WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonsmoking chinese women

  1. Association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    predisposition to cancer risk. To address this question in more detail, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 55 lung cancer cases and 74 cancer-free controls matched on age and ethnicity among nonsmoking Chinese women. We analyzed five coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1...

  2. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, Poil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women.

  3. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yingbo Xue, Ying Jiang, Shan Jin, Yong Li Department of Oncology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94 and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89, respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001. Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Keywords: cooking oil fume exposure, lung cancer, meta-analysis, nonsmoking women 

  4. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice Y; Chen, Moon S; Tong, Elisa K

    2017-11-01

    Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined factors related to non-smoker self-reports that they asked someone not to smoke within the past year. About 40% reported past-year assertive behaviour against smoking, with higher rates among Koreans than Chinese (60.4% vs. 34.5%), those living with smokers (63.5%), ever exposed with a smoke-free home rule (62.3%), recently exposed at work without a smoke-free work policy (67.6%) and regularly exposed at other locations (52.3%). In combined multivariate analyses of both ethnic groups, assertive behaviour was associated with individual factors (single vs. married; tobacco exposure knowledge), family factors (living with smokers, exposed at home despite a smoke-free rule), community factors (exposed at work with no smoke-free policy, exposed at other locations) and cultural factors (Korean vs. Chinese ethnicity; lower acculturation). Chinese and Korean American non-smokers report assertive behaviour against smoking, which is associated with social-ecological factors. Results help identify target groups and strategies for future intervention, including the need to implement or enforce smoke-free environments and promote empowerment. [Saw A, Tang H, Tsoh JY, Chen MS Jr, Tong EK. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Effect of MDM2 SNP309 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms on lung cancer risk and survival among non-smoking Chinese women in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy Kanaga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 309 resulting in a T or G allele in the promoter of MDM2, the negative regulator of p53, has been suggested to affect cancer predisposition and age of onset, primarily in females. However, findings have been inconsistent in various cancers, and ethnicity appears to be a critical factor influencing the effects of the SNP on cancer risk. An increasing trend has been observed in the prevalence of lung cancers in non-smokers, especially females, though the underlying genetic basis is unclear. Methods We therefore examined the role of the SNPs in the p53 pathway (p53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309 on lung cancer risk and prognosis of a life-time non-smoking female Chinese population, in a hospital-based case-control study of 123 cases and 159 age-matched controls, by PCR analysis. Results Our findings reveal that the risk of lung cancer among individuals with the MDM2 SNP309 TT genotype was 2.1 (95% CI 1.01-4.36 relative to the GG genotype, contrary to initial expectations that the GG genotype with elevated MDM2 levels will increase cancer risk. Those who had this genotype in combination with the p53 Pro allele had a risk of 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.0. There was however no effect of either polymorphism on age at diagnosis of lung cancer or on overall survival. Conclusions The results thus demonstrate that the MDM2 SNP309 TT rather than the GG genotype is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in this population, suggesting that other mechanisms independent of increased MDM2 levels can influence cancer susceptibility.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  7. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harms pregnant women and the fetus. China has the world's largest number of smokers and a high male smoking prevalence rate. To compare exposure to SHS among rural and urban Chinese non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands, and analyze factors associated with the level of SHS exposure and hair nicotine concentration. Sichuan province, China. In all 1,181 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands recruited from eight district/county Women and Children's hospitals. The women completed a questionnaire in April and May 2008. Based on systematic sampling, 186 pregnant women were selected for sampling the nicotine concentration in their hair. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine correlates with self-reported SHS exposure (total and at home); linear regression was conducted for the sub-sample of hair nicotine concentrations. Secondhand smoking exposure rates, hair nicotine levels. About 75.1% of the non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands reported regular SHS exposure. The major source of exposure was through their husband. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of greater SHS exposure (total and at home) and hair nicotine concentration was increased for women who were rural, had a husband with greater cigarette consumption, less knowledge about SHS, less negative attitudes about SHS, and no smoke-free home rules. The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS.

  8. Perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs about the creating smokefree living together program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Paterniti, Debora A; Fung, Lei-Chun; Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K

    2018-04-01

    Chinese men smoke at high rates, and this puts household members at risk for tobacco-related diseases. Culturally responsive interventions that provide education and support are needed to promote smokefree living and reduce smoke exposure, particularly for US immigrants who experience changes in smokefree social norms. This qualitative study examines perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs in the Creating Smokefree Living Together program. Four focus groups were conducted with 30 Chinese American participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) who, in household pairs, completed smokefree education interventions of either brief or moderate intensity. Nearly three-quarters of the smokers continued to smoke after the intervention at the time of focus group participation. All smokers were male, and most household nonsmokers were female spouses. All participants had limited English proficiency. Focus group meetings were recorded, and the recordings were translated and transcribed. Transcripts and field notes were thematically analyzed. The following themes, shared by smokers and nonsmokers across interventions, were identified: 1) there was a preference for dyadic and group interventions because of the support offered, 2) increased knowledge of the health harms of smoke exposure within a pair improved the nonsmoker's support for smokefree living, 3) learning communication strategies improved household relationships and assertiveness for smokefree environments, 4) biochemical feedback was useful but had short-term effects, and 5) project magnets provided cues to action. Involving household partners is critical to smokefree interventions. Simple reminders at home appear to be more powerful than personal biochemical feedback of smoke exposure for sustaining motivation and engagement in ongoing behavioral changes within the household. Cancer 2018;124:1599-606. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  9. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  10. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  12. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  13. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Britton, John; Venn, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    To determine the risk of adverse fetal outcomes of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We searched Medline and Embase (to March 2009) and reference lists for eligible studies; no language restrictions were imposed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using random-effect models. Our search was for epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy in nonsmoking pregnant women. The main outcome measures were spontaneous abortion, perinatal and neonatal death, stillbirth, and congenital malformations. We identified 19 studies that assessed the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. We found no evidence of a statistically significant effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.88-1.54]; 6 studies). However, secondhand smoke exposure significantly increased the risk of stillbirth (OR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.09-1.38]; 4 studies) and congenital malformation (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.01-1.26]; 7 studies), although none of the associations with specific congenital abnormalities were individually significant. Secondhand smoke exposure had no significant effect on perinatal or neonatal death. Pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke are estimated to be 23% more likely to experience stillbirth and 13% more likely give birth to a child with a congenital malformation. Because the timing and mechanism of this effect is not clear, it is important to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in women before and during pregnancy.

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  15. Inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Candice Y; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Lawson, Christina C

    2015-07-01

    We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy.

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Kazuaki; Kozu, Ryo; Tanaka, Takako; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2018-01-01

    The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband's smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015-December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants), and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others) and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70%) among Group A (7.5%) was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p <0.01) and Group B (0.8%, p <0.01). The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4%) was also higher than that in the control group ( p <0.05) and Group B ( p <0.05). ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.42) remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate's smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Nonsmoking women who were exposed to ETS from their husband had the lowest FEV 1 /FVC, and a higher proportion of them had airway obstruction when compared to nonsmoking women who experienced ETS from housemates other than their husbands. The findings suggest that tobacco control in

  17. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking-VII: evaluation of health service utilization and costs among women smokers with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Sohn, Min; Max, Wendy; Bacchetti, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS), a randomized clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention for women with cardiovascular disease, permitted an assessment of the types and costs of health services women used during the 30 months after their hospitalization with cardiovascular disease. A prospective design nested within WINS was used for this study. A structured telephone interview guide included questions about medical services and 15 categories of prevention services, including cardiac rehabilitation at 6, 12, 24, and 30 months. Costs were estimated from state and national databases. The 277 women studied had a mean age of 60.7 +/- 10 years. They had smoked approximately 40 +/- 11.4 years. More than 50% of the women had one or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease. During the first 6 months after the index hospitalization, 94% had a physician visit, 39% had an emergency-room visit, and 36% had a hospital admission. Prevention services used were home healthcare by nurse or home health aide (26%), a cardiac rehabilitation program, including Multifit and Heart Smart (19%), and physical therapy (14%). Usage decreased over the 30 months. For the women who used any service, the mean total monthly cost per woman was 913 dollars +/- 1204 dollars. This is the first report on health service use by women smokers with cardiovascular disease. Data collection using a telephone interview guide proved feasible for evaluating health service use. The greatest costs resulted from hospital admissions and physician and emergency-room visits. Considering the high prevalence of risk factors in this cohort, secondary prevention services were severely underutilized. By increasing referrals to such services, physicians and nurses might influence women to reduce their risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease.

  18. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  19. Chinese Scientists | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Chinese Scientists. Chinese Scientists. One third Chinese scientists are women [What about India?] ... scientists, at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  20. Smoking and major depressive disorder in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors that contribute to smoking in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and the clinical features in depressed smokers. METHODS: We examined the smoking status and clinical features in 6120 Han Chinese women with MDD (DSM-IV between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between clinical features of MDD and smoking status and between risk factors for MDD and smoking status. RESULTS: Among the recurrent MDD patients there were 216(3.6% current smokers, 117 (2.0% former smokers and 333(5.6% lifetime smokers. Lifetime smokers had a slightly more severe illness, characterized by more episodes, longer duration, more comorbid illness (panic and phobias, with more DSM-IV A criteria and reported more symptoms of fatigue and suicidal ideation or attempts than never smokers. Some known risk factors for MDD were also differentially represented among smokers compared to non-smokers. Smokers reported more stressful life events, were more likely to report childhood sexual abuse, had higher levels of neuroticism and an increased rate of familial MDD. Only neuroticism was significantly related to nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Although depressed women smokers experience more severe illness, smoking rates remain low in MDD patients. Family history of MDD and environmental factors contribute to lifetime smoking in Chinese women, consistent with the hypothesis that the association of smoking and depression may be caused by common underlying factors.

  1. In the Names of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Shu

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to both feminist scholarship and Chinese Studies by coming to grips with the deep, culturally embedded, and politically significant meaning of the names given to Chinese women. Uses the analysis of two names to advance theory that will link and enrich rhetorical, feminist, and intercultural studies and break through the limits of…

  2. Paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion: a population-based retrospective cohort study among non-smoking women aged 20-49 years in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Ying; Liu, Fangchao; Yang, Aimin; Xu, Qin; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; He, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Ya; Dai, Qiaoyun; Ma, Xu

    2018-06-11

    To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship. The multivariable-adjusted OR of exposure to paternal smoking for SA was 1.17 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.19), compared with women without exposure to paternal smoking; and corresponding OR of exposure to preconception paternal smoking for SA was 1.11 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.14), compared with women without exposure to preconception paternal smoking. The ORs of preconception paternal smoking also increased with increases in paternal smoking (p nonlinear 0.05). In addition, periconception paternal smoking cessation was associated with an 18% (15%-22%) lower risk of SA. Paternal smoking was associated with SA. The importance of tobacco control, specifically pertaining to paternal smoking, should be emphasised during preconception and pregnancy counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Yellow Tongue Coating is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Non-smoking Men and Women: The Toon Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Saito, Isao; Furukawa, Shinya; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-28

    Yellow tongue coating is one of the clinical signs for diabetes mellitus according to traditional East Asian medicine. Few reports have been available on the association between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. We examined that association among population samples of non-smoking men and women. The study subjects were Japanese non-smoking men (n = 315) and women (n = 654) aged 30-79 years who resided in Toon city and participated in the Toon Health Study from July 2011 through November 2014. Tongue coating was assessed by a nationally licensed acupuncturist and classified into three categories of white (normal), light yellow, and yellow. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the presence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. The associations between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, and physical activity. The multivariable odds ratios of diabetes mellitus were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.67) for light yellow tongue coating and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.16-4.30) for yellow tongue coating compared with white tongue coating. The respective multivariable odds ratios of prediabetes were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.80-1.61) and 1.43 (95% CI, 0.96-2.12). Yellow tongue coating was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and tended to be associated with that of prediabetes among Japanese non-smoking men and women.

  4. Smoking among Hong Kong Chinese women: behavior, attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-02-25

    The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.

  5. Caught in a dilemma: why do non-smoking women in China support the smoking behaviors of men in their families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei; Bristow, Katie; Robinson, Jude

    2013-02-01

    Intimate relationships influence family members' health practices. Although cigarette smoking in China is predominantly a male behavior, (non-smoking) women's roles should be taken into account for the development of home-smoking interventions. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with 22 families in a rural area of China, this article explores non-smoking women's attitudes towards male smoking. The findings suggest that women's ability to influence male behavior is largely determined by culturally defined gender roles, underpinned by ideologies of familism and collectivism. Despite concerns about the adverse results of smoking to their family members and households, non-smoking women ultimately maintain the (male) smokers' argument that smoking plays an important role in construction and maintenance of intra- and extra-family relationships. By accepting male smoking and men's engagement in the social practice of smoking and cigarette exchanges, women maintain their identities as supportive wives, filial daughters/in-law and responsible family members who pursue family collective interests at the expense of their own personal beliefs. Future smoking control initiatives that target non-smoking women to influence male smoking should take into account the women's overarching need to maintain the status and harmony of their families.

  6. Chinese Women and the Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    In een snel veranderende wereld, zijn vrouwen in de Volksrepubliek China in harmonie met digitale innovaties en het gebruik van verschillende vormen van moderne massacommunicatiemiddelen zoals het Internet en mobiele telefoon. Vrouwen in China en de Chinese diaspora maken gebruik van de vooruitgang

  7. Characteristics of nonsmoking women in NHANES I and NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study with exposure to spouses who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanoski, G; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lantry, D; Chang, Y

    1995-07-15

    Few studies have examined the relation between passive smoking and dietary intake in a large population. This report examines the nutrition and behavioral characteristics of 3,896 nonsmoking women from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) population in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The data indicate that nonsmoking women who were exposed to husbands who smoked were more likely to be older, have lower education, live in the city, and have other health behaviors that could increase their risk of lung cancer compared with nonsmoking women with husbands who did not smoke. The nonexposed women were more likely to take vitamin supplements, to not drink alcohol, and to consume higher levels of dietary vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium. The exposed and nonexposed women showed no difference in the levels of fatty acid intake nor in the levels of several other foods from the food frequency list after correction for age. Many of the differences that the authors observed between the women who were exposed and nonexposed to passive smoking could affect the risk of cancer. Therefore, they recommend that future studies of nonsmokers examine the influence of both passive smoking and diet on the risk of disease rather than examine the influence of a single factor.

  8. Chinese Women Migrants and the Social Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    Au Loong-Yu; Nan Shan

    2007-01-01

    Au Loong-yu and Nan Shan examine the conditions of the women among the 150 million migrant workers who have left the rural areas in search of jobs in China. They underline that fierce social regression has accompanied Chinese enormous economic growth where women migrants particularly are exploited in ‘the ‘world's greatest sweatshop’. They argue that hukou system or household registration has proved to be as useful to ‘capitalist construction’ as it once was for ‘socialist construction’. It n...

  9. Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Egeberg, Rikke; Dragsted, Lars

    2011-01-01

    in erythrocytes were analysed by liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Dietary determinants were evaluated by multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age and smoking behaviour among ex-smokers. The median for Hb-AA was 35 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 17, 95th percentile 89) and for Hb-GA 21 pmol/g globin (5th......Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen that is formed in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The validity of FFQ to assess AA exposure has been questioned. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-glycidamide (GA) adducts....... The study included 537 non-smoking women aged 50–65 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993–97). At study baseline, blood samples and information on dietary and lifestyle variables obtained from self-administered questionnaires were collected. From blood samples, Hb-AA and Hb-GA...

  10. Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese women. Materials and ...

  11. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Wu, Chia-Fang; Chong, Inn-Wen; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2018-02-13

    Little is known about the effect of exposure to cooking oil fumes (COFs) on the development of non-malignant respiratory diseases in nonsmoking women. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to COFs and chronic bronchitis in female Taiwanese non-smokers. Searching the 1999 claims and registration records maintained by Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program, we identified 1846 women aged 40 years or older diagnosed as having chronic bronchitis (ICD-9 code: 491) at least twice in 1999 as potential study cases and 4624 women who had no diagnosis of chronic bronchitis the same year as potential study controls. We visited randomly selected women from each group in their homes, interviewed to collect related data including cooking habits and kitchen characteristics, and them a spirometry to collect FEV1 and FVC data between 2000 and 2009. After the exclusion of thirty smokers, the women were classified those with chronic bronchitis (n = 53), probable chronic bronchitis (n = 285), and no pulmonary disease (n = 306) based on physician diagnosis and American Thoracic Society criteria. Women who had cooked ≥ 21 times per week between the ages of 20 and 40 years old had a 4.73-fold higher risk of chronic bronchitis than those cooking < 14 times per week (95% CI = 1.65-13.53). Perceived kitchen smokiness was significantly associated with decreased FEV1 (- 137 ml, p = 0.021) and FEV1/FVC ratio (- 7.67%, p = 0.008). Exposure to COF may exacerbate the progression of chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women.

  12. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  13. [A case-control study: association between oral hygiene and oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J F; Lin, L S; Chen, F; Liu, F Q; Huang, J F; Yan, L J; Liu, F P; Qiu, Y; Zheng, X Y; Cai, L; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of oral hygiene on risk of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women. Methods: From September 2010 to February 2016, 242 non-smoking and non-drinking female patients with pathologically confirmed oral cancer were recruited in a hospital of Fuzhou, and another 856 non-smoking and non-drinking healthy women from health examination center in the same hospital were selected as control group. Five oral hygiene related variables including the frequency of teeth brushing, number of teeth lost, poor prosthesis, regular dental visits and recurrent dental ulceration were used to develop oral hygiene index model. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios ( OR ) and 95% confidence intervals (95 %CI ). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the predictability of the oral hygiene index model. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between oral hygiene index and the incidence of oral cancer. Results: Teeth brushing oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, the corresponding OR (95 %CI ) were 1.50 (1.08-2.09), 1.81 (1.15-2.85), 1.51 (1.03-2.23), 1.73 (1.15-2.59), 7.30 (4.00-13.30), respectively. The AUROC of the oral hygiene index model was 0.705 9, indicating a high predictability. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the oral hygiene index was associated with risk of oral cancer. The higher the score, the higher risk was observed. The corresponding OR (95 %CI ) of oral hygiene index scores (score 1, score 2, score 3, score 4-5) were 2.51 (0.84-7.53), 4.68 (1.59-13.71), 6.47 (2.18-19.25), 15.29 (5.08-45.99), respectively. Conclusion: Oral hygiene could influence the incidence of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, and oral hygiene index has a certain significance in assessing the combined effects of oral hygiene.

  14. Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of peripheral arterial disease in southern Chinese non-smokers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liya; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Mackay, Danny F; Pell, Jill P; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Thomas, G Neil

    2017-06-01

    Objectives We studied the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Chinese non-smokers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study: Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort Study (GBCS-CVD). Guangzhou residents aged ≥ 50 years were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Baseline data included measurement of ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and self-reported smoking status and SHS exposure. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between SHS and PAD (defined as ABPI Exposure to SHS at home of ≥25 h per week was reported by 16.7% of PAD cases compared with 3.8% of those without PAD (χ2 test, p = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, exposure to ≥25 h per week at home was still associated with PAD (adjusted OR 7.86, 95% CI 2.00-30.95, p = 0.003), with suggestion of a dose-response relationship. Conclusions Our results extend the US Surgeon General's 2006 report that SHS exposure is an independent risk factor for PAD. National smoke-free legislation is needed to protect all people from exposure.

  15. Oily skin: specific features in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau-Richard, S; Zhu, W; Li, Y H; Zhang, Y Z; Yang, F Z; Yang, Z L; Lian, S; Qian, B Y; Ran, Y P; Bouillon, C; Chen, H D; de Lacharrière, O

    2007-02-01

    Inconsistent data are available on the various types of skin, their prevalence and characterization, particularly regarding Asian skins. This observation prompted to conduct a large study in China to assess the prevalence of oily skin and identify the specific factors related to that type of skin. The multicentre trial involved 1787 Chinese women in Shenyang, Harbin, Beijing, Chengdu and Suzhou, between 18 and 65 years of age. Data on history of acne, the presence of environmental factors and a detailed self-evaluation of the skin were collected using a standardized questionnaire. A clinical evaluation of facial skin oiliness was carried-out by a dermatologist at each centre. Sebum secretion was measured on the forehead using Sebumeter SM810. Statistical analysis (multiple correspondence analysis) of typology was conducted based on self-evaluation data. According to self-evaluation data, oily skin prevalence in the overall Chinese population of the study was 25.6%. Self-evaluation results were quite consistent with sebum measurements and with clinical assessment by dermatologist. Parameters associated with oily skin were (i) shiny skin and a past history of acne, (ii) irregular menstruation, and (iii) highly reactive or sensitive skin. Moreover, a clear and significant link was noted between oily skin and the ingestion of spicy or sweet food. Lastly, sebum levels were found to be twice as high in Beijing as in the other cities and were correlated to higher oily skin prevalence. The study demonstrated the capacity of women for proper self-evaluation of their skin type. It also suggests a potential link between nutritional factors such as spicy and/or sweet diets and oily skin as well as between sensitive and oily skin in this population.

  16. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  17. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  18. Menopausal symptoms in an intercultural context: a comparison between German women, Chinese women and migrant Chinese women using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Grete; Wernecke, Klaus-D; Schalinski, Adelheid; Borde, Theda; David, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    What are the differences between the occurrence of menopausal symptoms in German women, migrant Chinese women in Germany and Chinese women in their native country? Can these potential discrepancies be explained by sociocultural differences? What are the differences in menopausal symptoms in connection with the consumption of soya? Cross-sectional study 2005-2008. Survey of three groups of women aged between 45 and 60 years (native German women in Berlin, migrant Chinese women in several German cities, Chinese women in Beijing) with an evaluated set of questionnaires surveying socio-demographic data, use of hormone therapy, migration/acculturation, MRS II and other areas. A total of 2,109 questionnaires were sent out and a 41 % response rate was achieved, although this varied greatly across the three individual study groups. The results of the MRS II factor analysis were almost identical for German women and migrant Chinese women, but there were some differences in content compared to the Chinese study group. Chinese women surveyed in Beijing reported severe symptoms significantly less frequently in all three symptom groups (factors) of MRS II than the German women and the migrant Chinese women, but the values from the German women and migrant Chinese women surveyed are relatively similar. In all three study groups there are no significant differences in the stated severity of the symptoms, regardless of whether soya is consumed frequently or less frequently. The question whether the differences found are solely cultural or migration-related must be examined in further studies. The special experiences and situation in life of migrant women should be taken into particular account by attending physicians during the care and treatment of women in this phase of life.

  19. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W.; Vermeulen, Roel C.H.; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S.; Silverman, Debra T.; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In China’s rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  20. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  1. Internet use by Chinese women seeking pregnancy-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-ling; Larsson, Margareta; Luo, Shu-yuan

    2013-07-01

    to investigate whether and how Chinese pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. a descriptive, cross-sectional design using a waiting-room questionnaire was employed to obtain information from Chinese pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Guangzhou, mainland China from September to October in 2011. a total of 335 Chinese women pregnant at least 32 weeks participated in the study with the response rate 85%. the great majority of the women (91.9%) had access to the Internet. Most of them (88.7%) used it to retrieve health information and began from the beginning of the pregnancy. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the two most often mentioned topics of interest. More than half of the women regarded the information as reliable. The first most important criterion for judging the trustworthiness of web-based information was if the facts were consistent with information from other sources; the second most important criterion was if references were provided. Most (75.1%) of the women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health professionals. the Internet was a common source for pregnancy related information among Chinese pregnant women, the same as that in the western countries. Health professionals should be able to guide Chinese pregnant women to high-quality, web-based information and then take the opportunity to discuss this information with them during antenatal visits, consultations and childbirth education classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Cultural Study of Chinese American Women's Self-Identification and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate the process of how Chinese American women develop their identities while growing up in the United States as daughters of Chinese immigrants. Specifically, the author explores the following questions: How do Chinese American women come to identify themselves as Chinese American, and act this identity in…

  3. Negotiating biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine treatments among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha

    2015-02-01

    In this article we examine how elderly Chinese Singaporean women navigated between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine in their practices of maintaining well-being. We interviewed 36 elderly women to understand their negotiation of medical choices in the interplay of structure, culture, and personal agency. Our findings show that participants made situational decisions under structural and cultural influences, such as family members' changing expectations and interpretations of medical practices, institutional preferences for biomedicine, and the patients' negotiating position between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Participants demonstrated their capacity to enact agency through their examination of the effects and side effects of each medical system and through their integrative use of different medical treatments, depending on the purpose. Through our findings, we unveil contextual meanings of health among elderly women and the unique coexistence of traditional and modern medical practices within the context of Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  5. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Screening in Older Chinese Women: A Meta-Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Banning, M; Shia, N

    2014-01-01

    In Eastern Asia, as the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase yet compliance with breast cancer screening in older Chinese women who are at risk of early stage breast cancer is poor. This meta-ethnography explored breast cancer awareness, attitudes and breast screening behaviour in older Chinese women. Nine qualitative studies were appraised using CASP tools. Many Chinese women believed that illness is preordained, therefore mammography was a futile exercise. Older Chinese women he...

  6. Older Chinese women immigrants and their leisure experiences: before and after emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Hua Ho; Jaclyn A. Card

    2002-01-01

    The concept of leisure has generally focused on men. This is especially true in Chinese society where women seldom have the right to speak about leisure or mention leisure activities. For many Chinese women, the integration of household and leisure has been necessary to find meaning in life. Based on this concept, we explored older Chinese women immigrants'...

  7. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-01-01

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin 2 for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110≤Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  8. Mammographic screening practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate

    2012-03-01

    To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Chinese women in Italy--menarche, pregnancy and maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Lisa; Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the well-being and health status of Chinese immigrant women in Italy. The subjects (mean 29.5 years) frequented the "Health Center for Foreign Women and their Children" in Bologna, Italy. Information on living conditions, biological characteristics and pregnancy or maternity was obtained through interviews of the women in the Center during normal medical visits. Data on menarche age were based on the retrospective method since all the women were in China at the onset of menarche. Social factors influencing the health and behavior of Chinese women in Italian society are discussed. The analysis on children sex ratio at birth indicates that the old cultural Chinese tradition of son preference still continues to exist. These women have achieved a socio-economic improvement and generally good health status in Italy. The difficult living conditions they faced in China are indirectly reflected in their delayed puberty (14.4 +/- 1.4 years). The delayed sexual development was probably due to the same situation of severe poverty that forced them to migrate.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in avoiding secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking employed women with higher education in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women's and children's exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject's attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

  11. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Umlauf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

  13. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  14. Measuring social impacts of breast carcinoma treatment in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W T

    2004-06-15

    There is no existing instrument that is suitable for measuring the social impact of breast carcinoma (BC) and its treatment among women of Southern Chinese descent. In the current study, the authors assessed the validity of the Chinese Social Adjustment Scale, which was designed to address the need for such an instrument. Five dimensions of social concern were identified in a previous study of Cantonese-speaking Chinese women with BC; these dimensions were family and other relationships, intimacy, private self-image, and public self-image. The authors designed 40 items to address perceptions of change in these areas. These items were administered to a group of 226 women who had received treatment for BC, and factor analysis subsequently was performed to determine construct characteristics. The resulting draft instrument then was administered, along with other measures for the assessment of basic psychometric properties, to a second group of 367 women who recently had undergone surgery for BC. Factor analysis optimally identified 5 factors (corresponding to 33 items): 1) Relationships with Family (10 items, accounting for 22% of variance); 2) Self-Image (7 items, accounting for 15% of variance); 3) Relationships with Friends (7 items, accounting for 8% of variance); 4) Social Enjoyment (4 items, accounting for 6% of variance); and 5) Attractiveness and Sexuality (5 items, accounting for 5% of variance). Subscales were reliable (alpha = 0.63-0.93) and exhibited convergent validity in positive correlations with related measures and divergent validity in appropriate inverse or nonsignificant correlations with other measures. Criterion validity was good, and sensitivity was acceptable. Patterns of change on the scales were consistent with reports in the literature. Self-administration resulted in improved sensitivity. The 33-item Chinese Social Adjustment Scale validly, reliably, and sensitively measures the social impact of BC on Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among ...

  16. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  17. Exposure to household air pollution from wood combustion and association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in nonsmoking women: results from the RESPIRE trial, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel; Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel G

    2015-04-01

    With 40% of the world's population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: -0.86, -5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous exposure to particulate matter against lung function will

  18. Use of Chinese herbal medicine among menopausal women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Chi; Wang, Bi-Ru; Chen, I-Chin; Shao, Chun-Hui

    2010-04-01

    To assess the patterns of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by women in Taiwan to treat menopausal symptoms. A retrospective review of the records of women who received CHM therapies for menopausal symptoms at the Traditional Medicine Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, between January 2003 and December 2006. The average number of therapies per prescription, dosage, and duration of the prescription were recorded. The most commonly prescribed herbs and formulae were also recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The records of 3432 women who were administered a total of 19370 CHMs to treat symptoms of the menopause were reviewed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 5.64. Most of the prescriptions (97.1%) were prescribed to be taken 3 times a day. The most commonly prescribed Chinese herb was Leonurus heterophyllus. Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. CHM is commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The efficacy and safety of CHM drugs used for the management of menopausal symptoms require further study. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  20. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  1. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  2. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huei-Yu Wang, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  3. [Expert consensus for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for Chinese women, which has not been paid enough attention at present. Chinese women account for 20 percent of 3.5 billion women all over the world. Health promotion and prevention are facing the rigorous challenge. The pathophysiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, disease diagnosis, drug metabolism and prevention strategies of woman cardiovascular diseases are different from those of men in some respects and require special attention. "Consensus for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Chinese women" is developed by Women Physician Committee of Chinese College Cardiovascular Physicians and Women's Health Work Group of Chinese Society of Cardiology, which is aimed at strengthening and promoting prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Chinese women.

  4. Assessment of Multiple Types of DNA Damage in Human Placentas from Smoking and Non-smoking Women in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Pratt, M.; King, Leon C.; Adams, Linda D.; John, Kaarthik; Sirajuddin, Paul; Olivero, Ofelia A.; Manchester, David K.; Sram, Radim J.; DeMarini, David M.; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2010-01-01

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (in 2000-4) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were localized and semiquantified using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS). More generalized DNA damage was measured both by 32P-postlabeling and by abasic (AB) site analysis. Placenta stained with antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) revealed PAH-DNA adduct localization in nuclei of the cytotrophoblast (CT) cells and syncytiotrophoblast (ST) knots lining the chorionic villi. The highest levels of DNA damage, 49–312 PAH-DNA adducts/108 nucleotides, were found by IHC/ACIS in 14 immediately-fixed placenta samples. An additional 37 placenta samples were stored frozen before fixation and embedding, and because PAH-DNA adducts were largely undetectable in these samples, freezing was implicated in the loss of IHC signal. The same placentas (n = 37) contained 1.7 – 8.6 stable/bulky DNA adducts/108 nucleotides and 0.6 – 47.2 AB sites/105 nucleotides. For all methods there was no correlation among types of DNA damage and no difference in extent of DNA damage between smokers and non-smokers. Therefore, the data show that DNA from placentas obtained in Teplice contained multiple types of DNA damage, which likely arose from various environmental exposures. In addition, PAH-DNA adducts were present at high concentrations in the CT cells and ST knots of the chorionic villi. PMID:20839217

  5. Applying ethnic-specific bone mineral density T-scores to Chinese women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J C; Kim, S; Chandra, M; Ettinger, B

    2016-12-01

    Caucasian reference data are used to classify bone mineral density in US women of all races. However, use of Chinese American reference data yields lower osteoporosis prevalence in Chinese women. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk. Caucasian reference data are used for osteoporosis classification in US postmenopausal women regardless of race, including Asians who tend to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than women of white race. This study examines BMD classification by ethnic T-scores for Chinese women. Using BMD data in a Northern California healthcare population, Chinese women aged 50-79 years were compared to age-matched white women (1:5 ratio), with femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) T-scores calculated using Caucasian versus Chinese American reference data. Comparing 4039 Chinese and 20,195 white women (44.8 % age 50-59 years, 37.5 % age 60-69 years, 17.7 % age 70-79 years), Chinese women had lower BMD T-scores at the FN, TH, and LS (median T-score 0.29-0.72 units lower across age groups, p age 50-64 years and 43.2 to 21.0 % for age 65-79 years). Use of Chinese American BMD reference data yields higher (ethnic) T-scores by 0.4-0.5 units, with a large proportion of Chinese women reclassified from osteoporosis to osteopenia. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling with ethnic T-scores may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk.

  6. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  7. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    quantify the combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on mortality outcomes in Chinese women, a healthier lifestyle pattern-including being of normal weight, lower central adiposity, participation in physical activity, nonexposure to spousal smoking, and higher fruit and vegetable intake-was associated with reductions in total and cause-specific mortality among lifetime nonsmoking and nondrinking women, supporting the importance of overall lifestyle modification in disease prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. Elevated levels of mercapturic acids of acrolein and crotonaldehyde in the urine of Chinese women in Singapore who regularly cook at home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Hecht

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is unusually common among non-smoking women in Southeastern Asia but the causes of this frequently fatal disease are not well understood. Several epidemiology studies indicate that inhalation of fumes from high temperature Chinese style cooking with a wok may be a cause. Only one previous study investigated uptake of potential toxicants and carcinogens by women who cook with a wok. We enrolled three-hundred twenty-eight non-smoking women from Singapore for this study. Each provided a spot urine sample and answered a questionnaire concerning their cooking habits and other factors. The urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for mercapturic acid metabolites of acrolein (3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid, and benzene (S-phenylmercapturic acid, accepted biomarkers of uptake of these toxic and carcinogenic compounds. We observed statistically significant effects of wok cooking frequency on levels of 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid, but not S-phenylmercapturic acid. Women who cooked greater than 7 times per week had a geometric mean of 2600 (95% CI, 2189-3090 pmol/mg creatinine 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid compared to 1901 (95% CI, 1510-2395 pmol/mg creatinine when cooking less than once per week (P for trend 0.018. The corresponding values for 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid were 1167 (95% CI, 1022-1332 and 894 (95% CI, 749-1067 pmol/mg creatinine (P for trend 0.008. We conclude that frequent wok cooking leads to elevated exposure to the toxicants acrolein and crotonaldehyde, but not benzene. Kitchens should be properly ventilated to decrease exposure to potentially toxic and carcinogenic fumes produced during Chinese style wok cooking.

