement and vicarious-learning/social-norm variables remained significant predictors of heavy episodic drinking in multivariate models when controlling for a variety of individual characteristics. Slight mediation of the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking by vicarious learning/social norms was confirmed for some measures. Although vicarious learning of social norms does appear to play a role in the association between living arrangement and alcohol use, other processes may underlie the relationship. These findings suggest that using theory alongside empirical evidence to inform the manipulation of living environments could present a promising policy strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm in collegiate contexts.

  15. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, L.A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol i...

  17. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-01-01

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET- 18 FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal

  18. Consumo abusivo de álcool em mulheres Consumo excesivo de alcohol entre las mujeres Heavy alcohol consumption among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Cadahaiane de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo, exploratório, objetivou caracterizar as mulheres atendidas em um Hospital de Ensino do Noroeste do Paraná, por abuso de álcool, nos anos de 1999 a 2008, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas e dados da intoxicação. Dos 823 atendimentos, a faixa etária mais frequente foi dos 20 aos 49 anos (58,32%. 13 (1,58% mulheres estavam grávidas; 12,5% apresentavam de 9 a 12 anos de estudo. Os destilados foram a principal bebida utilizada, e a ingestão foi mais prevalente no período noturno. Cerca de 156 (18,96% mulheres necessitaram de internamento hospitalar. Evasão hospitalar foi observada em 8,5% dos casos. Conclui-se que a população feminina representa um subgrupo da população suscetível ao abuso do álcool, e, com o perfil descrito neste estudo, foi possível descrever as áreas de impacto na saúde da mulher, possibilitando a implementação de medidas preventivas para diminuir a ocorrência, as complicações e a reincidência nessa população.Este estudio descriptivo, exploratorio tiene por objetivo caracterizar las mujeres que acuden a Hospital Universitario de Paraná en el Noroeste, por abuso de alcohol en los años de 1999 a 2008, según los datos sociodemográficos de la intoxicación y se asocia con trauma y violencia. De los 823 atendimentos la faja de edad más frecuente fue de los 20 a los 49 años (58,32%. 13 (1,58% mujeres estaban embarazadas; 12,5% presentaban de 9 a 12 años de escolaridad.. fonéticamente Los destilados fueron la bebida principal y más prevalente en la noche. Cerca de 156 (18,96% mujeres requirieron hospitalización. La evasión hospitalaria se observó en el 8,5% de los casos. Se concluye que la población femenina representa un subgrupo de la población susceptible al abuso del alcohol y, con el perfil descrito en este estudio, fue posible describir las áreas de impacto en la salud de la mujer, posibilitando la implementación de medidas preventivas para disminuir el

  19. Alcohol approach tendencies in heavy drinkers: comparison of effects in a Relevant Stimulus-Response Compatibility task and an approach/avoidance Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Matt; Caren, Rhiane; Fernie, Gordon; De Houwer, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies suggest that alcohol-related cues elicit automatic approach tendencies in heavy drinkers. A variety of tasks have been used to demonstrate these effects, including Relevant Stimulus-Response Compatibility (R-SRC) tasks and variants of Simon tasks. Previous work with normative stimuli suggests that the R-SRC task may be more sensitive than Simon tasks because the activation of approach tendencies may depend on encoding of the stimuli as alcohol-related, which occurs in the R-SRC task but not in Simon tasks. Our aim was to directly compare these tasks for the first time in the context of alcohol use. We administered alcohol versions of an R-SRC task and a Simon task to 62 social drinkers, who were designated as heavy or light drinkers based on a median split of their weekly alcohol consumption. Results indicated that, compared to light drinkers, heavy drinkers were faster to approach, rather than avoid, alcohol-related pictures in the R-SRC task but not in the Simon task. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed.

  20. Effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption and endurance exercise on cancellous and cortical bone microarchitecture in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa L; Gaddini, Gino; Branscum, Adam J; Olson, Dawn A; Caroline-Westerlind, Kim; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2014-05-01

    Bone health is influenced by numerous lifestyle factors, including diet and exercise. Alcohol is a major nonessential constituent of diet and has dose- and context-dependent effects on bone. Endurance exercise is associated with increased risk of stress fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term independent and combined effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption and endurance exercise (treadmill running) on bone mass and microarchitecture in young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Six-month-old male rats were randomized into 4 groups (9 to 13 rats/group): sedentary + control diet, sedentary + ethanol (EtOH) diet, exercise + control diet, or exercise + EtOH diet. EtOH-fed rats consumed a liquid diet (EtOH comprised 35% of caloric intake) ad libitum. Control rats were pair-fed the same diet with isocaloric substitution of EtOH with maltose-dextran. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill (15% grade for 30 minutes) 5 d/wk for 16 weeks. Femur and 12th thoracic vertebra were analyzed for bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) using densitometry and cortical and cancellous bone architecture using microcomputed tomography. EtOH consumption resulted in lower femur length, BMC, and BMD, and lower midshaft femur cortical volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia. In addition, trabecular thickness was lower in vertebra of EtOH-fed rats. Endurance exercise had no independent effect on any end point evaluated. A significant interaction between endurance exercise and EtOH was detected for several cancellous end points in the distal femur metaphysis. EtOH-consuming rats that exercised had lower distal femur metaphysis bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular connectivity density, and trabecular thickness compared to exercising rats that consumed control diet. The results obtained in this model suggest that chronic heavy alcohol consumption may reduce skeletal integrity by reducing bone size, mass, and density, and by negatively

  1. The role of discrimination in alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking HIV-negative and positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  3. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p'schildren prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A, E-mail: cezara.voica@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  5. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A

    2009-01-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  6. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, L.A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes

  7. Relationships of both Heavy and Binge Alcohol Drinking with Unhealthy Habits in Korean Adults Based on the KNHANES IV Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook

    2014-05-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.

  8. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353248-08$15.00/0.

  9. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  10. Consumo abusivo de álcool e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional Heavy alcohol consumption and associated factors: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal S Dias da Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao consumo abusivo de álcool. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional incluindo 2.177 indivíduos adultos (20 a 69 anos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, RS. Amostragem em múltiplos estágios. Consumo de álcool abusivo foi definido como mais de 30 g/dia. A análise ajustada foi realizada por regressão logística não condicional. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool foi de 14,3%, sendo 29,2% para os homens e 3,7% para as mulheres. Os seguintes grupos apresentaram maior consumo abusivo de álcool após análise ajustada: homens, idosos, indivíduos com pele preta ou parda, de nível social mais baixo, fumantes pesados e que apresentam alguma doença crônica. Somente entre os homens, os que apresentavam distúrbios psiquiátricos menores mostraram maior índice de consumo abusivo e entre as mulheres a relação foi inversa com idade. Constatou-se também que entre os hipertensos, aqueles classificados como consumidores excessivos apresentavam pior controle da doença. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo abusivo de álcool é elevado e acarreta inúmeras conseqüências negativas para a saúde e qualidade de vida dos indivíduos. Os resultados indicam uma alta prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool e identificam alguns subgrupos da população mais suscetíveis ao alcoolismo.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption and factors associated with it in a Brazilian adult population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study including 2,177 adults (aged 20 to 69, living in the urban area of the municipality of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample was selected in multiple stages. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as above 30g/day. The adjusted analysis was conducted by logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 14.3% (29.2% among men and 3.7% among women. The following

  11. Identifying Risk Factors for Late-Onset (50+) Alcohol Use Disorder and Heavy Drinking: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-10-15

    This systematic review seeks to expand the description and understanding of late-onset AUD and asks "Which risk factors have been reported for late-onset heavy drinking and AUD?" Using PRISMA guidelines, a literature review and search was performed on May 19, 2015 using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Nine studies were included in the final review. The search revealed that only very few studies have been conducted. Hence, the evidence is limited but suggests that stress, role/identity loss, and friends' approval of drinking are associated with an increased risk for late-onset AUD or heavy drinking, whereas retirement, death of a spouse or a close relative does not increase the risk. Inherent differences in measurements and methodologies precluded a meta-analysis. Therefore, the results presented here are descriptive in nature. Most studies base their conclusions on a certain preconception of older adults with alcohol problems, which leads to a row of circular arguments. The factors that have been measured seem to have changed over time. There has been a lack of focus on the field of late-onset AUD since the 1970s, which possibly has led to misrepresentations and preconceptions on the complex nature of late-onset AUD. There is limited evidence for any specific risk factor for late-onset AUD or heavy drinking. We suggest the adoption of a qualitative approach to uncover what is intrinsic to late-onset AUD followed by quantitative studies with more agreement on methods and definitions.

  12. Alcohol attenuates amygdala-frontal connectivity during processing social signals in heavy social drinkers: a preliminary pharmaco-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; King, Andrea C; Phan, K Luan

    2013-09-01

    Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), alcohol's effects are likely to extend beyond regional changes in brain activity to changes that manifest on a broader functional circuit level. The current study examines alcohol's effects on functional connectivity (i.e., "coupling") between the amygdala and the PFC during the processing of socio-emotional stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects cross-over design, 12 heavy, social drinkers performed an fMRI task designed to probe amygdala response to socio-emotional stimuli (angry, fearful, and happy faces) following acute ingestion of alcohol or placebo. Functional connectivity between the amygdala and PFC was examined and compared between alcohol and placebo sessions using a conventional generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis. Relative to placebo, alcohol reduced functional coupling between the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during processing of both angry and fearful faces. Alcohol also reduced functional coupling between the amygdala and left OFC during processing of happy faces. These preliminary findings suggest that alcohol's effects on social behavior may be mediated by alternations in functional connectivity between the amygdala and OFC during processing of emotional faces.

  13. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-12-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  15. A functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) influences cue-induced craving for alcohol in male heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Esther; Wiers, Reinout W; Dessers, Joelle; Janssen, Rob G J H; Lambrichs, Ellen H; Smeets, Hubert J M; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2007-01-01

    The mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) codes for the mu-opioid receptor, which binds beta-endorphin. The A118G polymorphism in this gene affects beta-endorphin binding such that the Asp40 variant (G allele) binds beta-endorphin 3 times more tightly than the more common Asn40 variant (A allele). This study investigated the influence of the A118G polymorphism on cue reactivity after exposure to an alcoholic beverage in male heavy drinkers. Participants were either homozygous for the A allele (n=84) or carrying at least 1 copy of the G allele (n=24). All participants took part in a cue-reactivity paradigm where they were exposed to water and beer in 3-minute trials. The dependent variables of main interest were subjective craving for alcohol, subjective arousal, and saliva production. G allele carriers reported significantly more craving for alcohol than the A allele participants (as indicated by the within-subject difference in craving after beer vs after water exposure). No differences were found for subjective arousal and saliva. Both groups did not differ in family history of alcoholism. Participants with the G allele reported a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of drug use than participants homozygous for the A allele. A stronger urge to drink alcohol after exposure to an alcoholic beverage might contribute to a heightened risk for developing alcohol-related problems in individuals with a copy of the G allele. The G allele might also predispose to drug use in general.

  16. Recurrent purpura due to alcohol-related Schamberg's disease and its association with serum immunoglobulins: a longitudinal observation of a heavy drinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Selle, Claudia; Isbruch, Katrin; Isbruch, Katrin

    2016-10-31

    It is unusual for purpura to emerge as a result of drinking alcohol. Such a peculiarity was observed in a 55-year-old man with a 30-year history of heavy alcohol use. The Caucasian patient was studied for 11 years during several detoxification treatments. During the last 2 years of that period, purpuric rashes were newly observed. The asymptomatic purpura was limited to both lower limbs, self-limiting with abstinence, and reoccurring swiftly with alcohol relapse. This sequence was observed six times, suggesting a causative role of alcohol or its metabolites. A skin biopsy revealed histological features of purpura pigmentosa progressiva (termed Schamberg's disease). Additionally, alcoholic fatty liver disease markedly elevated serum immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin E), activated T-lymphocytes, and increased C-reactive protein. In addition, moderate combined (cellular and humoral) immunodeficiency was found. Unlike the patient's immunoglobulin A level, his serum immunoglobulin E level fell in the first days of abstinence, which corresponded to the time of purpura decline. Systemic vasculitis and clotting disorders were excluded. The benign character of the purpura was supported by missing circulating immune complexes or complement activation. An alcohol provocation test with vinegar was followed by the development of fresh "cayenne pepper" spots characteristic of Schamberg's disease. This case report demonstrates that Schamberg's disease can be strongly related to alcohol intake, in our patient most likely as a late complication of severe alcoholism with alcoholic liver disease. Immunologic disturbances thereby acquired could have constituted a basis for a hypersensitivity-like reaction after ingestion of alcohol. Schamberg's disease induction by vinegar may point to an involvement of acetate, a metabolite of ethanol.

  17. Differences in dietary patterns of nonsmoking adults married to smokers vs. nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, J S; Taylor, C A; Booth, C L

    2001-01-01

    To compare dietary intakes of nonsmoking adults married to smokers or nonsmokers. Respondents to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996 (response rate = 76.1% for 2 days of dietary intake). Nonsmoking adults aged 18 and older were grouped according to the smoking status of their spouse. In-home interviews in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. The selected sample included 757 men and 754 women who were married to nonsmokers, and 197 men and 262 women who were married to smokers. Selected demographic variables, food group servings, food energy, and densities of selected nutrients were compared using chi 2 and analysis of covariance. Men and women married to smokers had greater (p cheese and table sweeteners (p < or = .05). Nonsmoking men and women who were married to smokers had compromised dietary intakes. Nonsmoking men whose wives smoked, in particular, had unhealthy diets due to elevated intakes of fat and cholesterol and low intakes of vitamin A, calcium, and fiber. Health professionals should continue to provide tobacco cessation instruction and dietary guidance, but also be aware of at-risk patients' immediate family members who likely share an increased risk of disease because of poor diet quality and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  18. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  19. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi O; Onyedum, Cajetan C; Adewole, Olufemi O; Fawibe, Ademola E; Salami, Alakija K

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. We carried out a cross-sectional study from October 2009 to April 2010 among adult population of two Nigerian cities: Enugu and Ilorin. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered by interviewers to obtain socio-demographic information; and information regarding pattern of SHS exposure, awareness of tobacco control policy and the harmful effects of SHS. SHS exposure was defined as regular exposure to tobacco smoke in the previous 30 days in a nonsmoking adult. Of the 585 nonsmoking adults that completed the study, 38.8% had regular exposure to SHS; mostly, in public places (24.4%). More men were exposed at public places when compared with women (27.0% vs. 19.5%). The strongest factor associated with exposure to SHS in women was having a smoking spouse [prevalence rate (PR) ratio-7.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.08-9.42]; and in men, it was lack of home smoking restriction (PR ratio-6.35; 95% CI, 4.51-8.93). Among men, SHS exposure at any location was associated with lack of secondary school education, residing in slum apartment (house with many households), living with a smoking family member (non-spouse), lack of home smoking restriction, and alcohol intake. Among women, SHS exposure at any location was associated with having a smoking spouse, residing in slum apartment and lack of home smoking restriction. Seventy-two percent of respondents were aware of the harmful effects of SHS on their health. Lack of awareness of the harmful effects was significantly associated with increasing age (r = +0.45; P = smoking area at their workplaces. Our results show that prevalence of SHS exposure was the highest in public places. These findings underscore the need for enactment of comprehensive smoke-free legislation and implementation

  1. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatores associados ao uso pesado de álcool entre estudantes das capitais brasileiras Factores asociados al uso pesado de alcohol entre estudiantes de las capitales brasileras Factors associated with heavy alcohol use among students in Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F Galduróz

    2010-04-01

    el uso pesado de alcohol y los factores estudiados fueron analizadas por medio de regresión logística, considerando nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Del total de estudiantes, 4.286 (8,9% hicieron uso pesado de alcohol en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El análisis por regresión logística mostró asociación entre relaciones malas o regulares con padre (OR= 1,46 y madre (OR =1,61 y uso pesado de alcohol. Seguir una religión (OR=0,83 se mostró inversamente asociado a este tipo de consumo de alcohol. La práctica de deportes y el hecho de que la madre se perciba como liberal, no mostraron significancia en el modelo. Hubo mayor prevalencia del uso pesado de alcohol entre los estudiantes que trabajaban. CONCLUSIONES: Uniones familiares más coherentes y seguir una religión pueden prevenir el uso abusivo de alcohol entre estudiantes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heavy use of alcohol among students and family, personal and social factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including public school students aged ten to 18 from 27 Brazilian capital cities in 2004. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire that was adapted from a World Health Organization instrument. A representative sample comprising 48,155 students was stratified by census tracts and clusters (schools. The associations between heavy alcohol use and the factors studied were analyzed using logistic regression at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Of all students, 4,286 (8.9% reported heavy alcohol use in the month prior to the interview. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between fair or poor relationship with the father (OR = 1.46 and the mother (OR = 1.61 and heavy use of alcohol. Following a religion (OR = 0.83 was inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Sports practice and mother perceived as a "liberal" person had no significance in the model. However, a higher prevalence of heavy use of alcohol was seen among working

  3. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    /1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...

  4. Association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Rahman

    Full Text Available Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk.A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011-2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction.Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week, however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥ 21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27. Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37, whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18. Furthermore, light - moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers.While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained.

  5. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  6. A short fuse after alcohol: implicit power associations predict aggressiveness after alcohol consumption in young heavy drinkers with limited executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Beckers, L.; Houben, K.; Hofmann, W.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from recent dual-process models, which conceptualize behavior as the interplay of associative and Executive Control (EC) processes. This general logic was applied here to the phenomenon of aggressiveness after drinking alcohol. Specifically, we predicted that

  7. Preventing heavy alcohol use in adolescents (PAS): cluster randomized trial of a parent and student intervention offered separately and simultaneously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Smit, F.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Stattin, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive interventions to reduce heavy drinking in first- and second-year high school students. Design and setting Cluster randomized controlled trial using four conditions for comparing two active interventions with a control group from 152 classes of 19

  8. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  9. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15-20 years with a low educational background: a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the slightly modified version of the web-based brief alcohol intervention “What Do You Drink” (WDYD) among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. Methods A two-arm parallel group cluster

  10. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific

  11. Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorders in VA primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking enrolled in a trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Traci; Lapham, Gwen; Chavez, Laura J; Lee, Amy K; Williams, Emily C; Richards, Julie E; Greenberg, Diane; Rubinsky, Anna; Berger, Douglas; Hawkins, Eric J; Merrill, Joseph O; Bradley, Katharine A

    2017-07-18

    Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial. VA primary care patients who reported frequent heavy drinking and enrolled in the CHOICE trial were interviewed at baseline using the DSM-IV Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for AUD, as well as questions about socio-demographics, mental health, alcohol craving, and substance use. We compared characteristics across 4 mutually exclusive groups based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria. Of 304 participants, 13.8% met criteria for neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD; 12.8% met criteria for DSM-5 alone, and 73.0% met criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5. Only 1 patient (0.3%) met criteria for DSM-IV AUD alone. Patients meeting both DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria had more negative drinking consequences, mental health symptoms and self-reported readiness to change compared with those meeting DSM-5 criteria alone or neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV criteria. In this sample of primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking, DSM-5 identified 13% more patients with AUD than DSM-IV. This group had a lower mental health symptom burden and less self-reported readiness to change compared to those meeting criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5 AUD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400581. 2011 February 17.

  12. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  13. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sites of origin of oral cavity cancer in nonsmokers vs smokers: possible evidence of dental trauma carcinogenesis and its importance compared with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brendan J; Zammit, Andrew P; Lewandowski, Andrew W; Bashford, Julia J; Dragovic, Adrian S; Perry, Emily J; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Perry, Christopher F L

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high and possibly rising incidence of mouth squamous cell carcinoma in nonsmokers, especially women, without obvious cause has been noted by previous authors. Is chronic dental trauma and irritation a carcinogen, and what is its importance compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer in nonsmokers? To determine whether oral cavity cancers occurred more commonly at sites of dental trauma and how the position of these cancers varied between nonsmokers lacking major identified carcinogens and smokers. If these cancers occurred more frequently at sites of chronic trauma, especially in nonsmokers, it would suggest chronic dental trauma as a possible carcinogen. A retrospective analysis of 881 patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancers seen through a tertiary referral hospital between 2001 and 2011 was performed. Patient medical records were analyzed to determine the location of the tumor within the oral cavity and oropharynx and how it relates to patient demographics, smoking and alcohol histories, and comorbidities. Dental histories were also sought, including use of dentures. Nonsmokers comprised 87 of 390 patients with mouth cancer (22%) and 48 of 334 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (14%). Female nonsmoking patients included 53 with oral cancer (61%) but only 12 with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (25%). Oral cancers occurred on the lateral tongue, a potential site of chronic dental trauma, in 57 nonsmokers (66%) compared with 107 smokers/ex-smokers (33%) (P Oral cavity cancers occur predominantly at sites of potential dental and denture trauma, especially in nonsmokers without other risk factors. Recognizing teeth irritation as a potential carcinogen would have an impact on prevention and treatment strategies.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-α serum levels in healthy smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Petrescu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Florin Petrescu1, Sebastian Cosmin Voican1, Isabela Silosi21Department of Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania; 2Department of Immunology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, RomaniaBackground: Tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD development. Inhaled cigarette smoke can induce tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a production by alveolar macrophages, which in turn may enhance the production of metalloproteinases (MMPs. MMPs have been involved in mediating airway inflammation and lung destruction.Objectives: We aimed to measure the TNF-a serum levels in healthy heavy smokers and healthy nonsmokers to determine the dose-response relationship based on the cigarette smoke exposure.Subjects and methods: We included in our study 43 healthy heavy smokers and 19 healthy nonsmokers (the control group. The smokers group was classified as less than one pack, one pack, and more than one pack per day. A clinical and paraclinical evaluation was performed in both groups, without any evidence of infection or COPD. The serum levels of TNF-a were assessed by ELISA.Results: The TNF-a serum levels were significantly higher for the group of smokers compared to the group of nonsmokers (P < 0.004. We also noticed an increased TNF-a concentration in the serum of smokers with more than one pack per day compared with those with less than one pack per day (P < 0.03. There was a positive correlation between the serum level of TNF-a and tobacco smoke exposure.Conclusions: The high levels of TNF-a in the serum of smokers suggest an imbalance between the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors as a result of tobacco smoke exposure. The concentration of TNF-a is elevated in the serum of healthy heavy smokers in a cigarette dose-dependent manner. We speculate that the serum level of TNF-a might be a useful biomarker for the selection of heavy smokers

  16. Heavy Alcohol Consumption Effects on Blood Pressure and on Kidney Structure Persist After Long-Term Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified. Glomerular volume density, areal density of glomerular tuft and renal corpuscles were determined. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R protein expression was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks of ethanol consumption causes atrophy of renal corpuscles and glomeruli and reduces the volume of glomeruli. Glomerular changes induced by ethanol consumption were still evident after withdrawal. Renal AT1R levels were increased in ethanol-treated rats and returned to control levels during withdrawal. Ethanol consumption also induced an increase in BP, uric acid and albumin levels. Upon withdrawal, systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased, but were still higher than in controls rats. Conclusion: Ethanol consumption induces changes in glomerular morphology associated with increased BP and AT1R expression. Long-term withdrawal was inefficient to restore the structural integrity of renal corpuscles and in lowering systolic pressure.