  10. An early-stage epidemic: a systematic review of correlates of smoking among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women.

  11. Thoughts on the World Conference on Women. A Chinese woman writes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, R

    1995-01-01

    Increasing social consciousness about human rights issues in China has, in turn, stimulated Chinese women's awareness of their individual rights. The Chinese government, however, has maintained tight control over the dissemination of feminist ideas and restricted media coverage of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. To discredit feminism, Chinese officials link it with sexual liberation, single motherhood, and lesbianism. Nonetheless, there is a new awareness that government statistics on the high rates of female employment conceal the reality that Chinese women are concentrated in low-paying, low-status occupations. In contrast to official propaganda, a United Nations Development Report ranked China 23rd in the world for women's participation in politics and the economy. In the course of preparing for the World Conference, a few nonofficial, grass-roots Chinese women's organizations were able to present their ideas.

  12. Chinese Sex-Role Conceptions: A Double Edged Sword for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabik, Karen

    Although Chinese government policies officially support the equality of the sexes, stereotyped views about the nature of men and women often serve to perpetuate discrimination and to keep women in inferior positions. Women are often segregated into lower paying jobs because of stereotypical views about what is natural for women to do. Despite…

  13. Family beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine for Hong Kong women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peggy Burrows

    2003-01-01

    To explore beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine related to the breast cancer experience of Hong Kong Chinese women and their families. Interpretive phenomenology. Hong Kong, China. A purposive sample of 20 Hong Kong Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer at various stages of the illness trajectory and at least one other family member. A semistructured, three-hour interview was translated, transcribed, and back-translated. Many women and their family members believed that diet was responsible for their cancer and recurrence. They integrated their cultural beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine to manage illness symptoms and prevent recurrence. Families were anxious and confused about conflicting messages from various sources about dietary practices to promote their health and prevent recurrence. Food and diet alternatives should be discussed with the understanding that beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine are embedded in culture and that many Chinese women and their families seek a combination of Eastern Chinese medicine and Western medicine strategies to manage the illness trajectory. Many Chinese families have different beliefs about food and diet and the role that food plays in managing the cancer experience. Often, Chinese people will not seek clarification if they do not understand information. If information does not fit with their predominant belief systems, families may not implement it, nor will they discuss a situation if they think the conversation will result in a relationship of conflict with healthcare providers.

  14. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Li, Y; Cai, Y; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, C; Niu, Q; Tang, C; Yang, Y; Wang, Q; Cui, W; Xia, J; Liu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Guo, Z; Pan, J; Chen, H; Luo, Y; Sun, L; Xiao, X; Chen, Q; Zhao, X; He, F; Lv, L; Guo, L; Liu, L; Li, H; Shi, S; Flint, J; Kendler, K S; Tao, M

    2012-05-01

    In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.

  15. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia.

  16. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chen, J.; Shen, Y.; Ni, S.; Wei, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lu, C.; Chen, C.; Niu, Q.; Tang, C.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Cui, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, T.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Guo, Z.; Pan, J.; Chen, H.; Luo, Y.; Sun, L.; Xiao, X.; Chen, Q.; Zhao, X.; He, F.; Lv, L.; Guo, L.; Liu, L.; Li, H.; Shi, S.; Flint, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Tao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Method Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Results Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Conclusions Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD. PMID:21943491

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. Methods: 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and ...

  18. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  19. Stressful life events are associated with insulin resistance among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Y. Fang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to examine the associations between psychosocial stress and insulin resistance in Chinese immigrant women. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature on stress and diabetes risk in an immigrant population.

  20. Perceptions of giving birth and adherence to cultural practices in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Eads, Megan Nicole; Yeung Diehl, Jenny Pui See

    2011-01-01

    To compare the childbirth experiences of Chinese women living in varied sociocultural contexts. Qualitative study of 34 Chinese women who had given birth in their country of origin (the People's Republic of China [PRC] or Taiwan) and Chinese women who immigrated to the United States. This research provides insights into the perspectives of mothers living in varied sociocultural contexts. Themes included expecting a child and defining birth expectations, experiencing giving birth, adhering to cultural beliefs and practices, and framing birth within sociocultural context. There are cultural beliefs and practices associated with giving birth in all cultures, and because there is such rich cultural diversity in the United States, it is important for nurses caring for childbearing women to understand Chinese cultural beliefs and practices in order to provide culturally competent care.

  1. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2006-01-01

    .... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous finding of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...

  2. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huei-Yu Wang, Judy

    2004-01-01

    .... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...

  3. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2005-01-01

    .... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer Screening in Chinese women...

  4. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy

    2003-01-01

    .... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures are developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...

  5. Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kunyan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Wu, Taixiang; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn

    2016-10-12

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS. We searched sources, including the following databases, from inception to 9 June 2016: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang and trial registries. In addition, we searched the reference lists of included trials and contacted experts in the field to locate trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that considered the use of CHM for the treatment of subfertile women with PCOS. Two review authors independently screened appropriate trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in included studies and extracted data. We contacted primary study authors for additional information. We conducted meta-analyses. We used the odds ratios (ORs) to report dichotomous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included five RCTs with 414 participants. The comparisons in the included trials were as follows: CHM versus clomiphene, CHM plus clomiphene versus clomiphene (with or without ethinyloestradiol cyproterone acetate (CEA)), CHM plus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction versus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction alone, and CHM plus laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) versus LOD alone. The overall quality of the

  6. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Guelfi, Kym J.; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P.; Yang, Huixia

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women?s beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to ...

  7. Breast cancer and breast screening: perceptions of Chinese migrant women living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Migrant Chinese constitute a significant and increasing proportion of New Zealand women. They have lower rates of participation in breast cancer screening than other New Zealanders, but reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting Chinese women’s understanding of, and access to, breast health services, to better understand reasons for low participation in screening and their experiences of breast cancer clinic care. METHODS: The participants were 26 Chinese migrant women—19 recruited in the community and seven recruited from 17 eligible women attending a breast clinic between 2008 and 2010 in Wellington, New Zealand. The design was that of a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews and thematic content analysis. FINDINGS: There were low levels of awareness about the national breast screening programme and limited engagement with preventive primary care services. Concerns about privacy and a range of communication difficulties were identified that related to oral language, lack of written information in Chinese, and limited understanding about Chinese perceptions of ill health and traditional Chinese medicine by New Zealand health professionals. CONCLUSION: Addressing communication barriers for Chinese migrant women has the potential to raise awareness about breast cancer and breast health, and to increase successful participation in breast cancer screening. Greater efforts are needed to ensure this group has an understanding of, and is engaged with a primary care provider. Such efforts are key to improving health for this growing sector of the New Zealand population.

  8. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2009-12-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  9. Promoting mammography screening among Chinese American women using a message-framing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiyuan; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Moyer, Anne; Messina, Catherine R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of women's perceptions about the relative pros versus cons (decisional balance) of mammography in moderating Chinese American women's responses to gain- and loss-framed messages that promote mammography. One hundred and forty-three Chinese American women who were currently nonadherent to guidelines for receiving annual screening mammograms were randomly assigned to read either a gain- or loss-framed culturally appropriate print brochure about mammography screening. Mammography screening was self-reported at a 2-month follow-up. Although there was not a main effect for message frame, the hypothesized interaction between message frame and decisional balance was significant, indicating that women who received a framed message that matched their decisional balance were significantly more likely to have obtained a mammogram by the follow-up than women who received a mismatched message. Results suggest that decisional balance, and more generally, perceptions about mammography, may be an important moderator of framing effects for mammography among Chinese American women. The match between message frame and decisional balance should be considered when attempting to encourage Chinese American women to receive mammography screening, as a match between the two may be most persuasive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The menopause transition experiences of Chinese Singaporean women: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui-Koon; Mackey, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Menopause, a developmental occurrence that takes place in midlife, marks the end of a woman's fertile phase. Cultural norms, social influences, and personal perceptions related to menopause may influence its meaning and how each woman experiences this transition. Little is known about the menopausal experiences of Asian women. This study explores the menopause transition experiences of ethnic Chinese women in Singapore. Using a qualitative design, the researchers conducted audio-taped interviews in 2010 with 14 menopausal and postmenopausal Chinese Singaporean women aged 40-60 years. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews. Two main themes were identified: (a) experiencing symptoms and (b) managing symptoms during menopause transition. The most commonly reported symptoms were abnormal bleeding, hot flushes, and emotional changes. Most participants described their transition to be uneventful and ordinary and reported two significant symptoms at most. The strategies women used to manage their transition included using Western and traditional Chinese medical interventions and seeking support from family and friends. This study provides new insights into how ethnic Chinese women in Singapore experience menopause transition. Findings can assist nurses and healthcare workers in the local context to better understand menopausal women's needs and guide nurses to implement suitable health promotional strategies for women under their care in both hospital and community settings. Although ethnicity is not necessarily a determinant of symptom experience during menopause transition, health education for menopausal women should be based on knowledge of culture-specific practices. Nurses caring for menopausal women in hospital and community settings in Singapore should evaluate the use of medications prescribed by Western and Chinese herbal medical professionals as well as those that are self-prescribed.

  11. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  12. Participation in treatment decision-making among Chinese-Australian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Koo, Fung Kuen

    2017-03-01

    Using Confucian philosophy as a conceptual framework, this article examines the extent to which cultural values and language affect the participation preferences and experiences of the breast cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process among Chinese women with breast cancer in Australia. Three focus groups were conducted with 23 Chinese-Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer in their native language (Mandarin and Cantonese). Each interview was translated and transcribed. Content analysis was used to uncover the major themes. Four typologies emerged: the patient as an active decision maker, the patient as a passive decision maker, the patient as a reluctant decision maker and the patient as a reluctant passive decision maker. Language barriers, cultural expectation of doctor's role and family role in Chinese culture appear as influential factors in TDM process among this group of women. Intervention to improve doctors' cultural sensitivities in order to help them assess women's role preferences in TDM and the ability of doctors to communicate in a culturally appropriate manner, may improve the process of breast cancer TDM among women from Chinese background.

  13. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276

  14. Chinese and Indian women's experience with alternative medications for menopause related symptoms: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal Singh; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Soe, Myint Myint

    2017-09-15

    To explore women's rationalization for using alternative medications, their experience and view on safety of long-term use. Two focus group discussions, involving 5 participants each for Chinese and Indian groups, were conducted separately. Participant's personal information was collected anonymously. The discussion covered 5 areas: determinants for taking medications; reason for choosing alternative medications rather than hormone replacement therapy (HRT); how these medications help them; their view on cost-effectiveness and concerns over long-term use. The discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed. Chinese participants took supplements for controlling symptoms while Indian participants used herbs as a preventive measure during menopause according to their tradition. Women of both groups mentioned that they did not take HRT because of fear of side effects. Chinese group mentioned that medications remarkably improved their symptoms whereas Indian participants appreciated their herbals more for improvement in general wellbeing than for specific symptoms. All members agreed that using alternative medication was cost-effective. Both Chinese and Indian participants were quite confident in saying that long-term use will not be associated with any side effects. However, Indian group emphasized that proper preparation of herbal compound using different types of leaves, is essential in order to avoid untoward effects. Chinese and Indian women used alternative medicine in prevention and treatment of menopause-related problems even as they were avoiding HRT because of the fear of side effects. They believed that their supplements were effective, safe and cost-beneficial even with long-term use.

  15. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  16. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Kym J; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia

    2015-12-22

    Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women's beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to determine the extent to which these factors predict intention to exercise within a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Pregnant women (22 ± 2 weeks of gestation) living in China (n = 240) and Australia (n = 215) completed a questionnaire designed to assess a) maternal beliefs regarding the importance of exercise in relation to other health behaviours, b) attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions toward exercise, and c) current levels of physical activity. One-way analyses of variance were used to compare the demographics, maternal beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions to exercise, and current physical activity levels between the Chinese and Australian samples. Structural equation modelling was used to determine which factors predicted intention to exercise in the two samples. Australian women reported higher levels of current exercise and intentions to exercise in the next four weeks of pregnancy compared with Chinese women. These observations were associated with higher instrumental attitudes, ratings of subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise in the Australian women. Instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioural control predicted intention to exercise in the Australian women, while perceived behavioural control was the only predictor of intentions to exercise in the Chinese sample. Beliefs, attitudes, barriers and intentions towards exercise during pregnancy differ

  17. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu; Li Zhu; Jiaying Lyu; Wenjun Zhu; Yaping Xu; Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Menopausal transition is often associated with impaired satisfaction with life (SL). Exercise is promising in both managing menopausal symptoms and improving subjective well-being of women after menopause. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a 4-month randomized controlled walking trial on menopausal symptoms and SL in 80 community-dwelling postmenopausal Chinese women (M age = 53.38, SD = 3.41), and identified predictors of changes in SL across the intervention. Met...

  18. Night-Shift Work and Breast Cancer Risk in a Cohort of Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xue, Shouzheng; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Shift work involving disruption of circadian rhythms has been classified as a probable cause of human cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on limited epidemiologic evidence and abundant experimental evidence. The authors investigated this association in a population-based prospective cohort study of Chinese women. At baseline (1996–2000), information on lifetime occupational history was obtained from 73,049 women. Lifetime night-shift exposure indices were created ...

  19. In vitro effects of estrogen and progesterone containing drugs on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes in women smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Islimye Taskin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of the current study provide important information to clinicians about how to consider the possible adverse effects of these drugs which are produced as a result of inhibition of CA I and CA II enzyme. Clinicians should take into consideration the side effects caused by CA I and CA II enzyme inhibition when prescribing these drugs in the treatment of different clinical conditions, especially in women who smoke.

  20. Acculturation and Post-Migration Stress in Middle-Aged Chinese Immigrant Women in Philadelphia: Variation between the Fujianese and the non-Fujianese women

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Tseng, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The experience of acculturation in Chinese immigrant women from the rural coastal province of Fujian has not been well studied despite of their growing numbers in American cities. This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the experience of acculturation and post-migration stress in Fujianese immigrant women as compared to those from other parts of China. The study is based on a convenience sample 240 Fujianese and 162 non-Fujianese Chinese immigrant women living in Philadelphia.

  1. Cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L P; Ma, R C W; Lam, P M; Lok, I H; Haines, C J; So, W Y; Tong, P C Y; Cockram, C S; Chow, C C; Goggins, W B

    2008-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently exhibit central obesity, glucose intolerance, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and hypertension which are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 295 premenopausal Chinese women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria (mean age: 30.2 +/- 6.4 years) and 98 control subjects without PCOS were evaluated for prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia. Using the 2005 modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, MetS (presence of three or more risk factors) was found in 24.9% of PCOS women compared to 3.1% of controls. The prevalence of MetS in PCOS women increased from 16.7% at under 30 years of age to 53.3% at over 40 years. MetS was also more prevalent in overweight and obese (41.3%) than normal-weight PCOS women (0.9%). However, multivariate regression analysis showed that women with PCOS had a 5-fold increase in risk of MetS (odds ratio 4.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-17.84) compared with women without PCOS even after controlling for age and BMI, suggesting PCOS alone is an independent risk factor for MetS. There is high prevalence of MetS in Hong Kong Chinese women with PCOS despite their relatively young age. Recognition of these cardiometabolic risk factors requires a high level of awareness in conjunction with early and regular screening.

  2. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  3. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Liang, Jun; Chan, Man L; Chan, Yin H; Chan, Laam; Wan, Kwong Y; Ng, Ming S; Chan, Dicken C C; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S

    2014-01-01

    Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10) was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  4. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants.

  5. Family involvement for breast cancer decision making among Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuyu Katie C; Knobf, M Tish

    2016-12-01

    To describe family involvement in decision making for primary treatment in Chinese-American women with early-stage breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected in 2003 from semi-structured questions in interviews with a sample of Chinese-American (ChA) women with breast cancer, who were recruited from the metropolitan New York area. Responses to the questions were written in Chinese immediately during the interview and read back to the subject for accuracy and validation. Content analysis was used to inductively code and analyze the data to generate themes. The participants consisted of 123 ChA women with early stage breast cancer with a mean age of 48.7 years (±9.3) and who had lived in the United States a median of 13.6 years. Support and Caring was the major theme that described family involvement in the breast cancer decision-making process. Gathering Information, Being There, Navigating the Health Care System, Maintaining Family Life and Making the Decision described the aspects of family support in the process. The majority of women described the treatment decision making as a collaborative supportive process with the family, but limited English fluency, strong opinions, lack of a shared perspective, distant living proximity and competing work responsibilities of family members were stressful for the women and perceived as non-supportive. Family involvement in health care decision making is culturally embedded in Asian populations. Culturally sensitive patient and family consultation strategies are needed to assist informed treatment decision making in Chinese-American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes among Chinese and South Asian women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Geetha; Chiu, Maria; Shah, Baiju R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the association between Chinese or South Asian ethnicity and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes for women with gestational diabetes compared to the general population. A cohort study was conducted using population-based health care databases in Ontario, Canada. All 35,577 women aged 15-49 with gestational diabetes who had live births between April 2002 and March 2011 were identified. Their delivery hospitalization records and the birth records of their neonates were examined to identify adverse neonatal outcomes and adverse maternal outcomes. Compared to infants of mothers from the general population (55.5%), infants of Chinese mothers had a lower risk of an adverse outcome at delivery (42.9%, adjusted odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.68), whereas infants of South Asian mothers had a higher risk (58.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.23). Chinese women also had a lower risk of adverse maternal outcomes (32.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.63) compared to general population women (41.2%), whereas the risk for South Asian women was not different (39.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.02) from that of general population women. The risk of complications of gestational diabetes differs significantly between Chinese and South Asian patients and the general population in Ontario. Tailored interventions for gestational diabetes management may be required to improve pregnancy outcomes in high-risk ethnic groups.

  7. Women And Visual Representations Of Space In Two Chinese Film Adaptations Of Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEANG WAI FONG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies two Chinese film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Xiaogang Feng’s The Banquet (2006 and Sherwood Hu’s Prince of the Himalayas (2006, by focusing on their visual representations of spaces allotted to women. Its thesis is that even though on the original Shakespearean stage details of various spaces might not be as vividly represented as in modern film productions, spaces are still crucial dramatic elements imbued with powerful significations. By analyzing the two Chinese film adaptations alongside the original Hamlet text, the paper attempts to reinterpret their different representations of spaces in relation to their different historical-cultural gender notions.

  8. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  9. Health-related quality-of-life questionnaire for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Chinese translation and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jpw; Kwan, Ahw; Kwok, Jwk; Chan, Ssc

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the polycystic ovary syndrome questionnaire (PCOSQ). Translation and validation study. Gynaecology clinic and paediatric adolescent gynaecology clinic at the study institute. Chinese women, 16 years of age or older, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women completed the Chinese version of the PCOSQ and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Their sociodemographic details, clinical parameters, and biochemical results were recorded. A subset of 50 women repeated the PCOSQ 1 week later to evaluate test-retest reliability. Women subsequently received treatment for the symptoms of PCOS. Six months later, 100 women completed the PCOSQ and clinical parameters were assessed to evaluate the responsiveness of the PCOSQ. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness. A total of 262 Chinese women completed the study. Values of Cronbach's alpha coefficient were all above 0.7, demonstrating a good standard of internal consistency in all subscales. For the test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients showed excellent stability among the subscales (range 0.82-0.92, P PCOSQ scores was seen in women with improvements in BMI and menstrual patterns; however, these findings did not reach statistical significance. The Chinese version of PCOSQ is reliable and valid for use in women with PCOS. The Chinese version of the PCOSQ is reliable and valid for use. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  11. [Analysis of diversity of vaginal microbiota in healthy Chinese women by using DNA-fingerprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Liao, Qin-ping

    2012-04-18

    To analyze the diversity of healthy women's vaginal dominant flora in different physiological states with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), to establish the basis for the future study of lower genital tract infections, and to provide a theoretical basis for the development of vaginal probiotics adapted to Chinese females. Women who underwent routine gynecologic examinations in Peking University First Hospital from October 2009 to January 2010 were enrolled, including 30 at reproductive age and 30 at post menopause age. Vaginal samples were collected and then total bacterial DNA was extracted. Universal bacterial primers were used to amplify the V3 region of 16S rDNA gene. PCR products were analyzed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Featured bands on DGGE were recovered, cloned and sequenced. Alignment with known sequence was made by using Blast on GenBank to identify bacterial strains so as to analyze the diversity of healthy women's vaginal dominant flora in different physiological states. (1) Vaginal flora in healthy Chinese women at their reproductive age were relatively simple, Lactobacillus were the dominant bacteria. Common bacteria included: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners,and Lactobacillus gasseri. While L. iners were the dominant vaginal bacteria that could not be recognized by traditional method. (2) Vaginal bacteria in the women at post menopause age were more complex than in those at reproductive age. Common bacteria included: Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Veillonella sp., Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus anginosus, Prevotella sp., Anaerococcus lactolyticus and Bacteroides fragilis. Based on the DGGE analysis, the most common vaginal bacteria in Chinese healthy women at reproductive age are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners,and Lactobacillus gasseri. the most common vaginal bacteria in healthy post

  12. Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on gait kinematics in older Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguang Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Among older Chinese women with knee OA, a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention improved gait outcomes. The intervention also improved overall function as indexed by the WOMAC and SPPB. These results support the use of Tai Ji Quan for older Chinese adults with knee OA to both improve their functional mobility and reduce pain symptomatology.

  13. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  14. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-02-13

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research.

  15. Physical Attractiveness, Attitudes toward Career, and Mate Preferences among Young Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research.

  16. Bangsawan prampoewan Enlightened Peranakan Chinese women from early twentieth century Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Kwartanada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The end of the nineteenth century witnessed paradox among the Chinese in colonial Java. On one hand, they were prospering economically, but were nonetheless held in contempt by the Dutch, encountered legal discrimination and faced challenges if they wanted to educate their children in European schools. Their marginal position motivated them do their utmost to become “civilized subjects”, on a par with Europeans, but they were also inspired to reinvent their Chinese identity. This contribution will highlight role played by “enlightened” Chinese, the kaoem moeda bangsa Tjina. Central to this movement were the Chinese girls known to the public as bangsawan prampoewan (the noblewomen, who wrote letters the newspaper and creating a gendered public sphere. They also performed western classical music in public. Considering the inspirational impact of bangsawan prampoewan’s enlightening achievements on non-Chinese women, it is appropriate to include them into the narrative of the history of the nation’s women’s movements.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Climacteric Symptoms, Self-Esteem, and Quality of Life between Mosuo Women and Han Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to compare climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and quality of life (QOL between women from two different cultures in China (Mosuo and Han Chinese and to evaluate the interaction among these variables. Mosuo is a small ethnic group in southwest China, which is described as a matriarchal society, while Han Chinese is the largest ethnic group with a patriarchal system.Methods: This cross-cultural study was conducted on 54 Mosuo women and 52 Han Chinese women between 40 and 60 years of age. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. They answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS, the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12.Results: In our sample, Mosuo women obtained lower scores on the psychological and somato-vegetative subscales of the MRS, but higher scores on SES and the mental health-related QOL (SF-12/MCS than Han Chinese women. However, the correlation between climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and QOL was weaker in the Mosuo group compared to the Han group. Multiple linear regressions indicated that climacteric symptoms have negatively affected women's QOL.Conclusion: In accordance with the study hypothesis, Mosuo women showed milder symptoms, a higher self-esteem, and a better QOL compared to the Han Chinese women during the climacteric. The interaction between climacteric symptoms, psychosocial variables, and QOL revealed cultural differences.

  18. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  19. Chinese Urban Young Women's Preferences And Perceptions Toward International Cosmetic Magazine Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xi

    2006-01-01

    Advertising is regarded as the most effective tool for multinationals to communicate with their target consumers. Further, understanding target consumers' perceptions and preferences can help advertisers implement advertising strategy more easily and effectively. However, as the implementation of China reform and openness policy in 1979, the society has a tendency toward modernisation and Westernisation, and Chinese urban young women become more opened, experienced, and affluent for shopping ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Lei; Huang, Sheng-Song; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Deng-Long

    2014-01-01

    A group of healthy females were randomly sampled in Shanghai for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among Chinese women and its associated risk factors. 5,467 registered female residents aged from 20 years were randomly sampled from four communities in Shanghai, and the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Questionnaire (the International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire) was adopted. Detailed information regarding pregnancy, menstruation, and several demographic variables was also collected. Data were subsequently analyzed using McNemar's test, univariate analysis, multinomial logistic regression models, and binary logistic regression models. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 23.3%. The rate of stress UI (SUI) was 14.0% (761/5433), which was more prevalent than the rate of urgency UI (UUI) and mixed UI (MUI), which were 3.0% (164/5433) and 6.3% (341/5433), respectively. The risk factors associated with developing UI included aging, lack of education, poor living environment (specifically in the rural area), intense manual labor, the absence of physical exercise, hyperlipemia, diabetes, nocturia, consumption of greasy food, divorce or widowing, chronic pelvic pain (CPP), pelvic organ prolapse (POP), frequent urinary tract infection, and vaginal delivery without episiotomy. We also observed that most Chinese women were not aware of UI, which prevented them from seeking early treatment. Urinary incontinence is a common disorder among Chinese women in Shanghai, and many risk factors contribute to the development of UI. Most Chinese women were not aware of UI, which prevented them from seeking early treatment.

  1. Effect of ABO blood type on ovarian reserve in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Li, Rong; Chi, Hongbin; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Xiaoying; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effect of ABO blood type on ovarian reserve in Chinese women. Retrospective analysis. University-affiliated IVF center. The retrospective analysis involved 35,479 women who underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles between 2006 and 2012. None. The association between ABO blood types and diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Among 35,479 Chinese women, 11,395 (32.12%) had blood type B, 10,583 (29.83%) had blood type O, 9,861 (27.79%) had blood type A, and 3,640 (10.26%) had blood type AB. There was a statistically significantly higher percentage of blood type O among those with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels ≤10 IU/L compared with those with FSH levels >10 IU/L. Conversely, among the women with DOR, there was statistically significantly higher percentage of those with blood types B and AB. Blood type A was not associated with DOR occurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that blood type O was statistically significantly less often associated with DOR occurrence, whereas the B antigen (blood type B or AB) was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of DOR. Our results have shown that there is an association between ABO blood type and DOR occurrence in Chinese women. Women with blood type O were statistically significantly less likely to have DOR, whereas those with B antigen (blood type B or AB) were statistically significantly more likely to have DOR. Blood type A was not associated with ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism even in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Qifu

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the necessity of improving glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women as early as possible, 111 PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance and 92 healthy age-matched controls were recruited to investigate glucose levels distribution, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. 91 PCOS women and 33 controls underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess their insulin sensitivity, which was expressed as M value. β cell function was estimated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β index after adjusting insulin sensitivity (HOMA-βad index). Compared with lean controls, lean PCOS women had similar fasting plasma glucose (FPG), higher postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) (6.03±1.05 vs. 5.44±0.97 mmol/L, PPCOS women had higher levels of both FPG (5.24±0.58 vs. 4.90±0.39, PPCOS women separately, and the cutoff of BMI indicating impaired β cell function of PCOS women was 25.545kg/m². In conclusion, insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism were common in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance. BMI ≥ 25.545kg/m² indicated impaired β cell function in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  3. Association between prenatal care utilization and risk of preterm birth among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Rong; Liang, Sheng-Wen; Wang, Jing; Chang, Jen Jen; Hu, Ke; Dong, Guang-Hui; Hu, Rong-Hua; Flick, Louise H; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Dan; Li, Qing-Jie; Zheng, Tong-Zhang; Xu, Shun-Qing; Yang, Shao-Ping; Qian, Zheng-Min

    2017-08-01

    It is recognized that prenatal care plays an important role in reducing adverse birth. Chinese pregnant women with medical condition were required to seek additional health care based on the recommended at least 5 times health care visits. This study was to estimate the association between prenatal care utilization (PCU) and preterm birth (PTB), and to investigate if medical conditions during pregnancy modified the association. This population-based case control study sampled women with PTB as cases; one control for each case was randomly selected from women with term births. The Electronic Perinatal Health Care Information System (EPHCIS) and a questionnaire were used for data collection. The PCU was measured by a renewed Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) index. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Totally, 2393 women with PTBs and 4263 women with term births were collected. In this study, 695 (10.5%) women experienced inadequate prenatal care, and 5131 (77.1%) received adequate plus prenatal care. Inadequate PCU was associated with PTB (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.32-1.84); the similar positive association was found between adequate plus PCU and PTB. Among women with medical conditions, these associations still existed; but among women without medical conditions, the association between inadequate PCU and PTB disappeared. Our data suggests that women receiving inappropriate PCU are at an increased risk of having PTB, but it does depend on whether the woman has a medical condition during pregnancy.

  4. Risk factors, cross-cultural stressors and postpartum depression among immigrant Chinese women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiongai; Mori, Emi; Sakajo, Akiko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method design study was to examine factors contributing to depression among immigrant Chinese women (primipara and multipara) (n = 22) delivering a child for the first time in Japan. Data were obtained just after hospital discharge by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Social Support Scale, a new scale to measure cross-cultural stressors in the postpartum setting and a visual analogue scale for stress and a demographic survey. The average EPDS score was 9.0 (SD ± 3.7) at 1-3 weeks postpartum; yet, more than half of the subjects (n = 12; 54.5%) were high risk for depression (EPDS ≥ 10). Low household income and primiparous status were associated with depression scores. New mothers with depression also reported more general stress and more cross-cultural stress in the postpartum setting, although social support appeared to mediate cross-cultural stressors. Semi-structured interviews were held with two immigrant women at high risk for depression; these new mothers described additional stress because they could not follow Zuoyuezi, an important postpartum Chinese tradition, in the Japanese hospital. These findings suggest that immigrant Chinese women are at higher risk for postpartum depression when they give birth for the first time in Japan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The relationship between neuroticism, major depressive disorder and comorbid disorders in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; He, Qiang; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Zhu, Suoyu; Chen, Jing; Shen, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yan; Chen, Chunfeng; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Ding, Jihong; Shen, Wenwu; Wang, Qian; Cao, Meiyue; Liu, Tiebang; Zhang, Jinbei; Duan, Huijun; Bao, Cheng; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Cong; Luo, Yanfang; Zhang, Fengzhi; Liu, Ying; Li, Yi; Jin, Guixing; Zhang, Yutang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yunchun; Zhao, Changyin; Li, Haiyan; Chen, Yiping; Shi, Shenxun; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Wang, Xumei

    2011-12-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD), but this relationship has not been demonstrated in clinical samples from Asia. We examined a large-scale clinical study of Chinese Han women with recurrent major depression and community-acquired controls. Elevated levels of neuroticism increased the risk for lifetime MDD (with an odds ratio of 1.37 per SD), contributed to the comorbidity of MDD with anxiety disorders, and predicted the onset and severity of MDD. Our findings largely replicate those obtained in clinical populations in Europe and US but differ in two ways: we did not find a relationship between melancholia and neuroticism; we found lower mean scores for neuroticism (3.6 in our community control sample). Our findings do not apply to MDD in community-acquired samples and may be limited to Han Chinese women. It is not possible to determine whether the association between neuroticism and MDD reflects a causal relationship. Neuroticism acts as a risk factor for MDD in Chinese women, as it does in the West and may particularly predispose to comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Cultural factors may have an important effect on its measurement. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Treatment of moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Linlin; Lin, Shouqing; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiuli

    2010-08-01

    To assess efficacy of the extract of Vitex agnus castus (VAC, BNO 1095) in the treatment of Chinese women suffering from moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It was a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study conducted in Chinese women. Eligible patients were randomly assigned into VAC or placebo group. Symptoms were documented with a daily rating scale with four symptom factors (negative affect, water retention, food cravings and pain). Sixty-seven patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one tablet of VAC or placebo once a day. The premenstrual syndrome diary (PMSD) sum score decreased from 29.38 +/- 7.63 score points at baseline to 4.28 +/- 5.76 at the 3rd cycle in the treatment group, while it decreased from 28.76 +/- 8.23 to 11.79 +/- 11.78 in the placebo group. All the four symptom factor scores were significantly reduced by the 3rd treatment cycle. There was significant difference in PMSD sum score, score of negative affect and water retention between two groups at cycle 3 (P Vitex agnus castus extract BNO 1095 shows effective in treating moderate to severe PMS in Chinese women, especially in symptoms of negative affect and water retention.

  7. The impact of educational status on the clinical features of major depressive disorder among Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhaoyu; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Yang, Fuzhong; Shen, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Guanghua; Tian, Tian; Yin, Aihua; Chen, Ce; Liu, Jun; Tang, Chunling; Zhang, Zhuoqiu; Liu, Jia; Sang, Wenhua; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Wei, Qinling; Xu, Yong; Sun, Ling; Wang, Sisi; Li, Chang; Hu, Chunmei; Cui, Yanping; Liu, Ying; Li, Ying; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Lixin; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Yueying; Ning, Yuping; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Zhang, Jinbei

    2012-01-01

    Background Years of education are inversely related to the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship between the clinical features of MDD and educational status is poorly understood. We investigated this in 1970 Chinese women with recurrent MDD identified in a clinical setting. Methods Clinical and demographic features were obtained from 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depression between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between educational level and clinical features of MDD. Results Subjects with more years of education are more likely to have MDD, with an odds ratio of 1.14 for those with more than ten years. Low educational status is not associated with an increase in the number of episodes, nor with increased rates of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders. Education impacts differentially on the symptoms of depression: lower educational attainment is associated with more biological symptoms and increased suicidal ideation and plans to commit suicide. Limitations Findings may not generalize to males or to other patient populations. Since the threshold for treatment seeking differs as a function of education there may an ascertainment bias in the sample. Conclusions The relationship between symptoms of MDD and educational status in Chinese women is unexpectedly complex. Our findings are inconsistent with the simple hypothesis from European and US reports that low levels of educational attainment increase the risk and severity of MDD. PMID:21824664

  8. The impact of educational status on the clinical features of major depressive disorder among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhaoyu; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Yang, Fuzhong; Shen, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Guanghua; Tian, Tian; Yin, Aihua; Chen, Ce; Liu, Jun; Tang, Chunling; Zhang, Zhuoqiu; Liu, Jia; Sang, Wenhua; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Wei, Qinling; Xu, Yong; Sun, Ling; Wang, Sisi; Li, Chang; Hu, Chunmei; Cui, Yanping; Liu, Ying; Li, Ying; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Lixin; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Yueying; Ning, Yuping; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Zhang, Jinbei

    2012-02-01

    Years of education are inversely related to the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship between the clinical features of MDD and educational status is poorly understood. We investigated this in 1970 Chinese women with recurrent MDD identified in a clinical setting. Clinical and demographic features were obtained from 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depression between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between educational level and clinical features of MDD. Subjects with more years of education are more likely to have MDD, with an odds ratio of 1.14 for those with more than ten years. Low educational status is not associated with an increase in the number of episodes, nor with increased rates of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders. Education impacts differentially on the symptoms of depression: lower educational attainment is associated with more biological symptoms and increased suicidal ideation and plans to commit suicide. Findings may not generalize to males or to other patient populations. Since the threshold for treatment seeking differs as a function of education there may an ascertainment bias in the sample. The relationship between symptoms of MDD and educational status in Chinese women is unexpectedly complex. Our findings are inconsistent with the simple hypothesis from European and US reports that low levels of educational attainment increase the risk and severity of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lei; Winzenberg, Tania M; Chen, Mingsheng; Jiang, Qicheng; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    To determine the residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women. A validated state-transition microsimulation model was used. Microsimulation and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to address the uncertainties in the model. All parameters including fracture incidence rates and mortality rates were retrieved from published literature. Simulated subjects were run through the model until they died to estimate the residual lifetime fracture risks. A 10 year time horizon was used to determine the 10 year fracture risks. We estimated the risk of only the first osteoporotic fracture during the simulation time horizon. The residual lifetime and 10 year risks of having the first osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral or wrist) fracture for Chinese women aged 50 years were 40.9% (95% CI: 38.3-44.0%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 6.8-9.3%) respectively. For men, the residual lifetime and 10 year fracture risks were 8.7% (95% CI: 7.5-9.8%) and 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.7%) respectively. The residual lifetime fracture risks declined with age, whilst the 10 year fracture risks increased with age until the short-term mortality risks outstripped the fracture risks. Residual lifetime and 10 year clinical vertebral fracture risks were higher than those of hip and wrist fractures in both sexes. More than one third of the Chinese women and approximately one tenth of the Chinese men aged 50 years are expected to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. Due to increased fracture risks and a rapidly ageing population, osteoporosis will present a great challenge to the Chinese healthcare system. While national data was used wherever possible, regional Chinese hip and clinical vertebral fracture incidence rates were used, wrist fracture rates were taken from a Norwegian study and calibrated to the Chinese population. Other fracture sites like tibia, humerus, ribs and pelvis were not included in the analysis, thus these

  10. Traditional chinese herbal medicine for perimenopausal depression of chinese women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM in treatment of perimenopausal depression (PD in China. Methods: To identify randomized controlled trials, an electronic search has been conducted through databases as follows: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and WanFang Digital Periodicals Database. Methodological quality was evaluated by Cochrane Collaboration's tool which is able to assess the risk of bias in Review Manager Software. What's more, meta-analysis was performed by using Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software, (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, and Denmark. Dichotomous data were analyzed by using relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMDs and 95% CI. Subgroup analysis was performed by the type of medicine which was used in the experimental group. Results: This meta-analysis includes 11 randomized control trials with 818 patients. Compared to the control group (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [1.03, 1.26], P = 0.009 and WMD: −2.09, 95% CI: [ −3.58, −0.18], the experimental group had a significant higher clinical efficacy rate and relatively lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D score. For clinical efficacy rate, the results varied depending on the detail treatment measures of the experimental group. In the experimental group with TCHM, no significant difference was observed (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [0.97, 1.33], while in the experimental group combined with western medicine, a significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between the experimental group and control group showed up (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: [1.01, 1.32], P = 0.04. For the HAM-D score, subgroup analyses revealed that the

  11. Gambling with your life: the process of breast cancer treatment decision making in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy Wt; Fielding, Richard; Chan, Miranda; Chow, Louis; Or, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Treatment decision making (TDM) studies have primarily focused on assessing TDM quality and predominantly presume rational analytic processes as the gold standard. In a grounded theory study of 22 Hong Kong Chinese women following breast surgery who completed an in-depth interview exploring the process of TDM in breast cancer (BC), narrative data showed that discovery of a breast abnormality and emotional responses to BC diagnosis influence the TDM process. Lack of guidance from surgeons impaired TDM. Decisions were, for the most part, made using intuitive, pragmatic and emotionally driven criteria in the absence of complete information. The experience of TDM, which was likened to gambling, did not end once the decision was made but unfolded while waiting for surgery and the post-operative report. In this waiting period, women were emotionally overwhelmed by fear of death and the uncertainty of the surgical outcome, and equivocated over whether they had made the 'right' choice. This suggests that Chinese women feel they are gambling with their lives during TDM. These women are particularly emotionally vulnerable whilst waiting for their surgery and the post-surgical clinical pathology results. Providing emotional support is particularly important at this time when these women are overwhelmed by uncertainty. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Duration of television viewing and bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sunyue; Song, Aihua; Yang, Min; Ma, Xiaoguang; Fu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Shankuan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between television (TV) viewing and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether longer duration of TV viewing increased the risk of lower BMD in Chinese women. A total of 626 female adults were voluntarily recruited into the study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Body composition including total body and regional BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The duration of TV viewing was categorized into 4 groups: TV viewing and total and regional BMD in all subjects and in subjects stratified by age of 45 years, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking, education, income, urbanicity, leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity, and menopause, the significant trend of pelvic BMD across categories of TV viewing was observed in all subjects (p women aged women aged TV viewing was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese women, especially in those aged 18-44 years. It might be sensible to reduce TV viewing time to prevent bone loss in young women.

  13. The process of accepting breast cancer among Chinese women: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qin; Liu, Jun-E; Li, Zhi; Su, Ya-Li

    2017-06-01

    To describe the process by which Chinese women accept living with breast cancer. Individual interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese women who completed breast cancer treatment. Data were collected from September 2014 to January 2015 at a large tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. In this grounded theory study, data were analyzed using constant comparative and coding analysis methods. In order to explain the process of accepting having breast cancer among women in China through the grounded theory study, a model that includes 5 axial categories was developed. Cognitive reconstruction emerged as the core category. The extent to which the women with breast cancer accepted having the disease was found to increase with the treatment stage and as their treatment stage progressed with time. The accepting process included five stages: non-acceptance, passive acceptance, willingness to accept, behavioral acceptance, and transcendence of acceptance. Our study using grounded theory study develops a model describing the process by which women accept having breast cancer. The model provides some intervention opportunities at every point of the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Associations between dietary patterns and demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in Chinese community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined dietary patterns, and the associations of these patterns with demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in 3707 Chinese people aged 65 years and above taking part in a population-based cohort study investigating the risk factors for osteoporosis. Baseline dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Scores were calculated for each pattern. Demographics, lifestyle factors and self-reported hypertension history were collected through a questionnaire. BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely 'vegetables-fruit', 'snacks-drinks-milk products' and 'meat-fish'. Participants who were more physically active, more educated, non-smokers and non-drinkers were more likely to have higher 'vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores. Current smoking habit and alcohol use were associated with higher 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores and 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores. 'Vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores were inversely (unstandardised regression coefficient B = -0·60 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·04, -0·16) and 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores were positively (B = 0·50 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·92) associated with DBP in men in multiple regressions. Higher 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores were associated with higher BMI (B = 0·19 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·06, 0·33), waist-to-hip ratio (B = 0·004, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·007) and WC (B = 0·57 cm, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·97) in men, and higher BMI (B = 0·40 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·22, 0·57), WC (B = 0·87 cm, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·36) and HC (B = 0·61 cm, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·96) in women in multiple regressions. The influence of demographic and lifestyle characteristics on dietary patterns and the health risks associated

  15. Supportive care needs in Hong Kong Chinese women confronting advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Angel; Lam, Wendy; Tsang, Janice; Yau, Tsz-kok; Soong, Inda; Yeo, Winnie; Suen, Joyce; Ho, Wing M; Wong, Ka-yan; Kwong, Ava; Suen, Dacita; Sze, Wing-Kin; Ng, Alice; Girgis, Afaf; Fielding, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) are living longer, so understanding their needs becomes important. This cross-sectional study investigated the type and extent of unmet supportive care needs in Hong Kong Chinese women with advanced breast cancer. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among women with stage III or stage IV disease mostly awaiting chemotherapy (76%) to identify unmet needs using the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form, psychological morbidity using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptom distress using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and satisfaction with care using the Patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-9). About 27-72% of 198/220 (90%) women (mean age = 53.4 ± 9.74 (standard deviation) years) identified needs from the health system, information, and patient support (HSIPS) domain as the top 15 most prevalent unmet needs. 'having one member of hospital staff with whom you can talk to about all aspect of your condition, treatment, and follow-up' was most cited by 72% of the patients, with remaining unmet needs addressing mostly desire for information. Unmet need strength did not differ between women with stage III and stage IV disease, whereas women with first time diagnosis reported greater health system and information unmet needs compared with women with recurrent disease. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that symptom distress was consistently positively associated with all but sexuality need domains, whereas low satisfaction with care was associated with HSIPS (β = 3.270, p living (β = 2.810, p < 0.01) domains. Chinese women with ABC expressed need for continuity of care and improved information provision. High symptom distress was associated with lower levels of satisfaction with care. These unmet needs appear to reflect current care services shortcomings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Associations of dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views with gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Xiong, Ribo; Wang, Liang; Cui, Junying; Shi, Linna; Liu, Yungang; Luo, Bingde

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively. Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week. Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. the GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively). Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.

  17. Sexual revolution in China: implications for Chinese women and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick

    2011-06-01

    China is undergoing rapid changes in sexual mores due to several reasons such as decreasing control of the state over private lives of individuals, globalization of its economy, and some policies initiated by the state. There is increased acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex in China, especially among youth. In historically conservative China, influenced by Confucian ideals of patriarchal dominance for centuries, the sexual freedom currently enjoyed by many is unprecedented. This has impacted women's status and sexual lives in several positive ways such as increasing freedom of sexual expression, control over their bodies, sexual choices, and increasing equality with men in all spheres of life. However several negative consequences such as a rise in STD/HIV prevalence, commercial sex, and divorce rates have also been attributed to the ongoing sexual revolution in China. Recommendations combating these and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  18. Acculturation in the adaptation of Chinese-American women to breast cancer: a mixed-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Morisky, Donald E; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2011-12-01

    To explore how and to what extent acculturation and immigration affect Chinese-American immigrant women's breast cancer experience. Acculturation is an important indicator for immigrant health. Less empirical research has been conducted on the association between acculturation and breast cancer experience among Chinese immigrant women in the USA. A mixed methods study. A total of 107 Chinese-American women with breast cancer completed the structured questionnaire survey, and 16 women completed face-to-face in-depth interviews. In the quantitative findings, acculturation was related to health beliefs, social support and life stress. Cultural interpretations of the qualitative information are offered to show that breast cancer experience was intertwined with cultural adaptation in a given immigrant environment. Chinese cultural beliefs persistently, even after years of immigration, guide Chinese-American immigrant women to respond to breast cancer across the meaning of health and illness, family ties and involvement and social interaction. Our findings show that acculturation is related to health beliefs, social support and life stress in the trajectory of breast cancer adaptation among Chinese-American immigrant women. Life stresses derived from immigration bring additional difficulties for immigrant women living with cancer. This study pinpoints that traditional cultural beliefs and immigration stress may influence Chinese-American women to cope with breast cancer. To promote culturally sensitive cancer care for immigrants, healthcare professionals should be aware of and learn intercultural competence. Ethnic social support or outreach healthcare programme may benefit new immigrant families or the immigrant families, who lack social connection, to cope with cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Bonnie WM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27, dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93, antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90, and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14 predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early.

  20. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6-79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6-8 h/day, 11.5% slept 5h or less, and 8.7% slept 9h or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around 7 h/day (6.5-7.4h/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep

  1. Impact of gestational diabetes on the risk of diabetes following pregnancy among Chinese and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, G; Chiu, M; Shah, B R

    2012-08-01

    Ethnicity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are both risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether ethnicity modifies the effect of GDM on diabetes risk. We aimed to determine the risk of diabetes following pregnancy with and without GDM for Chinese and South Asian women compared with white women. Using healthcare databases, all 1,050,108 women aged 20-49 with live births between January 1995 and June 2008 in Ontario were identified. They were followed for up to 15 years for the diagnosis of diabetes. The age-standardised prevalences of GDM were 4.1%, 7.1% and 2.9% for Chinese, South Asian and white women, respectively. The cumulative incidence of diagnosed diabetes at the median follow-up time of 7.6 years was 16.5% and 1.8% for Chinese women with and without GDM, 31.8% and 3.6% for South Asian women with and without GDM, and 25.7% and 1.8% for white women with and without GDM. The presence of GDM conferred an increase in the risk for diabetes after pregnancy of more than 13-fold in white women, but only a nine- to tenfold increase among Chinese and South Asian women. Although one-third of South Asian women with GDM were diagnosed with diabetes within 8 years postpartum, the incremental impact of GDM on diabetes risk was not as strong among Chinese and South Asian women as it was among white women.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among pre-conception Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Su, Yi; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. It has been reported that periodontal disease is associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Given the fact that the treatment for periodontal disease during pregnancy was ineffective in improving pregnancy outcomes by most of studies, the pre-conception period has been put forward as a more optimal time. However, very few studies have reported the prevalence of periodontal disease among pre-conception women. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among Chinese pre-conception women. A survey was conducted among pre-conception women at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Changzhou, China between January 2012 and December 2014. A total of 987 pre-conception women were recruited for a full-mouth dental examination after providing informed consent. A dental examination was carried out by probing six sites per tooth using a manual UNC-15 probe and a recording form. The overall rate of periodontal disease among participants was 73.9% (729/987) (95% confidence interval (CI): 71.0-76.6%). Among women with periodontal disease, 48.0% of cases were mild, 50.9% were moderate and 1.1% were severe. Self-reported bleeding during tooth brushing was the only significant predictive factor for overall periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.71, 95% CI: 2.24, 6.15, P periodontal disease (aOR: 5.17, 95% CI: 3.05, 8.79, P periodontal disease was found in pre-conception Chinese women. Women who have bleeding during tooth brushing could be at increased risk of periodontal disease, and might require further oral health care.

  3. [Status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women during 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y; Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y; Lai, J Q

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To examine the status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women at different trimesters in 2010-2012. Methods: Participants were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, we recruited 2 805 singleton pregnant women with gestational age 13 weeks or more from 31 provinces of China. A standard questionnaire was used to collect general information and pre-pregnancy weight; body weight and height of pregnant women were measured using a unified weighing scale and stadiometer, dietary intake during the previous year was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with appropriate gestational weight gain. Results: Among 2 805 pregnant women, 1 441 were in the second (13-27 weeks) and 1 364 in the third trimesters (≥28 weeks) . In the 2(nd) trimester, 229 cases (15.9%), 440 cases (30.5%) and 772 cases (53.6%) were insufficient gestational weight gain, appropriate gestational weight gain and excessive gestational weight gain respectively. So were 256 cases (18.8%), 474 cases (34.8%), 634 cases (46.5%) in the 3(rd) trimester respectively. In the multivariate unconditional logistic model, less fruit intake was associated with insufficient weight gain for women in the 2(nd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 1.58 (1.06-2.34)). Pregnant women with Han ethnicity who live in the small/medium city had lower risk of insufficient weight gain in the 3(rd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 0.58 (0.34-0.98)). Those pregnant women with physical activity gain ( OR (95% CI ): 1.33 (1.02-1.73)). Conclusion: The prevalence of appropriate gestational weight gain was low in China. Our study suggests that pregnant weight gain is associated with fruit intake, types of residential area and physical activity.

  4. Skin Erythema, Pigmentation and Hydration Kinetics after Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Photodamage in Southern Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Miaojian; Hu, Rong; Xie, Xiaoyuan; Gong, Zijian; Yi, Jinling; Chen, Haiyan; Xie, Lin; Guan, Xiaomin; Guan, Lei; Lai, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Although there have been some studies about changes of skin erythema and pigmentation following ultraviolet radiation in other races, the relevant data in Chinese have never been achieved. Thus, we evaluated the long-time course of skin erythema, pigmentation and hydration changes after different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV) irradiation in 26 Chinese women for 168 days. The erythema index increased abruptly and peaked during 3 days of SSUV exposure, then slowly returned to the baseline level starting at day 7 and completely recovered during 168-day course of this study only in one minimal erythema doses (MED) SSUV irradiation. The melanin index started to slowly increase at day 3 of SSUV exposure, peaking at day 14 and gradually returned to the baseline level thereafter, but did not return to the baseline level during 168-day course in all doses. Skin hydration slowly declined at day 3 of exposure, hitting the lowest point at day 7, then slowly recovered starting at day 14 and completely returned to the baseline level at day 28 only in 1.5MED. These results will serve as baseline data on Chinese skin and provide useful references for the treatment of serious skin photodamage in Chinese. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liangshan; Jin, Wumin; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Association of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Binbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribbles 3 (TRB3 affects insulin signalling by inhibiting insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the second extron of the human TRB3 gene is thought to be associated with insulin resistance. The latter is a core abnormality in PCOS independent of obesity. The present study was designed to clarify the relationships of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with PCOS in a Chinese women group. Methods A case-control study with two groups: PCOS group (n = 336 and control group of infertility women for tubal and/or male factor (n = 116 was performed. Genotyping of the TRB3 R84 variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results The frequency of genotype QQ in PCOS women was significantly lower, while genotype QR and RR were significantly higher than that in control group (p Conclusions TRB3 Q84R polymorphism is associated with obesity and especially glucose metabolism and not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome because of compositional characteristics of phenotype in Chinese PCOS women.

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo women and Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xudong; Leonhart, Rainer; Nadig, Maya; Hasenburg, Annette; Wirsching, Michael; Fritzsche, Kurt

    2016-07-01

    This cross-cultural study aimed to compare climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo and Han Chinese women, and to explore the interaction between culture and climacteric symptoms. Mosuo is a Chinese minority group with a matriarchal structure, and Han Chinese is the majority ethnic group in China with a patriarchal structure. Through convenience sampling, 54 Mosuo women and 52 Han Chinese women between 40 and 60 years of age completed the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Compared with Han Chinese women, Mosuo women scored lower on the psychological (P psychological symptoms severity. Referring to the severity of all symptoms, predictive variables were: perceived support from family (β = -0.210, P = 0.017); self-esteem (β = 0.320, P Cultural variables such as familial structure, women's self-esteem, and perceived social support were correlated with symptomatology.

  8. Utility of obesity indices in screening Chinese postmenopausal women for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Zhu, Yanning

    2014-05-01

    Although a variety of indices have been used to assess obesity, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the best indicator of the effects of fat accumulation on Chinese postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Thus, the objectives of this study were to analyze the potential of different obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting MetS in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 1,234 Chinese postmenopausal women (aged 42-79 y) who participated in the annual health checkup was performed. The obesity indices of all participants, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass index (FMI), were measured or calculated. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to assess MetS risk factors. Spearman and partial correlations were used to assess correlations between obesity indices and MetS components. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of all indicators of MetS development. The values of BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF, and FMI that resulted in the maximization of the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) were defined as optimal. Among the participants, 38.8% (n = 479) were identified as having two or more nonadipose MetS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women had higher obesity indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. All indices were significantly associated with all MetS components even after controlling for age and C-reactive protein. A BMI of 24.0 kg/m, a WHR of 0.85, a WC of 79.9 cm, a WHtR of 0.49, a PBF of 29.9%, and an FMI of 7.2 kg/m were the optimal cutoff values for predicting at least two other MetS components according to ROC curve analysis. However, among the indicators of

  9. Socio-economic position and lower dietary moderation among Chinese immigrant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Marilyn; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2012-03-01

    To examine associations of education and occupation, as indicators of socio-economic position (SEP), with dietary intake and diet quality in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Cross-sectional. Data collection included four days of dietary recalls and information on education and current occupation for participants and their spouses. Philadelphia, PA, USA. Chinese immigrant women (n 423) recruited from October 2005 to April 2008. In multivariate models, both higher education level and occupation category were significantly associated with higher energy density and intake of energy and sugar. Education was additionally associated with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0·01) and lower dietary moderation (P = 0·01). With joint categorization based on both education and occupation, we observed significant trends indicating higher energy density (P = 0·004) and higher intake of energy (P = 0·001) and sugar (P = 0·04), but less dietary moderation (P = 0·02) with higher SEP. In this sample of US Chinese immigrants, higher SEP as indicated by education level and occupation category was associated with differences in dietary intake and with less dietary moderation. While higher SEP is typically linked to healthier diet in higher-income nations, in these immigrants the association of SEP with diet follows the pattern of their country of origin - a lower-income country undergoing the nutrition transition.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and documentation of medical history, diet, and lifestyle. Compared with controls, the risks of abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome in women with a history of GDM were 4.61, 1.30, 1.57 and 3.52, respectively. Fasting blood glucose, progestational body mass index (pBMI) and antenatal insulin resistance at antenatal visit were predictors for abnormal glucose metabolism. pBMI and antenatal diastolic blood pressure were predictors for hypertension. pBMI and weight gain during pregnancy were predictors for obesity/overweight. pBMI, antenatal systolic blood pressure and antenatal triglyceride were predictors for metabolic syndrome. Women with a history of GDM have increased rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome. pBMI is the common independent predictors of cardiometabolic disease in the post-partum.

  11. Venous thromboembolism risk and postpartum lying-in: Acculturation of Indian and Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melov, Sarah J; Hitos, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    many cultures have a set time of traditional rest in the postpartum period. There is limited information on how this activity may potentially increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to investigate VTE risk by determining the prevalence of the cultural practice of postpartum "lying-in", quantifying activity and determining the factors that influence this tradition in women from China and the Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) at an Australian tertiary referral hospital. we surveyed a prospective cohort of 150 women aged ≥ 18 years who self-identified culturally as from the Indian subcontinent or Chinese, at baseline (≥ 32 weeks gestation) and at follow-up (six to eight weeks postpartum). Demographic details collected included VTE risk factors such as caesarean section, lack of graduated compression stockings (GCS), postpartum haemorrhage greater than 1000mL, comorbidities and immobility. We quantified postpartum activities and investigated factors that might influence inactivity. there were 100 women identifying as from the Indian subcontinent and 50 women identifying as Chinese recruited at the baseline of over 32 weeks' gestation. Most of the study participants (85%) rested in the postpartum period for cultural reasons. Of the women surveyed, 51% rested in bed as much as possible in the postpartum period. We found a significant correlation between increased number of children and decreased overall immobility or rest (P = 0.03). Overall, 91% of participants had relative live-in help, and this significantly increased the risk of immobility by more than six-fold (odds ratio [OR], 6.17; 95% CI, 1.6-23.5; P = 0.008). Furthermore, a vaginal compared to a caesarean birth increased immobility risk by almost 3.5 times (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.20-9.4; P = 0.021). acculturation is highly individualised, however postpartum rest remains prevalent in women who identify themselves culturally as from the Indian subcontinent or as

  12. The role of culture in breast health practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Sullivan, Gerard; Cant, Rosemary

    2006-12-01

    Exploring how cultural meanings of the breast impact on perceived images of breast cancer and breast health practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Chinese-Australian women in their native language (Cantonese). The findings revealed that the meanings of the breast are constructed within the women's social and cultural context where breasts are associated with sex; and talking about, being concerned with or expressing curiosity about breasts is considered inappropriate. These views have a significant impact on (1) the way the informants viewed breast cancer; (2) perceptions of breast health practices; and (3) the explanations of breast cancer and associated risk perception. Understanding the nature of culturally-based barriers to utilization of breast cancer screening is the first step to discovering solutions for making screening tests more acceptable to women from other cultures. This study provides insight about obstacles for breast health promotion practices and for developing culturally appropriate health education programs and counselling strategies.

  13. Performing Work: Locality, Embodied Practice and Career Mobility of Chinese Women Bankers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-wan Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Women are emerging as significant actors in international financial industries concentrated in metropolitan cities which function as national and international business hubs. Based on 17 in-depth interviews with Chinese women bankers in Hong Kong, where one finds the highest concentration of banking institutions in the world, this paper examines the interplay between locality, gender performance and the career mobility of women bankers. The author argues that branch location is embedded within hierarchical fields of power and leads to different client groups, and ultimately, to different opportunities for upward mobility. Women bankers in Hong Kong are skilled in displaying multiple identities by using differentiated styles of language and different tongues, or languages, when interacting with different client groups in different branches. This strategy involves evaluative interpretation of perception because clients themselves make class distinctions according to different service settings. Although mid-level management teams in the banking industry have recently been rapidly feminised, this paper demonstrates that the glass ceiling is still real and continues to exert its invisible, negative impact. The upward mobility of Chinese women bankers is often blocked by informal barriers deeply embedded in the social structure and culture of both local society and international companies. These structural barriers and their resultant structured disadvantages for women are the consequence of the intersection, and sometimes the collusion, of ethnic politics, business or capitalist interests and social norms. Factors and structural forces such as race, ethnicity and gender are intertwined with and compounded to produce deep and far-reaching effects that are often beyond the control of the individual actor.

  14. The impact of sent-down movement on Chinese women's age at first marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shige Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chinese women's age at first marriage increased for more than three years on average during the short period between 1970 and 1979. Demographers attributed it to the 'later, longer, fewer' family planning policy of the 1970s whereas some sociologists suggested that the 'send-down' movement in 1968-1978, which mobilized over 17 million urban youths and sent them to the countryside, may also have played a role. Methods: Using newly available high-quality national representative sample survey data, we estimated the effect of being sent-down on women's age at first marriage. We then conducted counterfactual simulations to decompose the total increase in women's age of marriage between 1970 and 1979 into a component attributed to the send-down and a residual component attributed to other factors. Results: Our results suggest that being sent-down delayed Chinese women's age at first marriage by 1.2 years. For urban women, this accounts for 13.3 percent of the total increase in their age at first marriage between 1970 and 1979. For urban and rural women together, the overall contribution of send-down to the increase in their age of marriage is less than one percent. Conclusions: On one hand, the send-down policy did not play an important role in the demographic transition process in China. On the other hand, for the 17 million sent-down youths, being forced to leave home and settle in a harsh and unfamiliar rural environment at very young ages marked a hard transition to adulthood and inevitably disrupted their normal life course. Delayed marriage, as revealed by this study, may be just tip of the iceberg.

  15. Dependency of cardiovascular risk on reproductive stages and on age among middle-aged Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2017-10-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular risk in middle-aged Chinese women living in the same community and the impact of reproductive aging and age. This was a cross-sectional study in the Yuetan Community of Beijing. Data on lifestyle habits, prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases with significance for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development were collected by interview. CVD risk factors were assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham 10-year risk score. STRAW +10 criteria were used for the stages of reproductive aging. A total of 536 women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. The incidences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes were 32.6%, 45.7%, 65.5%, 37.9% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjustment, the incidence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age and with reproductive aging. Dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance were only associated with age. Abdominal obesity was related neither to age nor to reproductive aging. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 1% to 24.8%; 11.6% of women had a moderate or high Framingham 10-year risk score. CVD risk factors were frequent and more than 10% of the women were at moderate or high risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years. To our knowledge, this was demonstrated for the first time in middle-aged Chinese women. Thus, women should maintain a healthy lifestyle and physicians should monitor them to prevent CVD.

  16. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  17. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40–89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women. PMID:29742176

  18. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  19. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  1. Influence of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome groups on quality of life in women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī syndrome groups are based on the symptoms of human diseases and guide the use of Chinese herbs. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TCM syndrome groups on biochemical characteristics and quality of life (QOL in women with metabolic syndrome (MS. Among the 1080 registered female patients screened at our outpatient clinic, a total of 322 women aged between 18 and 65 years and meeting the requirements of MS were enrolled. All the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire on metabolic TCM syndrome groups and a questionnaire on the QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Short Form-12 (SF-12. Data of biochemical characteristics were collected at the same time. The present study showed MS women in TCM syndrome groups had significantly lower physical and mental component scores in SF-12 compared with those not in TCM syndrome groups. We also found MS patients in TCM syndrome groups, except Kidney Deficiency syndrome, showed higher body mass indexes, waist circumference, and hip circumference. However, there was almost no difference in most biochemical characteristics between TCM syndrome groups. The MS patients diagnosed as belonging to TCM syndrome groups had poor QOL.

  2. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Jia, Xiaofang; Huang, Feifei; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women. In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG. Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS. We studied 2468 women aged 18-80 years from the CHNS. We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=-0·68; 95 % CI -1·22, -0·14; Ppattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; Ppattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; Ppatterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.

  3. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  4. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  5. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yu Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. Methods: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. Results: The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. Conclusion: The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health

  6. Metformin improved health-related quality of life in ethnic Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang-TzOu,; Chen, Pei-Chi; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed whether the amelioration of the clinical signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) achieved by treatment leads to improvement in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients. This study was aimed to examine the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS who received metformin treatment. Methods This prospective study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Study participants aged 18?45 years were diagnosed as having PCOS according to the Rotter...

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and the development of recurrent major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19-5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.

  8. Childhood sexual abuse and the development of recurrent major depression in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set?Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression.We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD.In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.

  9. Higher Fetal Insulin Resistance in Chinese Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Correlation with Maternal Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measur...

  10. Unmet supportive care needs: a cross-cultural comparison between Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Au, Angel H Y; Wong, Jennifer H F; Lehmann, Claudia; Koch, Uwe; Fielding, Richard; Mehnert, Anja

    2011-11-01

    The comparison of psychosocial needs across different cultural settings can identify cultural and service impacts on psychosocial outcomes. We compare psychosocial needs in Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer. Completed questionnaires were collected from 348 Chinese and 292 German women with breast cancer for assessing unmet psychosocial needs (Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form), psychological distress (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), and listed physical and psychological symptoms. Only 11% of the participants reported not needing help for any of the 34 items. More German (14%) than Chinese women (8%) reported no unmet needs (χ(2) = 6.16, P = .013). With both samples combined, the Health System and Information domain unmet needs were the most prevalent, apart from one Psychological need domain item, "Fear about the cancer spreading." Chinese and German samples differed significantly in prevalence and patterns of unmet psychosocial needs. Multivariate adjustment for demographic, clinical, and sample characteristics, psychological distress, and symptoms showed that significantly greater unmet Health system and Information, and Patient care and support domain needs, associated with the presence of symptoms (β = .232, P German group membership, among others. German women reported more anxiety (t = 10.45, P German, but not Chinese women reporting greater anxiety and depression had greater unmet Psychological and Sexuality domain needs (P culture-specific differences in supportive care needs exist. Hong Kong Chinese women prioritize needs for information about their disease and treatment, whereas German Caucasian women prioritize physical and psychological support. Planning for cancer supportive care services or interventions to reduce unmet needs must consider cultural and/or health service contexts.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  12. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  13. Seasonal skin darkening in Chinese women: the Shanghaiese experience of daily sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huixia; Flament, Frederic; Long, Xiaohui; Wu, Jun; Xu, Mengzhi; Leger, Didier Saint; Meaudre, Helene; Senee, Jerome; Piot, Bertrand; Bazin, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The facial skin tone of two groups of Chinese women from Shanghai was compared using standard colorimetric space techniques during a 6-month interval between January and July 2011. During the study period, one group of women (n = 40) applied a potent sun-protective cosmetic product daily, while the other group (n = 40) did not use any sun protection. The results, based on images taken using a standardized digital camera coupled to a spectroradiometer, showed that sun protection largely mitigated changes in the components of skin tone, ie, lightness, melanization, and individual typology angle parameters. The skin darkening process appeared to be reduced or prevented in the sun-protected group when compared with the control group. The sun-protected women had participated in an earlier study in 2008, which confirmed that seasonal skin darkening occurs from winter through summer in Shanghaiese women. Comparing the data obtained in the winters of 2008 and 2011, we were able to identify better the impact of 3 years of aging on the components of skin tone. Comparing data between seasons on the same women with (2011 study) and without (2008 study) sun protection highlights the role of the test product in preventing skin darkening.

  14. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  15. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  16. Strain, Negative Emotions, and Level of Criminality Among Chinese Incarcerated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu

    2016-05-01

    General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Suicidal risk factors of recurrent major depression in Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhang Zhu

    Full Text Available The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD. Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.

  18. Dietary patterns and their associations with general obesity and abdominal obesity among young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B

    2015-09-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.