  17. Risky alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among Spanish University students: a two-year follow-up Consumo de riesgo y consumo intensivo de alcohol entre estudiantes universitarios: dos años de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mota

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of risky consumption (RC and heavy episodic drinking (HED in the Cohort of Spanish university students at two-year follow-up and to identify predictors of these patterns of alcohol consumption and the association between these patterns and academic achievement. Method: We carried out a cohort study. Alcohol consumption was measured with the AUDIT. The following variables were collected by questionnaire: place of residence, parents' education, alcohol consumption in the family, age of onset of use, alcohol expectancies, and the academic achievement. We constructed logistic regression models using three dependent variables: RC, HED, and academic achievement. Results: The response rate at two-year follow-up was 64.1%. The incidence of RC and HED at two-year follow-up were 24.92% and 4.01% respectively. The prevalence of RC rose from 37.1% to 54.6%. On the contrary, HED dropped from 12.2% to 8.7%. In relation to incidence of RC, being male (OR=2.77, medium (OR=1.59 or high expectancies (OR=2.24, and early age of onset of use (OR=2.26 constituted risk factors. In contrast, living with parents constituted a protective factor (OR=0.48. For HED, being male (OR=1.92 and high expectancies (OR=2.96 were risk factors. RC and HED were risk factors for low academic achievement. Conclusions: HED is a pattern of alcohol consumption mainly associated with adolescence, while RC is associated with youth. Both patterns are predictors of academic achievement. Public Health strategies should focus on modifying expectancies and limit access to alcohol at young ages.Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia del consumo de riesgo de alcohol (CR y del consumo intensivo (CI en una cohorte de estudiantes universitarios a los 2 años de seguimiento e identificar los factores de estas pautas de consumo de alcohol y su asociación con el redimiento académico. Método: Se ha realizado un estudio de cohortes. El consumo de alcohol se ha medido con

  18. The influence of alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic inpatients on complications of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gerard; Daly, Michelle; Proude, Elizabeth M; Kermode, Steven; Davis, Michelle; Barling, Jan; Haber, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is limited research on the correlation between tobacco and risky levels of alcohol use and the possible complications associated with a hospital admission. The underestimation of problem drinking, in particular, has obvious repercussions for the management of patients in hospital. If alcohol-related problems go undetected or unrecorded, treatment may be inadequate or inappropriate. The aims of the project were to assess the prevalence of high-risk alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic in-patients and to examine any relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and the number and type of complications, management and length of stay. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive orthopaedic admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward at Lismore Base Hospital were screened using the Drinkcheck questionnaire, which is based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), but which also screens for tobacco use. Nursing staff on the ward completed a Complications Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ). The risk status of the subjects was compared to the number and type of complications, to assess any effects of alcohol and tobacco on post-surgical complications. Significant correlations were found between tobacco use, hazardous and harmful alcohol use and numerous medical complications and behavioural problems. Behavioural problems associated with risky alcohol use included verbal abuse, agitation and sleep disturbances, particularly in men; problems associated with tobacco use included agitation and non-compliance. Orthopaedic patients who smoke and/or drink heavily prior to surgery may have more non-medical complications than non-smokers and light or non-drinkers. All surgery patients should thus be screened for alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol withdrawal, which may cause other symptoms such as behavioural problems, non-compliance and verbal abuse post-surgery.

  19. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  20. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week), moderate (181-360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (Pdiverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  1. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  2. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  3. Association Between Oral Hygiene Status and Halitosis Among Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiun, Iris Liew Ee; Siddik, Siti Nur'Ain Abu Bakar; Malik, Shan Nawaz; Tin-Oo, Mon Mon; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khan, Mohammad Mobarak Hossain

    2015-01-01

    To study the association of smoking with poor oral hygiene status and halitosis in a comparative cross-sectional study. 100 smokers and 100 nonsmokers ages 18-50 years were recruited for this study in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Oral hygiene (good/fair vs poor) was determined using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and the halitosis level was measured using a Halimeter. Subjects were instructed to refrain from consuming foods containing garlic, onions, strong spices, alcohol and using mouthwashes 48 h prior to the examination. The halitosis levels were quantified by recording volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) three times at 3-min intervals, resulting in a mean halitosis score. Various statistical analyses were performed, ranging from simple frequency analysis to multivariable modelling. The proportions of subjects with poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were 24.0% and 41.5%, respectively. According to bivariate analyses, both problems were significantly less frequent among younger adults (halitosis), females, subjects with higher education, those with adequate habits to maintain good oral hygiene, those who had recent dental visits and those self-reporting fewer health problems. The percentages of poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were significantly higher in smokers (p oral hygiene and halitosis, education for poor oral hygiene, and age, self-reported health problems and time since the previous dental visit for halitosis. These findings demonstrate a significantly higher level of halitosis and poorer oral hygiene in smokers than nonsmokers.

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  6. Heavy smoking history interacts with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer prognosis. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitara, Kohei; Hatooka, Shunzo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for esophageal cancer. However, there are few reports that directly evaluate smoking as a prognostic factor for esophageal cancer. Moreover, scarce evidence is available on whether smoking interacts with major treatment modalities of esophageal cancer. In this study we retrospectively analyzed 364 patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer who were treated between 2001 and 2005 at our institution. Background characteristics, including smoking history, were analyzed as potential prognostic factors. Of the 363 patients, 76 patients (20.9%) were non-smokers or light smokers (non-heavy), whereas 287 patients (79.1%) were heavy smokers. The 5-year survival rate for non-heavy smokers and heavy smokers was 61.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.1-72.2) vs 44.6% (95% CI: 38.2-50.9), respectively. In a multivariate Cox model (adjusted for age, gender, performance status, alcohol consumption, histology, tumor length, International Union Against Cancer [UICC] stage, and treatment), the hazard ratio for heavy smokers in comparison with non-heavy smokers was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.12-2.68; P=0.013). When we stratified by treatment method, heavy smoking was significantly associated with poor survival only in patients treated by chemoradiotherapy (hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% CI: 1.38-4.27; P=0.002). More importantly, a statistically significant interaction between heavy smoking history and treatment modality was observed (P=0.041). Our results indicated that smoking history is strongly associated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer, especially those treated by chemoradiotherapy. Further investigation is warranted to explain this different prognosis. (author)

  7. Temporomandibular disorders among smokers and nonsmokers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wänman, Anders

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether smoking influences the presence and/or development of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adults. A random sample of subjects 35, 50, and 65 years of age was drawn from the general population and examined with the aid of a questionnaire and a clinical examination. Within the sample, smokers were identified based on reported current smoking and nonsmokers were matched to the smokers based on age, gender, educational level, area of residence, and number of teeth. In total, 268 subjects were matched (134 pairs). Six years after the baseline examination, 122 matched pairs were re-examined. Mild symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 30% of the sample both at baseline and at the follow-up examination 6 years later. Pain in the jaws and/or more severe symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 15% on both occasions. No significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found regarding symptoms of TMD. In both examinations, mild signs (dysfunction index I) were found in approximately 40% of the sample and moderate to severe signs (dysfunction index II to III) in approximately 20%; no statistically significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers regarding the course of symptoms or signs of TMD during the study period. Smoking is not a factor related to the presence or development of signs and symptoms of TMD.

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Background: Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. Materials and Methods: We carried out a ...

  9. Childhood Asthma Utilization Rates in a Nonsmoking Population of Utah Compared to State and National Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, Lisa H.; Taylor, Brooke; Lyon, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, such as parental smoking, are commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms and hospitalizations of children. Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators (DMBA) is the health insurer for employees of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their families. Due to religious proscription, employees abstain from alcohol and tobacco use, creating a cohort of children not exposed to parental smoking. Calculation of hospitalization rates for DMBA, Utah, and the US were made in children to compare rates between a nonsmoking population and general populations. Compared to DMBA, rate ratios for asthma hospitalization and emergency department asthma visits were higher for the US and Utah. The incidence of hospital outpatient department and physician office visits was significantly greater for the US population compared to the DMBA. This study demonstrates a decreased need for health services used by children not exposed to second-hand smoke. PMID:22389787

  10. Likelihood of Unemployed Smokers vs Nonsmokers Attaining Reemployment in a One-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Michalek, Anne K; Brown-Johnson, Catherine; Daza, Eric J; Baiocchi, Michael; Anzai, Nicole; Rogers, Amy; Grigg, Mia; Chieng, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Studies in the United States and Europe have found higher smoking prevalence among unemployed job seekers relative to employed workers. While consistent, the extant epidemiologic investigations of smoking and work status have been cross-sectional, leaving it underdetermined whether tobacco use is a cause or effect of unemployment. To examine differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period. An observational 2-group study was conducted from September 10, 2013, to August 15, 2015, in employment service settings in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). Participants were 131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers, all of whom were unemployed job seekers. Owing to the study's observational design, a propensity score analysis was conducted using inverse probability weighting with trimmed observations. Including covariates of time out of work, age, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived health status as predictors of smoking status. Reemployment at 12-month follow-up. Of the 251 study participants, 165 (65.7) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (11) years; 96 participants were white (38.2%), 90 were black (35.9%), 24 were Hispanic (9.6%), 18 were Asian (7.2%), and 23 were multiracial or other race (9.2%); 78 had a college degree (31.1%), 99 were unstably housed (39.4%), 70 lacked reliable transportation (27.9%), 52 had a criminal history (20.7%), and 72 had received prior treatment for alcohol or drug use (28.7%). Smokers consumed a mean (SD) of 13.5 (8.2) cigarettes per day at baseline. At 12-month follow-up (217 participants retained [86.5%]), 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6%) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6%) (unadjusted risk difference, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42). With 6% of analysis sample observations trimmed, the estimated risk difference indicated that nonsmokers were 30% (95% CI, 12%-48%) more likely on average to be reemployed at 1 year relative to smokers. Results of a sensitivity analysis with additional covariates of sex

  11. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine. 24.213 Section 24.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine i...

  12. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week, moderate (181-360 g/week, and heavy (≥361 g/week. Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400-799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1% had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%, bilaterally (29%, and on the left side (21%. Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01, increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01 and smoking (P<0.01, and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01 as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided. Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  13. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M

    2011-03-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic linkage analysis supports the presence of two susceptibility loci for alcoholism and heavy drinking on chromosome 1p22.1-11.2 and 1q21.3-24.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis David

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to confirm a previous finding of linkage to alcoholism on chromosome 1 we have carried out a genetic linkage study. Methods DNA from eighteen families, densely affected by alcoholism, was used to genotype a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers at loci approximately 10 centimorgans apart spanning the short arm and part of the long arm of chromosome 1. Linkage analyses were performed using the classical lod score and a model-free method. Three different definitions of affection status were defined, these were 1. Heavy Drinking (HD where affected subjects drank more than the Royal College of Psychiatrists recommended weekly amount. 2. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for alcoholism (RDCA 3. Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS as defined by Edwards and Gross (1976 and now incorporated into ICD10 and DSMIV. Results Linkage analyses with the markers D1S1588, D1S2134, D1S1675 covering the cytogenetic region 1p22.1-11.2 all gave positive two point and multipoint lods with a maximum lod of 1.8 at D1S1588 (1p22.1 for the RDCA definition of alcoholism. Another lod of 1.8 was found with D1S1653 in the region 1q21.3-24.2 using the HD affection model. Conclusion These results both support the presence of linkage in the 1p22.1-11.2 region which was previously implicated by the USA Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA study and also suggest the presence of another susceptibility locus at 1q21.3-24.2.

  15. Antabuse treatment for excessive users of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, F

    1992-01-01

    Antabuse treatment has mostly been applied to alcohol dependent patients although the heavy users of alcohol are responsible for the major parts of alcohol related problems in our societies. The heavy users of alcohol should be identified both by the general practitioners and the hospital doctors...... in any field and the first intervention should be a health interview connected with a biological monitoring of alcohol damages and thereby many patients would be motivated for moderate drinking. If this is not the case, heavy users should be encouraged to a 6 or better a 12 months supervised treatment...... with Antabuse. This treatment has especially been effective in employees with work-related alcohol problems....

  16. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  17. Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa

    2010-06-01

    To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  19. SMOKING / NON-SMOKING IN THE CERN RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

    2001-01-01

    As you may remember, all CERN buildings and cars are considered to be non-smoking areas with a few exceptions (Safety Instruction no. 46). The ban on smoking applies in particular to all public areas, such as restaurants and cafétérias. Smoking is therefore prohibited in all parts of the free-flow and the dining rooms. As for the cafétérias, they are divided into well-defined non-smoking and smoking areas, the latter being clearly indicated as such, i.e : Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 1 : at the back of the cafétéria (on the outside terrace side) opposite the Users' Office and the offices of the Staff Association; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 2 : the full length of the cafétéria on the wineyard side, except for the room next to the entrance to the building, furnished with red arm-chairs; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 3 : between the bar and the row of artificial ...

  20. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  1. Adolescent alcohol use: Implications for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol use, especially heavy episodic drinking, at an early age has been associated with various problems (e.g. risky sexual behaviours, health problems, depression, and heavy alcohol consumption at a later age). Thus, a better understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence adolescent alcohol use is crucial to developing effective prevention strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the importance of risk and protective factors in the development of heavy e...

  2. Effects of Nicotine on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Healthy Nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wignall, Nicholas D.; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive functioning in smokers and psychiatric populations, but its cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy nonsmokers are less well understood. Nicotine appears to enhance certain forms of cognition in nonsmokers, but its specificity to subtypes of cognition is not known. This study sought to replicate and extend previous findings on the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. Healthy young adults (N=40, 50% female) participated in a placebo-con...

  3. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  4. Effect of Nicotine on Cognitive Performance in Non-smokers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nicotine on cognition are still elusive. The aim of the present study is to determine how exposure to nicotine affects specific cognitive domains in a random population of non-smokers in the age range 18-35 years. Ninety-nine non-smokers (80 males and 19 females), with no clinically classified blood pressure ...

  5. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy...... (Castellammare di Stabia). Alcohol problems, which were defined by a cut-off score of 5 on the MAST and/or by heavy alcohol consumption (corresponding to at least 60 g of ethanol daily for males and 36 g of ethanol daily for females for at least 2 years), were identified in 54 patients [43.9%; 95% confidence...... heavy alcohol consumption had a predictive negative value of 97.2% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and a predictive positive value of 73.1% (95% CI 59.0-84.4%) in relation to MAST positive patients. It is suggested that general practitioners should incorporate this question about heavy alcohol consumption...

  6. Similarities and differences between smoking and non-smoking ten-year-old children in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, Drahoslava; Zaloudíková, Iva; Matĕjová, Halina

    2010-03-01

    For the majority of smokers, smoking is related to other forms of risk behaviour, especially poorer eating habits. The primary preventive educational programme "No smoking is a norm" focuses on children of younger school age (under 10 yrs), enables comparison and statistical evaluation of whether there are any differences (and which) between ten-year-olds with various smoking experiences, with special attention paid to their exposure to the influence of smokers, and their eating habits. Analysis of data gained from a questionnaire compared groups of boys and girls, smokers and non-smokers, and children from families with no smokers, occasional smokers, and frequent smokers. Statistical significance of the differences was tested in the EPI INFO programme by means of the chi2 test. From 1,082 children, almost one quarter (22.9%) have already tried smoking, boys more frequently (25%) than girls (19%) (p friends, and some (4%) even bought them. Children with smoking experience more often come from smokers' families and more often have smoking siblings and friends who offer them cigarettes. Children claimed to have consumed alcoholic drinks over the past month, repeatedly smoking more often than those with one attempt (aprox. 81% vs 58%) and never smokers (32%). Smokers also more frequently ate salty snacks such as crisps, sausages, and fast foods. The circumstance of whether there are smokers in the child's household or not significantly influenced children's opinions on the smoking of men/boys and women/girls (fewer critics and more admirers in smokers' families), selection of friends, availability of cigarettes, and smoking behaviour of the children. The examination of a cohort of ten-year-olds in a semi-longitudinal study confirmed the growing trend of experimenting with smoking. Strong relations to smoking behaviour in families were identified--such that influence a more tolerant approach to parents' smoking, selection of smoking or non-smoking friends, more

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adolescents in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Kioko, David M.; Ogwell Ouma, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents in 9 West African countries. Methods. We conducted a pooled analysis with nationally representative 2006 to 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey data. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and inferential statistics using a multivariable logistic regression model to determine factors associated with SHS exposure. We investigated average marginal effect results that show the probability of SHS exposure, adjusting for all other attributes. Results. SHS exposure inside the home ranged from 13.0% to 45.0%; SHS exposure outside the home ranged from 24.7% to 80.1%. Parental or peer smoking behaviors were significantly associated with higher probability of SHS exposure in all 9 countries. Knowledge of smoking harm, support for smoking bans, exposure to antismoking media messages, and receptivity of school tobacco education were significantly associated with higher SHS exposure in most countries. Conclusions. West African policymakers should adopt policies consistent with Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its guidelines and public health education to promote smoke-free households. PMID:26180960

  8. Periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus in non-smoking females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokwiriyachit, Anyarat; Dasanayake, Ananda P; Suwannarong, Waraporn; Hormdee, Doosasee; Sumanonta, Gunniga; Prasertchareonsuk, Witoon; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat; Combellick, Joan; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2013-07-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators and may be a risk factor for GDM. The authors aimed to examine the association between periodontitis and GDM among non-smoking pregnant females. This case-control study included 50 females who were diagnosed with GDM and 50 age- and hospital-matched females without diabetes in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Full-mouth periodontal examinations were performed during pregnancy by two calibrated dentists who were unaware of the case-control status. Periodontitis was defined as ≥1 site with probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥2 mm at the same site. Serum samples were collected to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels. Analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression. Fifty percent of the case females had periodontitis compared to 26% of the controls. Females with GDM had significantly higher mean PD and CAL, more sites with bleeding on probing, and increased levels of CRP compared to the controls. Periodontitis was significantly associated with GDM (odds ratio = 3.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 7.56). The association remained significant with additional adjustment for family history of diabetes, prepregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy. The results suggest that periodontitis is associated with GDM. Therefore, clinicians should assess periodontal conditions of pregnant females.

  9. Are smokers at greater risk from radiation exposure than nonsmokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current information suggests that, if cigarette smoking interacts with radiation in the induction of lung cancer, it is probably as a promoting agent. There is some evidence of such an interaction in miners who were exposed to relatively high levels of radon and its decay products over extended periods, and there is evidence from experimental rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke after exposures to radon had been completed. Other data from both humans and experimental animals suggest that concomitant exposures may actually diminish the interaction of cigarette smoke with alpha radiation from radon decay products; however, the possibility of a multiplicative effect for other exposure regimes has not been dismissed. In recent experimental animal studies cigarette smoking depressed clearance of insoluble particles, e.g., 239 PuO 2 , from the pulmonary regions of the lungs. However, this effect depended upon exposure to cigarette smoke both before and after inhalation of insoluble plutonium. Whether the effect on clearance actually increased the lung cancer risk is unknown. It is still unclear whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to radiation-induced lung cancer at relatively high radiation doses and even more uncertain at low radiation doses. (orig./HP)

  10. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adolescents in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; John, Rijo M; Kioko, David M; Ogwell Ouma, Ahmed E

    2015-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence and determinants of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents in 9 West African countries. We conducted a pooled analysis with nationally representative 2006 to 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey data. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and inferential statistics using a multivariable logistic regression model to determine factors associated with SHS exposure. We investigated average marginal effect results that show the probability of SHS exposure, adjusting for all other attributes. SHS exposure inside the home ranged from 13.0% to 45.0%; SHS exposure outside the home ranged from 24.7% to 80.1%. Parental or peer smoking behaviors were significantly associated with higher probability of SHS exposure in all 9 countries. Knowledge of smoking harm, support for smoking bans, exposure to antismoking media messages, and receptivity of school tobacco education were significantly associated with higher SHS exposure in most countries. West African policymakers should adopt policies consistent with Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its guidelines and public health education to promote smoke-free households.