  19. Serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Abliz, Guzalnur; Mijit, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Despite many epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidant micronutrients on risk of cervical cancer, the findings remain uncertain and little evidence is available for serum nutrient markers. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case- control study in which 358 adults (158 incident cases and 200 controls) were recruited from Xinjiang, China. Serum levels of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were assessed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We found inverse associations between serum carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) and tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentrations and the risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders, but a null association for retinol. The ORs for 1-SD increase were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56- 0.92; p=0.003) for total carotenoids and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.94; p=0.008) for total tocopherols. These results show that higher serum concentrations of some carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

  20. Coping Profiles Differentiate Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.

  1. A pri-miR-218 variant and risk of cervical carcinoma in Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Xi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wei, Qingyi; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Meng-Yun; He, Jing; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Meng-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may compromise miRNA binding affinity and modify mRNA expression levels of the target genes, thus leading to cancer susceptibility. However, few studies have investigated roles of miRNA-related SNPs in the etiology of cervical carcinoma. In this case–control study of 1,584 cervical cancer cases and 1,394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two miR-218-related SNPs involved in the LAMB3-miR-218 pathway and the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. We found that the pri-miR-218 rs11134527 variant GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical carcinoma compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.63-0.95, P=0.015). However, this association was not observed for the miR-218 binding site SNP (rs2566) on LAMB3. Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, we observed some evidence of interactions of these two SNPs with other risk factors, especially age at primiparity and menopausal status, in the risk of cervical carcinoma. The pri-miR-218 rs11134527 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings

  2. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive effects on

  3. Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Jia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV seroprevalence data have not previously been reported for different geographical regions of China. This study investigated the cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in Chinese women. Methods Population-based samples of women were enrolled from 2006 to 2007 in 3 rural and 2 urban areas of China. Each consenting woman completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum antibodies were detected using a competitive Luminex immunoassay that measures antibodies to type-specific, neutralizing epitopes on the virus-like particles. Results A total of 4,731 women (median age 35, age range 14-54 were included, of which 4,211 were sexually active women (median age 37 and 520 virgins (median age 18. Low risk HPV 6 was the most common serotype detected (7.3%, followed by HPV 16 (5.6%, HPV 11 (2.9%, and HPV 18 (1.9%. Overall HPV seroprevalence to any type was significantly higher among sexually active women (15.8% than virgins (2.5% (P = 0.005. Overall seroprevalence among sexually active women gradually increased with age. Women from rural regions had significantly lower overall seroprevalence (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, versus metropolitan regions, P  = 4 partners versus 1 partner, P  Conclusions HPV seroprevalence differed significantly by age, geography, and sexual behavior within China, which all should be considered when implementing an optimal prophylactic HPV vaccination program in China.

  4. Comparison of anxiety between smokers and nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Rayens, Mary K; An, Kyungeh; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn; Garvin, Bonnie J; Moser, Debra K

    2006-11-01

    Increased anxiety correlates with increased complications after acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety levels and use of anxiolytic agents have not been compared between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized because of acute myocardial infarction. To compare anxiety level, sociodemographic factors, and clinical variables between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction and to examine predictors of use of beta-blockers and anxiolytic agents among smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary data analysis of a prospective multisite study on anxiety in 181 smokers and 351 nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety was measured by using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the anxiety subscale of the Basic Symptom Inventory within 72 hours of admission. Smokers reported higher anxiety levels than nonsmokers reported on both anxiety scales. Female smokers reported the highest anxiety and peak pain levels of all, yet women were the least likely to receive anxiolytic agents. Smoking status was not a predictor for anxiety level when sex, peak pain, use of beta-blockers in the hospital, and age were controlled for. However, smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent and 60% more likely to receive a beta-blocker in the emergency department, and smokers were 80% more likely than nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent during hospitalization when these variables were controlled. Older female smokers are at risk for complications because they are older than their male counterparts and less likely to receive beta-blockers and antianxiety medications in the emergency department.

  5. Association Study between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and the Susceptibility Genes Polymorphisms in Hui Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Ha

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders. Evidence of familial aggregation analysis and different clinical traits among different regions and ethnicities indicated that the pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Our previous research had identified three susceptibility loci (rs2479106, DENND1A; rs13405728, LHCGR; rs13429458, THADA for PCOS in Han Chinese women. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three susceptibility gene polymorphisms and PCOS in Hui ethnic women.151 patients with PCOS (case group and 99 healthy women (control group were recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Center of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Clinical data and serum hormone characteristics of case and control groups were collected and analyzed. The three susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been replicated in both case and control groups. Gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction.The Body Mass Index, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to control group (P0.05.The present study suggested that the SNP rs13405728 in the LHCGR gene was associated with PCOS in Hui ethnic women, and its TT genotype characterized with higher level of TT, TG and LDL.

  6. Risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes in Chinese women from urban cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Weiyuan; Xu, Huan; Liang, Huan; Ruan, Yan; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in urban areas in China and examine the associated risk factors. A population-based, prospective study was undertaken in 14 cities in China between January 1, 2011, and January 31, 2012. Women were recruited at their first prenatal-care visit, when maternal characteristics were recorded. Risk factors were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Of 112 439 women included in analyses, 3077 (2.7%) had PPROM. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of PPROM before 28weeks of pregnancy in migrant women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-3.30; P<0.001), in those with a history of recurrent induced abortions (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.66-4.56; P<0.001), and in those with a history of preterm birth (OR 3.90; 95% CI 0.77-19.61; P<0.001). The associations were maintained in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). Migration as a result of urbanization, high rates of induced abortion, and preterm birth are potential risk factors for PPROM in Chinese women. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and pilot‐testing of a Decision Aid for use among Chinese women facing breast cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Angel H.Y.; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Chan, Miranda C.M.; Or, Amy Y.M.; Kwong, Ava; Suen, Dacita; Wong, Annie L.; Juraskova, Ilona; Wong, Teresa W.T.; Fielding, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Women choosing breast cancer surgery encounter treatment decision‐making (TDM) difficulties, which can cause psychological distress. Decision Aids (DAs) may facilitate TDM, but there are no DAs designed for Chinese populations. We developed a DA for Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, for use during the initial surgical consultation. Aims  Conduct a pilot study to assess the DA acceptability and utility among Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods  Women preferred the DA in booklet format. A booklet was developed and revised and evaluated in two consecutive pilot studies (P1 and P2). On concluding their initial diagnostic consultation, 95 and 38 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer received the draft and revised draft DA booklet, respectively. Four‐day post‐consultation, women had questionnaires read out to them and to which they responded assessing attitudes towards the DA and their understanding of treatment options. Results  The original DA was read/partially read by 66/22% (n = 84) of women, whilst the revised version was read/partially read by 74/16% (n = 35), including subliterate women (χ2 = 0.76, P = 0.679). Knowledge scores varied with the extent the booklet was read (P1: F = 12.68, d.f. 2, P utility, [except for the ‘treatment options’ (χ2 = 5.50, P = 0.019) and ‘TDM guidance’ (χ2 = 8.19, P = 0.004) sections] without increasing anxiety (F = 0.689, P = 0.408; F = 3.45, P = 0.073). Conclusion  The DA was perceived as acceptable and useful for most women. The DA effectiveness is currently being evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. PMID:21223468

  8. The influence of knowledge and perception of the risk of cervical cancer on screening behavior in mainland Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Twinn, Sheila; Choi, Kai Chow

    2012-12-01

    Theories of health behavior and empirical research highlight the risk perception as a significant factor for people adopting cancer screening. However, screening uptakes and risk perception of cervical cancer in mainland Chinese women remains unknown. This paper adopted the protection motivation theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing utilization of cervical screening. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 167 participants in mainland China (79 nonscreened and 88 screened women) in 2007 which consisted of four sections: background information, women's attendance pattern for cervical screening, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and PMT measures. All women considered themselves at low risk of cervical cancer. No significant association was observed between previous screening uptake and PMT variables. Using multivariate analysis, having children, a perception that visiting doctors regularly is important to health, average and high levels of knowledge about cervical screening were significantly associated with having been received screening. Chinese women demonstrated an unrealistic optimism about their personal risk of cervical cancer. The findings do not support an association between risk perception and screening uptake. In spite of this, current findings revealed some possible factors influencing women's screening behavior. This study highlights the significance of knowledge and culturally-relevant health behavior and beliefs about cervical screening for Chinese women in determining whether or not they receive screening. The promotion of cervical cancer prevention and early detection should be integrated into public education about women's health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Role of IL-17 Variants in Preeclampsia in Chinese Han Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested an important role for IL-17, mainly secreted by Th17 cells, in the development of systemic inflammation in preeclampsia (PE. This study therefore investigated the association between genetic variants in IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17RA and susceptibility to PE in Chinese Han women. We recruited 1,031 PE patients and 1,298 controls of later pregnant women, and used TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR to genotype the polymorphisms of IL17A rs2275913, IL-17F rs763780, and IL-17RA rs4819554. No significant differences in genotypic or allelic frequencies were found at all three polymorphic sites between PE patients and controls (rs2275913: genotype χ2 = 0.218, p = 0.897 and allele χ2 = 0.157, p = 0.692, OR = 1.024, 95%CI 0.911-1.152; rs763780: genotype χ2 = 1.948, p = 0.377 and allele χ2 = 1.242, p = 0.265, OR = 0.897, 95%CI 0.741-1.086; rs4819554: genotype χ2 = 0.633, p = 0.729 and allele χ2 = 0.115, p = 0.735, OR = 1.020, 95%CI 0.908-1.146. There were also no significant differences in genetic distributions between mild/severe PE or early/late-onset PE and control subgroups. Our data indicate that the genetic variants of rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA may not play a role in the pathogenesis of PE in Chinese Han women. However, these findings should be confirmed in other ethnic populations.

  10. Effects of seasonality and a daily photo-protection upon some facial signs of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Qiu, H

    2017-06-01

    These were two-fold: (i) to record through standardized pictures, the possible changes in 31 facial signs induced, in a 6-month period, by the periodical shift from winter to summer in a group of 43 Chinese women and (ii) to appraise the preventive effects of a strong photo-protective product, daily applied to the faces of an additional group (N = 40) of women of same age-range and presenting same severities of facial signs in winter. Facial signs (structural and pigmentation-related) were scored in blind by a panel of 12 experts from photographs taken under standard conditions. Scorings were performed under specific scales as established by a previously published referential Skin Aging Atlas, Volume 2, Asian Type. A significant seasonal impact was found for more than 60% of facial signs, that is presenting a higher severity in summer in the unprotected group. Some changes are of a low or subtle extent, whereas some others show significant amplitudes. The latter comprise eight signs, among the 31, that became, far above scoring threshold, indeed affected during this 6-month period. The observed changes in six of these eight signs, in majority related to pigmentation, appeared efficiently alleviated in the photo-protected group. The shift from winter to summer exposure is confirmed in altering some facial pigmented signs among Chinese women. Such changes appear much alleviated by a daily strong photo-protective regimen. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Pconfrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  12. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  13. Optimizing resource allocation for breast cancer prevention and care among Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene O L; Tsang, Janice W H; Cowling, Benjamin J; Leung, Gabriel M

    2012-09-15

    Recommendations about funding of interventions through the full spectrum of the disease often have been made in isolation. The authors of this report optimized budgetary allocations by comparing cost-effectiveness data for different preventive and management strategies throughout the disease course for breast cancer in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese women. Nesting a state-transition Markov model within a generalized cost-effectiveness analytic framework, costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared to estimate average cost-effectiveness ratios for the following interventions at the population level: biennial mass mammography (ages 40-69 years or ages 40-79 years), reduced waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (by 15% or by 25%), adjuvant endocrine therapy (either upfront aromatase inhibitor [AI] therapy or sequentially with tamoxifen followed by AI) in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease, targeted immunotherapy in those with tumors that over express human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and enhanced palliative services (either at home or as an inpatient). Usual care for eligible patients in the public sector was the comparator. In descending order, the optimal allocation of additional resources for breast cancer would be the following: a 25% reduction in waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (in US dollars: $5000 per QALY); enhanced, home-based palliative care ($7105 per QALY); adjuvant, sequential endocrine therapy ($17,963 per QALY); targeted immunotherapy ($62,092 per QALY); and mass mammography screening of women ages 40 to 69 years ($72,576 per QALY). Given the lower disease risk and different age profiles of patients in HK Chinese, among other newly emergent and emerging economies with similar transitioning epidemiologic profiles, the current findings provided direct evidence to support policy decisions that may be dissimilar to current Western practice. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  14. A survey of overall life satisfaction and its association with breast diseases in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Aili; Li, Haixin; Huang, Yubei; Liu, Xueou; Gao, Ying; Wang, Peishan; Dai, Hongji; Song, Fengju; Hao, Xishan; Chen, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between overall life satisfaction and healthy lifestyle, knowledge of breast cancer, physical examination, and detection rate of breast cancer and benign breast disease in Chinese women. In a multicentered breast disease screening program in China, we enrolled 33,057 women aged 45-65 years without prior diagnosis of breast cancer. After completing an epidemiological questionnaire, all participants were examined by clinical breast examination, breast ultrasound, and mammography independently. All breast cancer cases and a selected sample of benign breast diseases were confirmed pathologically. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between life satisfaction and lifestyle, knowledge of breast cancer, physical examination, and detection rate of breast diseases. Overall life satisfaction was positively associated with women's healthy lifestyle. Compared with less satisfied women, satisfied women were less likely to be smokers (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.47-0.62), have more exercise (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.26-1.75), eat less fried (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.50-0.71), smoked (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.47-0.63), pickled (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55-0.79), and grilled (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74) foods. Satisfied women were more likely to have knowledge of breast cancer (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.29-1.70), and have regular physical examinations (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12). Compared to less satisfied women, we found significantly lower detection rate of benign breast diseases (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99), and lower but nonsignificant detection rate of breast cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.35-1.25) in satisfied women. Women with a higher overall life satisfaction are more likely to have healthy lifestyle, knowledge of breast cancer, and regular physical examination, thus resulting in a lower detection rate of breast diseases in screening. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine

  15. Effect of Acupuncture and Clomiphene in Chinese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kuang, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hong-Li; Gao, Jing-Shu; Xie, Liang-Zhen; Hou, Li-Hui; Hu, Zhen-Xing; Shao, Xiao-Guang; Ge, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Xue, Hui-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Liang, Rui-Ning; Ma, Hong-Xia; Yang, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei-Li; Huang, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yun; Hao, Cui-Fang; Du, Shao-Min; Yang, Zheng-Wang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Ying; Chen, Xiu-Hua; Fu, Ping; Ding, Cai-Fei; Gao, Ya-Qin; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Wang, Chi Chiu; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Ping; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Legro, Richard S.; Zhang, Heping

    2017-01-01

    Importance Acupuncture is used to induce ovulation in some women with polycystic ovary syndrome, without supporting clinical evidence. Objective To assess whether active acupuncture, either alone or combined with clomiphene, increases the likelihood of live births among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants A double-blind (clomiphene vs placebo), single-blind (active vs control acupuncture) factorial trial was conducted at 21 sites (27 hospitals) in mainland China between July 6, 2012, and November 18, 2014, with 10 months of pregnancy follow-up until October 7, 2015. Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to 4 groups. Interventions Active or control acupuncture administered twice a week for 30 minutes per treatment and clomiphene or placebo administered for 5 days per cycle, for up to 4 cycles. The active acupuncture group received deep needle insertion with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation; the control acupuncture group received superficial needle insertion, no manual stimulation, and mock electricity. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was live birth. Secondary outcomes included adverse events. Results Among the 1000 randomized women (mean [SD] age, 27.9 [3.3] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 24.2 [4.3]), 250 were randomized to each group; a total of 926 women (92.6%) completed the trial. Live births occurred in 69 of 235 women (29.4%) in the active acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 66 of 236 (28.0%) in the control acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 31 of 223 (13.9%) in the active acupuncture plus placebo group, and 39 of 232 (16.8%) in the control acupuncture plus placebo group. There was no significant interaction between active acupuncture and clomiphene (P = .39), so main effects were evaluated. The live birth rate was significantly higher in the women treated with clomiphene than with placebo (135 of 471 [28.7%] vs 70 of 455 [15

  16. Effect of Acupuncture and Clomiphene in Chinese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Ke; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kuang, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hong-Li; Gao, Jing-Shu; Xie, Liang-Zhen; Hou, Li-Hui; Hu, Zhen-Xing; Shao, Xiao-Guang; Ge, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Xue, Hui-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Liang, Rui-Ning; Ma, Hong-Xia; Yang, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei-Li; Huang, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yun; Hao, Cui-Fang; Du, Shao-Min; Yang, Zheng-Wang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Ying; Chen, Xiu-Hua; Fu, Ping; Ding, Cai-Fei; Gao, Ya-Qin; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Wang, Chi Chiu; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Ping; Ng, Ernest H Y; Legro, Richard S; Zhang, Heping

    2017-06-27

    Acupuncture is used to induce ovulation in some women with polycystic ovary syndrome, without supporting clinical evidence. To assess whether active acupuncture, either alone or combined with clomiphene, increases the likelihood of live births among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A double-blind (clomiphene vs placebo), single-blind (active vs control acupuncture) factorial trial was conducted at 21 sites (27 hospitals) in mainland China between July 6, 2012, and November 18, 2014, with 10 months of pregnancy follow-up until October 7, 2015. Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to 4 groups. Active or control acupuncture administered twice a week for 30 minutes per treatment and clomiphene or placebo administered for 5 days per cycle, for up to 4 cycles. The active acupuncture group received deep needle insertion with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation; the control acupuncture group received superficial needle insertion, no manual stimulation, and mock electricity. The primary outcome was live birth. Secondary outcomes included adverse events. Among the 1000 randomized women (mean [SD] age, 27.9 [3.3] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 24.2 [4.3]), 250 were randomized to each group; a total of 926 women (92.6%) completed the trial. Live births occurred in 69 of 235 women (29.4%) in the active acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 66 of 236 (28.0%) in the control acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 31 of 223 (13.9%) in the active acupuncture plus placebo group, and 39 of 232 (16.8%) in the control acupuncture plus placebo group. There was no significant interaction between active acupuncture and clomiphene (P = .39), so main effects were evaluated. The live birth rate was significantly higher in the women treated with clomiphene than with placebo (135 of 471 [28.7%] vs 70 of 455 [15.4%], respectively; difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 8.0% to 18.5%) and not significantly different between women treated

  17. Effect of sports bra type and gait speed on breast discomfort, bra discomfort and perceived breast movement in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaona; Gho, Sheridan A; Wang, Jianping; Steele, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sports bra type (encapsulation versus compression) and gait speed on perceptions of breast discomfort, bra discomfort and breast movement reported by Chinese women. Visual analogue scales were used to evaluate breast discomfort, bra component discomfort and perceived breast movement of 21 Chinese participants when they wore an encapsulation or a compression sports bra, while static and while exercising at three different gait speeds. Participants perceived less breast discomfort and breast movement when wearing a compression bra compared to an encapsulation bra at a high gait speed, suggesting that compression bras are likely to provide the most effective support for Chinese women. However, significantly higher bra discomfort was perceived in the compression bra compared to the encapsulation bra when static and at the lower gait speed, implying that ways to modify the design of sports bras, particularly the straps, should be investigated to provide adequate and comfortable breast support. The compression sports bra provided more comfortable support than the encapsulation sports bra for these Chinese women when running on a treadmill. However, these women perceived higher bra discomfort when wearing the compression bra when stationary. Further research is needed to modify the design of sports bras, particularly the straps, to provide adequate and comfortable breast support.

  18. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  19. Effects of stigma on Chinese women's attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Li, Jingjing; Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Kane, Robert L; Wang, Kefang

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether and how stigma influences attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence, and whether its effect varies by symptom severity. Urinary incontinence is prevalent among women, but few seek treatment. Negative attitudes towards urinary incontinence treatment inhibit from seeking care. Urinary incontinence is a stigmatised attribute. However, the relationship between stigma and attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence has not been well understood. This was a cross-sectional community-based study. We enrolled a sample of 305 women aged 40-65 years with stress urinary incontinence from three communities in a Chinese city between May-October in 2011. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, urinary incontinence symptoms, stigma and attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence using a self-reported questionnaire. Effects of stigma were analysed using path analysis. Attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence were generally negative. For the total sample, all the stigma domains of social rejection, social isolation and internalised shame had direct negative effects on treatment-seeking attitudes. The public stigma domain of social rejection also indirectly affected treatment-seeking attitudes through increasing social isolation, as well as through increasing social isolation and then internalised shame. The final model accounted for 28% of the variance of treatment-seeking attitudes. Symptom severity influenced the strength of paths: the effect of internalised shame was higher in women with more severe urinary incontinence. Stigma enhances the formation of negative attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence; public stigma affects treatment-seeking attitudes through internalisation of social messages. Stigma reduction may help incontinent women to form positive treatment-seeking attitudes and engage them in treatment. Interventions should specifically target

  20. Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Jiang, Lizhu

    2015-02-01

    Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.

  1. Effects of acculturation, coping strategies, locus of control, and self-efficacy on chronic pain: study of Chinese immigrant women in Italy - insights from a thematic field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Tania Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Siri, Anna; Cisneros Puebla, César; Friese, Susanne; Simões, Mário; Candau, Joël; Khabbache, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a common public health concern worldwide. It is a complex phenomenon, owing to the interaction of different factors, including biological, physiological, psychological, environmental, and social variables. Some groups, such as women and immigrants, are particularly vulnerable. However, little is known about how Chinese women in Italy live with and face chronic pain. The present study aimed at filling this knowledge gap by examining the burden of chronic pain in Chinese immigrants in Italy in terms of acculturation processes, perceived control over disease, social networks, and coping strategies. A qualitative approach was used, performing a thematic field analysis. We interviewed 82 Chinese women from different Italian towns (Genoa, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, and Prato) in depth. The sense of belonging to the host culture was strong in our sample. However, this did not simply reflect or translate into a linear engagement with medical systems, as health care pathways were more complex and dual (both Chinese and Western). Chinese women who felt deeply rooted in the Italian environment did not discontinue the use of traditional Chinese medicine. Chronic pain extensively and adversely affected daily life, particularly interfering with work. Coping strategies were mainly adaptive behaviors, being problem focused or maladaptive, relying upon "cope and avoid" mechanisms. Chinese women preferred to use traditional Chinese remedies rather than conventional medicine, while using the Italian system in emergencies. Perceived control over chronic pain was usually external. Finally, Chinese women with chronic pain benefit from social networks and support, which were mainly composed of Chinese peers. In conclusion, our findings underline the tremendous burden of chronic pain affecting all aspects of Chinese women's lives. Health care workers and providers should be aware of the complexity of chronic pain Therefore, a holistic approach, involving

  2. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  3. Professional Immigrant Women's Experiences of Managing Work and Family Conflicts: The Case of Chinese and Taiwanese Faculty in Research Intensive Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates first-generation Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women faculty's workplace experiences and their strategies for managing work and family demands. By looking at how immigration, ethnicity, gender, and work processes shape these women's ideology and practices, this study addresses the following questions: How do married Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women in research-intensive universities handle work and family conflicts? How do they negotiate their gender-role expect...

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced

  5. Sexual dysfunction among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong: prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-03-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  6. Perceptions of Why Women Stay in Physically Abusive Relationships: A Comparative Study of Chinese and U.S. College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Brandie; Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y

    2018-05-01

    In both China and the United States, public attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have shifted from viewing IPV as a tolerable, private matter to viewing it as a matter of public concern that should be dealt with as a crime. Empirical and comparative examinations of the perceptions of why women stay in physically abusive relationships are lacking. Answering this question calls for comprehensive, methodologically rigorous research. Using survey data collected from approximately 1,000 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors that impact U.S. and Chinese students' perceptions as to why women remain in physically abusive relationships. Utilizing a theoretical framework of social constructionism, two common reasons were assessed: Women stay in physically abusive relationships because of learned helplessness and positive beliefs in the relationship/hope for the future. The results show that viewing IPV as a crime, gender, and beliefs of the causes of IPV were robust predictors of college students' perceptions toward why women stay in physically abusive relationships. U.S. college students were more likely to express sympathy and understanding toward why women remain in abusive relationships than Chinese students. Directions for future research and policy implications were discussed.

  7. "Better Than Bank Robbery": Yuezi Centers and Neoliberal Appeals to Market Birth Tourism to Pregnant Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yadong; Bates, Benjamin R

    2018-04-01

    "Birth tourism" has rarely been addressed by scholars. The ways that pregnant women are encouraged to leave their homelands and give birth abroad have not been investigated. Birth tourism agencies may seek to persuade women that particular destinations-such as the US-are ideal places for giving birth. An examination of how birth tourism agencies frame birth tourism may offer initial insights into this phenomenon. This study examines 34 agencies' home pages and their arguments advocating birth tourism for Chinese expectant mothers. Using a thematic approach, we find four reasons offered to pregnant Chinese women that make birth tourism appealing. This perspective helps us to understand birth tourism both as a health-related behavior and a cosmopolitan issue. We use neoliberalism as an analytic framework to examine how birth tourism may enhance inequality in health resource distribution both domestically and internationally.

  8. [Exploring the Experience of Dysmenorrhea and Life Adjustments of Women Undergoing Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Min; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lee, Shih-Min; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies of women with dysmenorrhea have focused on menstrual attitudes, the characteristics of menstrual pain, and self-care behavior. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies on dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, have focused on the efficacy and safety of TCM treatments. Few studies have investigated how women perceive their own TCM-treatment experience of dysmenorrhea. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of dysmenorrhea and life adjustments of women undergoing TCM treatment. A semi-structured interviewing guide was used to collect data. A total of 40 dysmenorrheal women participated in the study. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted for about 60-90 minutes with each participant. Their speech tone, facial expressions, and gestures during the interview process were also observed and recorded. The findings were analyzed using content analysis via ATLAS. ti 5.2 software. The process that the participants used to adjust to dysmenorrhea were distinguished into four progressive stages: "tip of the iceberg", "ice-breaking", "tug-of-war", and "blending-in". Initially, the participants perceived the symptoms of dysmenorrhea as the "tip of the iceberg". They attempted to hide / ignore the initial pain until the problem gradually worsened to the point that the symptoms began to significantly affect various aspects of life. It was only then that the participants began to pay attention to the problem and to seek help from TCM practitioners, which we defined as the "ice-breaking" stage. If they encountered unexpected situations with regard to the treatment regimen, the participants entered the "tug-of-war" stage, during which they struggled over whether to continue with TCM treatments. Afterward, the participants gradually achieved a "blending-in" of new ideas, which allowed them to identify the strategies that best facilitated adjustment and rebalancing. Eventually, the participants achieved a new life balance. The outcomes of the

  9. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao-Yu; Li, Jue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Guang-Hua; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health education, and dietary education), especially during the women who do

  10. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  11. Evaluation of Women with Myofascial Abdominal Syndrome Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Mitidieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to investigate vital energy (Qi behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS. Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine, menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%, possessed a elementary school (66%, and had one or two children (76%. The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0 and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7, respectively. A large majority of women (96% exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the

  12. Breast cancer screening behavior, attitude, barriers among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yan Xiang; Lao, Cheng-Kin; Chan, Alexandre

    2018-05-08

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among females in Macao, but little is known about local practice of breast cancer screening. The study aims to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors and to identify the predictors of insufficient knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer and its screening among female residents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2016 in Macao. Quota sampling of women completed the modified Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs questionnaire (CBCSB) to assess their breast cancer-related perceptions, screening attitudes and behaviors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of poor-screening practices, attitudes, knowledge and perceived barriers to mammography. A total of 417 women (mean age±SD: 50.5±5.7) completed surveys, with 160 (38.4%), 196 (47.0%) and 103 (24.7%) women received breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as recommended, respectively. Nulliparity (OR=2.56, 95% CI = 1.14-5.73) and low education (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84) were significantly associated with negative attitude towards health check-ups. Women did not know anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.50-3.55) were more likely to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. Low education (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.25-3.04) and not knowing anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31-3.13) were identified as predictors for perceived barriers to mammography. Recommendations for breast cancer screening are poorly followed by the residents in Macao, and a culturally tailored educational program is urgently needed to raise the public's awareness of the disease and the screening practices.

  13. Effects of early age at natural menopause on coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2017-08-15

    Menopause is identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because of the change of estrogen. The objective of the study was to explore the associations between early age at natural menopause (menopause at an age≤45years) and the presence of CHD and stroke. The study subjects were from the first follow-up survey of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. A total of 16,515 postmenopausal women were included for the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between age at natural menopause (≤45, 45-52, >52years) and the presence of CHD and stroke adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive history and metabolic factors. In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the prevalence of CHD and stroke was reduced by 3% (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 5% (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively. Women with early menopause (≤45years) had a higher prevalence of CHD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Similarly, women with early menopause (≤45years) was associated with higher prevalence of stroke (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Early age at natural menopause is significantly associated with the presence of CHD and stroke among Chinese women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [Cost-effectiveness of multiple screening modalities on breast cancer in Chinese women from Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Mo, M; Qin, X X; Fang, H; Zhao, G M; Liu, G Y; Chen, Y Y; Cao, Z G; Yan, Y J; Lyu, L L; Xu, W H; Shao, Z M

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To determine the most cost-effective modality for breast cancer screening in women living in Shanghai. Methods: A Markov model for breast cancer was redeveloped based on true effect which was derived from a project for detection of women at high risk of breast cancer and an organized breast cancer screening program conducted simultaneously in Minhang district, Shanghai, during 2008 to 2012. Parameters of the model were derived from literatures. General principles related to cost-effectiveness analysis were used to compare the costs and effects of 12 different screening modalities in a simulated cohort involving 100 000 women aged 45 years. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to determine the most cost-effective modality. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate how these factors affected the estimated cost-effectiveness. Results: The modality of biennial CBE followed by ultrasonic and mammography among those with positive CBE was observed as the most cost-effective one. The costs appeared as 182 526 Yuan RMB per life year gained and 144 386 Yuan RMB per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) saved, which were within the threshold of 2-3 times of local per capita Gross Domestic Product. Results from sensitivity analysis showed that, due to higher incidence rate of breast cancer in Shanghai, the cost per QALY would be 64 836 Yuan RMB lower in Shanghai than the average level in China. Conclusion: Our research findings showed that the biennial CBE program followed by ultrasonic and mammography for those with positive CBE results might serve as the optimal breast cancer screening modality for Chinese women living in Shanghai, and thus be widely promoted in this population elsewhere.

  15. Women Crossing Borders: The Changing Identities of Professional Chinese Migrant Women in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Around the western world, migration programs are increasingly targeting skilled professionals as governments view migration through the lens of economic efficiency. The majority of Australia’s migration intake now comprises skilled migrants, chosen for their human capital attributes. However, once skilled migrants arrive in Australia, they confront many barriers to re-establishing their careers in a new labour market. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data to explore the consequences of this career disruption for professional women from Hong Kong, who often find themselves reorienting their identities and values away from the world of work and towards non-market-based spheres of life, such as family, leisure and self-development. This evolution challenges the Australian government’s economistic definitions of social citizenship, where migrants are seen almost exclusively as economic beings. Despite the government’s objectives, for many new arrivals, migration to Australia is an opportunity to explore other, non-economic, aspects of life.

  16. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guang-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Qian, Zhengmin, E-mail: zqian2@slu.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Ma, Wenjun [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510300 (China); Chen, Weiqing [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110014 (China); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Chang, Jen-Jen [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women.

  17. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Chen, Weiqing; Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Emo, Brett; Chang, Jen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women

  18. Chinese women's experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R

    2018-06-01

    To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.

  19. Uric acid and diabetes risk among Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Wang, Leishen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Lili; Tian, Huiguang; Xun, Pengcheng; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association of uric acid (UA) with the risks of postpartum type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional study of 1262 GDM women at 1-5 years after delivery using the baseline data from the Tianjin Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of serum UA with the risks of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) across quartiles of serum UA were 1.00, 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-2.78), 2.05 (95% CI 0.96-4.39), and 3.17 (95% CI 1.54-6.55) (P trend  diabetes, and 1.00, 1.50 (95% CI 1.03-2.19), 2.28 (95% CI 1.58-3.30), and 2.88 (95% CI 1.99-4.17) (P trend  diabetes and prediabetes. This positive association was significant when stratified by healthy weight and overweight participants. Serum UA levels have a graded positive association with the risks of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among Chinese with a history of GDM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Night-shift work and breast cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xue, Shouzheng; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Shift work involving disruption of circadian rhythms has been classified as a probable cause of human cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on limited epidemiologic evidence and abundant experimental evidence. The authors investigated this association in a population-based prospective cohort study of Chinese women. At baseline (1996-2000), information on lifetime occupational history was obtained from 73,049 women. Lifetime night-shift exposure indices were created using a job exposure matrix. During 2002-2004, self-reported data on frequency and duration of night-shift work were collected. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for major breast cancer risk factors, were calculated. During follow-up through 2007, 717 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Breast cancer risk was not associated with ever working the night shift on the basis of the job exposure matrix (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.2) or self-reported history of night-shift work (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 1.1). Risk was also not associated with frequency, duration, or cumulative amount of night-shift work. There were no indications of effect modification. The lack of an association between night-shift work and breast cancer adds to the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence. It may be premature to consider shift work a cause of cancer.

  1. SNP (-617C>A in ARE-like loci of the NRF2 gene: a new biomarker for prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in Japanese non-smoking women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Okano

    Full Text Available The transcription factor NRF2 plays a pivotal role in protecting normal cells from external toxic challenges and oxidative stress, whereas it can also endow cancer cells resistance to anticancer drugs. At present little information is available about the genetic polymorphisms of the NRF2 gene and their clinical relevance. We aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRF2 gene as a prognostic biomarker in lung cancer.We prepared genomic DNA samples from 387 Japanese patients with primary lung cancer and detected SNP (c.-617C>A; rs6721961 in the ARE-like loci of the human NRF2 gene by the rapid genetic testing method we developed in this study. We then analyzed the association between the SNP in the NRF2 gene and patients' overall survival.Patients harboring wild-type (WT homozygous (c.-617C/C, SNP heterozygous (c.-617C/A, and SNP homozygous (c.-617A/A alleles numbered 216 (55.8%, 147 (38.0%, and 24 (6.2%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that SNP homozygote (c.-617A/A was significantly related to gender. Its frequency was four-fold higher in female patients than in males (10.8% female vs 2.7% male and was associated with female non-smokers with adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, lung cancer patients carrying NRF2 SNP homozygous alleles (c.-617A/A and the 309T (WT allele in the MDM2 gene exhibited remarkable survival over 1,700 days after surgical operation (log-rank p = 0.021.SNP homozygous (c.-617A/A alleles in the NRF2 gene are associated with female non-smokers with adenocarcinoma and regarded as a prognostic biomarker for assessing overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Inverse association of serum vitamin D in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhu, Jiaan; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Nine hundred and twenty six Chinese postmenopausal women without carotid artery plaque or history of cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis. Measurements of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and C-IMT were made by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Trend analysis was conducted according to tertiles of C-IMT. The median serum 25(OH)D3 level was 11.03 ng/mL, with an interquartile range of 8.22-14.70. A decreasing trend of serum 25(OH)D3 level was accompanied by increased C-IMT tertiles (P for trend = 0.001). Correlation analysis found an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and C-IMT (r = -0.113, P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 level independently and negatively associated with C-IMT (Standard β = -0.112, P women with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure and body mass index, and without undergoing lipid-lowering therapy (standard β = -0.140, P = 0.018). Serum 25(OH)D3 level was inversely correlated with C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  3. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Yang

    Full Text Available Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores.The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6% of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression.Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive

  4. Association of p21 SNPs and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Shizhuo; Zhang, Qiao; Lu, Yanming; Wei, Heng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Shulan; Yin, Duo; Ou, Yangling

    2012-01-01

    The p21 codon 31 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1801270, has been linked to cervical cancer but with controversial results. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of p21 SNP-rs1801270 and other untested p21 SNPs in the risk of cervical cancer in a Chinese population. We genotyped five p21 SNPs (rs762623, rs2395655, rs1801270, rs3176352, and rs1059234) using peripheral blood DNA from 393 cervical cancer patients and 434 controls. The frequency of the rs1801270 A allele in patients (0.421) was significantly lower than that in controls (0.494, p = 0.003). The frequency of the rs3176352 C allele in cases (0.319) was significantly lower than that in controls (0.417, p < 0.001).The allele frequency of other three p21 SNPs showed not statistically significantly different between patients and controls. The rs1801270 AA genotype was associated with a decreased risk for the development of cervical cancer (OR = 0.583, 95%CI: 0.399 - 0.853, P = 0.005). We observed that the three p21 SNPs (rs1801270, rs3176352, and rs1059234) was in linkage disequilibrium (LD) and thus haplotype analysis was performed. The AGT haplotype (which includes the rs1801270A allele) was the most frequent haplotype among all subjects, and both homozygosity and heterozygosity for the AGT haplotype provided a protective effect from development of cervical cancer. We show an association between the p21 SNP rs1801270A allele and a decreased risk for cervical cancer in a population of Chinese women. The AGT haplotype formed by three p21 SNPs in LD (rs1801270, rs3176352 and rs1059234) also provided a protective effect in development of cervical cancer in this population

  5. Change in bone mineral density and its determinants in pre- and perimenopausal Chinese women: the Hong Kong Perimenopausal Women Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S C; Chan, S G; Yip, Y B; Chan, C S Y; Woo, J L F; Sham, A

    2008-12-01

    This 30-month study investigating bone change and its determinants in 438 perimenopausal Chinese women revealed that the fastest bone loss occurred in women undergoing menopausal transition but maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were beneficial for bone health. Soy protein intake also seemed to exert a protective effect. This 30-month follow-up study aims to investigate change in bone mineral density and its determinants in Hong Kong Chinese perimenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty-eight women aged 45 to 55 years were recruited through random telephone dialing and primary care clinic. Bone mass, body composition, lifestyle measurements were obtained at baseline and at 9-, 18- and 30-month follow-ups. Univariate and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed with the regression coefficients of BMD/C (derived from baseline and follow-up measurements) as the outcome variables. Menopausal status was classified as pre- or postmenopausal or transitional. Menopausal status was the strongest determinant of bone changes. An annual bone loss of about 0.5% was observed among premenopausal, 2% to 2.5% among transitional, and about 1.5% in postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analyses, revealed that a positive regression slope of body weight was protective for follow-up bone loss at all sites. Number of pregnancy, soy protein intake and walking were protective for total body BMC. Higher baseline LM was also protective for neck of femur BMD. Maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were observed to have a protective effect on for bone loss in Chinese perimenopausal women.

  6. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Takiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction.We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7 or as the lower limit of the normal.Among 323 patients presenting with FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7, 43 had asthma and 280 did not. Among the non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34% were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001, or were non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p < 0.001. Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005 and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001. Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p < 0.001. Using the lower limit of the normal to define airflow obstruction yielded similar results.There are a substantial number of non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  7. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  8. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function) were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, Pinsulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019), in the pregnant women with GDM. Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  9. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24?28?weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ?7.8?mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels wit...

  10. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between vaginal pathogenic community and bacterial vaginosis in Chinese reproductive-age women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxin Ling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05. With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

  12. Familial risks and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lap Ah Tse

    Full Text Available The role of family history to the risk of breast cancer was analyzed by incorporating menopausal status in Hong Kong Chinese women, with a particular respect to the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ type.Seven hundred and forty seven breast cancer incident cases and 781 hospital controls who had completed information on family cancer history in first-degree relatives (nature father, mother, and siblings were recruited. Odds ratio for breast cancer were calculated by unconditional multiple logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status (a surrogate of endogenous female sex hormone level and age and type of relative affected with the disease. Further subgroup analysis by tumor type according to ER status was investigated.Altogether 52 (6.96% breast cancer cases and 23 (2.95% controls was found that the patients' one or more first-degree relatives had a history of breast cancer, showing an adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.41 (95%CI: 1.45-4.02. An excess risk of breast cancer was restricted to the ER+ tumor (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.38-4.28, with a relatively higher risk associated with an affected mother (OR = 3.97, 95%CI: 1.46-10.79 than an affected sister (OR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.07-3.97, while the relative risk was more prominent in the subgroup of pre-menopausal women. Compared with the breast cancer overall, the familial risks to the ER+ tumor increased progressively with the number of affected first-degree relatives.This study provides new insights on a relationship between family breast cancer history, menopausal status, and the ER+ breast cancer. A separate risk prediction model for ER+ tumor in Asian population is desired.

  13. Familial risks and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lap Ah; Li, Mengjie; Chan, Wing-cheong; Kwok, Chi-hei; Leung, Siu-lan; Wu, Cherry; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Yu, Wai-cho; Lao, Xiangqian; Wang, Xiaorong; Wong, Carmen Ka-man; Lee, Priscilla Ming-yi; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiaohong Rose

    2015-01-01

    The role of family history to the risk of breast cancer was analyzed by incorporating menopausal status in Hong Kong Chinese women, with a particular respect to the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) type. Seven hundred and forty seven breast cancer incident cases and 781 hospital controls who had completed information on family cancer history in first-degree relatives (nature father, mother, and siblings) were recruited. Odds ratio for breast cancer were calculated by unconditional multiple logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status (a surrogate of endogenous female sex hormone level and age) and type of relative affected with the disease. Further subgroup analysis by tumor type according to ER status was investigated. Altogether 52 (6.96%) breast cancer cases and 23 (2.95%) controls was found that the patients' one or more first-degree relatives had a history of breast cancer, showing an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.41 (95%CI: 1.45-4.02). An excess risk of breast cancer was restricted to the ER+ tumor (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.38-4.28), with a relatively higher risk associated with an affected mother (OR = 3.97, 95%CI: 1.46-10.79) than an affected sister (OR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.07-3.97), while the relative risk was more prominent in the subgroup of pre-menopausal women. Compared with the breast cancer overall, the familial risks to the ER+ tumor increased progressively with the number of affected first-degree relatives. This study provides new insights on a relationship between family breast cancer history, menopausal status, and the ER+ breast cancer. A separate risk prediction model for ER+ tumor in Asian population is desired.

  14. [Association between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-qiong; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Jing; He, Li-ping; Chen, Zong-qiu; Chen, Yu-ming

    2011-06-01

    To assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and osteoporosis. 2202 women aged 50 - 73 years were included in this cross-sectional study from the communities in Guangzhou, from July 2008 to January 2010. Cardiovascular risk factors including age, years since menopause, physical activity, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, glucose and uric acid, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were assessed. Ultrasonic bone density (speed of sound) at the radius and tibia were determined. Osteoporosis was defined as T-score ≤ -2.5. Common factors for the cardiovascular risk factors were extracted using the factor analysis method. Eight common factors representing obesity, lean mass, blood triglycerides and uric acid, cholesterol, age, blood pressure, IMT and physical activity were extracted. Data from the Multivariate logistic regression showed a dose-dependent association of greater scores of age and IMT factors and lower score of lean mass factor with the increased risk of osteoporosis at the radius and tibia. As compared with the bottom quartile, the OR (95%CI) of radius and tibia osteoporosis were 0.62 (0.44 - 0.88) and 0.62 (0.48 - 0.80) for lean mass factor, 4.02 (2.72 - 5.94) and 3.68 (2.81 - 4.82) for age factor, 1.41 (1.00 - 2.00) and 1.54 (1.19 - 2.00) for IMT factors, respectively. Moreover, greater blood pressure score was associated with higher risk of radius osteoporosis while the higher obese score, was correlated with the increased risk of tibia osteoporosis. The cardiovascular-related risk factors of greater IMT, obesity, blood pressure and lower lean mass scores were associated with increased osteoporosis risks while called for more concern among the Chinese women.

  15. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  16. The common variant rs11646213 is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-peng Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. A recent genome-wide association study of blood pressure reported an association between hypertension and rs11646213. This study evaluated the association between preeclampsia and rs11646213. METHODS: A total of 454 cases and 460 controls were recruited to participate in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs11646213 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: The allele frequency of rs11646213 was significantly different between the preeclampsia and control groups (P = 0.017, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.76. Differences were particularly significant in the severe preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.002, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.03 and the early-onset preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.004, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.16-2.13. Genotyping analysis showed that the T allele of rs11646213 could confer a risk for preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: Rs11646213 upstream of the CDH13 gene is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.

  17. CHRONICITY OF DEPRESSION AND MOLECULAR MARKERS IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF HAN CHINESE WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C; Aggen, Steven H; Cai, Na; Bigdeli, Tim B; Peterson, Roseann E; Docherty, Anna R; Webb, Bradley T; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Flint, Jonathan; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-04-25

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with changes in mean telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. This study investigates if clinical features of MDD differentially impact these molecular markers. Data from a large, clinically ascertained sample of Han Chinese women with recurrent MDD were used to examine whether symptom presentation, severity, and comorbidity were related to salivary telomere length and/or mtDNA copy number (maximum N = 5,284 for both molecular and phenotypic data). Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of longest episode was positively associated with mtDNA copy number, while earlier age of onset of most severe episode and a history of dysthymia were associated with shorter telomeres. Other factors, such as symptom presentation, family history of depression, and other comorbid internalizing disorders, were not associated with these molecular markers. Chronicity of depressive symptoms is related to more pronounced telomere shortening and increased mtDNA copy number among individuals with a history of recurrent MDD. As these molecular markers have previously been implicated in physiological aging and morbidity, individuals who experience prolonged depressive symptoms are potentially at greater risk of adverse medical outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A case-control study on risk factors of breast cancer in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Shu-De; Tian, Fu-Guo; Fan, Zhi-Min; Geng, Cui-Zhi; Cao, Xu-Chen; Yang, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Hong; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-Chuan; Duan, Xue-Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Guo-Lou; Wang, Qi-Tang; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-Hai; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-Guang; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Yu, Li-Xiang; Xiang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Liang; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Qin-Ye; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Gao, De-Zong; Li, Yu-Yang; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-Miao; Wang, Yong-Jiu; Zhou, Wen-Zhong; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2017-11-14

    This study aimed to investigate risk factors associated with breast cancer among Han Chinese women in northern and eastern China. A matched case-control study involving 1489 patients with breast cancer and 1489 controls was conducted across 21 hospitals in 11 provinces in China, from April 2012 to April 2013. We developed a structured questionnaire to record information from face-to-face interviews with participants. Student's t-tests, Pearson's chi-square tests, and univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables with significant differences between the case and control groups. Ten variables were identified (P ratio, menopause, family history of breast cancer, present life satisfaction, sleep satisfaction, milk products, behavior prevention scores, and awareness of breast cancer. We identified a comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer, among which several manageable factors may contribute to breast cancer prevention. Further prospective studies concerning psychological interventions, sleep regulation, health guidance, and physical exercise are required. A screening model for high-risk populations should be put on the agenda.

  19. Maintenance vitamin D3 dosage requirements in Chinese women with post menopausal osteoporosis living in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Yogeswari; Hatta, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad; Musa, Nurbazlin; Rahman, Siti Abdul; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Paramasivam, Sharmila Sunita; Lim, Lee Ling; Ibrahim, Luqman; Choong, Karen; Tan, Alexander Tb; Chinna, Karuthan; Chan, Siew Pheng; Vethakkan, Shireene R

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics. 90 Chinese Malaysian PMO women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2°30'N) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels >=50 nmol/L were recruited. Prior vitamin D supplements were discontinued and subjects randomized to oral cholecalciferol 25,000 IU/4-weekly (Group-A) or 50,000 IU/4-weekly (Group- B) for 16 weeks, administered under direct observation. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, serum/urinary calcium were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Baseline characteristics, including osteoporosis severity, sun exposure (~3 hours/week), and serum 25(OH)D did not differ between treatment arms. After 16 weeks, 91% of women sufficient at baseline, remained sufficient on 25,000 IU/4-weekly compared with 97% on 50,000 IU/4-weekly with mean serum 25(OH)D 108.1±20.4 and 114.7±18.4 SD nmol/L respectively (p=0.273). At trial's end, 39% and 80% of insufficient women at baseline attained sufficiency in Group A and Group B (p=0.057). Neither dose was associated with hyperparathyroidism or toxicity. Despite pretrial vitamin D supplementation and adequate sun exposure, 25.6% Chinese Malaysian PMO women were vitamin D insufficient indicating sunshine alone cannot ensure sufficiency in the tropics. Both ~900 IU/day and ~1800 IU/day cholecalciferol can safely maintain vitamin D sufficiency in >90% of Chinese Malaysian PMO women. Higher doses are required with baseline concentration <75 nmol/L.

  20. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Improvement of the facial evenness of leave-on skincare products by a modified application method in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y; Wang, X; Fan, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the habits of Chinese women applying leave-on skincare products (LOSCP) and to improve female facial evenness of anti-ageing cosmetics through modifying facial skincare smear ways. A questionnaire on the method of applying LOSCP was distributed to 60 women with habit of using LOSCP. Their facial images before and after applying LOSCP were taken, and their positioning and grey value were used to analyse the effects of different applying methods on the uniformity of facial LOSCP. LOSCP including anti-ageing cosmetics have been widely used among Chinese women for a long time. However, some women do not concern how to properly apply LOSCP. In our survey, the main focal points of the face are forehead, malar region, cheek, mouth corners and chin when they looking into the mirror, and mouth corners and inner canthus are often overlooked when applying cosmetic products. The image analysis found that after applying the LOSCP, the greyscale of the forehead, glabella, malar region, upper lip region and jaw changed significantly whereas that of canthus, mouth corners and lateral cheek region was not significantly different. Applying an improved smear method (11-point method)could significantly increase the grey values of various facial areas. The way of Chinese women applying LOSCP may result in facial unevenness of skin products. By improving facial skincare smear method, one can make the products even in all facial areas, thereby ensuring the efficacy of anti-ageing cosmetics. Thus, further improvement and education regarding skincare is required. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated serum uric acid among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Han women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association between vitamin D insufficiency and hyperuricemia has not been reported so far. We aimed to study the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated serum uric acid among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Han women. METHODS: We collected data from participants residing in Jinchang district of Suzhou from January to May, 2010. Serum uric acid, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and other traditional biomarkers including fasting plasma glucose and blood lipids were determined in 1726 women aged above 30 years. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was analyzed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. RESULTS: Among postmenopausal women, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level of participants with elevated uric acid was lower than that of those with normal uric acid (median [interquartile range]: 35[28-57] vs 40[32-58], µg/L; P = 0.006. Elevated uric acid was more prevalent in participants with vitamin D insufficiency compared to those without vitamin D insufficiency (16.50% vs 8.08%; P<0.001. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was not significant among premenopausal women. However, participants with vitamin D insufficiency were more likely to have elevated uric acid compared with those without vitamin D insufficiency among postmenopausal women (OR, 95% CI: 2.38, 1.47-3.87. Moreover, after excluding individuals with diabetes and/or hypertension, the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated uric acid was still significant (OR, 95% CI: 2.48, 1.17-5.44. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with elevated uric acid among postmenopausal Chinese Han women. This study suggested that a clinical trial should be conducted to confirm the association of vitamin D insufficiency with hyperuricemia.

  3. Genetic variants of the kynurenine-3-monooxygenase and postpartum depressive symptoms after cesarean section in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Ying; Duan, Kai-Ming; Tan, Xiao-Fang; Yin, Ji-Ye; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Yang, Mi; Peng, Cheng; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2017-06-01

    New conceptualizations of depression have emphasized the role of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the pathogenesis of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a rate-limiting enzyme of the KP, where it catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). Previous work indicates that KMO is closely linked to the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether variations in the KMO gene affect PDS development after cesarean section. A total of 710 Chinese women receiving cesarean section were enrolled in this study. PDS was determined by an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥13. Subsequently, 24 women with PDS and 48 matched women without PDS were randomly selected for investigation of perinatal serum concentrations of KYN, 3-HK and the 3-HK/KYN ratio. The 3-HK/KYN ratio indicates the activity of KMO. In addition, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the KMO gene were examined. Following this genotyping, 36 puerperant women carrying the KMO rs1053230 AG genotype and 72 matched puerperant women carrying the KMO rs1053230 GG genotype were selected for comparisons of KYN, 3-HK and 3-HK/KYN ratio levels. The results show the incidence of PDS in the Chinese population to be 7.3%, with PDS characterized by increased serum 3-HK concentration and 3-HK/KYN ratio, versus matched postpartum women without PDS (PKMO rs1053230 are significantly associated with the incidence of PDS (PKMO rs1053230 AG genotype are significantly higher than those in matched postpartum women carrying the KMO rs1053230 GG genotype. The presented data highlight the contribution of alterations in the KP to the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. Heightened KMO activity, including as arising from KMO rs1053230 G/A genetic variations, are indicated as one possible mechanism driving the biological underpinnings of PDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beliefs about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter W H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Young, Phyllis M C; Lo, Sue S T; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2007-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and beliefs on cervical cancer and HPV infection and to evaluate the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women. Seven focus groups were conducted with ethnic Chinese women aged 18-25 (n=20), 26-35 (n=13), and 36 and above (n=16) in a community women's health clinic in Hong Kong in 2006. The discussions were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed. Recurrent themes related to cervical cancer, HPV infection and vaccination were highlighted. Diverse conceptions on likely causes of cervical cancer were noted, covering biological, psychological, environmental, lifestyle and sexual factors. Most women had not heard of HPV and its mode of transmission. The participants had difficulties understanding and accepting the linkage between cervical cancer and the sexually transmitted HPV infection. HPV infection was seen as personally stigmatizing with significant adverse impact on self-esteem and significant relationships. Participants favored HPV vaccination both for themselves and their teenage daughters if authoritative endorsement was provided. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on cervical cancer and HPV were common. Most participants welcomed and favored having HPV vaccination. Apart from promoting HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention should also include strategies to promote knowledge and minimize the stigmatizing effect of a sexually transmitted HPV infection.

  5. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Among Chinese Women: A 10-Year Nationwide Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Hui; He, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Pang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer. Methods Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999–2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the χ2 test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies. Results As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women. Conclusions Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women. PMID:24270059

  6. Chinese Men and "Leftover Women" : How do Chinese Men Position Themselves in Relation to the Concept of Labelling Women as "Leftover"?

    OpenAIRE

    Uddsten, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of gender inequality in China. Today, women are pressured to get married by the state and their social surroundings, as they told if they remain unmarried and have the "three highs"; high age, education and salary, they will become leftovers on the marriage market. Previous research on the concept of labelling women as "leftover" has 4 shown that labelling women as "leftover" can have several different negative impacts. In this thesis, both the theo...

  7. Dietary changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian women: the GUSTO birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Low, Yen Ling; Fok, Doris; Han, Wee Meng; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter; Godfrey, Keith; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Soh, Shu E; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Dam, Rob M

    2014-09-01

    To examine changes in food consumption during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women of major Asian ethnic groups. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed changes in food consumption during pregnancy (26-28 weeks' gestation) and the postpartum period (3 weeks after delivery) as compared with the usual pre-pregnancy diet. Singapore. Pregnant women (n 1027) of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity (mean age 30·4 (SD 5·2) years) who participated in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. During pregnancy, participants tended to increase their consumption of milk, fruit and vegetables and decrease their consumption of tea, coffee, soft drinks and seafood (all P postpartum period (Chinese: 94·8 %, Malay: 91·6 %, Indian: 79·6 %). During the postpartum period, participants tended to increase their consumption of fish and milk-based drinks and decrease their consumption of noodles, seafood, and chocolates and sweets (all P postpartum period. For example, most Chinese participants (87·2 %) increased their ginger consumption during the postpartum period as compared with smaller percentages of Malays (31·8 %) and Indians (40·8 %; P for ethnic difference postpartum period. Traditional beliefs should be considered in interventions to improve dietary intakes during these periods.

  8. Getting over the Patriarchal Barriers: Women's Management of Men's Smoking in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese family is a patriarchal power system. How the system influences young mothers' agency in managing family men's smoking is unknown. Applying a gender lens, this ethnographic study explored how mothers of young children in Chinese extended families reacted to men's smoking. The study sample included 29 participants from 22 families.…

  9. A cross-sectional study of associations between casual partner, friend discrimination, social support and anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  11. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  12. Metformin improved health-related quality of life in ethnic Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-TzOu; Chen, Pei-Chi; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2016-08-24

    Few studies have assessed whether the amelioration of the clinical signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) achieved by treatment leads to improvement in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients. This study was aimed to examine the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS who received metformin treatment. This prospective study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Study participants aged 18-45 years were diagnosed as having PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria, and all received metformin treatment. Their HRQoL was assessed using generic (WHOQOL-Bref) and PCOS-specific (Chi-PCOSQ) instruments. Mixed effect models were used to examine the effects of metformin on repeatedly measured HRQoL. Additional analyses using stratified patients characteristics (overweight vs. normal; hyperandrogenism vs. non-hyperandrogenism) were done. We recruited 109 participants (56 % were overweight, 80 % had hyperandrogenism). Among the domain scores of WHOQOL-Bref, the psychological domain score was the lowest one (12.64 ± 2.2, range 4-20). Weight (3.25 ± 1.59, range 1-7) and infertility (3.38 ± 1.93, range 1-7) domain scores were relatively low among the domain scores of Chi-PCOSQ. Overweight and hyperandrogenic patients had significantly lower HRQoL as compared with those of normal weight and non-hyperandrogenic patients, respectively. Metformin significantly improved the physical domain of WHOQOL-Bref (p = 0.01), and the infertility (p = 0.043) and acne and hair loss aspects (p = 0.008) of PCOS-specific HRQoL. In the subgroup analysis, significantly improved HRQoL following metformin treatment appeared for only overweight and hyperandrogenism subgroups. Metformin might improve health-related quality of life of polycystic ovary syndrome women by ameliorating psychological disturbances due to acne, hair loss and infertility problems, especially for overweight and hyperandrogenic patients.

  13. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Polymorphisms in steroid hormone biosynthesis genes and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Blackston, Christie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Gao, Dao Li; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Chen, Chu

    2008-05-01

    Common variants in genes encoding for key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis may alter sex steroid hormone levels, thereby influencing susceptibility to breast carcinoma and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined genotypes of the CYP11A1 pentanucleotide [(TAAAA)n] repeat (D15S520), CYP17A1 rs743572, and HSD17B1 rs605059 polymorphisms in relation to the risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions, comparing 615 women with breast cancer and 467 women with fibrocystic breast conditions separately with 879 women without clinical breast disease. We also evaluated whether these relationships differed by the presence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium or fibrocystic lesions, menopausal status, or body mass index. Only CYP11A1 genotype was related to breast cancer risk, with women homozygous for the 4-repeat allele, relative to those homozygous for the 6-repeat allele, at reduced risk (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.91). There was some suggestion of a stronger inverse association for breast cancer with evidence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium than for breast cancer without extratumoral proliferation. Breast cancer risk associated with CYP11A1 genotype did not differ by menopausal status or body mass index level. No associations between CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and HSD17B1 genotypes and risk of fibrocystic breast conditions were observed. Our findings support the possibility that common allelic variation at the CYP11A1 D15S520 locus alters breast cancer risk in Chinese women.

  15. Respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and oxidant air pollution in nonsmoking adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C.A.; Hudson, A.R.; Clauson, J.L.; Knelson, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of 197 nonsmokers (Seventh Day Adventists) residing in the San Gabriel Valley (high oxidant) with 244 living in San Diego area (similar pollution but with lower oxidant) is discussed. Study was conducted in winter when differences between the two areas were negligible and thus when irreversible effects could be detected. Some unusual findings included: an unexpectedly low chronic bronchitis prevalence rate of 1.77% as compared with the general population, a greater prevalence of chronic bronchitis in women in both areas (not significant), and no effect of socio-economic status. Comparison of pulmonary function using VC, FEV, MEF, peak flow, time constant, and FVC showed no differences between the two groups. The annual mean oxidant level is about the same in both areas and may have influenced spirometric values more than oxidant peaks. Also, these tests may not have been sufficiently sensitive.

  16. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  17. HBsAg carrier status and the association between gestational diabetes with increased serum ferritin concentration in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Tse, Ka-Yu; Chan, Louis Y; Tam, Kar-Fai; Ho, Lai-Fong

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether the high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our population can explain the previous observation of an association between increased maternal serum ferritin concentration and gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women. A retrospective study was performed on 767 nonanemic women with singleton pregnancy who had iron status assessed at 28-30 weeks. The result of the routine antenatal HBsAg screening was retrieved from patient records. The HBsAg-positive and -negative groups were compared for maternal characteristics, prevalence of gestational diabetes in the third trimester, prevalence of high serum ferritin and iron concentrations, and transferrin saturation, which is defined as a value in the highest quartile established by the measurements obtained from the HBsAg-negative group. The incidences of oral glucose tolerance test and gestational diabetes were significantly increased in the HBsAg-positive group. The HBsAg-positive women with gestational diabetes had significantly increased prevalence of high serum ferritin compared with the HBsAg-negative women, irrespective of the latter's gestational diabetes status. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent association between HBsAg carrier status with gestational diabetes (relative risk 3.51, 95% CI 1.83-6.73) but excluded high ferritin as an independent factor. Our results indicate that maternal HBsAg carriage could explain in part the association between increased serum ferritin concentration with gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women, and that HBsAg carrier status is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes.

  18. The association of work stress with somatic symptoms in Chinese working women: a large cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ding, Hui; Han, Wei; Jin, Lei; Kong, Ling-Na; Mao, Kang-Na; Wang, Hong; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Wu, Ying; Yang, Liu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei; Loerbroks, Adrian; Angerer, Peter

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that the relationship between work stress and somatic symptoms (e.g., cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal complaints, general pain, and fatigue) is particularly pronounced in women. As evidence from China is sparse, we used a large sample of Chinese working women to test those potential associations. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 6826 working women in five urban areas in China who were free from major clinical disease. The sample was drawn from five occupations (physicians, nurses, school teachers, bank employees, and industrial workers). The Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 were used to measure work stress and somatic symptoms, respectively. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to analyze the associations. 52.6% participants reported high work stress in terms of concurrent high effort and low reward. The distribution of severity of somatic symptoms covered the full range from minimal (37.3%) and low (30.6%), to medium (19.7%) and high (12.4%). The adjusted odds ratio of somatic symptoms by high work stress was 2.45 (95% confidence interval=2.24-2.68), and all single psychosocial work factors (effort, reward, and over-commitment) exerted substantial effects on somatic symptoms (odds ratios>2.00). Work stress is strongly associated with somatic symptoms in Chinese working women. Future longitudinal studies and intervention studies are needed to understand and improve women's psychosocial work environment and their psychosomatic health in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neck circumference might predict gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; He, Hua; Liu, Wenqi; Lin, Junyu; Chen, Bingjun; Lin, Yucong; Zhao, Yitao; Tao, Wen; Xia, Xuefeng

    2017-03-01

    A large neck circumference might be an indicator of metabolic syndrome and its components, and for certain patients is more practical as an index than waist circumference. The demarcation value for neck circumference that suggests metabolic syndrome appears to vary by ethnic group. Gestational diabetes mellitus is considered a component of metabolic syndrome in pregnant women. We investigated whether neck circumference in Han Chinese women is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy, and determined a predictive demarcation value. A nested case-control study was carried out with 255 women aged 18-35 years. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association through a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Of the total population, 41 (16%) women developed gestational diabetes mellitus by 24-28 weeks of gestation. Neck circumference at gestational week 16 positively correlated with pre-pregnancy waist circumference, bodyweight and body mass index, and maternal age (P = 0.029) and hemoglobin A1c at gestational week 24 (P ≤ 0.001). By binary logistic regression, neck circumference was an independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.840, 95% confidence interval 1.040-3.254; P = 0.036). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus the optimal demarcation for neck circumference at gestational week 16 was 35.15 cm. Neck circumference is a viable tool to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this population of pregnant Han Chinese women, a neck circumference of ≥35.15 cm was a predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  1. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Shi

    Full Text Available The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years.We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78, social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3 and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8. We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009 and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders.In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease, consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  2. Israeli and Chinese partners of women with breast cancer: a cross-cultural view of marital issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloski-Wruble, Anna C; Dekeyzer Ganz, Freda; Jiang, Yongqin; Qiang, Wan-Min; Kadmon, Ilana

    2012-03-01

    Cultural nuances may influence the interface between the cancer experience and marital issues, specifically for the partner. Most of the literature has focused on the woman's narrative or couple's adjustment to cancer in general. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the marital relationship, sexuality, and marital adjustment of Israeli and Chinese husbands of women with breast cancer and the discussion of the health-care team concerning these issues. A convenience sample of 50 Chinese and 50 Israeli men, ages of 28-79 years, completed components of the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Scale, the Locke Wallace Adjustment Scale, and a background questionnaire. The majority of husbands were in their first marriage. The average time since diagnosis was 16.7 months. No significant difference was found between the two groups on issues of marital relationship. Significant differences were found between Israeli and Chinese husbands on sexual interest, pleasure, and performance (pcultural differences were found in sexuality variables with no differences discerned on marital relationship variables. Couple-based interventions for marital issues are a critical component of support for both partners. Culturally sensitive assessment and care of the spouse as well as the woman with breast cancer should be part of a holistic, comprehensive family care plan. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients.Patients (322 men and 435 women aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263 and women (n = 1057 aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group.Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group. Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men.Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  4. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Cheng, Qun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hanmin; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xuemei; Zheng, Songbai; Du, Yanping; Tang, Wenjing; Xue, Sihong; Ye, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients. Patients (322 men and 435 women) aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263) and women (n = 1057) aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group). Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men. Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  5. Socio-psychological stressors as risk factors for low back pain in Chinese middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Y B; Ho, S C; Chan, S G

    2001-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between socio-psychological stress and low back pain (LBP) prevalence among Chinese middle-aged women. Women in mid-life experience increasing socio-psychological stress because of midlife transitions, stressful life events and housework or work factors. Encountering socio-psychological stress itself may result in the manifestation of LBP. A case-control study of Hong Kong community-based middle-aged women was conducted. The study subjects were either from the University Family Medicine Clinic or from a previous population-based cross-sectional study of middle-aged women conducted by Department of Community and Family Medicine. Among the 928 potential eligible subjects from both sources, a total of 182 cases and 235 controls participated in this study. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and included demographic factors, menopausal status, socio-psychological stress and occurrence of LBP. Socio-psychological stress covered social factors, self-reported nature of housework/work, housework/work stress and stressful life events. Among the 182 cases who entered this study, 83 women (45.6%) had experienced 1-work stress had an increased risk of suffering both types of LBP of nearly two- and half-fold (95% CI 1.61-3.85). The results indicate that an association exists between high socio-psychological stress and LBP prevalence. Alleviating the impact of housework or work related factors would, however, involve improving both the work and home environment.

  6. Association of Fatigue with Perceived Stress in Chinese Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer Awaiting Adjuvant Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Cheung, Irene K M; Chan, Caitlin K P; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Yip, Paul S F; Luk, Mai-Yee; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2015-08-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is common in women with breast cancer, but little is known of its relationship with perceived stress. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the associations of CRF with perceived stress, anxiety, depression, pain and sleep quality in 133 Chinese women (aged 25-68 years) with early stage breast cancer. The majority of women had completed surgery and chemotherapy and were awaiting radiotherapy. Self-administered questionnaires consisting of the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-10, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. Forty-five per cent of the women were severely fatigued. Compared with local healthy women and US breast cancer patients, the group's mean perceived stress score was significantly higher (both p stress (β = 0.18, p = 0.032), higher anxiety (β = 0.30, p stress was partially mediated by anxiety, suggesting a possible pathway from cancer and cancer treatment to CRF via stress appraisals and emotional distress. The findings indicate the importance of monitoring the psychological status of patients during treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  8. Serum myostatin in central south Chinese postmenopausal women: Relationship with body composition, lipids and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yulin; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Hongbin; Ou, Yangna; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Shuang; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. The relationships between serum myostatin, body composition lipids and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women remain unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationships between serum myostatin, body composition, lipids and bone mineral density in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 51-75 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum myostatin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(25OH-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to the osteoporotic women, the women without osteoporosis had higher BMI, fat mass and lean mass (Pmyostatin after adjusted by age. BMD at each site was positively correlated with age at menopause, fat mass and lean mass, and also negatively correlated with age and serum BAP. Serum myostatin was positively correlated with tryglicerides, not correlated with either body composition or BMD at each site. Our data indicated that serum myostatin concentration did not correlate with muscle and bone mass. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of myostatin in regulating the bone metabolism.

  9. Passive smoking and cooking oil fumes (COF) may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Hu, Zhijian; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Zheng; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Lin, Lisong; Zhang, Zuofeng; Cai, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the confounding effects of passive smoking and COF exposure on association between tea and oral cancer in Chinese women. A case-control study including 207 female oral cancer cases and 480 age-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The effects of tea consumption on oral cancer were, respectively, adjusted for Model-1 and Model-2 using logistic regression analysis. Model-1 did not adjusted for passive smoking and COF; Model-2 included the variables in Model-1, passive smoking and COF. Tea consumption was associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer in females: The OR was 0.498 (95 % CI 0.312-0.795) for Model-1 and 0.565 (95 % CI 0.352-0.907) for Model-2. The ORs for all the categories of tea consumption estimated by Model-2 were slightly higher than Model-1. When stratified by passive smoking, the statistically significant association between tea drinking and oral cancer was only emerged in non-passive smoking women. Stratification by COF found tea drinking was still associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer for women who have light-COF exposure, but an increased risk for those who subjected to heavy exposure. A negative, multiplicative interaction was found between tea consumption and COF exposure for oral cancer, but not found between tea consumption and passive smoking. Tea consumption reduces the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect is modified by the carcinogenic effects of passive smoking and COF exposure.