  11. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    heavy alcohol consumption had a predictive negative value of 97.2% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and a predictive positive value of 73.1% (95% CI 59.0-84.4%) in relation to MAST positive patients. It is suggested that general practitioners should incorporate this question about heavy alcohol consumption...

  12. Maximum Smoke Temperature in Non-Smoke Model Evacuation Region for Semi-Transverse Tunnel Fire

    OpenAIRE

    B. Lou; Y. Qiu; X. Long

    2017-01-01

    Smoke temperature distribution in non-smoke evacuation under different mechanical smoke exhaust rates of semi-transverse tunnel fire were studied by FDS numerical simulation in this paper. The effect of fire heat release rate (10MW 20MW and 30MW) and exhaust rate (from 0 to 160m3/s) on the maximum smoke temperature in non-smoke evacuation region was discussed. Results show that the maximum smoke temperature in non-smoke evacuation region decreased with smoke exhaust rate. Plug-holing was obse...

  13. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  14. The human placenta from heavy smokers: evaluation of vasoactive peptides by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, H V; Larsen, L Grupe; Jørgensen, A

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of nitric oxide converting enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and endothelin-1 (Et-1) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental tissue, and to demonstrate a difference in staining intensity between heavy smokers and non-smokers. Term placentas...... from pregnancies from otherwise healthy women smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day (heavy smokers) and term placentas from a matching group of non-smokers were included. The antibodies for Et-1 and e-NOS are recommended for cryostat sections. We evaluated the antibodies on paraffin-embedded tissue...

  15. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  16. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise of nonsmokers occupationally exposed to second hand smoke (SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Mantzoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic occupational SHS exposure among non-smokers deteriorates CR exercise performance increasing risk of developing SHS associated diseases. Smoking ban legislation should be enforced but also inclusive of all workplaces eliminating the existing violation of labor and human rights.

  17. Periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Askar, Mansour; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2013-02-01

    : Prediabetes and habitual cigarette smoking are significant risk factors contributing to periodontal disease. The aim was to assess the clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. Sixty-eight individuals with prediabetes (test group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) and 68 medically healthy individuals (control group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) were included. Sociodemographic information, duration of smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked daily were recorded through a questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD] of 4 to periodontal disease than nonsmokers. In subjects with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal disease seems to be over shadowed by the hyperglycemic state, obscuring the effect of habitual smoking.

  18. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy chain ... disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy chain ...

  19. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conduct...

  20. Can you please put it out? Predicting non-smokers' assertiveness intentions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspropoulos, Eleftherios; Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial predictors of non-smoker employee intentions to ask smokers not to smoke at work. The predictive effects of past behaviour, anticipated regret, social norms, attitudinal, outcome expectancy and behavioural control beliefs were investigated in relation to the Attitudes-Social influence-self-Efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from Greek non-smoker employees (n=137, mean age=33.5, SD=10.5, 54.7% female) in 15 companies. The main outcome measure was assertiveness intention. Data on participants' past smoking, age, gender and on current smoking policy in the company were also collected. The majority of employees (77.4%) reported being annoyed by exposure to passive smoking at work, but only 37% reported having asked a smoker colleague not to smoke in the last 30 days. Regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of non-smokers' assertiveness intentions was how often they believed that other non-smokers were assertive. Perceived control over being assertive, annoyance with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at work and past assertive behaviour also significantly predicted assertiveness intentions. Assertiveness by non-smoker employees seems to be guided mainly by normative and behavioural control beliefs, annoyance with SHS exposure at work, and past behaviour. Interventions to promote assertiveness in non-smokers might benefit from efficacy training combined with conveying the messages that the majority of other non-smokers are frequently annoyed by exposure to SHS, and that nearly half of all non-smokers are assertive towards smokers.

  1. Risk assessment for heart disease and workplace ETS exposure among nonsmokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Steenland, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) published a study of risk assessment for heart disease and lung cancer resulting from workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among nonsmokers. This assessment is currently being revised. The present article considers different possible approaches to a risk assessment for heart disease among nonsmokers resulting from workplace ETS exposure, reviews the approach taken by OSHA in 1994, and suggests some modifi...

  2. The Effects of Inhaled Budesonide on Lung Function in Smokers and Nonsmokers With Mild Persistent Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Lamm, Carl Johan; Busse, William W

    2009-01-01

    difference being -83.1 mL (p 5 mL (p = 0.011) in smokers and + 46.5 mL (p = 0.001) in nonsmokers. The corresponding effect......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested reduced benefit from inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in smoking asthmatics. The objective of this post-hoc study was to study the effects of low dose inhaled budesonide on lung function in smokers and nonsmokers with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: Adult...

  3. Alcohol use disorders among Nigerian University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environments and encounter new social and institutional factors that may foster heavy alcohol use. Little is known about alcohol use disorders in non-western cultures. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among students in Nigerian ...

  4. Does Alcohol or Delinquency Help Adolescents Feel Better Over Time? A Study on the Influence of Heavy Drinking and Violent/Property Offending on Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Joon; Ferguson, Todd W; Rhodes, Jeremy R

    2016-05-01

    Conceptualizing adolescent drinking and delinquency as adaptations to strain, we explore whether they (a) decrease or increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later and (b) ameliorate or aggravate the effect of strain on the negative emotions over time. These relationships are also examined for gender differences by analyzing data separately for males and females as well as both combined. We conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis of panel data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Heavy drinking and serious delinquency were found to increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later, whereas they tend to ameliorate the emotionally deleterious effect of strain for males and, to a lesser extent, females. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Adaptive regression modeling of biomarkers of potential harm in a population of U.S. adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Paul E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH: white blood cell count (WBC, 24 h urine 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (EPI8, 24 h urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (DEH11, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL. Methods Random Forest was used for initial variable selection and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline was used for developing the final statistical models Results The analysis resulted in the generation of models that predict each of the BOPH as function of selected variables from the smokers and nonsmokers. The statistically significant variables in the models were: platelet count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, race and biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke for WBC (R-squared = 0.29; creatinine clearance, liver enzymes, weight, vitamin use and biomarkers of exposure for EPI8 (R-squared = 0.41; creatinine clearance, urine creatinine excretion, liver enzymes, use of Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, vitamins and biomarkers of exposure for DEH11 (R-squared = 0.29; and triglycerides, weight, age, sex, alcohol consumption and biomarkers of exposure for HDL (R-squared = 0.39. Conclusions Levels of WBC, EPI8, DEH11 and HDL were statistically associated with biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoking and demographics and life style factors. All of the predictors togather explain 29%-41% of the variability in the BOPH.

  6. Women and lung cancer: a comparison of active and passive smokers with nonexposed nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G H; Golish, J A; Cox, C E; Chacko, D C

    1994-01-01

    Prior to the 1920s, lung cancer was a rare disease. However, the current increase in lung cancer appears to parallel the increase in smoking for both men and women with a 30- to 50-year delay. National lung cancer deaths continue to rise, with over 168,000 total deaths estimated in 1992. Women are now showing higher percentage increases in lung cancer than men from active smoking. The data from the Erie County Study on Smoking and Health (ECSSH), a population study, were used to measure the effects of both active and passive smoking on women's lung cancer mortality. The three major categories of exposure (no known or minimal exposure, passive smoking exposed, and active smoking) were used in the analyses. The results from the population data in Erie County, PA, were based on 528 nonexposed nonsmoking women, 3138 exposed nonsmoking women, and 1747 smoking women. Deaths due to lung cancer as a percentage of total deaths excluding traumatic deaths were 0.2% for the nonexposed nonsmoking women, 0.9% for the exposed nonsmoking women, and 8.0% for women who smoked. The data showed that women smokers died of lung cancer at a rate 9 times greater than exposed nonsmokers and 42 times greater than nonexposed nonsmokers.

  7. HUMORAL IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN SMOKING AND NON-SMOKING PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kadushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative changes in immunoglobulins A (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood were estimated in non-smoking and smoking patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The study included 21 non-smoking patients with COPD, 20 smoking patients with COPD, 20 healthy non-smokers, and 21 healthy smokers. The plasma immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay. A B-lymphocyte population was analyzed by flow cytometry. In the smokers with COPD, IgA and IgE levels were significantly higher than those in the smokers without COPD, as well as in the non-smoking patients with COPD versus the healthy non-smokers. An increase in plasma IgG levels occurred only in the smoking patients with COPD. There were no differences in IgM and B lymphocyte levels in both smoking and non-smoking patients with COPD versus the respective groups of healthy individuals. The smoking patients with COPD showed a moderate positive correlation between total plasma IgE levels and smoking index. The findings suggest that IgA, IgE, and IgG are of pathogenetic value.

  8. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  9. Evaluation of clinical periodontal conditions in smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinara Ignez Tavares Luzzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession (GR and gingival bleeding index (GBI for arches (upper and lower and teeth (anterior and posterior. Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05 in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect.

  10. Mucociliary clearance and its relation with the level of physical activity in daily life in healthy smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proença

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mucociliary transport and physical activity in daily life (PADL in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods: Fifty-two current smokers were submitted to an assessment of mucociliary transport (saccharin transit time, STT, carbon monoxide levels in the exhaled air, lung function and smoking history. In addition, subjects kept a pedometer worn at the waist for six days in order to determine their level of PADL (steps/day. The tests were also performed on 30 matched healthy nonsmokers who served as control group. Results: Light smokers (≤15 cigarettes/day had a STT of 9 (7–11 min (median [confidence interval], which was similar to nonsmokers (8 [8–11] min; p = 0.8. Both moderate (16–25 cigarettes/day and heavy (>25 cigarettes/day smokers had a significantly higher STT (13 [11–17] min and 13 [10–21] min, respectively than nonsmokers and light smokers (p  0.05 for all. In the general group of smokers, STT was not significantly correlated with PADL, pack/years index, years of smoking or age (r  0.09 for all. There was significant negative correlation between STT and PADL only in light smokers (r = −0.55; p = 0.02 and nonsmokers (r = −0.42; p = 0.02, but not in moderate and heavy smokers. Conclusion: In light smokers and non-smokers, better mucociliary function is associated to higher daily physical activity level, as opposed to the decreased mucociliary function observed in smokers, i.e., those with moderate and heavy cigarette consumption. Resumo: Objetivos: Investigar a relação entre o transporte mucociliar e a atividade física na vida diária (AFVD em fumantes e não fumantes. Métodos: Cinquenta e dois fumantes foram submetidos à avaliação do transporte mucociliar (Tempo de Trânsito de Sacarina, TTS, dos níveis de monóxido de carbono no ar expirado, da função pulmonar e do hist

  11. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... with a more comprehensive approach towards drinking. In this paper focus is on the younger edgeworkers and post-edgeworkers, to which alcohol seems to play lesser role and is often mixed with other drugs as part of a wider scope of seeking excitement from risky behaviour....

  12. Former heavy drinkers’ multiple narratives of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Anne-Sofie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.

  13. Heavy baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    We review the experimental and theoretical status of baryons containing one heavy quark. The charm and bottom baryon states are classified and their mass spectra are listed. The appropriate theoretical framework for the description of heavy baryons is the Heavy Quark Effective Theory, whose general ideas and methods are introduced and illustrated in specific examples. We present simple covariant expressions for the spin wave functions of heavy baryons including p-wave baryons. The covariant spin wave functions are used to determine the Heavy Quark Symmetry structure of flavour-changing current-induced transitions between heavy baryons as well as one-pion and one-photon transitions between heavy baryons of the same flavour. We discuss 1/m Q corrections to the current-induced transitions as well as the structure of heavy to light baryon transitions. Whenever possible we attempt to present numbers to compare with experiment by making use of further model-dependent assumptions as e.g. the constituent picture for light quarks. We highlight recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the inclusive decays of hadrons containing one heavy quark including polarization. For exclusive semileptonic decays we discuss rates, angular decay distributions and polarization effects. We provide an update of the experimental and theoretical status of lifetimes of heavy baryons and of exclusive nonleptonic two body decays of charm baryons. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of an SAITS alcoholism model on unweighted and weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hai-Feng; Cui, Fang-Fang; Xiang, Hong

    2018-04-01

    A novel SAITS alcoholism model on networks is introduced, in which alcoholics are divided into light problem alcoholics and heavy problem alcoholics. Susceptible individuals can enter into the compartment of heavy problem alcoholics directly by contacting with light problem alcoholics or heavy problem alcoholics and the heavy problem alcoholics who receive treatment can relapse into the compartment of heavy problem alcoholics are also considered. First, the dynamics of our model on unweighted networks, including the basic reproduction number, existence and stability of equilibria are studied. Second, the models with fixed weighted and adaptive weighted networks are introduced and investigated. At last, some simulations are presented to illustrate and extend our results. Our results show that it is very important to treat alcoholics to quit the drinking.

  15. Heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs

  16. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  17. Motivational Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use in a Military Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    are facing the stresses of military life, including working in high- risk environments. Indeed, heavy alcohol use is significantly higher among...education and enforcement of DoD alcohol abuse policies is young adult personnel. Heavy alcohol use is common among young adults in the civilian household...adolescent problem drinking: The role of psychosocial risk and protective factors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol , 60, 480-490. Department of Defense. (1972

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Alcohol Use Relapse Among Adults in Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-10-01

    Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 (2004 to 2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N = 9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (nonsmoker, daily cigarette smoker, and nondaily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Both daily and nondaily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 nonsmoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and nondaily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 3 years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  20. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men. Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification, using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68 in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65 in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69 and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44. Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89. When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70 in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61 in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23

  1. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  2. The relation of obesity with serum resistin levels in smoker and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Gürsoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demonstration that adipose tissue produces numerous cytokines increases interest of investigators in their role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Resistin is one of those cytokines. There are conflicing reports as cigarette smoking impairs insulin secretion, augments insulin resistance, or has no effect on glucose metabolism. In our study, we intended to examine the relationship of obesity with resistin levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Patients and Methods: The study included 52 male smokers and 34 age matched nonsmoker male control subjects. We classified smoker and nonsmoker groups according to their body mass index as BMI < 27 and ≥27. As well as making physical and anthropometric examinations, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, postprandial plasma glucose, lipid profile, and resistin levels were measured in all male subjects. We compared all parameters in smoker and nonsmokers either having BMI < 27 or ≥27. Results: In both BMI levels, resistin levels were higher in smoker groups than nonsmoker ones (P<0.01 all, we did not find any difference in other parameters. Conclusion: in conclusion we may speculate that if someone smokes resistin levels increase.

  3. Ultrasound observations of subtle movements: a pilot study comparing foetuses of smoking and nonsmoking mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Kumarendran, Kumar; Mason, James

    2015-06-01

    One way to assess foetal health of smokers is to ask mothers to count perceived movements, an unreliable method hiding differences in prenatal development. The aim of this pilot study was to assess subtle foetal movements in ultrasound scans and establish whether they differ in foetuses of mothers who smoked and nonsmoking mothers. This longitudinal pilot study recruited twenty mothers (16 nonsmoking; 4 smoking) scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation (80 ultrasound scans). Two types of fine-grained movements were coded offline and analysed using a Poisson log-linear mixed model. Foetuses of smoking mothers showed a significantly higher rate of mouth movements compared to foetuses of nonsmoking mothers (p = 0.02), after controlling for maternal stress and depression. As pregnancy progressed, these differences between the smoking and nonsmoking groups widened. Differences between the two groups in the rate of foetal facial self-touch remained constant as pregnancy progressed and were borderline significant (p = 0.07). Rates of foetal mouth movement and facial self-touch differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers. A larger study is needed to confirm these results and to investigate specific effects, including the interaction of maternal stress and smoking. Additionally, the feasibility of this technique for clinical practice should be assessed. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Alcohol-Specific Socialization Practices and Alcohol Use in Dutch Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…

  5. Risk for alcoholic liver cirrhosis after an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Leon, David A; Kjaer, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is usually preceded by many years of heavy drinking, in which cessation in drinking could prevent the disease. Alcohol problems are not consistently managed in hospital patients. We followed all Danish patients with an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems (into...

  6. Stem villous arteries from the placentas of heavy smokers: functional and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Jorgensen, J C; Ottesen, B

    1999-01-01

    , and cadmium chloride. The effect of nitric oxide was examined with N omega-nitro-l -arginine. RESULTS: Stem villous arteries from the heavy smoking group developed a significantly lower tension than did those from nonsmokers at 6 of 9 steps of the circumference-tension experiment (P

  7. Uso pesado de álcool por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas centrais e periféricas de Campinas (SP: prevalência e fatores associados Heavy alcohol use among elementary and high-school students in downtown and outskirts of Campinas City - São Paulo: prevalence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Soldera

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento de fatores associados ao uso de álcool na adolescência é de grande relevância, pois permite intervenções visando reduzir comportamentos de risco e o possível início de um uso de álcool progressivamente deletério. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência do uso pesado de álcool e verificar se variáveis sociodemográficas, culturais e psicopatológicas podem estar influenciando este uso por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e particulares da cidade de Campinas (SP. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com uma técnica de amostragem do tipo intencional. Foi utilizado um questionário anônimo, de autopreenchimento, baseado no questionário do Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A amostra foi constituída por 2.287 estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e particulares da cidade de Campinas (SP, no ano de 1998. Considerou-se uso pesado, de acordo com a World Health Organization (WHO (1981, o uso de álcool em 20 dias ou mais nos 30 dias que antecederam a pesquisa. Para identificar os fatores que influenciam o uso de drogas, utilizou-se a "Análise de Regressão Logística Politômica - Modelo de Logitos Generalizados". RESULTADOS: O uso pesado de álcool foi de 11,9%, tendo sido maior nos estudantes da escola pública central, do período vespertino, que trabalhavam, de nível socioeconômico A e B, que se sentiam pouco apoiados e compreendidos pela família e que apresentavam maior defasagem escolar. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados deste estudo indicam que fatores como disponibilidade de dinheiro, trabalho, situações pessoais e familiares desfavoráveis e mau desempenho escolar estão associados ao uso pesado de álcool em estudantes.It is important to identify factors related to heavy alcohol use among adolescents, as this allows interventions aimed at reducing risk behavior and possible increasing harmful use of alcohol. OBJECTIVES

  8. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  10. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of spawning, resistance to diseases and social acceptability (Pillay, 1993). This study aimed at determining the carbohydrate reserves and heavy metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis miloticus after treatment with heavy metals such as lead, copper and zinc. 2. Materials and Methods. Test organism: Nile tilapia ...

  11. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure and intermittent claudication: a Scotland-wide study of 4231 non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liya; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P

    2013-09-01

    Active smoking is an important risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. In contrast, published evidence on the association with secondhand smoke (SHS) is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and intermittent claudication (IC) among middle aged non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. The Scottish Health Survey, a pan-Scotland, representative survey of the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Scottish Health Surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2010. Inclusion was restricted to participants aged > 45 years. Of the 4231 confirmed non-smokers (self-reported non-smokers with salivary cotinine concentrations coronary heart disease and stroke, SHS exposure was independently associated with IC. Our findings add to the published evidence in support of protecting the general public from SHS exposure.

  13. Comparing the Levels of Acute-Phase Reactants Between Smoker and Nonsmoker Diabetic Patients: More Predicted Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases in Smoker Compared to Nonsmoker Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Adl, Sepideh; Ghahroudi Tali, Arash; Saffar, Hiva; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

     Due to a close link between cardiovascular disorders and increased acute phase responses, it is now proposed the relation of total sialic acid (TSA) and C Reactive Protein (CRP) as main components of acute phase proteins and cardiovascular risk profiles such as diabetes mellitus and smoking. We hypothesized that the elevation in the level of TSA along with other prototype acute phase reactants such as CRP is expected more in the coexistence of diabetes and smoking than in diabetes mellitus alone. Ninety diabetic patients were randomly selected and entered into this case-control study. Using block randomization method, the patients were randomly assigned into smokers (n=45) and nonsmokers (n=45). A group of ten healthy individuals was also included as the control. The serum levels of TSA, CRP, iron, and hemoglobin were measured by the specific techniques. Comparing laboratory parameters across the three groups indicated significantly higher levels of TSA and CRP in smoker diabetics as compared to non-smoker diabetics and the healthy controls, while there was no difference in other parameters including serum iron and hemoglobin. A significant positive correlation was also revealed between TCA and CRP (r=0.324, P=0.030), but no significant association was found between other parameters. In the background of smoking, increasing the level of both TSA and CRP is predicted more than the existence of diabetes mellitus alone. In fact, the increase in these biomarkers is more predictable in smoker than in nonsmoker diabetics. This finding emphasizes the increased risk for cardiovascular disorders in smoker compared to non-smoker diabetics.