  10. Different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being among pregnant Chinese women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.

  11. Genetic variants at 1p11.2 and breast cancer risk: a two-stage study in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified several breast cancer susceptibility loci, and one genetic variant, rs11249433, at 1p11.2 was reported to be associated with breast cancer in European populations. To explore the genetic variants in this region associated with breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a two-stage fine-mapping study with a total of 1792 breast cancer cases and 1867 controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs including rs11249433 in a 277 kb region at 1p11.2 were selected and genotyping was performed by using TaqMan® OpenArray™ Genotyping System for stage 1 samples (878 cases and 900 controls. In stage 2 (914 cases and 967 controls, three SNPs (rs2580520, rs4844616 and rs11249433 were further selected and genotyped for validation. The results showed that one SNP (rs2580520 located at a predicted enhancer region of SRGAP2 was consistently associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in a recessive genetic model [Odds Ratio (OR  =  1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI  =  1.16-2.36 for stage 2 samples; OR  =  1.51, 95% CI  =  1.16-1.97 for combined samples, respectively]. However, no significant association was observed between rs11249433 and breast cancer risk in this Chinese population (dominant genetic model in combined samples: OR  =  1.20, 95% CI  =  0.92-1.57. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genotypes of rs2580520 at 1p11.2 suggest that Chinese women may have different breast cancer susceptibility loci, which may contribute to the development of breast cancer in this population.

  12. Rising Valor: A Research Study of Chinese Women Working in Factories, Educating Themselves and Redefining Women's Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Claudia Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Few empirical studies directly address education among women factory workers in China, much less their sense of agency, power, character and awareness. This dissertation seeks to discover whether among women factory workers in the core manufacturing center, the Yangtze River Delta region of China, educational opportunities and other resources…

  13. Han Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome risk variants in women of European ancestry: relationship to FSH levels and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Georgopoulos, N A; Braaten, T J; Bjonnes, A C; Koika, V; Panidis, D; Welt, C K

    2015-06-01

    Are PCOS risk variants identified in women of Han Chinese ethnicity also associated with risk of PCOS or the phenotypic features of PCOS in European women? One variant, rs2268361-T, in the intron of FSHR was associated with PCOS and lower FSH levels, while another variant rs705702-G near the RAB5B and SUOX genes was associated with insulin and glucose levels after oral glucose testing in women with PCOS of European ethnicity. Three of the eleven variants associated with PCOS in the Han Chinese genome-wide association studies were also associated with PCOS in at least one European population when corrected for multiple testing (DENND1A, THADA and YAP1). However, additional replication is needed to establish the importance of these variants in European women and to determine the relationship to PCOS phenotypic traits. The study was a case-control examination in a discovery cohort of women with PCOS (n = 485) and controls (n = 407) from Boston (Boston 1). Replication was performed in women from Greece (cases n = 884 and controls n = 311) and an additional cohort from Boston (Boston electronic medical record (EMR); n = 350 cases and n = 1258 controls). Women had PCOS defined by the National Institutes of Health criteria in Boston 1 and Greece (n = 783), with additional subjects fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology and regular menses) in Greece (n = 101). Controls in Boston and Greece had regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism. The second cohort from Boston was defined using the EMR and natural language processing. Allele frequencies for variants associated with PCOS in Han Chinese women were examined in PCOS cases and controls, along with the relationship to quantitative traits. A variant rs2268361-T in an intron of FSHR was associated with PCOS (0.84 [0.76-0.93], OR [95% CI]; P = 0.002). The rs2268361-T was associated with lower FSH levels (-0.15 ± 0.05; P = 0.0029). A variant rs705702-G near RAB5B and SUOX was

  14. Anxiety, depression and quality of life in Chinese women with breast cancer during and after treatment: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simone S M; So, Winnie K W; Leung, Doris Y P; Lai, Eve T L; Chan, Carmen W H

    2013-12-01

    To compare the psychological health and quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer, and to determine the relationship between anxiety, depression and QoL during treatment and one year afterwards. For this secondary analysis, 269 women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, and 148 women with breast cancer who had completed all treatment within the last year completed a self-report questionnaire covering the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Cantonese/Chinese version, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, and demographic and clinical characteristics. The ongoing-therapy group showed higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of all QoL dimensions than the post-therapy group. Linear regression results showed that both anxiety and depression were significantly related to physical and functional well-being, while depression was associated with social/family well-being in both groups. In the case of emotional well-being, anxiety had a strong significant association in both groups and depression a significant relationship only in the ongoing-therapy group. The psychological health of women with breast cancer is affected during and after treatment. Psychological distress in these patients, including anxiety and depression, has independent associations with impaired emotional, functional, physical and social well-being. The results highlight the importance of timely detection of anxiety and depression, and their proper management, during the treatment and survivorship phases of the breast cancer trajectory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mental health and suicidal ideation among Chinese women who have sex with men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianhong; Zhang, Beichuan; Li, Yang; Antonio, Anna Liza Malazarte; Chen, Yunliang; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are the fastest growing population at risk for HIV. They face social stigma due to both MSM behavior and HIV. In addition, concern has been raised about the mental health of wives of MSM. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine the mental health status of a sample of 135 of these women. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire in Xi'an from April to June, 2012. Most were unaware at the time of marriage that their husbands were MSM. Physical abuse was frequently reported; depressive symptom and mental health (Symptom Checklist, SCL-90) scores were significantly higher than those of the general Chinese adult female population. A majority (59.8%) of women reported suicidal thoughts after discovering their husbands' MSM behavior; about 10% had attempted suicide. Multiple logistic regression revealed that women's experience with anal sex was associated with 7.8 times (95% CI: 1.3-65.9) greater odds of suicidal ideation. Also, women who demonstrated mental symptoms on the SCL-90 had 2.3 times (95% CI: 1.04-5.2) the odds of suicidal ideation. These results suggest that wives of MSM have a significant need for mental health care, suicide prevention, HIV education, and social support.

  16. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Gong; Pei, Lijun; Xiao, Hailong; Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Jiaomei; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Duo

    2018-02-21

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss (ESPL) in Chinese women. Seventy women with ESPL and 29 healthy pregnant women who asked for legal induced abortion were included in the case and control groups, respectively. The gestational age of the subject foetuses in both the case and control groups ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. The total fatty acids composition in the decidual and villous tissues was detected by gas-liquid chromatography using a standard method. Metabonomics analysis of the decidual and villous tissues was conducted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). The total C18:3n-3 in the decidual and villous tissues, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) in the decidual tissue, and total C18:2n-6 in the villous tissue were all significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. The ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 in villous tissue was significantly higher, but prostaglandin I 2 as well as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, leukotriene B 5 and thromboxane B 3 in the villous tissue were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. In addition, the low content of lysophosphatide in the decidual and villous tissues and the low content of diacylglycerol in the villous tissue were also associated with the occurance of ESPL. In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and diacylglycerol in the placenta were all potential risk factors for ESPL in Chinese.

  17. Acupuncture and Auricular Acupressure in Relieving Menopausal Hot Flashes of Bilaterally Ovariectomized Chinese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture and auricular acupressure in relieving menopausal hot flashes of bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women. Between May 2006 and March 2008, 46 bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women were randomized into an acupuncture and auricular acupressure group (n = 21 and a hormone replacement therapy (HRT group (Tibolone, n = 25. Each patient was given a standard daily log and was required to record the frequency and severity of hot flashes and side effects of the treatment felt daily, from 1 week before the treatment started to the fourth week after the treatment ended. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, LH and E2 were detected before and after the treatment. After the treatment and the follow-up, both the severity and frequency of hot flashes in the two groups were relieved significantly when compared with pre-treatment (P   .05, while after the follow-up, the severity of hot flashes in the HRT group was alleviated more. After the treatment and the follow-up, the frequency of menopausal hot flashes in the HRT group was reduced more (P <  .05. After treatment, the levels of FSH decreased significantly and the levels of E2 increased significantly in both groups (P <  .05, and they changed more in the HRT group (P <  .05. Acupuncture and auricular acupressure can be used as alternative treatments to relieve menopausal hot flashes for those bilaterally ovariectomized women who are unable or unwilling to receive HRT.

  18. Women's Health at Work Program: musculoskeletal pain experienced by women of Chinese background working on market gardens in the Sydney Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Ev; Crowther, Amber; Fonti, Fiona; Quayle, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/PARTICIPANTS: This report describes a project undertaken by three final (4th) year occupational therapy undergraduate students from the University of Sydney, Australia, in their final fieldwork placement. The project involved women from a Chinese background who worked on market gardens across the Sydney Basin. Its purpose was to identify musculoskeletal risks in the work environment and work practices of a selected group of seven Cantonese-speaking women working on market gardens in the Western Sydney region. The approaches used in the project reflected a risk management approach, and involved background research, initial interviews, task analysis, hazard identification, risk assessment, data analysis, identification of key issues, and developing recommendations, in collaboration with participants and consultation with professionals. The key issues identified as contributing factors to musculoskeletal pain and injuries were: (1) work practices (long work hours, repetitive work); (2) biomechanical factors (repetitive and sustained work postures, poor manual handling practices) and limited training; (3) ergonomics of the equipment used; (4) fatigue. Two priority areas for intervention were identified: (1) pain management, and (2) preventative strategies (improving both the work environment and work practices). Recommendations were made in collaboration with the women, and in consultation with health professionals.

  19. Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: i. group A (n=254 were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254 were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M П oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade І embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results: Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade І embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two

  20. Age-related changes in bone biochemical markers and their relationship with bone mineral density in normal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yin-Zhen; Wu, Xian-Ping; Liu, Shi-Ping; Luo, Xiang-Hang; Cao, Xing-Zhi; Xie, Hui; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bone biochemical markers are increasingly being used to evaluate the state of bone turnover in the management of bone metabolic diseases, especially osteoporosis. However, changes in the bone turnover rate vary with age. The aim of this study was to establish the laboratory reference range of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), serum type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (sCTx), and urine CTx (uCTx), based on values from 665 healthy Chinese women aged 20-80 years. We measured the levels of sBAP, sCTx, serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and uCTx and evaluated the age-related changes and their relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) in the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, hip, and left forearm. We found significant correlations between biochemical markers and age, with coefficients of determination (R (2)) of 0.358 for sBAP, 0.126 for sCTx, 0.125 for uCTx, and 0.336 for sALP. The net changes in different biochemical markers were inversely correlated with the rates of BMD loss in the AP lumbar spine. After correction for age, body weight, and height, the levels of the markers had significant negative correlations with the BMD of the AP lumbar spine, femoral neck, and ultradistal forearm. All four biochemical markers had the highest negative correlation with BMD of the AP lumbar spine (partial correlation coefficients of -0.366, -0.296, -0.290, and -0.258 for sBAP, sCTx, uCTx, and sALP, respectively). The mean and SD values of these markers in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with normal BMD values were used as the normal reference ranges. The reference ranges of sBAP, sCTx, and uCTx for pre- vs postmenopausal women were 17.3 +/- 6.23 vs 18.9 +/- 7.52 U/l, 3.18 +/- 1.49 vs 3.23 +/- 1.57 nmol/l, and 15.5 +/- 11.4 vs 16.2 +/- 12.4 nM bone collagen equivalents/mM urinary creatinine, respectively. Levels of the bone formation marker (sBAP) and bone resorption markers (sCTx, uCTx) increased rapidly in women with

  1. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  2. On the Semantic Prosody of Career Women in Chinese Web Reportage

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Men

    2012-01-01

    The present study tries to unveil the images of career women depicted on the internet within the framework of corpus linguistics. Based on web corpora, internet reportage of women from the fields of education, politics, business, media, medicine, law, and tourist industry are investigated. Through collocate analysis, it is found that all the above career women demonstrate unfavorable semantic prosody, a unique local semantic prosody on the internet. The unfavorable collocates can be further c...

  3. Beliefs about causes of colon cancer by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer Elizabeth; Todd, Laura E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-12-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for Canadians. Immigrants underutilize screening and may be at greater risk of late stage diagnosis and death from the disease. This mixed-methods study investigated the self-reported causes of colon cancer by 66 English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women to Canada after reading a fact sheet which listed two causes of colon cancer (polyps and cause unknown) and six ways to help prevent colon cancer (lifestyle, diet, weight, smoking, alcohol, and screening). Women correctly named or described both causes (6.1%) or one cause (22.7%), could not name or describe either cause (19.7%), or named or described causes not included on the fact sheet (54.5%). The most common causes reported by participants were "risk factors": diet (53.0%), family history (28.8%), and lifestyle (22.7%). Women confused cause with risk factor and infrequently mentioned screening. Possible reasons for their reported beliefs are discussed.

  4. Treatment and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in women: An analysis of a multicenter quality improvement Chinese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Patel, Anushka; Li, Xian; Wu, Yangfeng; Turnbull, Fiona; Gao, Runlin

    2017-08-15

    Variations in care and outcomes by sex in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported worldwide. The aims of this study are to describe ACS management according to sex in China and the effects of a quality improvement program in Chinese male and female ACS patients. Clinical Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndromes - Phase 2 (CPACS-2) was a cluster randomized trial to test whether a clinical pathways-based intervention would improve ACS management in China. The study enrolled 15,141 hospitalized patients [4631 (30.6%) were women] from 75 hospitals throughout China between October 2007 and August 2010. The intervention included clinical pathway implementation and performance measurement using standardized indicators with 6 monthly audit-feedback cycles. Eight key performance indicators reflecting in hospital management of ACS were measured. After adjustment for differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities at presentation, women were significantly less likely to undergo coronary angiography when indicated (RR 0.88 [0.85 to 0.92], Pquality improvement initiative by sex. Sex disparities were apparent in some key quality of care indicators for patients with suspected with ACS presenting to hospitals in China. The beneficial effect of the quality improvement program was consistent in women and men. http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx. Unique identifier: ACTRN12609000491268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  6. Examining the relationship between lifetime stressful life events and the onset of major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Wang, Zhiyang; Qiu, Jianying; Wu, Wenyuan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Zhoubing; Tao, Danhong; Zhao, Hongsu; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Gao, Chengge; Niu, Qihui; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shanming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yunshu; He, Qiang; Rong, Han; Gan, Zhaoyu; Li, Jianying; Chen, Xiansheng; Pan, Jiyang; Li, Yi; Cui, Yanping; Han, Wei; Ma, Huan; Xie, Shoufu; Jin, Guixing; Li, Ling; Zhang, Ruiling; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Jing; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang

    2011-12-01

    In European and US studies, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) report more stressful life events (SLEs) than controls, but this relationship has rarely been studied in Chinese populations. Sixteen lifetime SLEs were assessed at interview in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MDD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. 60% of controls and 72% of cases reported at least one lifetime SLE. Fourteen of the sixteen SLEs occurred significantly more frequently in those with MDD (median odds ratio of 1.6). The three SLEs most strongly associated with risk for MDD (OR>3.0) preceded the onset of MDD the majority of the time: rape (82%), physical abuse (100%) and serious neglect (99%). Our results may apply to females only. SLEs were rated retrospectively and are subject to biases in recollection. We did not assess contextual information for each life event. More severe SLEs are more strongly associated with MDD. These results support the involvement of psychosocial adversity in the etiology of MDD in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: Relationship with clinical features and family history☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, YiPing; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. Methods We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Results Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Conclusions Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:21782247

  8. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: relationship with clinical features and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Semantic Prosody of Career Women in Chinese Web Reportage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Men

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to unveil the images of career women depicted on the internet within the framework of corpus linguistics. Based on web corpora, internet reportage of women from the fields of education, politics, business, media, medicine, law, and tourist industry are investigated. Through collocate analysis, it is found that all the above career women demonstrate unfavorable semantic prosody, a unique local semantic prosody on the internet. The unfavorable collocates can be further classified into the semantic sets of erotic events, misfortunes and job scandals. However, through Keyword analysis of reportage of women in China’s mainstream newspapers, there presents a quite positive women image. Finally, the author makes possible interpretations of the causes of the violation of semantic prosody on the web and possible consequences it will bring, with two solutions being suggested at the end.

  10. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxia; Fan, Ping; Liu, Hongwei; Bai, Huai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is a relatively high incidence of dyslipidemia and MS in south-west Chinese women with PCOS, especially in patients without hyperandrogenism. Patients with dyslipidemia are more obese, and have a more adverse glucose and lipid metabolic profile and higher apoB levels and apoB/apoA-I ratio. The increased apoB levels and apoB/A1 ratio and the MS are strongly associated with PCOS, suggesting that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Dyslipidemia and MS have been widely studied in women with PCOS, but to date no data from south-west Chinese subjects have been available. The apoB/apoA-I ratio has been reported to be strongly associated with MS and insulin resistance (IR) and to be a reliable parameter that reflects lipid disturbances and the potential to develop atherosclerosis, but its relationship with PCOS is unclear. DESIGN This case-control study included 406 patients with PCOS and 342 control women between 17 and 40 years of age from a population in south-west China during 2006-2011. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control group, consisting of women with infertility due to a Fallopian obstruction or the husband's infertility, women undergoing a pre-pregnancy check and healthy volunteers, was recruited from the same hospital during the same period. All women were not taking any medication known to affect carbohydrate or lipid or hormone metabolism for at least 3 months prior to the study, and were studied during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. MS was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria modified for Asian populations. Dyslipidemia was defined by one or more of the

  12. Distinct distribution and prognostic significance of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Chinese women: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qiuyin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular classification of breast cancer is an important prognostic factor. The distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer and their prognostic value has not been well documented in Asians. Methods A total of 2,791 breast cancer patients recruited for a population-based cohort study were evaluated for molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemical assays. Data on clinicopathological characteristics were confirmed by centralized pathology review. The average follow-up of the patients was 53.4 months. Overall and disease-free survival by molecular subtypes of breast cancer were evaluated. Results The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and triple-negative subtypes were 48.6%, 16.7%, 13.7%, and 12.9%, respectively. The luminal A subtype was more likely to be diagnosed in older women (P = 0.03 and had a stronger correlation with favorable clinicopathological factors (smaller tumor size, lower histologic grade, and earlier TNM stage than the triple-negative or HER2 subtypes. Women with triple-negative breast cancer had a higher frequency of family history of breast cancer than women with other subtypes (P = 0.048. The 5-year overall/disease-free survival percentages for the luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple-negative subtypes were 92.9%/88.6%, 88.6%/85.1%, 83.2%/79.1%, and 80.7%/76.0%, respectively. A similar pattern was observed in multivariate analyses. Immunotherapy was associated with improved overall and disease-free survival for luminal A breast cancer, but reduced disease-free survival (HR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.09-4.48 for the HER2 subtype of breast cancer. Conclusions The triple-negative and HER2 subtypes were associated with poorer outcomes compared with the luminal A subtype among these Chinese women. The HER2 subtype was more prevalent in this Chinese population compared with Western populations, suggesting the importance of standardized HER2

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  14. The role of traditional confinement practices in determining postpartum depression in women in Chinese cultures: a systematic review of the English language evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine; Fisher, Jane

    2009-08-01

    The Chinese postpartum custom of "confinement" or "doing-the-month" involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. A systematic search of the English-language literature. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. It was found that the role of confinement in postpartum depression is complex: eight studies concluded that it had a protective role; four that it increased risk of postpartum mood disturbance and four studies had inconclusive findings. Aspects of the confinement practice that could contribute to or fail to protect against postpartum depression include the generally diminished social support in contemporary society, conflict with a mother-in-law and the tension experienced by modern women as they work to balance traditional with contemporary values. Methodological differences limit meaningful comparisons between the reviewed studies and generalizations from them. There is little consistent evidence that confinement practices reduce postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. Specific components of confinement practices might reduce psychological distress in Chinese mothers of newborns, but these cannot be discerned from the existing evidence. Confinement cannot be presumed to be available to, welcomed by or effective for all Chinese women or to be a substitute for health service provision.

  15. Perceptions, Expectations, and Attitudes about Communication with Physicians among Chinese American and non-Hispanic White Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Adams, Inez F.; Pasick, Rena J.; Gomez, Scarlett L.; Allen, Laura; Ma, Grace X.; Lee, Michael X.; Huang, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Asian Americans have consistently reported poorer communication with physicians compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). This qualitative study sought to elucidate the similarities and differences in communication with physicians between Chinese and NHW breast cancer survivors. Methods Forty-four Chinese and 28 NHW women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0-IIa) from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry participated in focus group discussions or individual interviews. We oversampled Chinese women because little is known about their cancer care experiences. In both interview formats, questions explored patients’ experiences and feelings when communicating with physicians about their diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. Results Physician empathy at the time of diagnosis was important to both ethnic groups; however, during treatment and follow-up care, physicians’ ability to treat cancer and alleviate physical symptoms was a higher priority. NHW and US-born Chinese survivors were more likely to assert their needs, whereas Chinese immigrants accepted physician advice even when it did not alleviate physical problems (e.g., pain). Patients viewed all physicians as the primary source for information about cancer care. Many Chinese immigrants sought additional information from primary care physicians and stressed optimal communication over language concordance. Conclusions Physician empathy and precise information were important for cancer patients. Cultural differences such as the Western emphasis on individual autonomy vs. Chinese emphasis on respect and hierarchy can be the basis for the varied approaches to physician communication we observed. Interventions based on cultural understanding can foster more effective communication between immigrant patients and physicians ultimately improving patient outcomes. PMID:23903797

  16. Dose-response association between hepatitis B surface antigen levels and liver cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yu-Ting; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-07-15

    We aimed at evaluating the risk of liver cancer in different levels of HBsAg among Chinese men and women. We carried out a nested case-control study including 363 cases and 3,511 controls in two population-based cohorts in Shanghai. Plasma samples collected at enrollment were quantified for HBsAg levels using the Architect QT assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for liver cancer, with adjustment for potential confounders. HBsAg was detected in 6.29% of control subjects overall (7.02% in men and 4.98% in women). HBsAg levels were positively associated with liver cancer risk in a dose-response manner (ptrend  women. In men, the adjusted ORs increased from 7.27 (95% CI: 3.49-15.15) at the lowest detectable level of HBsAg (5-9 IU/ml) to 7.16 (95% CI: 3.21-15.96), 34.30 (95% CI: 16.94-69.44), and 47.33 (95% CI: 23.50-95.34) at the highest level of HBsAg (≥1,000 IU/ml) compared to those negative for HBsAg. The corresponding ORs were much lower for women, from 1.37 (95% CI: 0.25-7.47), 3.81 (95% CI: 1.09-13.28), 7.36 (95% CI: 2.41-22.46) and 16.86 (95% CI: 7.24-39.27), respectively. HBsAg quantification has potential to distinguish individuals at different risks of liver cancer. Men with the lowest detectable level of HBsAg should still pay attention to their liver cancer risks, but those with a higher level may be given a higher priority in future liver cancer surveillance program. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Prevalence of and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in young Chinese women according to the Female Sexual Function Index: an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Ruan, Xiangyan; Gu, Muqing; Bitzer, Johannes; Mueck, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a very common sexual health problem worldwide. The prevalence of FSD in Chinese women is, however, unknown. This is the first study to investigate a large number of young women throughout China via the internet, to determine the prevalence and types of FSD and to identify the risk factors for FSD. The primary endpoint was the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score, with additional questions on contraception, sexual activity, relationship stability, pregnancy and other factors which may influence sexual function. The online questionnaire was completed by women from 31 of the 34 Chinese provinces. A total of 1618 completed questionnaires were received, and 1010 were included in the analyses after screening (62.4%). The mean age of the respondents was 25.1 ± 4.5 years. The mean total FSFI score was 24.99 ± 4.60. According to FSFI definitions (cut-off score 26.55), 60.2% of women were at risk of FSD. Based on domain scores, 52 were considered at high risk of dysfunction for pain (5.1%), 35 for orgasm (3.5%), 33 for desire (3.3%), 20 for arousal (2.0%), 6 for satisfaction (0.6%) and 2 for lubrication (0.2%). The prevalence of FSFI scores indicating risk of sexual dysfunction was about 60% in Chinese women. An unstable relationship, pressure to become pregnant, non-use of contraception, negative self-evaluation of appearance and increasing age were significantly associated with FSD in young Chinese women.

  18. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  19. Expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of osteoporotic fractures for 50-year old Chinese women: a discrete event simulation incorporating FRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yawen; Ni, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    This work was undertaken to provide an estimation of expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of fractures for 50-year-old Chinese women. A discrete event simulation model was developed to simulate the lifetime fractures of 50-year-old Chinese women at average risk of osteoporotic fracture. Main events in the model included hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture. Fracture risks were calculated using the FRAX ® tool. Simulations of 50-year-old Chinese women without fracture risks were also carried out as a comparison to determine the burden of fractures. A 50-year-old Chinese woman at average risk of fracture is expected to experience 0.135 (95 % CI: 0.134-0.137) hip fractures, 0.120 (95 % CI: 0.119-0.122) clinical vertebral fractures, 0.095 (95 % CI: 0.094-0.096) wrist fractures, 0.079 (95 % CI: 0.078-0.080) humerus fractures, and 0.407 (95 % CI: 0.404-0.410) other fractures over the remainder of her life. The residual lifetime risk of any fracture, hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture for a 50-year-old Chinese woman is 37.36, 11.77, 10.47, 8.61, 7.30, and 27.80 %, respectively. The fracture-attributable excess quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss and lifetime costs are estimated at 0.11 QALYs (95 % CI: 0.00-0.22 QALYs) and US $714.61 (95 % CI: US $709.20-720.02), totaling a net monetary benefit loss of US $1,104.43 (95 % CI: US $904.09-1,304.78). Chinese women 50 years of age are at high risk of osteoporotic fracture, and the expected economic and quality-of-life burden attributable to osteoporotic fractures among Chinese women is substantial.

  20. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  1. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  2. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fanli [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009 (China); Peng, Danhong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  3. Overweight as a Prognostic Factor for Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Hao

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, but this association is not well established for women with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC. Here, we investigated the prognostic effects of body mass index (BMI on clinical outcomes in patients with TNBC.We identified 1106 patients with TNBC who met the inclusion criteria and were treated between January 2002 and June 2012. Clinical and biological features were collected to evaluate the relation between BMI and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS and overall survival (OS after controlling for other clinically significant variables.Of 1106 patients, 656 (59.3% were normal weight (BMI ≤24 and 450 patients (40.7% were overweight(BMI>24. Median follow-up time was 44.8 months. Breast cancer specific death was observed in 140 patients. After adjusting for clinicopathologic risk factors, overweight was associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.06, P =0.028 but not BCSS (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.90-2.01, P =0.15in all the patients with TNBC. When stratified with menopausal status, overweight was associated with BCSS and OS (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.11-4.63, P = 0.024 and HR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.21-3.87, P = 0.010, respectively in premenopausal women. BMI was not associated with BCSS or OS in postmenopausal women.Overweight is an independent prognostic factor of OS in all women with TNBC, and menopause status may be a mitigating factor. Among premenopausal women, overweight women are at a greater risk of poor prognosis than normal weight women. If validated, these findings should be considered in developing preventive programs.

  4. Replication and functional genomic analyses of the breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1 generalize its importance in women of chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Qu, Shimian; Li, Guoliang; Egan, Kathleen M; Chen, Kexin; Deming, Sandra L; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Chen-Yang; Gammon, Marilie D; Blot, William J; Matsuo, Keitaro; Haiman, Christopher A; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Santella, Regina M; Zhang, Lina; Fair, Alecia Malin; Hu, Zhibin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Signorello, Lisa B; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Tajima, Kazuo; Henderson, Brian E; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Kasuga, Yoshio; Newcomb, Polly A; Zheng, Hong; Cui, Yong; Wang, Furu; Shieh, Ya-Lan; Iwata, Hiroji; Le Marchand, Loic; Chan, Sum Yin; Shrubsole, Martha J; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Shi, Jiajun; Huang, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2011-02-15

    We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive association for rs2046210 and breast cancer risk in Chinese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.22-1.38) and 1.64 (1.50-1.80) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 1.54 × 10⁻³⁰], Japanese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.13-1.52) and 1.37 (1.06-1.76), P for trend = 2.51 × 10⁻⁴], and European-ancestry American women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.18 (1.04-1.34), P for trend = 0.0069]. No association with this SNP, however, was observed in African American women [ORs (95% CI) = 0.81 (0.63-1.06) and 0.85 (0.65-1.11) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 0.4027]. In vitro functional genomic studies identified a putative functional variant, rs6913578. This SNP is 1,440 bp downstream of rs2046210 and is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2046210 in Chinese (r(2) = 0.91) and European-ancestry (r² = 0.83) populations, but not in Africans (r² = 0.57). SNP rs6913578 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese and European-ancestry American women. After adjusting for rs2046210, the association of rs6913578 with breast cancer risk in African Americans approached borderline significance. Results from this large consortium study confirmed the association of rs2046210 with breast cancer risk among women of Chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry. This association may be explained in part by a putatively functional variant (rs6913578) identified in the region. ©2011 AACR.

  5. Decision-making for non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: Hong Kong Chinese women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J Y C; Yi, H; Ahmed, S

    2016-05-01

    Individual autonomy in antenatal screening is internationally recognized and supported. Policy and practice guidelines in various countries place emphasis on the woman's right to make her own decision and are related to concepts such as self-determination, independence, and self-sufficiency. In contrast, the dominant perspective in Chinese medical ethics suggests that the family is pivotal in making medical decisions, hence providing support for relational autonomy. This study explored Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome. A qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 36 women who had undertaken NIPT in Hong Kong. The findings show that most Hong Kong Chinese women valued aspects of both relational and individual autonomy in decision-making for NIPT. Women expected support from doctors as experts on the topic and wanted to involve their husband in decision-making while retaining control over the outcome. Somewhat surprisingly, the findings do not provide support for the involvement of family members in decision-making for NIPT. The adequacy of current interpretations of autonomy in prenatal testing policies as an individual approach needs discussion, where policy developers need to find a balance between individual and relational approaches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bioavailable 25(OHD but Not Total 25(OHD Is an Independent Determinant for Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total 25(OHD levels were determined to assess bone health in elderly populations; however, the bioavailability of 25(OHD is regulated by the albumin and vitamin D binding protein (DBP levels and DBP variations. Whether bioavailable 25(OHD level is a superior biomarker for vitamin D than total 25(OHD level regarding the BMD and the bone metabolism were not yet fully understood. With a community based cross-sectional study of 967 postmenopausal women, we found that the variant rs7041, but not rs4588, of DBP was significantly associated with the blood DBP level, which was positively correlated with the total 25(OHD level but negatively associated with bioavailable 25(OHD levels. Both total and bioavailable 25(OHD levels were significantly correlated with the BMD value in postmenopausal women; however, only the bioavailable 25(OHD level was an independent determinant of the BMD values when adjusted for age, body mass index and bone turnover biomarkers (OST and β-CTX. The bioavailable and total 25(OHD were negatively correlated with bone formation biomarkers (OST, PINP and ALP and PTH levels, while they were positively correlated with osteoprotegerin (OPG level; however, the bone resorption biomarker (β-CTX was not correlated with the 25(OHD levels. An increment of PTH level, along with reduced bioavailable 25(OHD levels, was evident when the bioavailable 25(OHD level was <5 ng/mL, which may be the optimal cutpoint for sufficient vitamin D in Chinese elderly women. The blood calcium, magnesium, ALP, TSH, FGF23, and phosphorus levels were not correlated with the total or the bioavailable 25(OHD levels. These results suggested that high bioavailable 25(OHD levels were correlated with reduced bone turnover processes and were a biomarker superior to total 25(OHD for vitamin D in assessing the risks of bone-related diseases. The results indicate that the bioavailable 25(OHD level should be determined in assessing the bone health.

  7. Association of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor genotypes with therapeutic response to calcium in postmenopausal Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-lin ZHANG; Yue-juan QIN; Qi-ren HUANG; Jin-wei HE; Miao LI; Qi ZHOU; Yun-qiu HU; Yu-juan LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between calcium treatment in postmenopausal women and estrogen receptoralpha (ER-alpha) Xba Ⅰ and Pvu Ⅱ genotype and vitamin D receptor (VDR) Apa Ⅰ genotype. METHODS: One hundred fifteen postmenopausal Chinese women of Han population were enrolled and treated with calcichew-D3(1000 mg calcium and 400 U vitamin D3) daily for 1 year. At entry and after 1 year treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD), serum and urinary bone turnover biochemical markers were evaluated. ER-alpha and VDR genotype were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: After 1 year of calcium supplementation, a significant increase of BMD and a marked reduction in serum ALP and PTH levels, and a significant increase of serum 25-(OH) vitamin D level were observed (P<0.01 or P<0.05). At entry and after 1 year of treatment, no significant association was found between Xba Ⅰ, Pvu Ⅱ, and Apa Ⅰ genotypes and BMD in L1-4,Neck, and Troch, and all bone turnover marker levels. However, the percentage of change (median, QR) in Neck BMD was significantly different in homozygous XX [-4.14 (from -6.54 to -1.34)] in comparison with Xx [1.72(from -1.12 to 3.20)] (P<0.001) or xx [1.22 (from -1.74 to 3.06)] Xba Ⅰ ER-alpha genotype (P=0.001).CONCLUSION: Women with ER-α Xba Ⅰ genotype XX may have a higher risk of relatively fast bone mass loss in femoral neck after menopause and that they may have a poor responsiveness to calcium supplementation. The changes in BMD are not associated with ER-alpha Pvu Ⅱ genotype and VDR Apa Ⅰ genotype after 1 year of calcium supplementation.

  8. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Ma

    Full Text Available A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed.

  9. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed.

  10. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed. PMID:26309232

  11. The centrality of DSM and non-DSM depressive symptoms in Han Chinese women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Flint, Jonathan; Borsboom, Denny; Fried, Eiko I

    2018-02-01

    We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese women meeting DSM-IV criteria for recurrent MD. We estimated an Ising model (the state-of-the-art network model for binary data), compared the centrality (interconnectedness) of DSM-IV and non-DSM symptoms, and investigated the community structure (symptoms strongly clustered together). The DSM and non-DSM criteria were intermingled within the same symptom network. In both the DSM-IV and non-DSM criteria sets, some symptoms were central (highly interconnected) while others were more peripheral. The mean centrality of the DSM and non-DSM criteria sets did not significantly differ. In at least two cases, non-DSM criteria were more central than symptomatically related DSM criteria: lowered libido vs. sleep and appetite changes, and hopelessness versus worthlessness. The overall network had three sub-clusters reflecting neurovegetative/mood symptoms, cognitive changes and anxiety/irritability. The sample were severely ill Han Chinese females limiting generalizability. Consistent with prior historical reviews, our results suggest that the DSM-IV criteria for MD reflect one possible sub-set of a larger pool of plausible depressive symptoms and signs. While the DSM criteria on average perform well, they are not unique and may not be optimal in their ability to describe the depressive syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Age-related changes of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and the relationship with bone mineral density in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-juan QIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Wei-wei HU; Yu-juan LIU; Yun-qiu HU; Miao LI; Jie-mei GU; Jin-wei HE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Ostcoclastic activity is mainly assessed by measurement of urinary markers (eg C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen, N-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen etc), the levels of which could often be affected by renal clearance. Recently, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) has been used as an alternative serum marker to evaluate osteoclastic activity. We investigated the age-related changes of TRACP5b level and its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. Methods: Seven-hundred and twenty-two Chinese mainland women aged 20-79 years were recruited in the study. Serum TRACP5b level was measured using immunoassay to evaluate the state of bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) at lumbar spine 1-4 and proximal femur were measured by duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The serum TRACP5b level reached a bottom value in premenopausal women aged 30-39, gradually increased in women aged 40-49, rapidly rose in women aged 50-59, and culminated with a maximum value in women aged 60-69 before a slow drop in women aged 70-79. The average level of TRACPSb was significantly higher in postmenopausal women [(3.29±1.07) U/L] than in premenopausal women ([1.70±0.59] U/L). The levels of TRACP5b were inversely correlated with BMD at all measured sites (P<0.001). Furthermore, the level of TRACP5b was obviously higher in women with osteoporosis and osteopenia than those with normal bone mass (P<0.001). Conclusion: We have established the reference values of serum TRACPSb in Chinese mainland women, and found that postmenopausal women had higher TRACP5b concentration than younger women. The results showed that serum TRACPSb was a sensitive and useful parameter for the evaluation of age-related changes of bone absorption.

  13. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Walking could be recommended for post-menopausal women to manage menopausal symptoms and promote psychological well-being. Life satisfaction may be enhanced through the improvement of mental and physical parameters (e.g., menopausal symptoms, BMI and depression.

  14. Partner wealth predicts self-reported orgasm frequency in a sample of Chinese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    There has been considerable speculation about the adaptive significance of the human female orgasm, with one hypothesis being that it promotes differential affiliation or conception with high-quality males. We investigated the relationship between women's self-reported orgasm frequency and the

  15. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal

  16. The Rest of the Story: A Qualitative Study of Chinese and Indian Women's Graduate Education Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakaboski, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Previous migration discourse views educational migration through narrowly defined push-pull forces, which ignores overseas graduate education as a path for maneuvering through restrictive gendered and cultural experiences. The purpose of this exploratory research is to expand migration research and view women's migration decisions as employing…

  17. An exploratory study of traditional birthing practices of Chinese, Malay and Indian women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Eliana; Mackey, Sandra; Arthur, David; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Chen, Helen; Creedy, Debra K

    2012-12-01

    to explore the traditional birthing practices of Singaporean women. a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using individual interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Colaizzi's phenomenological method was used to analyse the data. obstetric outpatient clinics in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. a purposive sample of 30 women, 1-3 months postpartum. two broad themes emerged-following tradition and challenging tradition. Singaporean women experiencing pregnancy and childbirth follow tradition through the influence of their mother and mother-in-law and because of worry over consequences that may result if they do not. Tradition is also challenged through the modification or rejection of traditional practices and changing family roles and expectations. health professionals need to provide accurate information on traditional birthing practices and scientific evidence to support or refute such practices with the aim of preventing women from adhering to practices that are hazardous to them and the baby. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Jurj, Adriana L; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Li, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2007-06-15

    This investigation described the effects of exercise, walking, and cycling for transportation, as well as the effect of overall nonexercise physical activity, on mortality in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2004). Women without heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed for an average of 5.7 years (n = 67,143), and there were 1,091 deaths from all causes, 537 deaths from cancer, and 251 deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Information about physical activity and relevant covariates was obtained by interview. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Exercise and cycling for transportation were both inversely and independently associated with all-cause mortality (p(trend) activity were at 25-50% reduced risk (p(trend) active women (0-9.9 MET-hours/day). Among women reporting the least nonexercise activity (0-9.9 MET-hours/day) but reporting regular exercise participation, exercise was associated with reduced mortality (hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.99). These findings add new evidence that overall physical activity levels are an important determinant of longevity, and that health benefit can be obtained through an active lifestyle, exercise, or combinations of both.

  19. Biomarkers of Dietary Exposure Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Lampe, J.W.; Ray, R.M.; Brown, R.; Wu, C.Y.; Li, W.J.; Chen, C.; King, I.B.; Gao, D.L.; Hu, Y.W.; Shannon, J.; Wahala, K.; Thomas, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast condition among women and account for up to 50% of all breast biopsies being performed. Although considered a benign condition, fibroadenomas utilize substantial resources for management and treatment to rule out potential malignancies. Dietary factors

  20. Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior among Chinese Women Who Have Been Physically Abused by Their Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…

  1. Cross-sectional study of contraceptive use among Chinese women of reproductive age: results based on a mobile application (APP)-derived data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lele; Bai, Wenpei; Huo, Yuliang; Zhou, Yingfang; Yao, Chen; Xi, Sisi; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the contraceptive status among Chinese women of reproductive age and factors associated with contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study from November 2015 to January 2016 was conducted. We used APP to collect demographics and contraceptive use information of women aged 14-44 years in China. A total of 23,669 women completed the study. After data cleaning, 19,768 (83.5%) women were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 78.9%; while 21.05% of women did not use any method, condoms (40.10%), rhythm, or withdrawal (31.03%) were the most commonly used methods. When contraceptive methods were divided into four categories-long-acting contraceptives (LAC), short-acting contraceptive (SAC), Others, and "No use"-the prevalence was 6.1% (601/19,678), 40.8% (8022/19,678), 35.1% (6912/19,678), and 21.1% (4143/19,678), respectively. Women with a high level of education, being unmarried, and sexually active women tended to choose SAC; married women were associated with LAC usage. Women with irregular menstrual cycle used a high proportion of emergency contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 78.9%, with condom use being most prominent. Young women of reproductive age have low awareness of contraception. Relevant departments should take necessary measures to improve this situation.

  2. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger; Faurschou, Annesofie; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect on postprandial glucose metabolism and, thus, potentially constitute a link between smoking and the development of type 2 diabetes. We subjected 11 male heavy smokers to two identical 4-h liquid mixed-meal tests: one with concomitant cigarette smoking (immediately before and after meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before and after the meal significantly reduced postprandial plasma glucose excursions. There were no differences in gut or pancreatic hormone concentrations between the test days in the smoking group, and the responses were similar to those in the control group. Our results suggest that smoking in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in chronic smokers. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poles, Antônio A.; Balcão, Victor M.; Chaud, Marco V.; Vila, Marta M.D.C.; Aranha, Norberto; Yoshida, Valquíria M.H.; Oliveira, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  4. Evaluating therapeutic effect in symptoms of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Linlin; Lin, Shouqing; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xiuli

    2010-04-01

    To assess therapeutic effect of an extract of Vitex agnus castus (VAC, BNO 1095) in premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Chinese women. It was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study carried out in China. Eligible patients were treated with VAC extract or placebo for three cycles. Symptoms were documented with PMS diary (PMSD), a daily rating scale with 17 items. Main efficacy variable was the reduction percentage of 17 symptom score documented in PMSD during the luteal phase of the third treatment cycle. A total of 67 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to VAC group or placebo group. Of these, 64 patients completed the study (31 vs. 33). All the 17 symptoms showed a significantly greater improvement with VAC than placebo (P 0.05). Vitex agnus castus is more effective than placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe PMS in Chinese women, especially in symptoms of negative effect and insomnia.

  5. Informal Care and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From Chinese Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-10-16

    Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Ren, Anran; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne; Skov, Vibe; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben; Tan, Qihua

    2017-03-28

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS patients and healthy controls (52 sites, false discovery rate ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and menstrual cycle) that could serve as novel molecular basis of the clinical heterogeneity observed in PCOS women.

  7. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Xin; He, Mei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Pages, Philippe; Yang, Xian-Hua; Bourdu-Naturel, Sophie

    2008-10-28

    To investigate the effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 and yogurt strains (BIO(R)) on adult women with constipation in Beijing. A total of 135 adult females with constipation were randomly allocated to consume for 2 wk either 100 g of the test fermented milk or 100 g of an acidified milk containing non-living bacteria (control). Stool frequency, defecation condition scores, stool consistency and food intake were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 wk in an intention-to-treat population of 126 subjects. In parallel, safety evaluation parameters were performed. At baseline, no differences were found between groups. Following consumption of test product, stool frequency was significantly increased after 1 wk (3.5 +/- 1.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.6, P food intake did not change between the two groups, and safety parameters of the subjects were within normal ranges. This study suggests a beneficial effect of a fermented milk containing B. lactis DN-173010 on stool frequency, defecation condition and stool consistency in adult women with constipation constipated women after 1 and 2 wk of consumption.

  8. Chinese women's motivation to receive future screening: the role of social-demographic factors, knowledge and risk perception of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; He, Guo-Ping; Choi, K C; Yang, Sheng-Bo

    2013-04-01

    This paper adopted Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing their motivation to receive future screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 167 Chinese women (142 women were willing to receive a screening in the future and 25 women were not) in 2007 to collect women's socio-demographic information and sexual history, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and Protection Motivation Theory measures. The majority of women stated they intended to receive future screening and response efficacy was significantly associated with their intention. However, no significant association was observed between sexual history and protection motivation. Using multivariate analysis, cancer in relatives (odds ratio, OR = 9.97, 95% CI [1.44-436.3], p = 0.010), a perception that visiting a doctor regularly is important to health (OR = 9.85, 95% CI [1.61-999.9], p = 0.009)), and ever attending for cervical screening during the previous three years (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.23-11.02], p = 0.016) were significantly associated with women' motivation to receive future screening. The findings of this study highlight the important role of women's beliefs in the value of cervical screening and previous screening experience in motivating them to receive a screening. Education intervention is needed to provide information and raise public awareness about the importance of cervical screening to women's health. Culture-related beliefs and social motivational processes in addition to those specified by PMT need to be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A quantitative longitudinal study to explore factors which influence maternal self-efficacy among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim

    2018-04-01

    parenting during infancy is highly problematic for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research about MSE during infancy are that the factors which influence MSE remained poorly explored, there were few studies with Chinese women, and the studies did not consider the effect of different cultures. to explore factors which influence MSE in primiparous women in China in the first three months postnatally. a quantitative longitudinal study using questionnaires was conducted. In total, 420 Chinese primiparous women were recruited in obstetric wards at three hospitals in Xiamen City, Fujian Province of China. Initial baseline questionnaires to measure socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were distributed to participants face-to-face by the researcher on the postnatal ward at three days postnatally. Follow-up questionnaires at six and 12 weeks postnatally were sent via e-mail by the researcher to participants, including the Self-efficacy in Infant Care Scale (SICS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Postpartum Social Support Scale (PSSS) to measure MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support, respectively. These were returned by participants via e-mail. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. the variables: social support, women's satisfaction with 'Doing the month', postnatal depression, maternal education, baby health, and maternal occupation had an influence on MSE at six weeks postnatally (Adjusted R 2 = 0.510, F = 46.084, Pwomen's satisfaction with 'Doing the month', and baby fussiness were the factors influencing MSE at 12 weeks postnatally (Adjusted R 2 = 0.485, F = 41.082, Pwomen's family members need to be aware of the significant contribution of social support, women's satisfaction with 'Doing the month' in positively influencing primiparous women's MSE, and the

  10. Changes in maternal self-efficacy, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim

    2018-07-01

    There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are that most studies were conducted with a homogeneous sample and there were few studies with Chinese women. Secondly, the trajectory of change in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support for Chinese primiparous women was not clear during the initial postpartum period in earlier studies. This study aimed to describe changes in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women in the first three months postnatally. A quantitative longitudinal study using questionnaires was conducted. Obstetric wards at three hospitals in Xiamen City, South-East China. In total, 420 Chinese primiparous women were recruited. Initial baseline questionnaires to measure socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at three days postnatally were distributed to participants face-to-face by the researcher on the postnatal ward. Follow-up questionnaires at six and 12 weeks postnatally were sent via e-mail by the researcher to participants, including the Self-efficacy in Infant Care Scale (SICS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Postpartum Social Support Scale (PSSS) to measure MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support, respectively. These were returned by participants via e-mail. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. The mean MSE score at six weeks postnatally was 74.92 (SD = 11.05), and increased to 77.78 (SD = 11.13) at 12 weeks postnatally. The mean social support scores at six and 12 weeks postnatally were 40.99 (SD = 9.31) and 43.00 (SD = 9.55). The mean EPDS scores decreased from 9.09 (SD = 4.33) at six weeks postnatally to 8.63 (SD = 4.40) at 12 weeks postnatally; the proportion of women with an

  11. Clinical features and risk factors for post-partum depression in a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shen, Yifeng; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Guan, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Danning; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinbo; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yunshu; Shao, Yun; Rong, Han; Gan, Zhaoyu; Sun, Yan; Hu, Bin; Pan, Jiyang; Li, Yi; Sun, Shufan; Song, Libo; Fan, Xuesheng; Li, Yi; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Yang, Bin; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Xiaoli; Ning, Yuping; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Tian, Hongjun

    2012-02-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is relatively common in China but its clinical characteristics and risk factors have not been studied. We set out to investigate whether known risk factors for PPD could be found in Chinese women. A case control design was used to determine the impact of known risk factors for PPD in a cohort of 1970 Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). In a within-case design we examined the risk factors for PPD in patients with recurrent MDD. We compared the clinical features of MDD in cases with PPD to those without MDD. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic and ordinal regression. Lower occupational and educational statuses increased the risk of PPD, as did a history of pre-menstrual symptoms, stressful life events and elevated levels of the personality trait of neuroticism. Patients with PPD and MDD were more likely to experience a comorbid anxiety disorder, had a younger age of onset of MDD, have higher levels of neuroticism and dysthymia. Results obtained in this clinical sample may not be applicable to PPD within the community. Data were obtained retrospectively and we do not know whether the correlations we observe have the same causes as those operating in other populations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the despite cultural differences between Chinese and Western women, the phenomenology and risk factors for PPD are very similar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei

    2016-01-23

    This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p menstruation were 0.14%-1.34%, 0.20%-2.70%, and 0.16%-0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  13. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA, outer diameter (OD, cortical thickness (CT, section modulus (SM, buckling ratio (BR at the narrow neck (NN, intertrochanter (IT, and femoral shaft (FS. Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05, which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05. Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  14. Association between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels in the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Q Ky; Lo, T K; Wong, S F; Lee, C P

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have shown that women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus have significantly lower pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels than those without. This study aimed to evaluate whether first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese pregnant women. This prospectively collected case series was conducted in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. All consecutive Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy who attended the hospital for their first antenatal visit (before 14 weeks' gestation) from April to July 2014 were included. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median was compared between the gestational diabetic (especially for early-onset gestational diabetes) and non-diabetic groups. The correlation between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level and glycosylated haemoglobin level in women with gestational diabetes was also examined. Of the 520 women recruited, gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 169 (32.5%). Among them, 43 (25.4%) had an early diagnosis, and 167 (98.8%) with the disease were managed by diet alone. The gestational diabetic group did not differ significantly to the non-diabetic group in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (0.97 vs 0.99, P=0.40) or free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin multiple of median (1.05 vs 1.02, P=0.29). Compared with the non-gestational diabetic group, women with early diagnosis of gestational diabetes had a non-significant reduction in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median (median, interquartile range: 0.86, 0.57-1.23 vs 0.99, 0.67-1.44; P=0.11). Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and glycosylated haemoglobin levels were not correlated in women with gestational diabetes (r=0.027; P=0.74). Chinese women with non-insulin-dependent gestational diabetes did not exhibit significant changes to pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiple of median nor a correlation between pregnancy

  15. A neglected issue on sexual well-being following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes to sexual well-being can be one of the most problematic quality of life issues following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate changes to sexual well-being following breast cancer, to expand upon the existing body of knowledge pertaining to breast cancer and sexuality, and to provide the necessary information for implementing future interventions that may help improve the quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: This study was mixed with qualitative and quantitative designs. Twenty patients with breast cancer were recruited for in-depth interviews. The central questions covered a patient's cancer experience and perceptions of sexual activities following breast cancer. According to the findings of the qualitative study, we performed a quantitative study using a structured questionnaire to collect data on patient's experience and attitude to sexual well-being following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: Based on the qualitative analysis, seven main themes emerged: (1 Decrease in sexual frequency; (2 Lack of sexual interest; (3 Menopausal symptoms; (4 Body image changes; (5 Effects on marital relationship; (6 Misconceptions about sex; (7 The need for professional consultation. Results from the quantitative study further supported the findings from the qualitative analysis, where changes to sexual well-being were common following cancer diagnosis and treatment and it was a neglected issue among Chinese women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the significant changes to sexual well-being following breast cancer, in addition to the lack of knowledge and misconceptions of sexual activity among patients. Addressing these problems will help improve a patient's quality of life. The findings of this study could help healthcare professionals recognize the sexual issues faced by women with breast cancer and ultimately promote a healthy life.

  16. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyuan; Zhu, Hong; Lin, Chengjun; Che, Jianhua; Tian, Xiujuan; Han, Shiyu; Zhao, Honghui; Zhu, Yumei; Mao, Dongwei

    2015-09-04

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46-0.93; P = 0.024) for α-carotene, 0.63 (95% CI = 0.45-0.90; P = 0.006) for β-carotene, 0.53 (95% CI = 0.37-0.74; P vitamin E, and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.33-0.69; P vitamin C. Dietary intakes of vitamins E and C were inversely associated with the risk of cervical cancer. Risk of cervical cancer from serum antioxidant vitamins was more evident in passive smokers than non-passive smokers. These findings indicated that antioxidant vitamins (mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, and vitamins E and C) might be beneficial in reducing the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially in passive smokers.

  17. Reducing the stigma associated with anorexia nervosa: An evaluation of a social consensus intervention among Australian and Chinese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuwen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Shou, Yiyun

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a social consensus intervention in reducing stigma toward individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) among women from Australia and mainland China. Moreover, the different predictions of informational/normative social influence theory and the social identity approach in terms of the effectiveness of the social consensus intervention were investigated. Participants were female students from the Australian National University (n = 97) and Central China Normal University (n = 76) who reported their levels of stigma toward a fictional character with AN before and after receiving normative information regarding the attitudes of others toward people with AN. Three experimental conditions of normative information were utilized: in-group, out-group, and neutral. Chinese participants reported higher levels of baseline stigma across all measures than Australian participants. Social consensus was effective in reducing most types of AN stigma, and supported the social identity approach in that improvements in attitudinal, affective, and behavioral aspects of stigma were significantly greater for participants in the in-group (but not the out-group) versus the neutral condition. The effectiveness of the social consensus approach was not moderated by nationality. A social consensus approach holds potential as an additional strategy for reducing AN stigma, with its benefits extending across diverse cultural settings. Such an approach would entail ensuring that positive messages regarding people with AN are delivered by members of a valued in-group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Association of Insulin Resistance with Bone Strength and Bone Turnover in Menopausal Chinese-Singaporean Women without Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeri, Maria; Leek, Francesca; Wang, Nan Xin; Koh, Huann Rong; Totman, John J.

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is accompanied by increased areal or volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD or vBMD), but also higher fracture risk. Meanwhile, imbalances in bone health biomarkers affect insulin production. This study investigates the effect of IR on proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck bending, compressive and impact strength indices (Composite Strength Indices) and circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx-1) and 25(OH) Vitamin D3, in a cohort of 97 healthy, non-obese, menopausal Chinese-Singaporean women. Lumbar spine aBMD was inversely associated with IR and dependent on lean body mass (LBM) and age. No such associations were found for vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra, aBMD and vBMD of the proximal femur, or circulating levels of PTH, CTx-1 and 25(OH) Vitamin D3. Composite Strength Indices were inversely associated with IR and independent of LBM, but after adjusting for fat mass and age, this association remained valid only for the impact strength index. Composite Strength Indices were significantly lower in participants with a high degree of IR. Our findings on IR and Composite Strength Indices relationships were in agreement with previous studies on different cohorts, but those on IR and BMD associations were not. PMID:29710852

  19. Association of Insulin Resistance with Bone Strength and Bone Turnover in Menopausal Chinese-Singaporean Women without Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalimeri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is accompanied by increased areal or volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD or vBMD, but also higher fracture risk. Meanwhile, imbalances in bone health biomarkers affect insulin production. This study investigates the effect of IR on proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck bending, compressive and impact strength indices (Composite Strength Indices and circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx-1 and 25(OH Vitamin D3, in a cohort of 97 healthy, non-obese, menopausal Chinese-Singaporean women. Lumbar spine aBMD was inversely associated with IR and dependent on lean body mass (LBM and age. No such associations were found for vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra, aBMD and vBMD of the proximal femur, or circulating levels of PTH, CTx-1 and 25(OH Vitamin D3. Composite Strength Indices were inversely associated with IR and independent of LBM, but after adjusting for fat mass and age, this association remained valid only for the impact strength index. Composite Strength Indices were significantly lower in participants with a high degree of IR. Our findings on IR and Composite Strength Indices relationships were in agreement with previous studies on different cohorts, but those on IR and BMD associations were not.

  20. Analysis of Chinese women with primary ovarian insufficiency by high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Can; Fu, Fang; Yang, Xin; Sun, Yi-Min; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency in human female patients is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential genetic causes in primary amenorrhea patients by high resolution array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. Following the standard karyotyping analysis, genomic DNA from whole blood of 15 primary amenorrhea patients and 15 normal control women was hybridized with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7M arrays following the standard protocol. Copy number variations identified by array-CGH were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction. All the 30 samples were negative by conventional karyotyping analysis. Microdeletions on chromosome 17q21.31-q21.32 with approximately 1.3 Mb were identified in four patients by high resolution array-CGH analysis. This included the female reproductive secretory pathway related factor N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) gene. The results of the present study suggest that there may be critical regions regulating primary ovarian insufficiency in women with a 17q21.31-q21.32 microdeletion. This effect might be due to the loss of function of the NSF gene/genes within the deleted region or to effects on contiguous genes.

  1. Nightshift work job exposure matrices and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among healthy Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Yu, Kai; Xue, Shou-Zheng; Li, Hong-Lan; Liao, Linda M; Blair, Aaron; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    Six-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) is a primary urinary metabolite of melatonin. We examined the association between aMT6s levels and shift work estimated by a job exposure matrix (JEM) among healthy participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Creatinine-adjusted aMT6s levels were measured in the urine samples of 300 women and related to JEM shift work categories. Adjusted geometric means of aMT6s levels from urine samples collected before 08:00 hours were lower among persons holding nighttime shift work jobs. The adjusted aMT6s levels (ng/mg creatinine) were 8.36 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 4.47-15.6], 6.37 (95% CI 3.53-11.5), 6.20 (95% CI 3.33-11.5), 3.81 (95% CI 2.02-7.19), and 3.70 (95% CI 1.92-7.11) from the lowest (never held a shift work job) to the highest (current job likely involved all-night shift work) shift work JEM scores (P=0.05). Our results indicate that nightshift work JEM scores were significantly and inversely associated with aMT6s levels in early morning spot urine samples collected between 07:00-08:00 hours.

  2. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  3. Extrinsic skin ageing in German, Chinese and Japanese women manifests differently in all three groups depending on ethnic background, age and anatomical site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows

  4. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  5. Lung cancer in Asian women - the environment and genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K. [University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (China). Queen Mary Hospital

    2005-09-15

    The mortality rate of lung cancer in Asian women has increased significantly in the past few decades. Environmental factors include tobacco smoke (active and environmental), other indoor pollutions (cooking oil vapours, coal burning, fungus spores), diet, and infections. Active tobacco smoking is not the major factor. Cooking oil vapours associated with high temperature wok cooking and indoor coal burning for heating and cooking in unvented homes, particularly in rural areas, are risk factors for Chinese women. Chronic benign respiratory diseases due to the fungus Microsporum canis probably accounts for the high incidence of lung cancer in northern Thai women at Sarapee. Diets rich in fruits, leafy green vegetables, and vitamin A are protective, while cured meat (Chinese sausage, pressed duck and cured pork), deep-fried cooking, and chili increased the risk. Tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer. Also, a Taiwanese study showed that the odds ratio of papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 infection in non-smoking female lung cancer patients was 10.1, strongly suggesting a causative role. Genetic factors have also been studied in Chinese women, including human leucocyte antigens, K-ras oncogene activation, p53 mutation, polymorphisms of phase I activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, N-acetyltransferase slow acetylator status), and phase II detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase rapid acetylator status).

  6. DNA methylation profiles of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Chinese women: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Zhu, D

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes refl ecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from...... interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome using Illumina’s HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We identifi ed a substantial number of genomic sites diff...... rateovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profi ling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways signifi cantly associated with diverse...

  7. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from...... interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS...... in the DNA methylome from ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol...

  8. Prevalence of Domestic Violence in Hong Kong Chinese Women Presenting with Urinary Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Sze Paulin Ma

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms.The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared.The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6% was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, P<0.05.The prevalence and nature of abuse in our locality was different from the quoted figures worldwide. Patients with overactive bladder syndrome were more likely to be victims of abuse than patients with other urinary symptoms. The difference in the prevalence of domestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.

  9. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Wang, Xu; Chen, Qian; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Zhao, Shasha; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Fengxiu

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with variable metabolic effects in animal models. It is unknown whether BPA exposure affects glucose tolerance in pregnancy. We aimed to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentration is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study included 620 pregnant women from Shanghai, China 2012-2013. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). GDM (n = 79) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Multivariate regressions were used to explore the relationships of urinary BPA with GDM, plasma glucose levels in the 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), birth weight, and ponder index. The geometric mean of BPA was 1.32 μg/L. After adjustment for maternal age, education, husband smoking status, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and urinary creatinine concentration, plasma glucose at 2 hours in the 75-g OGTT was 0.36 mmol/L lower (95% confidence index [CI] = -0.73, 0.01) for women with urine BPA in the high versus the low tertile. For each unit increase in natural log-transformed BPA, the odds of GDM was reduced by 27% (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.97), the birth weight decreased by 25.70 g (95% CI = -54.48, 3.07), and ponder index was decreased by 0.02 (100 g/cm) (95% CI = -0.03, 0.00). Higher maternal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with reduced risk of GDM and marginally lower birth weight and ponder index.

  10. Prevalence of Domestic Violence in Hong Kong Chinese Women Presenting with Urinary Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wai Sze Paulin; Pun, Ting Chung

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms. The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared. The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6%) was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, Pdomestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.

  11. Sites of origin of oral cavity cancer in nonsmokers vs smokers: possible evidence of dental trauma carcinogenesis and its importance compared with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brendan J; Zammit, Andrew P; Lewandowski, Andrew W; Bashford, Julia J; Dragovic, Adrian S; Perry, Emily J; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Perry, Christopher F L

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high and possibly rising incidence of mouth squamous cell carcinoma in nonsmokers, especially women, without obvious cause has been noted by previous authors. Is chronic dental trauma and irritation a carcinogen, and what is its importance compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer in nonsmokers? To determine whether oral cavity cancers occurred more commonly at sites of dental trauma and how the position of these cancers varied between nonsmokers lacking major identified carcinogens and smokers. If these cancers occurred more frequently at sites of chronic trauma, especially in nonsmokers, it would suggest chronic dental trauma as a possible carcinogen. A retrospective analysis of 881 patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancers seen through a tertiary referral hospital between 2001 and 2011 was performed. Patient medical records were analyzed to determine the location of the tumor within the oral cavity and oropharynx and how it relates to patient demographics, smoking and alcohol histories, and comorbidities. Dental histories were also sought, including use of dentures. Nonsmokers comprised 87 of 390 patients with mouth cancer (22%) and 48 of 334 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (14%). Female nonsmoking patients included 53 with oral cancer (61%) but only 12 with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (25%). Oral cancers occurred on the lateral tongue, a potential site of chronic dental trauma, in 57 nonsmokers (66%) compared with 107 smokers/ex-smokers (33%) (P Oral cavity cancers occur predominantly at sites of potential dental and denture trauma, especially in nonsmokers without other risk factors. Recognizing teeth irritation as a potential carcinogen would have an impact on prevention and treatment strategies.

  12. Interactions between general and central obesity in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese pregnant women: A prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Shao, Ping; Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Wei; Liu, Guifeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yi; Li, Zhe; Ren, Yanfeng; Chan, Juliana C N; Yang, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define cut-off points of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate any interactions between high BMI and high WC on the risk of GDM in pregnant Chinese women. From 2010 to 2012, 17 803 women in Tianjin, China, who were at 4-12 weeks gestation were recruited to the study. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group at 24-28 weeks gestation. Binary logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while controlling for the confounding effects of traditional risk factors. Restricted cubic spline was used to identify cut-off points of WC and BMI, if any, for GDM. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 1383 (7.8%) women. The risk of GDM increased steeply with increasing WC from ≥78.5 cm and BMI ≥22.5 kg/m 2 . If BMI gestation were independently and synergistically associated with increased risks of GDM in Chinese pregnant women. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Social support and parenting self-efficacy among Chinese women in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Ke; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2014-05-01

    to examine the changes in and relationship between perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy in the perinatal period among pregnant women in mainland China. this was a secondary analysis with data from part of an experimental study of the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth psychoeducation programme on maternal adaptation. A longitudinal design was employed in the present study. The study was carried out from July 2008 to May 2009 in one general hospital in Guangzhou, China. a convenience sample of 68 first-time mothers in mainland China completed measurement of social support and parenting self-efficacy during pregnancy and at six weeks and three months post partum. perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy declined during early motherhood. Parenting self-efficacy increased from six weeks post partum to three months post partum. Perceived social support positively correlated with parenting self-efficacy. culturally competent health-care intervention should be developed during early motherhood to promote perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy for the new mothers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated and retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) regulator-interacting protein-1 like polymorphisms with body mass index in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boyu; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianhua; Ji, Jue; Shen, Jingyi; Xu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yingying; Liu, Danping; Shen, Yinhuan; Zhang, Weijie; Shen, Jiawei; Wang, Yonggang; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-04-14

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI. A quantitative traits study with 6,102 Chinese female samples, adjusted for age, was performed during our project. Among the twelve SNPs, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs7202296, rs56137030, rs9930506 and rs12149832 in the FTO gene were significantly associated with BMI after Bonferroni correction. Meanwhile, rs9934800 in the RPGRIP1L gene showed significance with BMI before Bonferroni correction, but this association was eliminated after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggested that genetic variants in the FTO gene were strongly associated with BMI in Chinese women, which may serve as targets of pharmaceutical research and development concerning BMI. Meanwhile, we didn't found the significant association between RPGRIP1L and BMI in Chinese women.

  15. Exploring traditional end-of-life beliefs, values, expectations, and practices among Chinese women living in England: Informing culturally safe care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sixsmith, Judith; Wong, Louise Yuen Ming; Callender, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the end-of-life (EoL) beliefs, values, practices, and expectations of a select group of harder-to-reach Chinese women living in England. A cultural safety approach was undertaken to interpret 11 in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Transcripts were translated and back-translated by two researchers. Findings were analyzed using the technical analytical principles of grounded theory. The key themes generated from our analysis include: acculturation; differential beliefs and norms in providing care: family versus health services; language and communication; Eastern versus Western spiritual practices and beliefs; and dying, death, and the hereafter. End-of-life discussions can be part of an arduous, painful, and uncomfortable process, particularly for migrants living on the margins of society in a new cultural setting. For some Chinese people living in the United Kingdom, end-of-life care requires attention to acculturation, particularly Western versus Eastern beliefs on religion, spirituality, burial practices, and provision of care, and the availability of culturally specific care, all of which encompass issues related to gender. Stories of a purposive sample of Chinese women were viewed through a cultural safety lens to gain a deeper understanding of how social and cultural norms and expectations, in addition to the pressures of acculturation, impact gendered roles and responsibilities. The analysis revealed variations between/within Eastern and Western culture that resulted in pronounced, and oftentimes gendered, differences in EoL care expectations.