  14. Inspiratory Muscle Performance of Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    Smoking has potential deleterious effects on respiratory muscle function. Smokers may present with reduced inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. We compared inspiratory muscle performance of nonsmokers with that of former smokers without overt respiratory problems via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance. This study was performed on 42 healthy subjects between the ages of 30 and 79 y (mean ± SD of 56.5 ± 14.4 y). Fourteen male and 7 female former smokers were matched to nonsmokers based on sex, age, height, and weight. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their health and current smoking status. Testing included the best of 3 or more consistent trials. The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure measured from residual volume as well as sustained maximal inspiratory pressure and inspiratory duration measured from residual volume to total lung capacity during a maximal sustained inhalation. No significant difference in inspiratory performance of the entire group of former smokers compared with nonsmokers was found. However, separate sex analyses found a significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers (518.7 ± 205.0 pressure time units vs 676.5 ± 255.2 pressure time units, P = .041). We found similar maximal inspiratory pressure between former smokers and nonsmokers via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance, but the significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers suggests that the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure may have greater discriminatory ability in assessing the effects of smoking on inspiratory muscle performance. Further investigation of the effects of smoking on inspiratory performance via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  16. HPV prevalence and p16INKa overexpression in non-smoking non-drinking oral cavity cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediol, E; Sabol, I; Virag, M; Grce, M; Muller, D; Manojlović, S

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare HPV and p16INK4a (p16) expression and their influence on survival and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OCSCC), between non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND) and smokers and drinkers (SD). Patients with OCSCC treated with surgery from 2000 to 2010 were included in the study. Patients who did not smoke at all or smoked less than 10 pack per years and did not drink alcohol on a daily basis were considered the NSND group. An equal number of SD were the control group. HPV presence was determined from paraffin-embedded blocks investigated by PCR analysis. p16 expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The NSND group were mostly younger or older female patients with tongue or gingival cancers. p16 expression was significantly more frequent in NSND patients (27% vs 10%). Patients with stronger p16 expression had significantly worse survival, especially for tongue cancers (P = 0.026). In Cox multivariate analysis, both HPV and p16 expression carried a negative prognosis for NSND patients (P = 0.0351 and P = 0.0260). NSND are a specific population of OCSCC patients. In contrast to oropharyngeal cancer, HPV and p16 expression in OCSCC are negative predictive factors, especially in NSND patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Subkultura heavy metalu, následovníci ďáblova hlasu?

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠEK, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with the heavy metal subculture. In the first part it introduces the term, history of heavy metal, heavy metal sub-genres, social roles in the subcul-ture (who is band member, headbanger, groupie, etc.) and collective dances which are taking part in concerts of heavy metal bands. The second part is devoted to con-troversial topics connected to heavy metal like: gender, religion, violence, death, drugs and alcohol. Next it describes relationship between heavy metal subculture an...

  18. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  19. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

  20. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  1. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Víviam Vargas; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  2. Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. I. Urine Screening and Confirmation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J.; Bigelow, George E.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Mitchell, John M.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0–34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

  3. Association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    predisposition to cancer risk. To address this question in more detail, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 55 lung cancer cases and 74 cancer-free controls matched on age and ethnicity among nonsmoking Chinese women. We analyzed five coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1...

  4. Implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking in a smoking and a nonsmoking setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, J; de Jong, PJ; Wiers, RW; Verkooijen, K

    To test whether global smoking attitudes may be a driving factor in smoking behavior, Experiment I assessed smoking associations with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Although smokers' attitudes (N=24) were less negative than those of nonsmokers (N=24), both displayed negative associations with

  5. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  6. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  7. Flawed oral health of a non-smoking adolescent suggests smoking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2015-06-01

    Smokers often have oral health problems. We studied whether poor oral health among non-smoking adolescents is connected to smoking behaviour in adulthood. We used an age cohort born in 1979 (n = 2582) taking part in annual oral health check-ups between the ages of 13 and 15. Self-reported non-smokers were used as the study population. As measures we used decayed, missing or filled teeth/surfaces (DMF) and decayed teeth (D) and smoking behaviour at ages 13-15 and the depending measure was smoking behaviour at the age of 29. Those who were non-smokers at ages 13-15 and had tooth decay (D > 0) in an oral check-up during that period had higher risk (OR (Odds Ratio) 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) of being a smoker by age 29. Tooth decay at age 15 predicted earlier onset of smoking for those, who became smokers later in life. Dental caries (DMF > 0) was not associated with higher risk of becoming a smoking adult, but those with dental caries at age 13 were more likely to start smoking earlier. Poorer dental health, especially tooth decay in adolescence is a possible indicator of a greater likelihood of transforming from being a non-smoker to a smoker. Dentists should notice this for allocated health promotion. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  9. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  10. Levels of high-mobility group box-1 in gingival crevicular fluid in nonsmokers and smokers with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a role in inflammatory disorders. Smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of HMGB1 in the gingival crevicular fluid from periodontally healthy nonsmokers, chronic periodontitis nonsmokers, and chronic periodontitis smokers. Furthermore, the relationship between levels of HMGB1 and periodontal parameters was examined. Methods: Periodontal parameters of 17 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis, nine smokers with chronic periodontitis, and nine periodontally healthy nonsmokers were examined. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected, and the levels of HMGB1 were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median level of HMGB1 was statistically significantly higher in chronic periodontitis nonsmokers (37.5 ng/mL than in chronic periodontitis smokers (9.5 ng/mL and periodontally healthy nonsmokers (3.7 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in the levels of HMGB1 between chronic periodontitis smokers and periodontally healthy nonsmokers. Levels of HMGB1 were positively correlated with plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level of nonsmokers. However, no significant correlations were found between levels of HMGB1 and all periodontal parameters examined in chronic periodontitis smokers. Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis nonsmokers had elevated levels of HMGB1 in gingival crevicular fluid. Moreover, the levels of HMGB1 were correlated with severity of periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis smokers exhibited lower levels of HMGB1 than chronic periodontitis nonsmokers. Further research is needed for understanding the role of HMGB1 in smoking and pathogenesis of periodontitis. Keywords: gingival crevicular fluid, high-mobility group box-1, periodontitis, smoking

  11. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  12. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  13. Alcohol use among graduate business administration students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M L; Petraglia, G; Cohen, L; Busby, E

    1984-09-01

    This study of fully employed master's students in a graduate school of business administration found no significant differences in the drinking levels of men and women. The majority are heavy drinkers. There is a tendency for female and Jewish students to prefer wine. Despite the role that beverage alcohol plays in the corporate world, few students were interested in alcohol education.

  14. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers wi...

  15. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  16. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  17. The role of norhaman in alcohol dependence and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, D.; Spijkerman, R.; Bongers, I.M.B.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the endogenous substance norharman in processes of alcohol and nicotine or tobacco dependence in both humans and animals. For this purpose heavy smokers and excessive alcohol drinkers were recruited, and rats were made dependent on alcohol and

  18. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given.

  19. Alcoholic Beverages in Bangladesh-How Much We Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages

  20. Reasons for Living and Alcohol Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Ellis, Jon B.; Chumney, Frances L.; Dula, Chris S.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is prevalent on many college campuses and alcohol use has been linked to suicidal behavior. The present study examined reasons for living in 287 college students with varying levels of risk for alcohol-related problems. With the exception of the moral objections subscale of the Reasons for Living Inventory, significant…

  1. [Lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Lucia; Murer, B; Quintavalle, Sonia; Zeni, Elena; Miotto, Deborah; Mapp, Cristina Elisabetta; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, Piera

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, asbestos was widely used in a variety of industrial processes. Workers exposed to asbestos may develop lung and pleural diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques and mesothelioma. To describe a clinical case of lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos. The clinical and occupational history was based on the information kindly provided by the Occupational Unit of the National Health Service and on the case history of a hospital admittance in 2001, when the patient underwent surgery for lung cancer. The patient worked for 6 years in an asbestos manufacturing industry where she was exposed to high concentrations of asbestos, and then worked for 14 years in a sugar refinery only during the summer. She had benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, asbestosis and lung cancer. We concluded that a six-year exposure to high doses of asbestos may induce lung cancer and asbestosis in a female non-smoker.

  2. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  3. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  4. Reactions to secondhand smoke by nonsmokers of Korean descent: clash of cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Suzanne C; Usita, Paula M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Richard Hofstetter, C

    2011-08-01

    Koreans hail from a culture where men's smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were the norm. Little is known about how nonsmokers of Korean descent respond to smokers in the United States. In 2007-2008, trained moderators conducted eight focus groups with nonsmokers (n = 47) of Korean descent in San Diego. Participants discussed their personal experiences and views concerning SHS. Most participants detected SHS quickly and disliked the smell. Their reactions differed by gender, age, and how well they knew the smoker. Reactions ranged from passive (e.g., tolerating SHS or staring) to assertive (moving or asking the smoker to stop smoking). Younger participants were more tolerant than older participants. Participants appeared caught between two cultures. Despite high awareness, they struggled with how to avoid SHS in a manner befitting of their social status and Korean values. Culturally sensitive programs are needed for immigrants such as Koreans in the United States.

  5. Gene Expression Profiles of Early Implant Adherent Cells in Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, Ghadeer; Cooper, Lyndon F; Nares, Salvador

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking on the early molecular events involved in peri-implant healing at either a micro-roughened or a micro-roughened with superimposed nanofeatures surface implant in humans. Twenty-one subjects, 10 smokers and 11 nonsmokers received 4 mini-implants (2.2 × 5.0 mm; 2 of each surface). After 3 and 7 days, paired mini-implants were retrieved by reverse threading and RNA isolated from implant adherent cells. Whole genome microarrays were used interrogate the gene expression profiles. The study failed to identify differences in the gene expression profiles of implant adherent cells at this early stage of osseointegration (up to day 7) comparing smoker and nonsmoker individuals.

  6. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  7. Comparison of the validity of periodontal probing measurements in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, A J; Palmer, R M; Wilson, R F; Watts, T L

    2001-08-01

    To determine whether the reduced inflammation and bleeding and increased fibrosis reported in tobacco smokers affect the validity of clinical probing measurements by altering probe tip penetration. A constant force probe was used to measure probing depths and sound bone levels at six sites on 64 molar teeth (384 sites) in 20 smoking and 20 non-smoking patients from grooves made with a bur at the gingival margin prior to extraction. Connective tissue attachment levels were measured from the grooves with a dissecting microscope following extraction. Data were analysed using robust regression with sites clustered within subjects. Sites in smokers showed more calculus but less bleeding than sites in non-smokers (pperiodontal patients who smoke.

  8. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

  9. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  10. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  11. College student heavy drinking in social contexts versus alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Matthew; Vik, Peter W; Jarchow, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Heavy drinking is common among college students and typically occurs in social contexts. Heavy drinking when alone, however, is less common. The present study hypothesized that students who drink heavily when alone (HD-Alone) would differ from college students who only drink heavily in social contexts (Social HD). Forty-nine HD-Alone students (at least one heavy-drinking episode when alone), 213 Social HDs, and 63 non-heavy drinkers (Non-HDs) were compared on alcohol-related consequences, drinking milestones, alcohol-outcome expectancies, and symptoms of depression. HD-Alone students reported more negative drinking consequences, earlier onset of regular drinking, more alcohol expectancies, less self-efficacy and motivation to reduce drinking, and higher depression scores than Social HDs and Non-HDs. Findings imply individual differences among heavy-drinking college students according to their drinking context.

  12. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  13. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  16. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  17. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Dacey, Caitlin; Gennaro, Susan; Keshinover, Tayra; Gross, Susan; Gibeau, Anne; Lulloff, Amanda; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2014-08-01

    Although secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal health, little is known about levels of SHS in nonsmoking pregnant women. We examined disparities in SHS exposure among nonsmoking, ethnic minority pregnant women in New York City. We used self-reported smoking and serum cotinine collected from 244 pregnant women from the Bronx who self-identified as African American, Caribbean American, or Black Hispanic to examine smoking prevalence (>3 ng/ml) and, in an adjusted logistic regression model, risk factors for SHS (≥ 0.05 ng/ml and ≤ 3 ng/ml). Although only 4.1% of women self-reported they were smokers, 10.7% had serum cotinine levels indicating they were smokers. Among the 218 nonsmokers, 46.8% had serum cotinine levels indicating SHS exposure. Women at highest risk included those with less than a high school degree (66.7%) and those who were U.S.-born Black Hispanic (63.2%) or African American (63.0%). Women with more than 12 years of education were less likely to have detectable SHS exposure than women with fewer than 12 years (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91). Compared with African American U.S.-born women, those who were African American foreign-born or Caribbean American and either U.S.-born or foreign-born were less likely to have detectable SHS exposure (all p ≤ .05). Nearly half of nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City had elevated cotinine levels despite living in a city with comprehensive tobacco control policies. Health professionals need to assess sources of SHS exposure during pregnancy and promote smoke-free environments to improve maternal and fetal health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  20. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975–2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  1. Bringing the real world into the laboratory: personal smoking and nonsmoking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Cynthia A; Perkins, Kenneth A; Robin, Nathalie; McClernon, F Joseph; Salkeld, Ronald P

    2010-09-01

    Pictorial representations of specific environments related to smoking can evoke robust craving to smoke, even in the absence of any proximal cues to smoke (e.g., cigarettes, lighters). To evaluate the salience of smoking environment cues, we developed a novel procedure for bringing smokers' real world smoking and nonsmoking environments into the laboratory to compare them with standard (i.e., not personalized) environments within a cue-reactivity paradigm. Seventy-two smokers used digital cameras to take pictures of the environments in which they do and do not smoke. They then completed a cue-reactivity session during which they viewed and rated pictures of smoking and nonsmoking environments, half personal and half standard, all devoid of proximal smoking cues. As hypothesized, personal environments led to a significantly larger smoking-nonsmoking difference in craving, compared with the standard environments. Personalization also enhanced stimuli vividness, relevance, positive affect, and excitement, as well as heart rate changes from baseline. Implications of these findings for exposure-based research and treatment for addiction, as well as other psychological disorders, are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  3. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. Effect of inhaled endotoxin on mucociliary clearance and airway inflammation in mild smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D; Alexis, Neil E; Almond, Martha; Herbst, Margaret; Zeman, Kirby L; Peden, David B

    2014-12-01

    In healthy nonsmokers, inhaled endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] challenge induces airway neutrophilia and modifies innate immune responses, but the effect on mucociliary clearance (MCC), a key host defense response, is unknown. Although smokers are chronically exposed to LPS through inhaled tobacco smoke, the acute effect of inhaled LPS on both MCC and airway inflammation is also unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled LPS on MCC in nonsmokers and mild smokers with normal pulmonary function. We performed an open-label inhalational challenge with 20,000 endotoxin units in healthy adult nonsmokers (n=18) and young adult, mild smokers (n=12). At 4 hr post LPS challenge, we measured MCC over a period of 2 hr, followed by sputum induction to assess markers of airway inflammation. No significant changes in spirometry occurred in either group following LPS challenge. Following LPS, MCC was significantly (psmokers [MCC=10±9% (challenge) vs. 15±8% (baseline), MCC=14±9% (challenge) vs. 16±10% (baseline), respectively]. Both groups showed a significant (psmokers is unaffected by mild endotoxin challenge, likely due to preexisting effects of cigarette smoke on their airway epithelium.

  5. [Etiopathogenic elements of alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, I

    1980-01-01

    Various factors contribute to a predisposition towards the excessive consumption of alcohol: socio-demographic factors, a disturbed family background or certain neurological disorders in childhood, a family background of heavy drinking or total abstinence, or a genetic predisposition towards the biochemical reactions of excessive drinking. Alcohol dependence is the last of several stages which begin with drinking on "social occasions" during adolescence or even childhood, which may lead to certain people drinking excessively in certain social surroundings; this may easily become a habit if the subject moreover suffers from psychological problems inducing him to consume greater quantities more frequently to overcome inhibitions or to escape. This increased consumption leads in turn to psychological dependence, and toxicomania becomes apparent since if drinking is suddenly stopped, giving rise to neuro-vegetative disorders, these only disappear when further alcohol is consumed. This vicious circle is completed by psychological problems affecting personal relationships and professional activities. Thus for the alcoholic, for whom at the outset drinking was usually merely a social habit, the consumption of alcohol has become an escape from the reality of his situation, often drinking solely to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and therefore the appropriate therapy in these cases is detoxication.

  6. Personality and Alcohol Expectancies Discriminate Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Cupani, Marcos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-07-01

    To characterize patterns of alcohol use in a sample of Argentinean female college students according to personality traits and alcohol expectancies. Data from 298 female college students (M age = 18.27 years; SD = 1.37 years) from the city of Cordoba, Argentina were analysed using multinomial regression. Three drinking categories were identified, abstainers, moderate drinkers and regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking, and these were differentiated by three personality traits [extraversion, disinhibition (DIS) and experience seeking (ES)] and three alcohol expectancies dimensions (sociability, risk/aggression and negative mood). Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking and moderate drinkers had, compared to abstainers, higher scores in extroversion and alcohol expectancies for social facilitation, and lower scores in alcohol expectancies for risk and aggression. Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking exhibited, compared to moderate drinkers, higher scores in ES, DIS, extroversion, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and negative mood alcohol expectancies; as well as lower scores in risk and aggression alcohol expectancies. College women in Argentina with problematic alcohol drinking can be distinguished from those drinking moderately. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Preferences and Event-Related Potentials to Alcohol Images in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurin, Kyle; Ceballos, Natalie A; Graham, Reiko

    2017-11-01

    Research on attentional biases to alcohol images has used heterogeneous sets of stimuli (e.g., an isolated beer can or a group of people drinking). However, alcoholic beverage preferences play an important part in determining an individual's alcohol use pattern and may influence attentional biases, especially for inexperienced drinkers. The current study examined whether alcoholic beverage preferences affect event-related potential (ERP) indices of cue reactivity to different types of alcohol images (e.g., beer, wine, and distilled spirits) in heavy episodic drinkers. ERPs were recorded in 14 heavy episodic drinkers (7 male) who completed a Go/No-Go task using preferred and nonpreferred alcohol images with nonalcoholic beverage images as controls. Larger N2 amplitudes for preferred alcohol images were observed relative to control images and to nonpreferred alcohol images, indicating increased attentional capture by preferred beverages. P3 amplitudes and latencies were not sensitive to preferences, but latencies were delayed and amplitudes were enhanced on No-Go trials (i.e., trials requiring response inhibition). These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference is a factor influencing alcohol cue reactivity in heavy-episodic-drinking college students. This information has methodological significance and may also be applied to improve treatment and prevention programs that focus on attentional bias modification and inhibitory control training.

  8. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher when diameter

  9. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. Objectives These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. Methods During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. Results The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the

  10. Examining factors associated with heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Scholly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  11. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  12. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  13. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  14. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingdan eWu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with nonsmokers in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether nondeprived smokers and deprived smokers differ from nonsmokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 nonsmokers, 22 nondeprived smokers, and 20 deprived smokers were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial EMG, and EEG data indicated that both nondeprived smokers and deprived smokers performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts.

  15. The discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder in well-functioning men with hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within

  16. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  17. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  18. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcoholic beverage — such as chemicals, grains or preservatives. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. In rare instances, an unpleasant reaction to alcohol can be a sign of a serious underlying health problem that requires diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms Signs ...

  19. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top 5 risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  20. Compulsive use of alcohol among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Bentley, Kate; Vitali, Mario; Clain, Alisabet J; Nyer, Maren; Fava, Maurizio; Farabaugh, Amy H

    2013-01-30

    Among college students alcohol consumption is associated with other high-risk behaviors that can lead to short- and long-term negative health consequences. Identification of college students consuming alcohol who are at high risk for problems may have important public health implications. This study examines the ability of the CHQ compulsive use of alcohol item to detect high-risk behaviors relative to other screening measures and its association with different dimensions of compulsive drinking. Three hundred thirty-two college students completed measures on compulsive drinking and hazardous behaviors. Results showed that among male students the CHQ compulsive use of alcohol item was not sensitive to detect hazardous alcohol consumption but co-occurred with the use of illicit drugs. Among female students it was sensitive to detect heavy drinking but not alcohol or drug problems. Among college students compulsive use of alcohol corresponds to an urge to consume alcohol that may be associated with use of illicit drugs in male students, with heavy drinking in female students and with substance use problems. This study suggest that the CHQ compulsive use of alcohol item should not be used as a stand-alone screening for alcohol or drug problems but it could be considered a marker for at-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  2. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  3. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  6. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Britton, John; Venn, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    To determine the risk of adverse fetal outcomes of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We searched Medline and Embase (to March 2009) and reference lists for eligible studies; no language restrictions were imposed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using random-effect models. Our search was for epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy in nonsmoking pregnant women. The main outcome measures were spontaneous abortion, perinatal and neonatal death, stillbirth, and congenital malformations. We identified 19 studies that assessed the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. We found no evidence of a statistically significant effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.88-1.54]; 6 studies). However, secondhand smoke exposure significantly increased the risk of stillbirth (OR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.09-1.38]; 4 studies) and congenital malformation (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.01-1.26]; 7 studies), although none of the associations with specific congenital abnormalities were individually significant. Secondhand smoke exposure had no significant effect on perinatal or neonatal death. Pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke are estimated to be 23% more likely to experience stillbirth and 13% more likely give birth to a child with a congenital malformation. Because the timing and mechanism of this effect is not clear, it is important to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in women before and during pregnancy.

  7. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  8. Rapid deterioration of externally induced neuroplasticity in non-smoking subjects by nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eGrundey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In various studies nicotine has been shown to alter cognitive functions in non-smoking subjects, which might be due to nicotine-generated modulation of cortical functions, excitability and activity, as mainly described in animal experiments. In non-smoking humans application of nicotine for hours via nicotine patch abolishes inhibitory plasticity both after cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or paired associative stimulation (PAS-10. Excitatory anodal tDCS after-effects were reduced whereas excitatory PAS-25 was prolonged. These results are compatible with the view that prolonged nicotine administration facilitates focal synapse-specific excitatory plasticity as induced with excitatory PAS as focusing effect. However, since nicotine receptors undergo rapid adaption processes within minutes, the results cannot distinguish between an impact of the substance alone or a compensatory receptor adaption. Thus in the present study we replicated the experiments however using nicotine spray, which enhances blood concentration of nicotine within minutes. 48 non-smokers received nicotine spray respectively placebo spray combined with either facilitatory or inhibitory tDCS or PAS. Corticospinal excitability was monitored via motor-evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Nicotine spray abolished all types of plasticity except synapse-unspecific non-focal tDCS-derived excitability reduction, which was delayed and also weakened. Thus, the effects of short-term nicotine application differ from those of prolonged nicotine application, which might be due to missing adaptive nicotinic receptor alterations. These results enhance our knowledge about the dynamic impact of nicotine on plasticity, which might be relevant to its heterogeneous effect on cognition.

  9. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal—spontaneous or automatic—attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. Methods 187 young adult (mean age = 21.9; SD = 4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction (“Health”) vs. social enhancement (“Social”) focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Results Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. Conclusions E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. PMID:27125661

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke and periodontitis in U.S. non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Julie D; Ranney, Leah M; Wilder, Rebecca S; Sanders, Anne E

    2012-01-01

    The association of second hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontitis in non-smokers has not been confirmed using a biomarker of ETS exposure. To estimate periodontitis prevalence in non-smokers with detectable serum cotinine, and to investigate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic variation in ETS exposure in a representative sample of the U. S. adult population. Determining periodontitis risk indicators occurring with ETS appears to be a salient purpose as this study is the first of its kind to provide a link (a salivary biomarker) between second hand smoke and risk for periodontitis. Data were collected from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects were 3,137 adults who had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes and had not used other forms of tobacco. ETS exposure was classified as negligible (cotinine concentrations below sex and race/ethnicity cut-points for smokers), moderate (cotinine 0.5-definition for moderate-severe disease. Survey estimation procedures were used to estimate prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were from multivariable logistic regression models. ETS exposure was observed in 40.5% of subjects and 2.6% had periodontitis. ETS exposure was inversely associated with educational attainment and family income and was higher in non-Hispanic blacks than whites. After adjusting for age, sex and year of survey, adults with high ETS exposure (cotinine ≥ 1.5 ng/mL) had more than twice the odds of periodontitis as people with negligible exposure (OR=2.3, 95% confidence interval=1.3, 4.1). High ETS exposure was a risk indicator for periodontitis in lifetime non-smokers.

  11. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal-spontaneous or automatic-attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. 187 young adult (mean age=21.9; SD=4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  13. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  14. [Meta-analysis on related risk factors regarding lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y W; Wang, C P; Han, Y F; Niu, J J; Zhang, Y Z; Fang, Y

    2016-02-01

    To explore the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women and to provide evidence for lung cancer prevention and control. Information was collected on case-control studies published in the journals, both nationally and internationally from January, 1995 to November, 2014 that reported correlations between lung cancer and risk factors. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women were calculated, using the Meta-analysis method, with sensitivity and publication bias tested. Information on 24 case-control studies was selected including 11 946 cumulative cases and 12 596 controls. Pooled ORs (95% CI) were shown as: history of lung diseases 1.89 (1.57, 2.27), history of tuberculosis 1.86 (1.53, 2.27), history of chronic bronchitis 1.51 (1.04, 2.19), family history of cancers 2.02 (1.67, 2.44), family history of lung cancers 2.45 (1.80, 3.34), passive smoking (at workplace in adult period 1.47 (1.28, 1.69), at home in adulthood 1.22 (1.09, 1.36), in all life's time 1.52 (1.29, 1.79), kitchen smog while cooking 2.21 (1.27, 2.96), position of kitchen 1.76 (1.48, 2.09), and frequency of deep frying per week 2.24 (1.61, 3.12) etc. respectively. Major risk factors related to lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women would include lung diseases, family history of cancers, and passive smoking (tobacco smog and cooking smog). Particularly, the combination of family history and the degree of cooking presented stronger correlation effects, indicating that genetic and environmental factors jointly played an important role in the development of lung cancer.

  15. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in public health: from marvel to menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  16. Alcohol and Acetaldehyde in Public Health: From Marvel to Menace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  17. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poles, Antônio A.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal))" >Balcão, Victor M.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Chaud, Marco V.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Vila, Marta M.D.C.; Aranha, Norberto; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Yoshida, Valquíria M.H.; Oliveira, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  18. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use.These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook.During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates.The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00, lower transitivity (p = 0.00, and larger diameter (p = 0.00. Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01, less transitivity (p = .04, and fewer isolates (p = .01. Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher

  19. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  20. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  1. [Histochemical observations of oral mucosa in the non-smoking cirrhotic patient (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascrès, C; Franchebois, P

    Buccal mucosa samples from non-smoking cirrhotic patients were studied with help of histochemical methods and compared with biopsies from smoking cirrhotic and healthy subjects. Very few differences were observed between the two cirrhotic groups, except for the following which were noted in the epithelium of the non smoking group: an increase of acid phosphatase, an increase of the DNA in the active cellular layers. The basal cells mitochondria were almost always reactive. The vascular walls showed enzymatic changes with a decrease of thiamine pyrophosphatase and alcaline phosphatase activity. These observations do not allow us to draw any conclusions regarding the pathogenesis of oral cancer in cirrhotic patients.

  2. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health . Accessed March 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol ... Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders . Accessed March ...

  3. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Monteiro, Maristela; Roerecke, Michael; Smith, Blake; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  4. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Shield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH. The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality. RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012 compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost, especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  5. Time trends in heavy drinking among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Christina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    of 15,144 randomly selected Danes between the age of 50 and 74 were interviewed about their alcohol intake on the last weekday and their alcohol intake in the last week. By applying the age-period-cohort model the probability of heavy alcohol drinking is estimated to separate the influence of age...

  6. The microstructural and functional changes in the macula of heavy habitual smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobacı, Güngör; Musayev, Samir; Karslıoglu, Yıldırım; Gündoğan, Fatih Ç; Özge, Gökhan; Erdem, Üzeyir; Bayer, Atilla

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether heavy habitual smoking affects microstructures and functions of the macula, 45 age- (20-39 years old) and sex-matched adult smokers (≥1 box/day for ≥5 years) and 45 nonsmokers (controls) were enrolled in this case-control study. Central macular thickness (CMT), macular autofluorescent pigment density (MAPD), macular electroretinogram (ERG), and photostress recovery time (PRT) measurements were performed. The mean age of smokers and nonsmokers was 32.9 ± 3.9 and 33.1 ± 4.1 years, respectively (p = 0.43), and smoking duration was 11 ± 5.6 years. CMT in smokers (220 ± 28 μm) and nonsmokers (217.2 ± 31 μm; p = 0.57) was similar. Smokers had lower MAPD values (124.6) than nonsmokers (138.2) (p = 0.010). Multifocal ERG parameters in the central (6°) hexagon were similar in both groups (p > 0.05 for latency and amplitudes of P1 and N1). PRT in smokers and nonsmokers was similar (7.2 ± 1.2 and 7.4 ± 1.9 min, respectively; p = 0.33); however, foveal threshold value (FTV) at the first minute after photostress was statistically higher in smokers (36.1 ± 1.04 dB) than nonsmokers (34.8 ± 1.05 dB) (p = 0.011). We conclude that decreased MAPD and altered response to photostress may be indicative of early nicotine toxicity in microstructurally sound macula of adult chronic smokers.

  7. Craving Alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    Individuals involved in the treatment of alcoholism for decades have argued that men and women crave alcohol essentially because they enjoy the effect it offers. This effect is so mysterious that, while adults will confess that these cravings are potential dangerous to their health and well being, during consumption their reasoning and belief of these facts will alternate between the true and the false. In essence these individuals alcohol cravings life actually seems to them the only normal ...

  8. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ≥ 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked.

  9. Inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Candice Y; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Lawson, Christina C

    2015-07-01

    We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy.

  10. Nicotine increases anterior insula activation to expected and unexpected outcomes among nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Oliver, Jason A; Joseph McClernon, F

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco has a higher rate of dependence than other drugs of abuse. However, the psychopharmacological effects of nicotine are incongruent with the tenacity of tobacco addiction since nicotine does not produce robust euphoria in humans or self-administration in rodents. A potential explanation is that nicotine amplifies the salience of other stimuli that have some incentive value, which could influence the initiation and persistence of smoking. However, the neural mechanisms of this process are unknown. One way that nicotine may amplify the salience of other stimuli is by enhancing reward prediction errors. We hypothesized that nicotine would enhance the neural response to unexpected (relative to expected) rewards compared to placebo. Twenty-three nonsmokers underwent two fMRI scans, following nicotine (1 mg) or placebo administration, while performing an outcome expectation task. In the task, a pair of cues was associated with either a subsequent reward (the image of a $100 bill) or a nonreward (the image of a blurry rectangle). On 20% of trials, the cue was followed by an unexpected outcome. Although nicotine did not affect the magnitude of prediction errors relative to placebo, nicotine did increase BOLD activation in the anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus and decrease activation in the caudate across all outcome types (including both rewards and nonrewards). The insula and caudate could play a role in the initial effects of nicotine in nonsmokers, and these changes in baseline may be the mechanism that underlies how nicotine amplifies the salience of nondrug stimuli.

  11. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  12. Laryngeal cancer in nondrinker nonsmoker young patients: a distinct pathological entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Laryngeal cancer published literature was reviewed, with emphasis on reporting on young patients (cause and genetic/molecular profile rather than a spectrum of the classic disease. Head and neck cancer in young patients is documented at a rate of 0.4-3.6%, with laryngeal cancer being identified in less than 2% of all diagnosed head and neck cancer patients overall. Head and neck cancer in nondrinking nonsmokers has been reported from tertiary clinical hospitals only, with few patients having a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, and thus their documented drinking and smoking habits may be considered suspect. Most of the molecular or genetic studies on young patients, who probably have had varying degrees of drinking and smoking habits, have been reported on nonlaryngeal head and neck sites. These finding should be confirmed on a 'pure group' of young patients (laryngeal cancer who confirm that they have been nondrinkers, and nonsmokers. Many authors comment that laryngeal cancer in young (likely explained by some molecular or genetic level abnormality rather than histological and should be considered a distinct group. However, because of a low incidence of such patients and the rapid development in genetic sequencing, that such a project be completed requires greater collaboration between clinicians and pathologists.

  13. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  14. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  15. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  16. Levels of caffeine and its metabolites among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2009-2010 were used to estimate the levels of caffeine and 14 of its metabolite among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers after adjustments were made for other factors that affect observed caffeine levels. In this study, when adjusted for daily caffeine intake, adjusted levels (AGM) of caffeine and its metabolites were not found to be statistically significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. AGMs for caffeine and all of its metabolites were found to be statistically significantly higher (p whites > Hispanics > non-Hispanic blacks and most of the differences were statistically significant, at least between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (p < 0.01). In general, there was a statistically significant positive association between the levels of caffeine and its metabolites and body mass index as well as daily caffeine intake. However, the levels of 7-methylxanthine were negatively associated with body mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lutein supplementation reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein in healthy nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Xu; Jiao, Jia-Hui; Li, Ze-Yu; Liu, Ru-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Ma, Le

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether lutein affected biomarkers related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy nonsmokers. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of lutein supplementation was conducted in healthy nonsmokers. 117 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 or 20 mg/d of lutein or placebo for 12 weeks. Levels of plasma carotenoid concentrations, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), the lipoprotein profile, and antioxidant enzymes activities were determined at baseline and at 6, and 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein and lipids, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were measured at baseline and after supplementation. Plasma lutein and TAOC significantly increased in both active treatment groups during 12 weeks. A significant reduction was found in malondialdehyde in the 20 mg lutein group. CRP concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner for lutein supplementation, and there was a significant between-group difference in CRP between the 20 mg lutein and the placebo group. Serum CRP was directly related to the change in plasma lutein and TAOC for both active treatment groups. The results support the possibility that lutein supplementation reduce biomarkers of CVD risk via decreased lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response by increasing plasma lutein concentrations and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  19. Exposure to secondhand smoke and academic performance in non-smoking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Lai, Hak-Kan; Wang, Man-Ping; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    To study the association between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and academic performance in non-smoking adolescents. A questionnaire survey of 23 052 non-smoking students aged 11 to 20 years was conducted. Information on academic performance, number of days of SHS exposure per week at home and outside the home, number of smokers at home and their relationship with the student, and sociodemographic characteristics was recorded. Students exposed to SHS at home 1 to 4 and 5 to 7 days per week were 14% (95% confidence interval, 5%-25%) and 28% (15%-41%) more likely, respectively, to report poor academic performance compared with students who were not exposed to SHS. Living with one, two, and ≥ 3 smokers, compared with no smoker, was also associated with 10% (0.1%-20%), 43% (23%-65%) and 87% (54%-127%), respectively, higher odds of poor academic performance (P for trend effect of SHS exposure at home is stronger from smokers other than the parents. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ≥ 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. Results The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked. PMID:25228837

  1. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-06-01

    Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, J; Amu, R; Batsikadze, G; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007-February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars.

  4. Estimating the Price Elasticity of Demand for Different Levels of Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vinish Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effect of higher alcohol prices on alcohol demand according to one’s level of alcohol consumption is crucial while evaluating the effectiveness of using alcohol taxes as an alcohol-control medium. In this study, I estimate the differential responses to alcohol prices on alcohol demand for young adults by asking whether heavy drinkers are more responsive to higher alcohol prices than light and moderate drinkers. To conduct the analysis, I use the data from the National Long...

  5. Heavy Flavor in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    The recent results on heavy flavor at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will be reviewed. The results on charm cross section, heavy flavor collectivity and energy loss, color screening effect and quarkonia production mechanism will be highlighted. Precise measurements with future detector upgrades will be discussed.

  6. Heavy drinking and health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Susan L; French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that individuals who consume relatively large amounts of alcohol are more likely to use expensive acute medical care and less likely to use preventive or ambulatory services than other individuals. The few studies that investigated the associations between heavy drinking and health promotion activities did not try to address omitted-variable biases that may confound the relationships. To fill this void in the literature, we examined the effects of heavy alcohol use on three health promotion activities (routine physical exam, flu shot, regular seatbelt use) using the US 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Although specification tests indicated that omitted variable bias was not present in the majority of the single-equation probit models, we cautiously interpret our findings as evidence of strong associations rather than causal effects. Among both men and women, heavy alcohol use is negatively and significantly associated with each of our three outcomes. These findings suggest that heavy drinkers may be investing less in health promotion activities relative to abstainers and other drinkers. Policy options to address the associated externalities may be warranted. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  8. Reference interval and subject variation in excretion of urinary metabolites of nicotine from non-smoking healthy subjects in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A M; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Passive smoking has been found to be a respiratory health hazard in humans. The present study describes the calculation of a reference interval for urinary nicotine metabolites calculated as cotinine equivalents on the basis of 72 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke less than 25....... Parametric reference interval for excretion of nicotine metabolites in urine from non-smokers was established according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) for use of risk assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke....... The reference interval for urinary cotinine was estimated to be 1.1-90.0 micromol/mol creatinine in morning samples from non-smokers. An intercomparison between the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method used for determination of nicotine metabolites and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method...

  9. The impact of smoking in the home on the health outcomes of non-smoker occupants in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusel Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking in the home remains a key source of exposure to secondhand smoke for non-smokers, particularly since the UK public smoking ban in 2007. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all UK evidence on the impact of secondhand smoke exposure in the home on health and behavioural outcomes in non-smoker occupants. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all relevant UK empirical studies from 2000 to June 2011. A qualitative overview of the evidence is presented. Exposure to secondhand smoke in UK homes was found to be associated with serious negative health effects in non-smokers, including significantly increased risk of meningococcal carriage (p 

  10. Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…

  11. Socioeconomic status and trends in alcohol drinking in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-92

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level of ...

  12. Leisure Time Use and Academic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendorf, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined alcohol use in relation to leisure time use and attitudes toward school climate among 222 high school sophomores and seniors. Found heavy alcohol use correlated with participation in social and vocational activities. Heavy users enjoyed school and school subjects less, had greater potential for conflicts with teachers, and received lower…

  13. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  14. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ø. Hansen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30 and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25 participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg, nicotine (4 mg, or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58 as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61 [F(1, 52 = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92% than non-smokers (63% [χ(1, N=552 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity.

  15. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  16. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  17. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  19. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  20. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Drinking motives mediate the relationship between alcohol reward value and alcohol problems in military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Williams, Joah L

    2016-12-01

    Elevated alcohol reward value (RV) has been linked to higher levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and there is evidence that specific drinking motives may mediate the relationship between demand and problematic alcohol use in college students, making these variables potentially important indicators of risk for high RV and alcohol problems. The present study evaluated these relationships in a high-risk sample of military veterans. Heavy-drinking (N = 68) veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) completed the alcohol purchase task (APT) measure of alcohol demand (RV), and standard assessments of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and drinking motives. RV was associated with overall alcohol consequences, interpersonal alcohol consequences, social responsibility consequences and impulse control consequences. Mediation analyses indicated significant mediation of the relationships between RV and a number of problem subscales by social motives, coping-anxiety motives, coping-depression motives and enhancement motives. This suggests that individuals who have a high valuation of alcohol may have increased motivation to drink in social, mood-enhancement, and coping situations, resulting in increased alcohol-related consequences. Demand and drinking motives should be examined as potential indicators of need for intervention services and as treatment targets in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Understanding the effects of stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol via behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-06-01

    Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and the Liver: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is ... provider or contact a Substance Use Disorder program Alcohol Drinking Diary and Change Plan Alcohol Drinking Diary ...

  7. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  8. Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J; Hoffmann, John P

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting styles were associated with adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking, after controlling for peer use, religiosity, and other relevant variables. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations of parenting style with alcohol use and heavy drinking among 4,983 adolescents in Grades 7-12. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents from the other three parenting styles, and they were less likely to have close friends who used alcohol. In addition, religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after controlling for other relevant variables. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, might help deter adolescents from heavy alcohol use, even when adolescents have friends who drink. In addition, the data suggest that the adolescent's choice of friends may be an intervening variable that helps explain the negative association between authoritative parenting and adolescent heavy drinking.

  9. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  10. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the validity of hair nicotine as a biomarker for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although most biomarkers of tobacco-smoke exposure have a relatively short half-life, hair nicotine can measure several months of cumulative SHS exposure. A cross-sectional study of hospitality-industry workers. Hair samples were obtained from 207 bar and restaurant workers and analyzed by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method. Self-reported tobacco use and sources of SHS exposure were assessed. Higher hair-nicotine levels were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day among smokers and a greater number of SHS-exposure sources among nonsmokers. Number of SHS exposure sources, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and type of establishment predicted hair-nicotine levels. Hair nicotine is a valid measure of SHS exposure. It may be used as an alternative biomarker to measure longer term SHS exposure.

  11. An explanatory model of variables influencing health promotion behaviors in smoking and nonsmoking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, A M

    1999-08-01

    College students can establish healthy lifestyle practices that can have lifelong implications. Many students, however, continue to engage in risky behaviors such as active and passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to test an explanatory model of variables which can influence health promotion behaviors in smoking and nonsmoking college students. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the framework for the study. Health promotion behaviors were found to be most effective when students: had an increased self-efficacy, avoided environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), perceived themselves as healthy, were female, and had a powerful external and internal health locus of control. College students may benefit from health promotion interventions designed to influence the avoidance of ETS and alter perceptions of self-efficacy, control of health, and health status. Such interventions may result in a decrease in both active and passive smoking.

  12. Sequential occurrence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in a non-smoker female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Dash, Devijyoti; Mittal, Richa; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    The combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) syndrome is a unique and an under-recognized disorder characterized by emphysema in the upper lobes and interstitial fibrosis in the lower lobes of the lung. It occurs predominantly in males and almost exclusively in smokers. This rare combination of a restrictive and an obstructive mechanical defect carries a poorer prognosis than either of the two components. We present a case of CPFE syndrome in a non-smoker female patient who developed lower lobe emphysema subsequent to development of interstitial fibrosis. The case was remarkable for the extreme rarity of several presenting features, namely, a lower lobe occurrence of emphysema subsequent to pre-existent interstitial fibrosis, female gender and absence of a history of smoking. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, D A; St Helen, G; Jacob, P; Tyndale, R F; Benowitz, N L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine genetic, pharmacokinetic, and demographic factors that influence sensitivity to nicotine in never-smokers. Sixty never-smokers, balanced for gender and race (white, black, and Asian), wore 7-mg nicotine skin patches for up to 8 h. Serial plasma nicotine concentrations and subjective and cardiovascular effects were measured, and genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, encoding the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism, was assessed. Nicotine toxicity requiring patch removal developed in nine subjects and was strongly associated with rate of increase and peak concentrations of plasma nicotine. Toxicity and subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine were associated with the presence of reduced-function CYP2A6 alleles, presumably reflecting slow nicotine metabolic inactivation. This study has implications for understanding individual differences in responses to nicotine medications, particularly when they are used for treating medical conditions in nonsmokers, and possibly in vulnerability to developing nicotine dependence.

  14. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  15. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  16. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  17. Cross-commodity delay discounting of alcohol and money in alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Lara N; Tegge, Allison N; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-06-01

    Despite real-world implications, the pattern of delay discounting in alcohol users when the commodities now and later differ has not been well characterized. In this study, 60 participants on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess severity of use and completed four delay discounting tasks between hypothetical, equivalent amounts of alcohol and money available at five delays. The tasks included two cross-commodity (alcohol now-money later and money now-alcohol later) and two same-commodity (money now-money later and alcohol now-alcohol later) conditions. Delay discounting was significantly associated with clinical cutoffs of the AUDIT for both of the cross-commodity conditions but not for either of the same-commodity delay discounting tasks. The cross-commodity discounting conditions were related to severity of use wherein heavy users discounted future alcohol less and future money more. The change in direction of the discounting effect was dependent on the commodity that was distally available suggesting a distinctive pattern of discounting across commodities when comparing light and heavy alcohol users.

  18. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  19. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. Methods: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50 years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. Results: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD parts per billion (ppb. The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002. This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002. The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039. Conclusions: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation.

  20. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  1. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  2. Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    helpful to initiate effective public health interventions to reduce heavy episodic drinking and consequently reduce the risks associated with it. It will also serve as a baseline to conduct further studies on this issue in Ethiopia. [Ethiop.J. Health Dev. 2017;31(Special Issue):312-319]. Key words: Alcohol, Heavy Episodic Drinking ...

  3. Stability of an SAIRS alcoholism model on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong; Liu, Ying-Ping; Huo, Hai-Feng

    2017-05-01

    A new SAIRS alcoholism model with birth and death on complex heterogeneous networks is proposed. The total population of our model is partitioned into four compartments: the susceptible individual, the light problem alcoholic, the heavy problem alcoholic and the recovered individual. The spread of alcoholism threshold R0 is calculated by the next generation matrix method. When R0 alcohol free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, then the alcoholics will disappear. When R0 > 1, the alcoholism equilibrium is global attractivity, then the number of alcoholics will remain stable and alcoholism will become endemic. Furthermore, the modified SAIRS alcoholism model on weighted contact network is introduced. Dynamical behavior of the modified model is also studied. Numerical simulations are also presented to verify and extend theoretical results. Our results show that it is very important to treat alcoholics to control the spread of the alcoholism.

  4. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  5. Patterns and determinants of alcohol use among Nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from this recent literature indicate that while some Nigerian university students use alcohol to enhance sexual performance, boost confidence and reduce stress, others use heavy episodic drinking as means of constructing social identity. Other findings reveal that a majority combine alcohol with other drugs and ...

  6. Is there a causal relationship between alcohol and HIV? Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is now conclusive evidence of a causal linkage between heavy drinking patterns and/or alcohol use disorders and the worsening of the disease course for HIV. However, while alcohol usage is consistently associated with the prevalence and incidence of HIV, further research is needed to substantiate causality in ...

  7. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of ...

  8. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read Peter's story Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does Drug Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the National Institute ...

  9. Examining the Impact of Alcohol and Other Drug Education Exposure on Student Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Barry, Adam E

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention/education programs and drinking behaviors among students aged 12 to 17 years. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health ( N = 17,736). AOD prevention/education was assessed in three school settings: special class, regular class, and outside regular class. Outcome variables included past year alcohol use and current heavy episodic drinking. Associations were assessed via one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression models. There was a significant effect of program exposure on alcohol use ( p<.001) and heavy episodic drinking ( p = .002). Regression results found AOD prevention/education exposure ( p = .004) was significant, indicating that exposure decreased past year use. No difference was found based on heavy episodic drinking. Increasing exposure to AOD prevention/education programs is warranted and encouraged.

  10. Type of Student Residence as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Consumption and Social Normative Perceptions regarding Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; O'Hegarty, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine alcohol use (particularly heavy drinking) and social normative estimations of alcohol use according to student residence (fraternity, sorority, residence hall, or apartment complex). To achieve this purpose, a survey was conducted in all 34 sections of a general education core English class at a…

  11. Influence of Early Onset of Alcohol Use on the Development of Adolescent Alcohol Problems: a Longitudinal Binational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined cross-national similarities in a developmental model linking early age of alcohol use onset to frequent drinking and heavy drinking and alcohol problems 1 and 2 years later in a binational sample of 13-year-old students from two states: Washington State, USA and Victoria, Australia (N = 1833). A range of individual, family, school, and peer influences was included in analyses to investigate their unique and shared contribution to development of early and more serious forms of alcohol use and harms from misuse. Data were collected annually over a 3-year period from ages 13 to 15. Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. For both states, early use of alcohol predicted frequent drinking, which predicted alcohol problems. Family protective influences had neither direct effects on heavy drinking nor effects on alcohol harm in either state, whereas school protection directly reduced the risk of heavy drinking in both states. Exposure to antisocial peers and siblings predicted a higher likelihood of heavy drinking and alcohol harm for students in both Washington and Victoria. Implications for the prevention of adolescent alcohol problems are discussed.

  12. Changes in and Factors Affecting Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure.

  13. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer.

  14. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  15. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, Poil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women.

  16. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  17. Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Poor Academic Achievement in University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane; Mills, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background: We assessed associations between educational achievement and alcohol consumption. Methods: We employed five alcohol consumption measures (length of time of and amount consumed during most recent drinking occasion, frequency of alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking); and three educational achievement indicators (students’ subjective importance of achieving good grades, students’ appraisal of their academic performance in comparison with peers, students’ actual module mark). Results: Males were positively associated with all five alcohol consumption measures. Age was negatively associated with three alcohol consumption measures. While students´ importance of good grades was negatively associated with three alcohol consumption measures, academic performance in comparison with peers was negatively associated with heavy episodic drinking. Actual module mark was not associated with any alcohol consumption measure. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students’ academic success. PMID:24319558

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in cigarette smokers: effect of heavy caffeine or marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from four groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean four coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level.

  19. Searches for heavy neutrinos and heavy leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Sung

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of non-zero neutrino masses has opened a new window for heavy neutrinos at TeV scale. The CMS experiment has performed many searches for heavy neutrinos at the LHC. We present an overview of these heavy neutrino (Majorana type) searches in events with two leptons and two jets or three leptons, using proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment.

  20. Socioeconomic status and trends in alcohol drinking in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-92

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level...... of education, age and smoking. In total, 6,695 Danish men and women aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years were included. RESULTS: Alcohol drinking decreased in both men and women during the study period, but changes were only significant among the highest educated. In the highest educated men the prevalence...... of moderate alcohol use increased from 77 to 82%, while heavy alcohol use declined from 19 to 12%. In the highest educated women the prevalence of abstention increased from 15 to 22%, while moderate alcohol use declined from 78 to 68%. CONCLUSION: During the 1980s, alcohol drinking decreased among the highest...

  1. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD. Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, deprived smokers (n = 15, age range 20-45 years and healthy non-smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias.

  2. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro de Paiva; Almeida, Natalia Leandro; Dos Santos, Natanael Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD). Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers ( n = 15; age range, 20-45 years), deprived smokers ( n = 15, age range 20-45 years) and healthy non-smokers ( n = 15; age range, 20-45 years), using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left) in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT): Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias.

  3. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  4. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  5. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yingbo Xue, Ying Jiang, Shan Jin, Yong Li Department of Oncology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94 and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89, respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001. Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Keywords: cooking oil fume exposure, lung cancer, meta-analysis, nonsmoking women 

  6. Tea consumption and its interactions with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on oral cancer in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Liu, F-P; Huang, J-F; Hu, Z-J; Lin, Z; Zheng, X-Y; Lin, L-S; Zhang, Z-F; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of tea consumption on oral cancer stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and demographics. Quantity of tea consumed (ml/day) was categorized into five subgroups based on quartiles and then its interactions was evaluated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at each subgroup. Tea consumption showed an inverse association with oral cancer for non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers (the odds ratios (ORs) were 0.610 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.425-0.876) and 0.686 (95% CI: 0.503-0.934), respectively). For smokers or alcohol drinkers, decreased risk was only observed in those who consumed >800 ml/day. Furthermore, oolong tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of oral cancer in smokers or alcohol drinkers but not in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Tea consumption combined with smoking or/and alcohol drinking had a greater risk than tea consumption alone, but the risk was roughly reduced from zero to Q4 (>800 ml/day). Additionally, when stratified by demographics, the protective effect of tea was especially evident in females, urban residents, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), farmers, office workers and those aged <60 years. Tea consumption protects against oral cancer in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers, but this effect may be obscured in smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, demographics may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer.

  7. Alcohol and Primary Health Care. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    The European Alcohol Action Plan stresses that health care systems, traditionally involved in the management of alcohol problems, must play a greater role in the detection and prevention of alcohol-related harm. Primary health care is seen as an important setting for identifying individuals at risk from heavy drinking and helping them to reduce…

  8. Personality and the Prediction of High-Risk Trajectories of Alcohol Use During Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Monshouwer, Karin; van de Schoot, Rens; Janssen, Tim; Vollebergh, Wilma; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early onset of alcohol use and persistent use of alcohol during adolescence have been associated with later problem behavior, such as heavy drinking and the use of other substances. Several personality characteristics have been related to the onset and persistent use of alcohol during

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease among Men with Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol

  10. Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease among men with hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol

  11. Alcohol use and church attendance among seventh through twelfth grade students, Dominican Republic, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael N; Jiménez Méndez, Santa Altagracia; Nolasco Pozo, Maximinia; Altagracia Cabrera, Elizabet; Dohn, Anita L

    2014-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the years of life lost to premature death and disability worldwide. Religion is a mitigating factor in alcohol consumption. A survey in the Dominican Republic showed increasing church attendance by middle and high school students (N = 3,478) was associated with a delay in age at first alcoholic drink, fewer students who had consumed alcohol in the past month (current drinkers), lower alcohol consumption levels, fewer episodes of inebriation, and less heavy episodic alcohol consumption (all P attending youth as a subset of the adolescent social network when planning primary alcohol prevention programs for young people.

  12. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, A; Kooijman, C; Breuer, M; Böhler, P; Zünd, T; Wenk, S; Röösli, M

    2010-02-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking relevant characteristics of the venue, such as the type of ventilation or the presence of additional PM(2.5) sources, into account. We differentiated five smoking environments: (i) completely smoke-free location, (ii) non-smoking room spatially separated from a smoking room, (iii) non-smoking area with a smoking area located in the same room, (iv) smoking area with a non-smoking area located in the same room, and (v) smoking location which could be either a room where smoking was allowed that was spatially separated from non-smoking room or a hospitality venue without smoking restriction. In these five groups, the geometric mean PM(2.5) levels were (i) 20.4, (ii) 43.9, (iii) 71.9, (iv) 110.4, and (v) 110.3 microg/m(3), respectively. This study showed that even if non-smoking and smoking areas were spatially separated into two rooms, geometric mean PM(2.5) levels in non-smoking rooms were considerably higher than in completely smoke-free hospitality venues. PM(2.5) levels are considerably increased in the non-smoking area if smoking is allowed anywhere in the same location. Even locating the smoking area in another room resulted in a more than doubling of the PM(2.5) levels in the non-smoking room compared with venues where smoking was not allowed at all. In practice, spatial separation of rooms where smoking is allowed does not prevent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in nearby non-smoking areas.

  13. Changes in private alcohol importation after alcohol tax reductions and import allowance increases in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Bloomfield, Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: This paper examines changes in alcohol import in Denmark between 2003 and 2006, after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travellers' allowances for alcohol import were increased on January1, 2004. Additionally, the paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers and analyse the relation between the distance to the German border and import behaviour, as Germany is the main alcohol import country for Denmark. DATA: Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark, from 2003 to 2006, were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews, using random digit dialing. RESULTS: While the percentage of people who imported alcohol fell over time, the amount of alcohol purchased rose for those who did import. Distance to the German border was inversely related to the likelihood of importing and the level of imported amounts. Heavy drinkers and those with higher incomes were more likely to import, and heavy drinkers imported higher amounts than moderate drinkers or abstainers. CONCLUSION: Distance of residence from the German border, socio-economic status and drinking behaviour are related to private alcohol import in Denmark. Policy changes resulted in a shift to fewer people importing higher amounts of alcohol so that the overall import level did not change substantially.

  14. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  15. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  16. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  17. Airways obstruction in survivors of thoracoplasty: reversibility is greater in non-smokers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Terence M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Before the advent of antituberculous chemotherapy, thoracoplasty (TPL) was the definitive form of therapy for cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. This study aimed to characterize the late functional sequelae of TPL, and to establish the degree of reversibility of any consequent airway obstruction. METHODOLOGY: Pulmonary function was studied in 21 long-term (mean 35 years) survivors of TPL between the years 1990-2001. RESULTS: A mixed obstructive\\/restrictive defect was found in this patient cohort. After inhalation of bronchodilator, marginal increases in FEV(1) and FVC and marginal decreases in FRC, RV and TLC were observed. Maximum mid-expiratory flow rate was severely reduced (28.8% of predicted), but reversibility after inhaled beta(2)-agonist was highest for this parameter of pulmonary function (mean 11%). Smokers had a higher RV (P = 0.04), suggesting hyperinflation, while non-smokers had a larger increase in FEV(1)\\/FVC ratio postbronchodilator (P = 0.004), suggesting more marked reversibility of airways obstruction in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of TPL have an obstructive as well as a restrictive ventilatory defect. These patients have partial reversibility of the obstructive defect. The degree of reversibility found suggests that bronchodilator therapy may help these patients.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  19. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel .E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  20. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences].E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  1. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Spermatozoa Quality in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers of Iranian Infertile Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Tarahomi, Majid; Sharifi, Hooman; Heydari, Gholamreza; Hessami, Zahra; Akhoundi, Mohamadmehdi; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking has a negative effect on fertility and sperm quality. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of smoking on sperm quality and the related parameters such as sperm concentration, morphology and motility. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 infertile men with at least one year history of idiopathic infertility, who admitted to the Avicenna Infertility Center, Tehran, Iran. A complete history including smoking habits and other diseases was obtained and semen analysis was performed for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 and t test and Mann-whitney tests with a significance level of α= 0.05. Results Comparison of sperm parameters in the two groups of smoker and nonsmoker subjects showed that active smoking (p=0.04) and cigarette consumption even in small amounts (p=0.03) decreased sperm concentration, However, no significant correlation was detected between smoking status and morphology or motility of sperms. Conclusion This study failed to find a significant correlation between sperm analysis and smoking status except for sperm concentration, which was significantly decreased in the active smokers ,even in those consuming small amounts of tobacco. This finding propounds that tobacco consumption may negatively affect fertility. PMID:25101159

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR peak : 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak : 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO 2VT : 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels

  4. Psychological changes and cognitive impairments in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Wiers, Reinout W; Field, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased risk-taking behavior, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. In this brief review paper we describe psychological and cognitive constructs that are associated with heavy drinking during adolescence. These associations raise the question of causality: is alcohol somehow neurotoxic, or can we identify specific psychological and cognitive variables that serve as risk factors for the escalation of heavy drinking? This narrative review summarizes results of recent prospective studies that focus on causal relationships between adolescents' alcohol use, and psychological changes and cognitive impairments. Psychological constructs such as elevated impulsivity and poor executive function are risk factors for alcohol involvement in youth. Furthermore heavy drinking during adolescence, particularly in a binge pattern, may exert neurotoxic effects and produce corresponding changes in executive function, perhaps setting the stage for the development of alcohol use disorders later on in life. Although the findings of the discussed studies shed light on the nature of the relationships between alcohol involvement and cognitive deficits, the question of cause and effect remains unanswered. The limitations of existing research and the need for well-powered prospective studies are highlighted.

  5. Functional Connectivity During Exposure to Favorite-Food, Stress, and Neutral-Relaxing Imagery Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Jastreboff, Ania M; Constable, R Todd; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco-use disorder is a complex condition involving multiple brain networks and presenting with multiple behavioral correlates including changes in diet and stress. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of neural responses to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers demonstrated blunted corticostriatal-limbic responses to favorite-food cues. Based on other recent reports of alterations in functional brain networks in smokers, the current study examined functional connectivity during exposure to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery in smokers and nonsmokers, using the same dataset. The intrinsic connectivity distribution was measured to identify brain regions that differed in degree of functional connectivity between groups during each imagery condition. Resulting clusters were evaluated for seed-to-voxel connectivity to identify the specific connections that differed between groups during each imagery condition. During exposure to favorite-food imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the supramarginal gyrus, and differences in connectivity between the supramarginal gyrus and the corticostriatal-limbic system. During exposure to neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed greater connectivity in the precuneus, and greater connectivity between the precuneus and the posterior insula and rolandic operculum. During exposure to stress imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the cerebellum. These findings provide data-driven insights into smoking-related alterations in brain functional connectivity patterns related to appetitive, relaxing, and stressful states. This study uses a data-driven approach to demonstrate that smokers and nonsmokers show differential patterns of functional connectivity during guided imagery related to personalized favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing cues, in brain regions implicated in attention

  6. Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using a two-mutation radiation carcinogenesis model and a stepwise determination of the model parameters. The basic model parameters for lung cancer were derived from the age dependence fit of the spontaneous lung cancer incidence in non-smokers. The effect of smoking was described by two additional parameters and, subsequently, the effect of radon by three other parameters; these five parameters define the dependence of the two mutation steps on smoking and exposure to radon. Using this approach, a consistent fit and comprehensive description of the three sets of data have been achieved, and the parameters could, at least partly, be related to cellular radiobiological data. The model results explain the different effect of radon on non-smokers and smokers as seen in epidemiological data. Although the analysis was only applied to a limited number of populations, lung cancer incidence as a result of radon exposure is estimated to be about ten times higher for people exposed at the age of about 15 than at about 50, although this effect is masked (especially for smokers) by the high lung cancer incidence from smoking. Using the model to calculate the lung cancer risks from lifetime exposure to radon, as is the case for indoor radon, higher risks were estimated than previously derived from epidemiological studies of the miners' data. The excess absolute risk per unit exposure of radon is about 1.7 times higher for smokers of 30 cigarettes per day than for non-smokers, even though, as a result of the low spontaneous tumour incidence in the non-smokers, the excess relative risk per unit exposure for the smokers is about 20 times

  7. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    national and international by ... Marketing restrictions, such as. Reducing availability of retailed alcohol. Bans on alcohol advertizing, ... relationships between alcohol consumption and household poverty (e.g. the opportunity costs of alcohol).

  8. DRD4 and susceptibility to peer influence on alcohol use from adolescence to adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The long allele of DRD4 is associated with greater susceptibility to peer influences on alcohol use in young adulthood, but it is unclear whether this increased susceptibility extends to other developmental periods. This study examined the interactive effects of DRD4 polymorphism and friends' alcohol use from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Participants (N=340; 59% female; 98% White) reported on their own and their friends' alcohol use at four time points between mean ages 17 and 33. Autoregressive cross-lagged models evaluated reciprocal relationships between friends' alcohol use and participants' own alcohol use and frequency of heavy drinking over time. Multigroup modeling tested differences in model paths and covariances across high vs. low risk DRD4 polymorphisms. Results Alcohol use at age 33 was predicted by previous friends' alcohol use and correlated with current friends' alcohol use only for carriers of the DRD4 long allele. Regardless of DRD4 genotype, friends' alcohol use at age 17 predicted greater alcohol use and more frequent heavy drinking at age 23. Alcohol use and/or heavy drinking predicted greater friends' alcohol use at later time points for both genotype groups across adolescence and adulthood. Conclusions The long allele of DRD4 is associated with increased susceptibility to peer influences on alcohol use in young adulthood, but not earlier in development. Adults with the long allele of DRD4 may benefit from interventions educating them about this risk and equipping them with strategies to reduce affiliations with and influence of drinking friends. PMID:25457740

  9. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  10. Impact of Cross-Sectoral Alcohol Policy on Youth Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Jacobs, Monique A M; van Nierop, Peter; van der Veeken-Vlassak, Ivanka A G; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed larger reductions in alcohol consumption among adolescents aged 12-15. Strong regional cross-sectoral alcohol policy was defined as participation in a regional alcohol prevention program. Strong municipal cross-sectoral alcohol policy was operationalized by measures on (a) sector variety: involvement of different policy sectors, and (b) strategy variety: formulation of different policy strategies. Relevant data from policy documents were searched for on the Internet. Data on trends in alcohol consumption were extracted from the 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional Youth Health Monitor that includes a random subset of adolescents aged 12-15 (n = 15,380 in 2007 and n = 15,437 in 2011). We used multilevel regression models. Two of the three regions in which municipalities participated in a regional alcohol prevention program showed a larger reduction in weekly drinking than the region in which municipalities did not participate (-12.2% and -13.4% vs. -8.3%). Municipalities with strong compared to weak sector variety showed a larger increase in adolescents' age at consuming their first alcoholic drink (0.63 vs. 0.42 years). Municipalities with strong strategy variety showed a decrease (-3.8%) in heavy weekly drinking, whereas those with weak variety showed an increase (5.1%). Cross-sectoral alcohol policy did not affect trends in other alcohol outcomes. Our results suggest that strong cross-sectoral alcohol policy may contribute to reducing some aspects of youth alcohol consumption. Monitoring policy implementation is needed to assess the full impact.

  11. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Chronic alcohol drinking: Liver and pancreatic cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that results from complex interactions of numerous risk factors - genetic and environmental - over time, eventually leading to the diseased phenotypes. Thus, while epidemiological studies can point to risk factors, they cannot determine cause and effect relationships, and are unable to give biological and clinical insights into carcinogenesis. The link between any risk factor and carcinogenesis needs to be validated in experimental models. This is particularly true in epidemiological studies on alcohol consumption and its consequences. While there is no doubt that heavy alcohol consumption has devastating health effects, the inconsistencies in alcohol-related epidemiological studies and cancer suffer from possible sources of the variability in outcomes, ranging from inaccuracy of self-report of consumption to the problem of correlating cancer that started decades earlier to current or recent alcohol consumption. To further study the interactions between alcohol and cancer, the use of "Molecular Pathological Epidemiology" (MPE) advocated by Ogino et al. for dissecting the interplay between etiological factors, cellular and molecular characteristics, and disease progression in cancer is appropriate. MPE does not consider cancer as a single entity, rather it integrates analyses of epidemiological studies with the macroenvironment and molecular and microenvironment. This approach allows investigating the relationships between potential etiological agents and cancer based on molecular signatures. More research is needed to fully elucidate the link between heavy alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer, and to further investigate the roles of acetaldehyde and FAEEs in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2004-01-01

    for ADH3 genotypes using logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, tobacco use, and history of cancer in first-degree family relatives, a significantly higher odds ratio for UADT cancer was observed among individuals with AA genotype and low cumulative alcohol consumption...... (among individuals with AA genotype and low tobacco consumption (adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that genotype AA may......OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care...

  14. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  15. [Stress management in heart diseases, obesity, nicotine and alcohol use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterbauer, E; Anders, I; Ladurner, G; Huemer, M; Wranek, U

    2001-12-17

    Heart diseases, obesity, nicotine and alcohol abuse are all relevant stroke risk factors. Some studies refer to stress stimuli and coping strategies as modulators for stroke risk factors. This study investigated differences between stroke prevention patients with heart complaints, obesity, nicotine or alcohol abuse and stroke prevention patients without these risk factors. 5993 stroke prevention patients participated in a medical-psychological stroke risk investigation at the Christian Doppler Clinic in Salzburg. The differences in coping strategies between groups of patients with risk factors and groups without were investigated by means of multivariate analysis of covariance. Significant differences in stress coping were found for every risk factor (split by sex). Men suffering from heart diseases showed higher values in the coping strategy tendency to flee. Women with heart complaints demonstrated significantly lower values in minimising by comparison. Obese/adipose patients performed significantly higher values in the coping strategies vicarious satisfaction and aggression (men). Nicotine abusing prevention patients showed significantly higher values in drug intake and lower scores in continued thoughts. Non-smoking men furthermore reached higher values in vicarious satisfaction and non-smoking women in minimising. Persons not consuming alcohol demonstrated higher drug intake and aggression (men). Wine drinkers showed lower scores of self-pity and increased situation control attempts (women). Prevention patients with risk factors demonstrated significant differences in coping strategies in comparison to those without risk factors. Persons with heart diseases demonstrate a more defensive behaviour. The risk factors obesity, nicotine and alcohol consumption are associated with a risk factor supporting stress coping behaviour. The modification of the coping strategies drug intake and vicarious satisfaction towards a more active confrontation could probably

  16. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  17. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    although sales promotions affected stu- dents from Australia and Germany, Welsh students were more likely to purchase alcohol during promotions, because of their intention to take advantage of price discounts. In the Philippines, Swahn et al. (2013) revealed that promotional ac- tivities offering free drinks to students.

  18. Reference interval and subject variation in excretion of urinary metabolites of nicotine from non-smoking healthy subjects in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A M; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Passive smoking has been found to be a respiratory health hazard in humans. The present study describes the calculation of a reference interval for urinary nicotine metabolites calculated as cotinine equivalents on the basis of 72 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke less than 25......% of the day. METHODS: Twenty subjects (passive smokers) exposed to tobacco smoke more than 25% of the day (subjectively assessed) and 32 smokers were used to validate the estimated reference interval. Urine samples were collected three times during the day approximately at 06.30, 17.00 and 22.45 h. RESULTS....... Parametric reference interval for excretion of nicotine metabolites in urine from non-smokers was established according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) for use of risk assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke...

  19. Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: effects on smokers' and at-risk nonsmokers' responses to cigarette health warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Nan, Xiaoli; Iles, Irina Alexandra; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis--those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Peer alcohol behavior moderates within-level associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L; Read, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    Self-medication theory (SMT) posits that individuals exposed to trauma and resulting posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) are at risk for heavy drinking and associated negative consequences. Close peer alcohol use is also a powerful predictor of alcohol involvement in college, particularly influencing those with greater negative affect. As individuals with PTSD may rely on peers for support, peer drinking behaviors are possibly putting them at further risk for greater alcohol use and resulting consequences. To test self-medication processes, the present study examined the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms, weekend alcohol behavior, and the influence of both emotionally supportive peer and other friend drinking behavior by investigating: (a) whether weekday PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent weekend alcohol use and consequences; and (b) whether the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms and weekend alcohol behavior was moderated by various drinking behaviors of one's peers. Trauma-exposed heavy-drinking college students (N = 128) completed a baseline assessment and 30 daily, Web-based assessments of alcohol use and related consequences, PTSD symptoms, and peer alcohol behavior. Results directly testing SMT were not supported. However, friend alcohol behavior moderated the relationship between weekday PTSD and weekend alcohol behavior. Findings highlight the importance of peer drinking as both a buffer and risk factor for problematic drinking and provide useful information for interventions aimed at high-risk drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Nonsmoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. III. Oral Fluid and Blood Drug Concentrations and Corresponding Subjective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    The increasing use of highly potent strains of cannabis prompted this new evaluation of human toxicology and subjective effects following passive exposure to cannabis smoke. The study was designed to produce extreme cannabis smoke exposure conditions tolerable to drug-free nonsmokers. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes [5.3% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3] in a closed chamber. Six nonsmokers were seated alternately with smokers during exposure sessions of 1 h duration. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Oral fluid, whole blood and subjective effect measures were obtained before and at multiple time points after each session. Oral fluid was analyzed by ELISA (4 ng/mL cutoff concentration) and by LC-MS-MS (limit of quantitation) for THC (1 ng/mL) and total THCCOOH (0.02 ng/mL). Blood was analyzed by LC-MS-MS (0.5 ng/mL) for THC, 11-OH-THC and free THCCOOH. Positive tests for THC in oral fluid and blood were obtained for nonsmokers up to 3 h following exposure. Ratings of subjective effects correlated with the degree of exposure. Subjective effect measures and amounts of THC absorbed by nonsmokers (relative to smokers) indicated that extreme secondhand cannabis smoke exposure mimicked, though to a lesser extent, active cannabis smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  4. Heavy water pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.; Nikolic, M.

    1963-12-01

    Continuous increase of radiation intensity was observed on all the elements in the heavy water system during first three years of RA reactor operation. The analysis of heavy water has shown the existence of radioactive cobalt. It was found that cobalt comes from stellite, cobalt based alloy which was used for coating of the heavy water pump discs in order to increase resistance to wearing. Cobalt was removed from the surfaces due to friction, and transferred by heavy water into the reactor where it has been irradiated for 29 876 MWh up to 8-15 Ci/g. Radioactive cobalt contaminated all the surfaces of aluminium and stainless steel parts. This report includes detailed description of heavy water pumps repair, exchange of stellite coated parts, decontamination of the heavy water system, distillation of heavy water [sr

  5. The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard E; Gmel, Gerrit; Hasan, Omer S M; Imtiaz, Sameer; Popova, Svetlana; Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Shuper, Paul A

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied. For liver cirrhosis, quality of alcohol was additionally considered. For all outcomes (mortality and/or morbidity): cause of death and disease/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used in global CRAs; harm to others. In total, 255 reviews and meta-analyses were identified. Alcohol use was found to be linked causally to many disease and injury categories, with more than 40 ICD-10 three-digit categories being fully attributable to alcohol. Most partially attributable disease categories showed monotonic relationships with volume of alcohol use: the more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of disease or death. Exceptions were ischaemic diseases and diabetes, with curvilinear relationships, and with beneficial effects of light to moderate drinking in people without heavy irregular drinking occasions. Biological pathways suggest an impact of heavy drinking occasions on additional diseases; however, the lack of medical epidemiological studies measuring this dimension of alcohol use precluded an in-depth analysis. For injuries, except suicide, blood alcohol concentration was the most important dimension of alcohol use. Alcohol use caused marked harm to others, which has not yet been researched sufficiently. Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered. Epidemiological

  6. Nicotine stimulus expectancy differentially affects reaction time in healthy nonsmokers and smokers depending on sex: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Katja; Horing, Björn; Stürmer, Julian; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Effects of nicotine on neurocognitive performance have been shown but are influenced by nonpharmacological expectancies in smokers, whereas there is little knowledge about expectancy effects in nonsmokers. A half balanced placebo design provides no drug but only placebo and tests the effects of expectations elicited by the information that nicotine was given. Sixty-four healthy participants balanced for smoking status and sex were told that a chewing gum may contain either nicotine or is a placebo in a double-blinded and randomized fashion. One hour later and immediately before neurocognitive function testing (Parametric Go/No-Go task) they were informed--balanced for smoking status and sex--that they belong to the nicotine or to the placebo group. Reaction times of Go responses (RT) and the number of false No-Go responses were analyzed. A significant interaction of all three factors (information, smoking status, sex) was found, indicating that the information to have received nicotine compared with placebo shortened RTs in female smokers but increased it in female nonsmokers, whereas results in men are in part reversed. No effects on No-Go errors were found, and beliefs about nicotine effects had no influence on results. Therefore, the known effects of nicotine on RTs could be influenced by stimulus expectancy not only in smokers but also in nonsmokers. Furthermore, previous results on sex-specific responsiveness to nicotine instructions are supported. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szatko, Franciszek

    2017-09-21

    The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles ( p smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned ( p smoking among young people.

  9. Detection of toxic elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in smokers' and nonsmokers' teeth and investigation of periodontal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasmi, Abdul M; Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Shafik, Sami; Habibullah, Yusuf B

    2015-08-20

    A laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) was built and optimized to detect levels of toxic elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic present in the roots of extracted teeth of smokers and nonsmokers. Sixty extracted teeth from patients having a history of chronic periodontitis were divided into two groups of 30 teeth each for smoker and nonsmoker patients and, as controls, a third group of 30 patients who did not have a history of chronic periodontitis. The respective elemental concentration (Pb, Cd, and As) 23-29, 0.26-0. 31, and 0.64-11 ppm are for nonsmokers, 35-55, 0.33-0.51, and 0.91-1.5 ppm are for smokers, and lastly 0.17-0.31, 0.01-0.05, and 0.05-0.09 ppm are for control group. In order to test the validity of the results achieved using our LIBS system, a standard inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was also applied for the analysis of the same teeth samples, and ICP results were found to be in excellent agreement with our LIBS results. In addition to this, the gingival index, plaque index, clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing pocket depth were also recorded. Our LIBS spectroscopic analysis showed high levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic concentration on root surfaces of teeth, which may be due to CAL.

  10. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  11. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Csikar

    Full Text Available Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009. The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report 'good oral health' (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05. Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02-2.55 compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57-2.52 and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42-2.20. The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates.

  12. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, pattend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  13. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  14. Assessing the role of impulsivity in smoking & non-smoking disordered gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Célina A; Kim, Hyoun S; Romanow, Nicole K; Hodgins, David C; McGrath, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    Co-morbidity with other addictive behaviors is common in disordered gambling (DG). In particular, tobacco dependence has been found to be among the most prevalent disorders co-morbid with DG. While the extant literature has firmly established the co-occurrence of DG and smoking, there is a paucity of research examining factors that differentiate DGs who smoke from those who do not. To address this empirical gap, the current study tested whether dimensions of trait impulsivity as measured by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking), discriminated between non-DGs and DGs based on their present smoking status: non-smoker, occasional smoker, and daily smoker. To this end, 564 community gamblers were recruited through a crowdsourcing platform (Amazon's Mechanical Turk) and completed an online survey, assessing problem gambling severity, tobacco use, and trait impulsivity. MANOVA analyses revealed significant main effects for both gambling severity and smoking status groups. Importantly, a significant gambling by smoking interaction was also found. Pairwise comparisons revealed that DGs who were daily smokers scored higher on negative urgency than those who smoked occasionally or not all. Furthermore, among non-DGs, smoking status failed to discriminate between mean scores on negative urgency. No other significant interaction effects were found for the remaining UPPS-P impulsivity facets. Results suggest that individual components of trait impulsivity, and more specifically negative urgency, successfully differentiate DGs who do not smoke, or just smoke occasionally, from DGs who smoke daily. These findings suggest that the degree of trait impulsivity may potentially distinguish between DGs and DGs who are dually addicted to other substances such as tobacco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with bladder cancer risk among nonsmoking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Haley L; Tao, Li; Yuan, Jian-Min; Marsit, Carmen J; Houseman, E Andres; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2012-03-01

    Reduced levels of global DNA methylation, assessed in peripheral blood, have been associated with bladder cancer risk in European and American populations. Similar data are lacking in Asian populations where genetic differences, lifestyle factors and different environmental exposures may affect DNA methylation and its risk relationship with bladder cancer. The association between global DNA methylation measured at long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1) repeat regions through bisulfite pyrosequencing in lymphocyte DNA and bladder cancer risk was examined in a case-control study of 510 bladder cancer patients and 528 healthy control subjects in Shanghai, China. In an initial analysis restricted to control subjects, LINE-1 methylation was elevated among men, those who frequently consumed cruciferous vegetables and those with a null genotype for either glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) or GSTT1. In contrast, reduced LINE-1 methylation was found in current smokers with a high-cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) phenotype index. In a case-control analysis, there was no significant association of LINE-1 methylation with case status, although reduced LINE-1 methylation was associated with increased risk of bladder cancer among never smokers (p for trend = 0.03); analysis by tertile revealed odds ratios (ORs) of 1.91 (lowest tertile; 95% CI = 1.17-3.13) and 1.34 (middle tertile; 95% CI = 0.79-2.28) when compared with the highest tertile. This association was strongest among nonsmokers null for either the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype (p for trend = 0.006). Further research is needed to understand the relationships between methyl group availability and LINE-1 methylation in relation to bladder cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…

  17. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  19. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  1. Alcohol impairment of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements: impact of risk factors for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

    2010-09-01

    While persons at risk for alcohol dependence by virtue of heavy drinking patterns or family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders have exhibited differential alcohol responses on a variety of measures, few studies have examined alcohol's effects on eye movements in these subgroups. The purpose of this study was to (1) conduct a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of alcohol's effects on eye movements and (2) examine the impact of these risk factors on oculomotor response to alcohol. A within-subject, double-blind laboratory study was conducted in N = 138 heavy (HD; n = 78) and light social drinkers (LD; n = 60) with self-reported positive (FH+) or negative (FH-) family history. Subjects participated in three laboratory sessions in which they consumed a beverage containing a high (0.8 g/kg) or low (0.4 g/kg) dose of alcohol or placebo. Smooth pursuit, pro-saccadic, and anti-saccadic eye movements were recorded before and at two intervals after alcohol consumption. Alcohol significantly impaired smooth pursuit gain and pro- and anti-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy in a dose and time specific matter. HD and LD showed similar impairment on smooth pursuit gain and anti-saccade measures, but HD were less impaired in pro-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy. FH+ and FH- subjects were equally impaired in nearly all pro- and anti-saccade measures, but FH+ were less impaired in smooth pursuit gain. In sum, alcohol produced systematic impairment on oculomotor functioning, even at a non-intoxicating dose. Furthermore, high- and low-risk drinkers may be vulnerable to select performance deficits relative to eye movement task.

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. Decreased blood antioxidant capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in young cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers: Impact of dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood of cigarette smokers routinely displays decreased antioxidant capacity and increased oxidized lipids compared to nonsmokers. This is thought to be due to both chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in addition to low intake of dietary antioxidants, and is a routine finding in veteran smokers. No study to date has determined the independent and combined impact of dietary intake and cigarette smoking on blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in a sample of young, novice smokers. Methods We compared resting plasma antioxidant reducing capacity (ARC; expressed in uric acid equivalents, serum trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, whole blood total glutathione, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, and plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL between 15 young (24 ± 4 years, novice smokers (pack-year history: 3 ± 2 and 13 nonsmokers of similar age (24 ± 5 years. Detailed dietary records were maintained during a seven-day period for analysis of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intake. Results ARC (0.0676 ± 0.0352 vs. 0.1257 ± 0.0542 mmol·L-1; mean ± SD, p = 0.019, TEAC (0.721 ± 0.120 vs. 0.765 ± 0.130 mmol·L-1, p = 0.24 and glutathione (835 ± 143 vs. 898 ± 168 μmol·L-1, p = 0.28 were lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, with only the former being statistically significant. MDA (0.919 ± 0.32 vs. 0.647 ± 0.16 μmol·L-1, p = 0.05 and oxLDL were both higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers (229 ± 94 vs. 110 ± 62 ng·mL-1, p = 0.12, although only the MDA comparison was of statistical significance. Interestingly, these findings existed despite no differences in dietary intake, including antioxidant micronutrient consumption, between both smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion These data, with specificity to young, novice cigarette smokers, underscore the importance of smoking abstinence. Future studies with larger sample sizes, inclusive of smokers of different ages and smoking histories, are

  4. Psychological changes and cognitive impairments in adolescent heavy drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased risk-taking behavior, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. In this brief review paper we describe psychological and cognitive constructs that are associated with heavy drinking during adolescence. These

  5. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  6. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  7. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  8. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  9. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  10. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ], which contains economic quantities of valuable minerals such as gold, tin and platinum etc. Placer deposit can also be defined as a “mineral deposit formed by the process of mechanical concentration of mineral particles from weathered debris... Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 32 Heavy mineral placers A. R. Gujar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 agujar@nio.org Heavy mineral placers Heavy mineral placer deposit is defined as “Alluvial...

  11. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  12. Alcohol consumption before and after a significant reduction of alcohol prices in 2004 in Finland: were the effects different across population subgroups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helakorpi, Satu; Mäkelä, Pia; Uutela, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To examine trends in adult alcohol consumption by age, gender and education from 1982 to 2008 and evaluate the effects that a significant reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 had on alcohol consumption in different population subgroups. The study population comprised respondents aged 25-64 (n = 79,100) replying to nationally representative annual postal surveys from 1982 to 2008 (average response rate 72%). The main measurements were the prevalence of respondents who had drunk at least eight (men) or five (women) drinks in the previous week ('moderate to heavy drinkers') and prevalence of those who weekly (men) or monthly (women) drank six or more drinks on a single occasion ('heavy episodic drinkers') (one 'drink' containing 11-13 g ethanol). Logistic models were used to test differences across population subgroups in the changes in drinking. Following the reduction of alcohol prices in 2004, drinking increased among men and women aged 45-64. Among men, both moderate to heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking increased in the lowest educational group. Among women, moderate to heavy drinking increased mostly in the lowest and intermediate educational groups, while the highest increases for heavy episodic drinking were in the intermediate and highest female educational groups. Alcohol consumption increased especially among those aged 45-64 and among lower educated people following the reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 in Finland.

  13. Breath alcohol test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing ... breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it takes to raise the blood-alcohol level ...

  14. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Alcohol and Cirrhosis for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and cirrhosis Alcohol and the Liver Cirrhosis is ... liver to a liver with cirrhosis. How does alcohol affect cirrhosis? Alcohol increases the damage done to ...

  15. Airway inflammation in Japanese COPD patients compared with smoking and nonsmoking controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhisa Ishikawa,1 Noboru Hattori,2 Nobuoki Kohno,2 Akihiro Kobayashi,3 Tomoyuki Hayamizu,4 Malcolm Johnson5 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Biomedical Data Science Department, 4Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Purpose: To assess the importance of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by measuring airway and systemic inflammatory biomarkers in Japanese patients with the disease and relevant control groups.Patients and methods: This was the first study of its type in Japanese COPD patients. It was a non-treatment study in which 100 participants were enrolled into one of three groups: nonsmoking controls, current or ex-smoking controls, and COPD patients. All participants underwent standard lung function assessments and provided sputum and blood samples from which the numbers of inflammatory cells and concentrations of biomarkers were measured, using standard procedures.Results: The overall trends observed in levels of inflammatory cells and biomarkers in sputum and blood in COPD were consistent with previous reports in Western studies. Increasing levels of neutrophils, interleukin 8 (IL-8, surfactant protein D (SP-D, and Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6 in sputum and clara cell 16 (CC-16, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and KL-6 in serum and plasma fibrinogen were seen in the Japanese COPD patients compared with the non-COPD control participants. In sputum, significant correlations were seen between total cell count and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9; P<0.001, neutrophils and MMP-9 (P<0.001, macrophages and KL-6 (P<0.01, total cell count and IL-8 (P<0.05, neutrophils and IL-8 (P<0.05, and macrophages and MMP-9 (P<0.05. Significant correlations were also

  16. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) has been performed every 3 years in Korea to help prevent cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Previous studies showed an association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular mortality. In order to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in the healthy general population, we investigated whether blood lead levels were related to blood pressure in a non-smoking healthy population without any known medical diseases in the 2013 KNHANES. 896 (mean age 40.55±13.83 years; body mass index 23.06±3.33 kg/m 2 ) subjects who had no known diseases were included among 8018 subjects. Exclusion criteria were: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular events, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, thyroid dysfunction, any cardiovascular or renal disease, and any malignancy. Blood pressures were measured three times by sphygmomanometers, 5 min apart. Blood pressures were then expressed as the average between the second and third values. Height, weight, waist circumferences and blood pressure, as well as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell count and blood lead levels were measured. In addition, dietary components were analysed by 24 hour recall. The association between log blood lead levels and systolic/diastolic pressure was stronger after it was controlled for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p=0.048, 0.002). Furthermore, the association between log blood lead levels and systolic pressure (p=0.048) and diastolic pressure (p=0.002) was more evident when controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, waist circumference, FPG, AST and ALT. Blood lead levels are significant determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  17. Respiratory effects of air pollutants among nonsmoking traffic policemen of Patiala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and thus the persons who are continuously exposed, may be at an increased risk. Although several studies have confirmed the ill effects of air pollutants on the lung function of traffic policemen, only a few have investigated the relationship between respiratory health and duration of exposure in this category of occupationally exposed persons. Aim: The study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic policemen in respect to an unexposed control group having the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the spirometric parameters of a group of 100 nonsmoking traffic policemen, aged 20-55 years, working in and around Patiala city, were compared with those obtained in an age-matched control group, consisting of 100 healthy males, serving in the Punjab Police, who have never done traffic duty and are thus not exposed to traffic pollution. Lung function was done with MEDSPIROR. The data on the overall health status of the subjects was collected using the standard Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS PC software version 13. Results: Traffic policemen recorded a significant decline in various parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR when compared with controls, and is probably due to exposure to vehicular pollution. It was also observed that in traffic policemen with >8 years of exposure, the values of FVC (2.7 L, FEV 1 (1.8 L, and PEFR (7.5 L/s were significantly lower than those obtained in traffic policemen with <8 years of exposure, in whom the values were 2.9 L, 2.3 L, and 7.7 L/s for FVC, FEV 1, and PEFR, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function

  18. Patterns of fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption among smoking and nonsmoking female teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer Wilson, Diane; Nietert, Paul J

    2002-05-01

    The increase in teenage smoking, and the fact that concern about body weight is given as a reason for smoking initiation by girls, suggest that food intake may be compromised in female teens who smoke. Daily consumption of a variety of foods is important due to the health-protective constituents they contain. Few studies have documented how smoking and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk may be associated in female teens. This study examined the relationship of smoking and the consumption of fruit, fruit juice, vegetables, and milk in ninth- to twelfth-grade Caucasian (n=2797), African-American (n=2196), and Hispanic (n=2052) female teens. Data from the Youth Behavior Risk Survey (1999) were analyzed with SUDAAN software, using logistic regression models. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased odds of consuming milk at 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.98); fruit, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.54-0.92); fruit juice, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.56-0.98); and vegetables, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89) among Caucasian female teens, and with decreased odds of consuming fruit juice among Hispanic female teens at 0.59 (95% CI, 0.40-0.89). For each significant food variable, a dose-response relationship was detected with significantly more females consuming each food at lower smoking levels and significantly fewer doing so at the highest level (pconsume higher levels of the specified food/beverages than nonsmokers, but this relationship was not statistically significant. This study establishes a smoking/food intake interaction for the specific foods tested, in an adolescent female population. Compromising the intake of healthy foods and their protective nutrients leaves young women more vulnerable to the serious health consequences of smoking. These results underscore the need for young women to be educated on the importance of eating maximum servings of fruits and vegetables and dairy products, such as milk, particularly if they smoke or are at risk for smoking

  19. Alcohol consumption in tertiary education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reavley Nicola J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Methods Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Results Of the completed interviews, 774 (65% were students and 422 (35% were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among

  20. Pancreatic morphological changes in long-term follow-up after initial episode of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, Jussi; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Räty, Sari; Laukkarinen, Johanna; Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Järvinen, Satu; Seppänen, Hanna; Nordback, Isto; Sand, Juhani

    2014-01-01

    seventh year of S-MRCP, 22 % had suffered a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis (mean, 22 (2-60) months) and 11 % had a clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. At 7 years, 88 % of the patients with recurrences had chronic findings in S-MRCP versus 36 % with nonrecurrent pancreatitis (p = 0.02). Six (17 %) patients abstained from alcohol throughout follow-up (mean, 8.7 (7-9.1) years), but even one of these developed pancreatic atrophy. Out of the non-abstinent patients who did not suffer recurrences, 4/22 (18 %) had developed new findings during at follow-up S-MRCP (NS). In univariate analysis, heavy smoking showed no correlation with increased chronic changes compared to nonsmoking. Morphological pancreatic changes increase with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Patients with mild first attack have fewer chronic changes in the pancreas in the long term. However, even a single episode of acute alcoholic pancreatitis may induce chronic morphological changes in long-term follow-up.

  1. Opioid antagonists for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, Susanne; Hackl-Herrwerth, Andrea; Leucht, Stefan; Vecchi, Simona; Srisurapanont, Manit; Soyka, Michael

    2010-12-08

    Alcohol dependence belongs to the globally leading health risk factors. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate and could be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene. To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL in January 2010 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compare the effects of naltrexone or nalmefene with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. Two authors independently extracted outcome data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Based on a total of 50 RCTs with 7793 patients, naltrexone reduced the risk of heavy drinking to 83% of the risk in the placebo group RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.90) and decreased drinking days by about 4%, MD -3.89 (95% CI -5.75 to -2.04). Significant effects were also demonstrated for the secondary outcomes of the review including heavy drinking days, MD - 3.25 (95% CI -5.51 to -0.99), consumed amount of alcohol, MD - 10.83 (95% CI -19.69 to -1.97) and gamma-glutamyltransferase, MD - 10.37 (95% CI -18.99 to -1.75), while effects on return to any drinking, RR 0.96 (95 CI 0.92 to 1.00) missed statistical significance. Side effects of naltrexone were mainly gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea: RD 0.10; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.13) and sedative effects (e.g. daytime sleepiness: RD 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14). Based on a limited study sample, effects of injectable naltrexone and nalmefene missed statistical significance. Effects of industry-sponsored studies, RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.05) did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials, RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91) and the linear regression test did not indicate publication

  2. Weakening of one more alcohol control pillar: a review of the effects of the alcohol tax cuts in Finland in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Pia; Osterberg, Esa

    2009-04-01

    To review the consequences of the changes in Finnish alcohol policy in 2004, when quotas for travellers' tax-free imports of alcoholic beverages from other European Union (EU) countries were abolished, Estonia joined the EU and excise duties on alcoholic beverages were reduced in Finland by one-third, on average. A review of published research and routinely available data. Finland. Prices of alcoholic beverages, recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption, data on criminality and other police statistics, alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, service use. Alcohol consumption increased 10% in 2004, clearly more than in the early 2000s. With few exceptions, alcohol-related harms increased. Alcohol-induced liver disease deaths increased the most, by 46% in 2004-06 compared to 2001-03, which indicates a strong effect on pre-2004 heavy drinkers. Consumption and harms increased most among middle-aged and older segments of the population, and harms in the worst-off parts of the population in particular. Alcohol taxation and alcohol prices affect consumption and related harms, and heavy drinkers are responsive to price. In Finland in 2004, the worst-off parts of the population paid the highest price in terms of health for cuts in alcohol prices. The removal of travellers' import quotas, which was an inherent part of creating the single European market, had serious public health consequences in Finland.

  3. Heavy drinking in early adulthood and outcomes at mid life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Costanzo, P R; Belsky, D; Holmberg, E; Malone, P S; Wang, Y; Kertesz, S

    2011-07-01

    Heavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life. Outcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige and educational attainment were measured in early and mid-adulthood. A mixture model was used to identify psychosocial classes that explain how race-specific differences in the relationship between drinking in early adulthood and occupational outcomes in mid-life operate. Data came from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a longitudinal epidemiologic study. Especially for Blacks, heavy drinking in early adulthood was associated with a lower probability of being employed in mid-life. Among employed persons, there was a link between heavy drinking for both Whites and Blacks and decreased occupational attainment at mid-life. We grouped individuals into three distinct distress classes based on external stressors and indicators of internally generated stress. Blacks were more likely to belong to the higher distressed classes as were heavy drinkers in early adulthood. Stratifying the data by distress class, relationships between heavy drinking, race and heavy drinking-race interactions were overall weaker than in the pooled analysis. Disproportionate intensification of life stresses in Blacks renders them more vulnerable to long-term effects of heavy drinking.

  4. Physiological and endocrine reactions to psychosocial stress in alcohol use disorders: duration of abstinence matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, K.; Holst, R.J. van; Brink, W. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. METHODS: This study investigated abstinent

  5. Physiological and Endocrine Reactions to Psychosocial Stress in Alcohol Use Disorders: Duration of Abstinence Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, K.; van Holst, R.J.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. Methods: This study investigated abstinent

  6. The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2011-10-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect.The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast.THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION EXERTS ITS CARCINOGENIC EFFECT HAVE NOT BEEN DEFINED FULLY, ALTHOUGH PLAUSIBLE EVENTS INCLUDE: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism.Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control.In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women.In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption.

  7. Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  10. Hábito alimentar, níveis de lipídios sangüíneos e o status antioxidante de adultos jovens fumantes e não fumantes Food habits, blood lipid levels and antioxidant status of young adults smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellencristina da Silva Batista

    2009-06-01

    smoking status, consumption of alcoholic beverages and physical activity levels. Nicotine dependence was also estimated. The Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess food habits. Serum levels of lipids, malondialdehyde, vitamin E and vitamin C were measured. RESULTS: The smokers started smoking early, regardless of sex. The smokers were further stratified into two groups: light smokers (58.8% and heavy smokers (41.2%. Smokers had inadequate food habits and consumed alcoholic beverages frequently. According to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 69% of the smokers were active and 27.6% were very active. There was no significant difference between the serum lipid levels of smokers and non-smokers. In women, there was a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and serum triglyceride levels (r=0.824, p=0.0001 and number of years smoking and total cholesterol levels (r=0.523, p=0.031. Smokers had lower vitamin E and C serum concentrations (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively and the concentration of plasma malondialdehyde correlated with the number of years smoking (r=0.352 and p=0.041. CONCLUSION: The group of smokers presented inadequate food habits, consuming alcoholic beverages frequently and high-fat foods. Plasma malondialdehyde levels were positively correlated with the number of years smoking but not with the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  11. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain ...

  12. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  13. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DOES ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF ALCOHOL USE AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071

  15. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  16. Accelerators for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of heavy ion accelerators in nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic physics, and in material sciences studies is rapidly increasing. A review is given of the present and developing scene in heavy ion accelerator concepts and technology. The area of applicability of various methods, likely avenues of future development, and the trends of future requirements are discussed. (auth)

  17. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  18. Acute nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking but not in smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenaerts, Charel; Morrens, Manuel; Hulstijn, Wouter; de Boer, Peter; Timmers, Maarten; Sabbe, B; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients are characterized by severe social impairments. Recently, social cognition has been put forward as an important mediator in schizophrenia between the often-reported neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome and is thus an important target for treatments. Nicotine has been reported to improve neurocognitive processes in schizophrenia patients but no studies have investigated possible nicotine-induced facilitation of social cognition. The current placebo-controlled crossover study aimed at bridging this gap by investigating whether the administration of active (1 mg or 2 mg) or placebo oromucosal nicotine spray resulted in improved social decision-making in non-smoking (N = 15) and smoking (N = 16) schizophrenia patients. All patients played the role of responder in a variant of the ultimatum game that allowed detailed measurements of fairness and intentionality considerations. The results showed impaired social decision-making in the non-smoking patients under placebo, but not in the smoking patients. Interestingly, this impairment normalized after administration of 1 mg of nicotine, but not after 2 mg of nicotine. Nicotine had no effect on performance in the smoking patients. The present study indicates that nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking patients. The present results suggest that acute nicotine effects may result in a facilitation of proactive control through improved attentional processes. However, the efficacy seems limited and although nicotine may thus be an interesting target for (social) cognitive enhancement in the subset of patients that do not smoke, more research is needed on the long-lasting effects of nicotine-based treatments.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  20. Yellow Tongue Coating is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Non-smoking Men and Women: The Toon Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Saito, Isao; Furukawa, Shinya; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-28

    Yellow tongue coating is one of the clinical signs for diabetes mellitus according to traditional East Asian medicine. Few reports have been available on the association between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. We examined that association among population samples of non-smoking men and women. The study subjects were Japanese non-smoking men (n = 315) and women (n = 654) aged 30-79 years who resided in Toon city and participated in the Toon Health Study from July 2011 through November 2014. Tongue coating was assessed by a nationally licensed acupuncturist and classified into three categories of white (normal), light yellow, and yellow. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the presence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. The associations between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, and physical activity. The multivariable odds ratios of diabetes mellitus were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.67) for light yellow tongue coating and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.16-4.30) for yellow tongue coating compared with white tongue coating. The respective multivariable odds ratios of prediabetes were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.80-1.61) and 1.43 (95% CI, 0.96-2.12). Yellow tongue coating was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and tended to be associated with that of prediabetes among Japanese non-smoking men and women.

  1. Association between second-hand smoke and psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Park, Sung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and well-being among non-smoking wageworkers. The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) was conducted on a representative sample of economically active population aged 15 years or over, who were either employees or self-employed at the time of interview. In this study, after removing inconsistent data, 19,879 non-smoking wageworkers among 60,054 workers were participated. Psychological well-being was measured through the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (1998 version). Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of SHS exposure with psychological well-being. The unadjusted OR of poor psychological well-being (OR: 1.594, 95 % CI: 1.421-1.787) was significantly higher for SHS exposure group compared to non-exposure group. Multiple logistic regression analysis results indicated that these relationships were still significant after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.330, 95 % CI: 1.178-1.502). Exposure to SHS was associated with poor well-being measured by the WHO-5 well-being index, indicating the importance of reducing SHS exposure at the workplace for psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers.

  2. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Karen; Twork, Sabine; Mittag, Dirk; Göbel, Anne; Voigt, Roger; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bergmann, Antje

    2009-12-03

    Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students) to 12.6 g/d (male physicians). A significantly higher percentage of men (p students indicated unhealthy alcohol-drinking behaviour. The majority of physicians (85.7%) and medical students (78.5%) were non-smokers. Both groups contained significantly more female non-smokers (p students (33.0%). Male students indicated a significantly (p students. More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances.These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  3. Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bearer, Cynthia F.; Bailey, Shannon M.; Hoek, Jan B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled “Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders” in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation ...

  4. Alcohol Brand Preferences of Underage Youth: Results from a Pilot Survey among a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first investigation to explore the alcohol brand preferences of underage youth via a national survey. We conducted a pilot study of a new, internet-based alcohol brand survey with 108 youth ages 16–20 years who were recruited from an existing panel and had consumed alcohol in the past month. We ascertained respondents’ consumption of each of 380 alcohol brands during the past 30 days, including which brands of alcohol were consumed during heavy drinking episodes. Our findings suggest that, despite the wide variety of alcohol brands consumed by older adolescents in this study, alcohol preferences are concentrated among a relatively small number of brands. Accurate measurements of alcohol brand preferences will enable important new research into the factors that influence youth drinking behavior. This study establishes the feasibility and validity of a new methodology to determine patterns of brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage drinkers. PMID:22014249

  5. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  6. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja; Arandjelović, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the anal...

  7. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  8. International Differences in Alcohol Use According to Sexual Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, K.; Wicki, M.; Wilsnack, S.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...

  9. Profiles of College Students Mandated to Alcohol Intervention*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Most colleges have sanctions or required interventions for students who receive alcohol violations or medical evaluation for intoxication. The aim of this study was to establish profiles of mandated students from a combined data set using exploratory and replication cluster analysis. Method: Data sets from three samples of mandated students (total participant n = 393) were combined for exploratory analyses, and a fourth sample (n = 289) was analyzed for replication. Clustering variables were past-month heavy drinking, past-year alcohol problems, incident alcohol use, responsibility for the incident, and aversiveness of the incident. Results: A three-cluster solution was produced in the exploratory analysis and confirmed in replication and cross-replication analyses. Clusters formed included a “Why Me?” cluster characterized by a pattern of relatively low heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, very little incident drinking, and low responsibility and aversiveness. A “So What?” cluster was characterized by high heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, moderate incident drinking and responsibility, and low aversiveness. A “Bad Incident” cluster was characterized by low scores for heavy drinking and problems and high levels of incident drinking, responsibility, and aversiveness. External variables supported the validity of the cluster solution. Conclusions: Mandated students form clinically meaningful profiles on easily measured constructs. PMID:18781243

  10. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD and alcohol dependence. 25 Such interventions include cognitive–behavioral therapies, such as exposure-based therapies, in which the ... et al. Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: Psychobiology and clinical considerations. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews ...

  11. Does Alcohol Use Mediate the Association between Consequences Experienced in High School and Consequences Experienced during the First Semester of College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romosz, Ann Marie; Quigley, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink alcohol; almost half of these students reporting that they drink to get drunk and over 22% engage in heavy episodic drinking. Heavy alcohol consumption during the transition from high school to college is associated with negative personal and academic consequences. Sixty-seven freshmen volunteered to…

  12. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers. This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. METHODS: Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48 in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5 in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  13. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da; Barrio-Lera, Juan Pablo; Jardim, Gabriel Behr Gomes; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Cirolini, Luiza; Jung, Ivo Emilio da Cruz; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra de; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da

    2010-12-01

    Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers). This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48) in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5) in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  14. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  15. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  16. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J Johnson,1 Chris Alford,1 Karina Stewart,2 Joris C Verster3–5 1Department of Health and Social Sciences, Psychological Sciences Research Group, University of the West of England, 2Department of Applied Sciences, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 3Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 4Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Introduction: Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO. Methods: A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250. Results: Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol

  17. The Relationship of Alcoholism and Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause Mortality in Forty-One-Year Follow-up of the Swedish REBUS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan; Theobald, Holger

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcoholism, alcohol consumption amount, and alcohol consumption pattern on mortality in a general population sample. This study used a 1970 prospective population sample (double-phase random sample) of 2,300 individuals ages 18-65 years in Stockholm County, which was also linked to mortality registers. A total of 1,895 individuals participated in a semi-structured, baseline psychiatric interview with a psychiatrist and social worker. Alcoholism and other mental disorders were recorded according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. At baseline, there were 65 men and 21 women diagnosed with alcoholism. During followup, there were 873 deaths in the study population of 1,895. Alcoholism was associated with increased mortality rate. Former drinkers, but not never-drinkers, also had increased risk for mortality compared with moderate drinkers. We found no associations between heavy consumption and mortality. Frequent heavy episodic drinking was uncommon but related to mortality before, but not after, adjusting for an alcoholism diagnosis. Our results demonstrated that alcoholism—but not a reported high consumption of alcohol or frequent heavy episodic drinking—predicted a long-term risk of death.

  18. Impulsivity, Working Memory, and Impaired Control over Alcohol: A Latent Variable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol is an important risk factor for heavy drinking among young adults and may mediate, in part, the association between personality risk and alcohol problems. Research suggests that trait impulsivity is associated with impaired control over alcohol; however, few studies of this association have included a range of impulsivity facets. The purpose of this study was to examine specific pathways from higher-order impulsivity factors to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control over alcohol. We also examined the moderating role of working memory in these associations. Young heavy drinkers (N=300) completed two multidimensional impulsivity measures (UPPS-P and BIS-11) along with self-report measures of impaired control over alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Working memory was assessed using a computerized digit span task. Results showed that the impulsivity facets loaded onto two higher-order factors that were labeled response and reflection impulsivity. Response impulsivity predicted unique variance in self-reported impaired control and alcohol problems, whereas reflection impulsivity predicted unique variance in heavy drinking frequency only. Further, significant indirect associations were observed from response and reflection impulsivity to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control and heavy drinking frequency, respectively. Working memory and sensation seeking were not uniquely associated with the alcohol variables, and no support was found for the moderating role of working memory. The results help to clarify associations among impulsivity, impaired control, and alcohol problems, suggesting that impaired control may play a specific role in the pathway to alcohol problems from response impulsivity but not from reflection impulsivity. PMID:27269291

  19. Risky decision making in smoking and nonsmoking college students: examination of Iowa Gambling Task performance by deck type selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Suhr, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is used to assess risky decision making in clinical and nonclinical populations. Recent studies have begun to assess performance on the IGT not by number of advantageous and disadvantageous selections, but rather by the pattern of performance on each of the four individual decks (A, B, C, and D). The present study sought to further examine deck selection patterns among smoking and nonsmoking college students, as mixed results have been found on the IGT in nicotine and as a function of substance satiation level. Participants were 136 undergraduates (48 male; mean age 19.24 years), of whom 70 were nonsmokers. Thirty-one smokers abstained from smoking overnight. Performance on the IGT was broken into two blocks (Trials 1-40, Trials 41-100) for each of the four decks. Abstinent smokers selected more from Deck A on Block 2 than the ad libitum smokers. No group or block differences were found for Decks B or C. Selections from Deck D increased as the task progressed, regardless of smoking status. Ad libitum smokers preferred Deck B to Deck A on Block 2. The results provide some evidence that nicotine satiation level affects IGT deck selections among smokers.

  20. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Kambe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Mitsunori; Nakajima, Hidekatsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamane, Kousuke; Kuraoka, Toshihiko; Miyamura, Isao

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)