  16. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  17. "I want to save my life": Conceptions of cervical and breast cancer screening among urban immigrant women of South Asian and Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Jennifer; Moravac, Catherine; Ahmad, Farah; Cleverly, Shelley; Lofters, Aisha; Ginsburg, Ophira; Dunn, Sheila

    2016-10-13

    Breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low among immigrant women and those of low socioeconomic status. The Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES) project ran a peer-led multi-lingual educational program between 2012 and 2014 to reach under and never-screened women in Central Toronto, where breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low. The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand how Chinese and South Asian immigrants - the largest and most under-screened immigrant groups according to national and provincial statistics - conceive of breast and cervical cancer screening. We explored their experiences with screening to date. We explicitly inquired about their perceptions of the health care system, their screening experiences with family physicians and strategies that would support screening in their communities. We conducted 22 individual interviews and two focus groups in Bengali and Mandarin with participants who had attended CARES educational sessions. Transcripts were coded through an iterative constant comparative and interpretative approach. Themes fell into five major, overlapping domains: risk perception and concepts of preventative health and screening; health system engagement and the embedded experience with screening; fear of cancer and procedural pain; self-efficacy, obligation, and willingness to be screened; newcomer barriers and competing priorities. These domains all overlap, and contribute to screening behaviours. Immigrant women experienced a number of barriers to screening related to 'navigating newness', including transportation, language barriers, arrangements for time off work and childcare. Fear of screening and fear of cancer took many forms; painful or traumatic encounters with screening were described. Female gender of the provider was paramount for both groups. Newly screened South Asian women were reassured by their first encounter with screening. Some Chinese women preferred

  18. “I want to save my life”: Conceptions of cervical and breast cancer screening among urban immigrant women of South Asian and Chinese origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hulme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low among immigrant women and those of low socioeconomic status. The Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES project ran a peer-led multi-lingual educational program between 2012 and 2014 to reach under and never-screened women in Central Toronto, where breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low. The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand how Chinese and South Asian immigrants – the largest and most under-screened immigrant groups according to national and provincial statistics - conceive of breast and cervical cancer screening. We explored their experiences with screening to date. We explicitly inquired about their perceptions of the health care system, their screening experiences with family physicians and strategies that would support screening in their communities. Methods We conducted 22 individual interviews and two focus groups in Bengali and Mandarin with participants who had attended CARES educational sessions. Transcripts were coded through an iterative constant comparative and interpretative approach. Results Themes fell into five major, overlapping domains: risk perception and concepts of preventative health and screening; health system engagement and the embedded experience with screening; fear of cancer and procedural pain; self-efficacy, obligation, and willingness to be screened; newcomer barriers and competing priorities. These domains all overlap, and contribute to screening behaviours. Immigrant women experienced a number of barriers to screening related to ‘navigating newness’, including transportation, language barriers, arrangements for time off work and childcare. Fear of screening and fear of cancer took many forms; painful or traumatic encounters with screening were described. Female gender of the provider was paramount for both groups. Newly screened South Asian women were reassured by their

  19. Greater fruit intake was associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women: results of Hong Kong Mr. Os and Ms. Os studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Leung, Jason; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although studies in white populations have reported the beneficial effects of intakes of fruit and vegetables (F&V) on bone mass, limited data are available in Asians, especially among the elderly population. We examined the association of F&V intakes and bone mineral status in Chinese elderly adults and explored the potential mechanisms. The study was a population-based cross-sectional study among 4000 Hong Kong Chinese men and women aged 65 years and older. Habitual F&V intakes were ascertained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral measurements of the whole body, hip, lumber spine, and femoral neck were made by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Information on demographic, health, and lifestyles factors was obtained by standardized questionnaire. Relations between F&V intakes and bone mass at various sites were assessed by regression models. Whole-body and femoral neck bone mineral density and content were significantly and positively associated with fruit intake in both men and women, even when adjustment for a range of potential confounders was made. A daily increase of 100 g/kcal total fruit intake was associated with 4.5% and 6.4% increase of BMD at whole body, and 3.9% and 4.8% increase at the femoral neck in men and women, respectively. No significant association was found between vegetable intake and bone mass. The adjustment for vitamin C intake, but not dietary acid load, attenuated the association between fruit intake and bone mass. Greater fruit intake was independently associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women. The association is probably modified by dietary vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for postnatal depression in Chinese-speaking women using the Hong Kong translated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Helen; Bautista, Dianne; Ch'ng, Ying Chia; Li, Wenyun; Chan, Edwin; Rush, A John

    2013-06-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) may not be a uniformly valid postnatal depression (PND) screen across populations. We evaluated the performance of a Chinese translation of 10-item (HK-EPDS) and six-item (HK-EPDS-6) versions in post-partum women in Singapore. Chinese-speaking post-partum obstetric clinic patients were recruited for this study. They completed the HK-EPDS, from which we derived the six-item HK-EPDS-6. All women were clinically assessed for PND based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analyses and likelihood ratio computations informed scale cutoff choices. Clinical fitness was judged by thresholds for internal consistency [α ≥ 0.70] and for diagnostic performance by true-positive rate (>85%), false-positive rate (≤10%), positive likelihood ratio (>1), negative likelihood ratio (internal consistency was 0.84. At 13 or more cutoff, the true-positive rate was 86.7%, false-positive rate 3.3%, positive likelihood ratio 26.4, negative likelihood ratio 0.14, AUC 94.4% and effect size 0.81. For the HK-EPDS-6, internal consistency was 0.76. At 8 or more cutoff, we found a true-positive rate of 86.7%, false-positive rate 6.6%, positive likelihood ratio 13.2, negative likelihood ration 0.14, AUC 92.9% and effect size 0.98. The HK-EPDS (cutoff ≥13) and HK-EPDS6 (cutoff ≥8) are fit for PND screening for general population post-partum women. The brief six-item version appears to be clinically suitable for quick screening in Chinese speaking women. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. The study of bone mineral density and structure in proximal femur by quantitative CT in elderly Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Liu Xia; Wang Yusheng; Li Jin; Qu Hui; Li Jing; Genant, H.; Lang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and structure of proximal femur in elderly Chinese women by quantatitive computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to further compare the results of these two methods. Methods: Sixty-six healthy Chinese women over 65 years old participated in this study. The left hips of all subjects were measured with DXA and the BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region were calculated. With QCT, the BMD and tissue volume of cortical, trabecular and integral bone were calculated for femoral neck, trochanteric and total femur regions in both hips. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 11.5. Results: The BMD and structural parameters in different regions and different compartments of the proximal femur could be precisely assessed with QCT technique. The BMD of cortical bone in femoral neck [(0.52±0.04) g/cm 3 ], BMD of cortical bone in trochanteric region [(0.49±0.03) g/cm 3 ] and BMD of integral bone in troehanteric region [(0.22±0.04) g/cm 3 ] were greater in the fight than those in the left [(0.51±0.04), (0.48±0.03), (0.21±0.04)g/cm 3 ]. The difference had statistical signification (P 2 (0.78±0.13) g/cm 2 , 5.80 cm 3 (0.06±0.03) g/cm 3 , (5.19 ± 1.40) cm 3 , (0.25 ± 0.04)g/cm 3 , 15.66 cm 3 , (21.74±3.43) cm 3 , (0.08 ± 0.03)g/cm 3 , (34.27±6.09) cm 3 and (76.12±11.11) cm 3 respectively, in the fight the corresponding parameters being (0.52±0.10) g/cm 2 (0.78±0.13) g/cm 2 6.01 cm 3 , (0.06±0.02) g/cm 3 , (5.17±1.27) cm 3 , (0.25±0.04)g/cm 3 , 15.62 cm 3 , (22.12±3.60) cm 3 , (0.09±0.03) g/cm 3 , (34.17±5.94) cm 3 and (76.53±10.71) cm 3 respectively. There were no significant difference between the left and right parameters above (P>0.0 ). All QCT parameters of the right hip correlated well with their corresponding ones of left hip with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.656-0.955, P<0.05. QCT-derived simulated DXA femoral neck and trochanteric

  2. Clinical Features of Patients with Dysthymia in a Large Cohort of Han Chinese Women with Recurrent Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Zhoubing; Wei, Yan; Zhang, Guanghua; Shi, Shenxun; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Liu, Ying; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysthymia is a form of chronic mild depression that has a complex relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we investigate the role of environmental risk factors, including stressful life events and parenting style, in patients with both MDD and dysthymia. We ask whether these risk factors act in the same way in MDD with and without dysthymia. Results We examined the clinical features in 5,950 Han Chinese women with MDD between 30–60 years of age across China. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new MDD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. We identified sixteen stressful life events that significantly increase the risk of dysthymia, given the presence of MDD. Low parental warmth, from either mother or father, increases the risk of dysthymia. Highly threatening but short-lived threats (such as rape) are more specific for MDD than dysthymia. While for MDD more severe life events show the largest odds ratio versus controls, this was not seen for cases of MDD with or without dysthymia. Conclusions There are increased rates of stressful life events in MDD with dysthymia, but the impact of life events on susceptibility to dysthymia with MDD differs from that seen for MDD alone. The pattern does not fit a simple dose-response relationship, suggesting that there are moderating factors involved in the relationship between environmental precipitants and the onset of dysthymia. It is possible that severe life events in childhood events index a general susceptibility to chronic depression, rather than acting specifically as risk factors for dysthymia. PMID:24386213

  3. Multimodel assessment of BRCA1 mutations in Taiwanese (ethnic Chinese) women with early-onset, bilateral or familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Hong; Lin, Po-Han; Huang, Ai-Chu; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Lu, Yen-Shen; Bai, Li-Yuan; Sargeant, Aaron M; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chang, King-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Although evidence suggests an importance of genetic factors in the development of breast cancer in Taiwanese (ethnic Chinese) women, including a high incidence of early-onset and secondary contralateral breast cancer, a major breast cancer predisposition gene, BRCA1, has not been well studied in this population. In fact, the carcinogenic impacts of many genetic variants of BRCA1 are unknown and classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). It is therefore important to establish a method to characterize the BRCA1 VUSs and understand their role in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Accordingly, we developed a multimodel assessment strategy consisting of a prescreening portion and a validated functional assay to study breast cancer patients with early-onset, bilateral or familial breast cancer. We found germ-line BRCA1 mutations in 11.1% of our cohort and identified one novel missense mutation, c.5191C>A. Two genetic variants were initially classified as VUSs (c.1155C>T and c.5191C>A). c.1155C>T is not predicted to be deleterious in the prescreening portion of our assessment strategy. c.5191C>A, on the other hand, causes p.T1691K, which is predicted to have high deleterious probability because of significant structural alteration, a high deleterious score in the predictive programs and, clinically, triple negative characteristics in breast tumors. This mutant is confirmed by transcription activation and yeast growth-inhibition assays. In conclusion, we show as high a prevalence of germ-line BRCA1 mutation in high-risk Taiwanese patients as in Caucasians and demonstrate a useful strategy for studying BRCA1 VUSs.

  4. Clinical features of patients with dysthymia in a large cohort of Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Zhoubing; Wei, Yan; Zhang, Guanghua; Shi, Shenxun; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Liu, Ying; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Dysthymia is a form of chronic mild depression that has a complex relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we investigate the role of environmental risk factors, including stressful life events and parenting style, in patients with both MDD and dysthymia. We ask whether these risk factors act in the same way in MDD with and without dysthymia. We examined the clinical features in 5,950 Han Chinese women with MDD between 30-60 years of age across China. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new MDD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. We identified sixteen stressful life events that significantly increase the risk of dysthymia, given the presence of MDD. Low parental warmth, from either mother or father, increases the risk of dysthymia. Highly threatening but short-lived threats (such as rape) are more specific for MDD than dysthymia. While for MDD more severe life events show the largest odds ratio versus controls, this was not seen for cases of MDD with or without dysthymia. There are increased rates of stressful life events in MDD with dysthymia, but the impact of life events on susceptibility to dysthymia with MDD differs from that seen for MDD alone. The pattern does not fit a simple dose-response relationship, suggesting that there are moderating factors involved in the relationship between environmental precipitants and the onset of dysthymia. It is possible that severe life events in childhood events index a general susceptibility to chronic depression, rather than acting specifically as risk factors for dysthymia.

  5. Obesity or overweight is associated with worse pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among Chinese women with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for breast cancer among Chinese women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 307 eligible patients were assigned to receive four cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin before standard surgery for breast cancer from 2007 to 2011 at Shanghai Cancer Hospital. The patients were categorized as obese, overweight, normal weight, or underweight based on BMI according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Pathological complete response (pCR was defined as no invasive cancer in the breast or axillary tissue. A logistic regression and the Chi-squared test were used for detecting the predictors of pCR and determining the relationship between BMI category and pCR rate in the subgroup analysis with respect to other variables. RESULTS: Categorical BMI, estrogen receptor (ER, and progesterone receptor (PR status were independent predictors of pCR according to the multivariate analysis. Patients with BMI≥25 were less likely to achieve a pCR to NCT compared with patients with BMI<25 (Odds ratio: 0.454, p = 0.033, multivariate analysis. In the subgroup analysis, the predictive value of BMI for pCR to NCT was significantly shown in post-menopausal patients (p = 0.004 and hormonal receptor status-negative patients (p = 0.038. The incidence of treatment-induced toxicity was similar among the different BMI categories. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI was associated with worse pCR to NCT. Further approaches to investigating the mechanism of this influence of BMI on treatment response and a more appropriate schedule for calculating NCT dose for high-BMI-patients should be considered.

  6. Clinical features of patients with dysthymia in a large cohort of Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    Full Text Available Dysthymia is a form of chronic mild depression that has a complex relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD. Here we investigate the role of environmental risk factors, including stressful life events and parenting style, in patients with both MDD and dysthymia. We ask whether these risk factors act in the same way in MDD with and without dysthymia.We examined the clinical features in 5,950 Han Chinese women with MDD between 30-60 years of age across China. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new MDD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. We identified sixteen stressful life events that significantly increase the risk of dysthymia, given the presence of MDD. Low parental warmth, from either mother or father, increases the risk of dysthymia. Highly threatening but short-lived threats (such as rape are more specific for MDD than dysthymia. While for MDD more severe life events show the largest odds ratio versus controls, this was not seen for cases of MDD with or without dysthymia.There are increased rates of stressful life events in MDD with dysthymia, but the impact of life events on susceptibility to dysthymia with MDD differs from that seen for MDD alone. The pattern does not fit a simple dose-response relationship, suggesting that there are moderating factors involved in the relationship between environmental precipitants and the onset of dysthymia. It is possible that severe life events in childhood events index a general susceptibility to chronic depression, rather than acting specifically as risk factors for dysthymia.

  7. Adult non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study was commissioned by the DHSSPS as part of their smoke-free monitoring and evaluation strategy after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Northern Ireland in April 2007.The research was undertaken to determine the impact of smoke-free legislation on non-smoking adults who live with a smoker.Using research carried out both before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this study details for the first time the attitudes and knowledge of non-smoking...

  8. Age-Specific Normal Reference Range for Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Healthy Chinese Han Women: A nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofang; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Cuilian; Ma, Wenmin; Zhong, Ying; Qu, Wenyu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhiying; Huang, Kecheng; Deng, Song; Ma, Lanfang; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Shuhong; Huang, Jia; Wu, Meng; Fang, Li; Lu, Yunping; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women. We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women. In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase. The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers. Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Effects on Chinese restaurant workers of exposure to cooking oil fumes: a cautionary note on urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluates oxidative DNA damage in workers who are exposed to cooking oil fumes (COFs) in Chinese restaurants. The study participants were 387 nonsmoking Chinese restaurant workers, 202 kitchen staff, and 185 service staff at 23 Chinese restaurants in Taiwan. Airborne particulate matter and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels were monitored in kitchens and dining areas. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as an internal dose of exposure to COFs, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as an oxidative DNA damage marker. The relationship between workers' 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels was estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Airborne particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in dining areas. The kitchen staff's geometric mean levels of urinary 8-OHdG (7.9 microg/g creatinine) and 1-OHP (4.5 microg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those of the service staff, which were 5.4 and 2.7 microg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary 1-OHP level, work in kitchens, gender, and work hours per day were four significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments are made for covariates. Oxidative DNA damage was associated with exposure of Chinese restaurant workers to COFs. Female restaurant workers had a greater oxidative stress response to COFs than male restaurant workers, providing additional evidence of the link between lung cancer in Chinese women and exposure to COFs.

  10. Characteristics of TCM constitutions of adult Chinese women in Hong Kong and identification of related influencing factors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youzhi; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Yi; Jia, Lei; He, Yanhua; Xue, Steve An; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping

    2014-05-21

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) refers to an integrated, metastable and natural specialty of individual in morphosis, physiological functions and psychological conditions. It is formed on the basis of innate and acquired endowments in the human life process, which can be divided into normal constitution and unbalanced ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of TCMCs of Chinese women in Hong Kong and its acquired influencing factors. Local Chinese women between 30 to 65 years old, were recruited from 18 districts of Hong Kong (n=944), and were assessed using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Physical Constitution Scale for their TCMC types. Social-demographic, reproductive, lifestyle, systemic health and emotional status information were collected through structured questionnaire. The associations between different independent factors and each TCMC type, as well as the complex unbalanced TCMC types were tested individually. Significant factors related to unbalanced TCMC types were identified in final models using multiple factor analysis. A total of 764 (80.9%) participants were diagnosed with unbalanced TCMCs. The most common TCMC type was Qi-deficiency constitution (53.9%), followed by Phlegm-wetness (38.9%), Yang-deficiency (38.2%), Yin-deficiency (35.5), Blood-stasis (35.4) and Qi-depressed (31%) constitution. Six hundred and eleven participants (64.7%) had at least two types of combined and unbalanced constitutions. Stepwise logistic analysis indicated that poor systemic health condition (OR, 1.76-2.89), negative emotions (OR=1.39), overweight (OR=1.58), high educational level (OR=1.18) and mental work (OR=1.44) were significantly positively correlated with certain unbalanced TCMCs. Meanwhile, aging (OR, 0.59-0.73), exercise habit (OR, 0.61-0.79) and reproductive history (OR=0.72) showed inverse associations with unbalanced constitutions. In addition, systemic health condition and emotional status, exercise habit and age

  11. Use of Mental Health Care and Unmet Needs for Health Care Among Lesbian and Bisexual Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Chiao, Christine; Valentine, Anne; Lê Cook, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    This study examined associations between sexual orientation of Asian-American women and receipt of mental health care and unmet need for health care. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with 701 unmarried Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-American women ages 18 to 35. Multivariate regression models examined whether lesbian and bisexual participants differed from exclusively heterosexual participants in use of mental health care and unmet need for health care. After the analyses controlled for mental health status and other covariates, lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to have received any past-year mental health services and reported a greater unmet need for health care. Sexual-minority women were no more likely to have received minimally adequate care. Given the high rates of mental health problems among Asian-American sexual-minority women, efforts are needed to identify and overcome barriers to receipt of adequate mental health care and minimize unmet health care needs.

  12. Association of vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphism with peak bone mass and bone size in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-juan QIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Qi-ren HUANG; Jin-wei HE; Yun-qiu HU; Qi ZHOU; Jing-hui LU; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene Apa I polymorphism and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) gene Pvu II, Xba I polymorphisms are related to bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone size in premenopausal Chinese women. METHODS: The VDR Apa I genotype and ER-α Pvu II, Xba I genotype were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 493 unrelated healthy women aged 20-40 years of Hah nationality in Shanghai city. BMD (g/cm2), BMC (g), and bone areal size (BAS, cm2) at lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4) and proximal femur (femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured by duel-energy X-ray absorptionmetry. RESULTS: All allele frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After phenotypes were adjusted for age, height, and weight, a significant association was found between VDR Apa I genotype and BMC variation at L1-4 and Ward's triangle (P<0.05), but not in BMD or BAS at lumbar spine and proximal femur.ER-α Pvu II, Xba I genotype was not related to BMC, BMD, and BAS at all sites. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that Apa I polymorphism in VDR gene may influence on attainment and maintenance of peak bone mass in premenopausal Chinese women.

  13. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebelatto Marcelo N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2 and nutritional status (measured by body mass index data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15 and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11. In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045 between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002 and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010. There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2.

  14. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  15. Dissuasion of nonsmoking doctors teachers and civil servants survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2018-03-01

    The job nature and social status of doctors, teachers and civil servants could be influential on dissuading people from smoking. With 2457 questionnaires taken back, 2377 of them are valid. This survey's valid rate is 96.74%. Results 1. 35% interviewees indicate that there are smokers in their home while 73.6% of these families have the limited smoking area. 52.5% interviewees acknowledge dissuasion behavior. Besides, the most effective dissuasion reason is children. 2. 53.5% interviewees indicate that there are smokers in workplace. 28.2% nonsmokers would dissuade while 46.2% would leave and 25.6% would do nothing. 3. 9.5% nonsmokers would take the initiative to discourage smoking in public places while 79% would leave and 11.5% would do nothing. The most effective reason is no-smoking rules. 5.9% people consider the dissuasion effective every time while 51.9% people consider it effective in most of the time. 4. Among the three professions, doctor takes the highest percentage to dissuade smoking in public places, home and workplace. Conclusions 1. The rate of nonsmokers dissuading smoking is still low. Dissuasion at home happens more frequently than in public places and workplace. Dissuasion behavior more possibly happens between acquaintances. 2. Nonsmokers discourage smoking at home because they worry about the smokers' health while the reason turns into worrying about their own health during public place dissuasion and workplace dissuasion. 3. The most effective dissuasion reason at home is "do not smoke beside children" while the most effective dissuasion reason in public places is nonsmoking rules. 4. The doctors' rate of dissuasion is significantly higher than teachers and civil servants.

  16. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  17. Association of CD40 gene polymorphisms with sporadic breast cancer in Chinese Han women of Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shuang

    0.0430, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings primarily show that CD40 gene polymorphisms contribute to sporadic breast cancer risk and have a significant association with clinicopathological features among Chinese Han women from the Heilongjiang Province.

  18. Chinese men and women in the United States and Hong Kong: body and self-esteem ratings as a prelude to dieting and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Katzman, M A

    1998-01-01

    The present study compared the body and weight satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression of Chinese male and female university students in Hong Kong and the United States and assessed the impact of these ratings on compensatory behavior such as dieting and exercise. Self-report measures were administered to 501 Chinese participants in the language of their university's locale. Females reported significantly more body dissatisfaction and depression, and males reported greater weight dissatisfaction (the majority of men wishing to be larger). Overall, Chinese subjects in Hong Kong reported significantly more body and weight dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, higher depression, more dieting, and less exercise as compared to their counterparts in the United States. Asian students in this study mirrored gendered patterns previously reported in Caucasian samples with respect to the relation of body image, self-esteem, and mood. For both sexes, there appeared to be a caricatured mimicking of the bodies perceived to be associated with the dominant culture--men wanted to be larger while the women wanted to be even more petite.

  19. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.

  20. [Prevalence, awareness, status of treatment and control on type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49 in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Wang, Z Q; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the rates on prevalence, awareness, status on treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49, in 2013. Methods: Data on China Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance in year 2013 was used for analysis. Source of data covered 302 surveillance points which were selected by Multi-stage cluster random sampling method that including 176 534 adults over 18 years of age, with 46 674 premenopausal women aged 18-49. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were determined after a 10-hour overnight fast for all the participants, before a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among participants without a self-reported history of diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes was defined according to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria-fasting blood glucose level as ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) level as ≥11.1 mmol/L. After being weighed, according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the sample was used to estimate the rates of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus by age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 5.6% among the Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49. No statistical difference on the prevalence rates (5.7% and 5.4%, respectively) was seen, between participants from the rural or the urban areas. Prevalence rates in the eastern, central or western geographic areas were 5.8%, 6.2% and 4.4% respectively. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes appeared as 29.3%, 27.9% and 29.4% in childbearing women aged 18-49. The rate of treatment was 95.4% among those who knew their diabetic situation in childbearing women aged 18-49 years. The control rate of diabetes was 38.9% among those who had taken measures to control glucose, in 18-49-year-old childbearing women. The rate of awareness on diabetes in childbearing

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea in a non-smoking woman after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwa, Naoki; Yamada, Kouzou; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Noda, Kazumasa [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kameda, Youichi; Maehara, Takamitsu

    2000-04-01

    Few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea have been reported in non-smoking women. We report one case which was probably due to radiation therapy. A 50-year-old non-smoking woman was referred to our hospital because wheezing and dyspnea had been aggravated for 3 months. She had received radiation therapy ({sup 60}Cobalt) after standard radical mastectomy for right breast cancer 13 years previously. Bronchoscopic findings and chest CT scan showed tracheal stenosis due to the tumor. Sleeve resection of the trachea was performed, and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We may consider this case to be radiation-induced cancer compatible with the most strict criteria of radiation induced malignancy. (author)

  2. Association of genetic variants of melatonin receptor 1B with gestational plasma glucose level and risk of glucose intolerance in pregnant Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyao Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the association of MTNR1B genetic variants with gestational plasma glucose homeostasis in pregnant Chinese women. METHODS: A total of 1,985 pregnant Han Chinese women were recruited and evaluated for gestational glucose tolerance status with a two-step approach. The four MTNR1B variants rs10830963, rs1387153, rs1447352, and rs2166706 which had been reported to associate with glucose levels in general non-pregnant populations, were genotyped in these women. Using an additive model adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI, association of these variants with gestational fasting and postprandial plasma glucose (FPG and PPG levels were analyzed by multiple linear regression; relative risk of developing gestational glucose intolerance was calculated by logistic regression. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was tested by Chi-square and linkage disequilibrium (LD between these variants was estimated by measures of D' and r(2. RESULTS: In the pregnant Chinese women, the MTNR1B variant rs10830963, rs1387153, rs2166706 and rs1447352 were shown to be associated with the increased 1 hour PPG level (p=8.04 × 10(-10, 5.49 × 10(-6, 1.89 × 10(-5 and 0.02, respectively. The alleles were also shown to be associated with gestational glucose intolerance with odds ratios (OR of 1.64 (p=8.03 × 10(-11, 1.43 (p=1.94 × 10(-6, 1.38 (p=1.63 × 10(-5 and 1.24 (p=0.007, respectively. MTNR1B rs1387153, rs2166706 were shown to be associated with gestational FPG levels (p=0.04. Our data also suggested that, the LD pattern of these variants in the studied women conformed to that in the general populations: rs1387153 and rs2166706 were in high LD, they linked moderately with rs10830963, but might not linked with rs1447352;rs10830963 might not link with rs1447352, either. In addition, the MTNR1B variants were not found to be associated with any other traits tested. CONCLUSIONS: The MTNR1B is likely to be involved in the regulation of glucose

  3. Opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels in middle-aged and older Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the associations of ferritin with trunk and leg fat depots. We aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY: Trunk fat mass and leg fat mass were determined in a cross-sectional sample of 1,150 Chinese (479 men and 671 women aged 50-70 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Fasting plasma ferritin was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma ferritin was positively correlated with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total body fat and trunk fat mass, but inversely correlated with leg fat mass in men (r = 0.16, 0.26, 0.19, 0.22 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05 and women (r = 0.16, 0.16, 0.08, 0.17 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis showed that ferritin levels increased with larger trunk fat mass (β = 0.33 ± 0.08 for men and β = 0.21 ± 0.05 for women, both P<0.001 while decreased with larger leg fat mass (β = -0.12 ± 0.09, P = 0.15 for men; and β = -0.14 ± 0.05, P = 0.005 for women. Moreover, plasma ferritin levels decreased with increasing tertile of leg fat mass among each tertile of trunk fat mass. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels.

  4. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  5. Lifestyle modifications in the development of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in Chinese women who had gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized interventional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Noel Wan Man; Ngai, Cora Suk Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Chan, Jane Yuk Chun; Lao, Terence Tzu Hsi

    2014-02-01

    To study whether lifestyle intervention can reduce the development of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Chinese women who had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prospective randomized controlled interventional trial of 450 women who had GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) postpartum. Advice on diet and exercise was given to the intervention group and reinforced in each follow-up visit. Women in both arms were followed for 36 months. Blood pressure and anthropometry were measured at each visit and blood tests were repeated. Fewer women in the intervention group developed DM (15 versus 19 %) but this was not statistically significant, and there was a lower incidence of DM among women over 40 years old. No difference was found in fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and triglyceride level, were lower but the significance was inconsistent among visits. BMI and percentage body fat were also significantly lower in the later visits. There was no difference in waist-hip ratio and basal metabolic rate. Our results demonstrate a trend towards lower incidence of type II DM within 3 years postpartum in GDM women given lifestyle advice, which also potentially offers protection against development of MS, in terms of lower blood pressure and triglyceride level. Women over 40 years old are more likely to benefit. Future studies should address ways to maximize compliance to lifestyle intervention as its potential benefits can be undermined by challenges of motherhood.

  6. Plasma β-Endorphin Levels in Women with Early Threatened Abortion before and after the Treatment of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斐; 俞瑾

    1999-01-01

    To observe plasma β-endorphin(β-EP)and gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRM),human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),progesterone (P4) levels in women with early threatened abortion and with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions(RSA).Twenty patients with threatened abortion at 7-8 weeks of gestation were re-cruited,all of them had a history of 3 or more recurrent unexplained abortions.They were treated with psychological consultation accompanied by traditional Chinese herbs.Blood samples were taken to measure β-EP,GnRM,hCG and P4 levels by radioim-munoassay(RIA).The treatments were continued till 10-12 weeks,blood was taken during this period to compare changes in these peptides/hormones.Twenty normal pregnant women at 7-8 and 10-12weeks and 20patients with incomplete abortion at 10- 12weeks were recruited for comparative studies.Results:(1)In normal pregnant women,plasma β-EP,GnRH,hCG and P4 levels at 10-12 weeks were significantly higher than that at 7-8 weeks(P0.05).(3)Plasma β-EP levels in patients with incomplete abortions at 10-12 weeks were dramatically higher and GnRH,hCG and P4levels were lower than in normal pregnant women(P<0.01).β-EP might play a role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion.

  7. Standardised Chinese herbal treatment delivered by GPs compared with individualised treatment administered by practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Harman, Kim; Lewith, George; Moore, Michael; Bishop, Felicity L; Stuart, Beth; Lampert, Nicholas

    2016-07-27

    In the UK, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection presented by women in primary care. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) are defined as three episodes of UTI in the last 12 months, or two episodes in the last 6 months. Between 20 and 30 % of women who have had one episode of UTI will have an RUTI, and approximately 25 % of these will develop subsequent recurrent episodes. RUTIs can have a significant negative effect on the quality of life, and have a high impact on health care costs as a result of outpatient visits, diagnostic tests and prescriptions. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a recorded history of treatments for the symptoms of UTIs for more than 2000 years. More recent clinical research in China has provided some preliminary evidence that CHM can alleviate the symptoms of UTIs and reduce the rate of recurrence, but more rigorous investigation is required. The RUTI trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, feasibility trial. A total of 80 women will be randomised to 'individualised' herbs prescribed by a Chinese herbal practitioner or to 'standardised' herbs provided by primary care clinicians. Both arms will have herbs for prevention of UTIs and treatment of acute episodes. Treatment duration is for 16 weeks. The primary outcomes are the number of episodes of recurrent UTIs during the trial period and in the 6 months of follow-up, and the number of days of symptoms rated moderately bad or worse based on patient diaries. Secondary outcomes will assess participant expectations and beliefs, adherence to the treatment, adverse events and health economics and provide quantitative and qualitative assessments of the impact of recurrent infections on the lives of women. The RUTI trial is the first instance of CHM delivered as a clinical trial of an investigatory medicinal product in the UK. This study provides important information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of researching and using

  8. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yan Jiang,1,* Zhen-Lin Zhang,2,* Zhong-Lan Zhang,3 Han-Min Zhu,4 Yi-Yong Wu,5 Qun Cheng,4 Feng-Li Wu,5 Xiao-Ping Xing,1 Jian-Li Liu,3 Wei Yu,6 Xun-Wu Meng11Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 2Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Beijing, 4Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai Huadong Hospital, Shanghai, 5Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, 6Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women.Method: This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236 were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 µg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD, new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups.Results: A total of 213 patients (90.3% completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001; and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2

  9. Comparison of acoustic voice characteristics in smoking and nonsmoking teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice of vocal professionals is exposed to great temptations, i.e. there is a high probability of voice alterations. Smoking, allergies and respiratory infections greatly affect the voice, which can change its acoustic characteristics. In smokers, the vocal cords mass increases, resulting in changes in vocal fold vibratory cycle. Pathological changes of vocal folds deform the acoustic signal and affect voice production. As vocal professionals, teachers are much more affected by voice disorders than average speakers. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in acoustic parameters of voice between smoking and nonsmoking teachers, in a sample of vocal professionals. The sample consisted of 60 female subjects, aged from 25 to 59. For voice analysis we used Computer lab, model 4300, 'Kay Elemetrics Corporation'. The statistical significance of differences in the values of acoustic parameters between smokers and nonsmokers was tested by ANOVA. Results showed that in the sample of female teachers, professional use of voice combined with the smoking habit can be linked to the changes in voice parameters. Comparing smokers and nonsmokers, average values of the parameters in short-term and long-term disturbances of frequency and amplitude proved to be significantly different.

  10. Being a Mother in a Strange Land : Motherhood Practices Experiences of Chinese Migrant Women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been emigrating to the Netherlands since 1911. Particularly after World War Two, female migrants outnumbered male migrants, yet their daily-life practices and transnational motherhood experiences have remained largely unknown. For this reason, my study pays attention to

  11. The centrality of DSM and non-DSM depressive symptoms in Han Chinese women with major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendler, K.S.; Aggen, S.H.; Flint, J.; Borsboom, D.; Fried, E.I.

    Introduction: We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. Method: We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese

  12. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Blackston, Christie R; Xue, Kan; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Gao, Dao Li; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Chen, Chu

    2008-05-01

    Enzymes encoded by the glutathione S-tranferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and pi 1 (GSTP1) genes, which are expressed in breast tissue, catalyze the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles. Reduced enzyme activity, due to carriage of the GSTM1 deletion or the GSTP1 Ile105Val Val allele, may therefore affect susceptibility to breast cancer and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined whether these polymorphisms were associated with risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions. Women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=615) or fibrocystic breast conditions (n=467) were compared to women without clinical breast disease (n=878). We also examined whether these associations differed by menopausal status or by presence of proliferation in the extra-tumoral epithelium among women with breast cancer and in lesions among women with fibrocystic conditions. No overall association of either GST polymorphism with risk of breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions was observed. There was some evidence of slightly elevated cancer risk associated with carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and at least one GSTP1 105-Val allele (OR=1.33, 95% CI, 0.99-1.80), compared to carriage of the GSTM1 non-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes. This relationship was stronger in women who had breast cancer with extra-tumoral tissue proliferation (OR=1.77, 95% CI, 1.03-3.04). Our results suggest that GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes do not individually influence susceptibility to breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions. The observed increased risk of breast cancer associated with joint carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 105-Val allele needs confirmation in other studies.

  13. Effect of Tai Ji Quan training on self-reported sleep quality in elderly Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Huang, Lingyan; Wu, Xie; Fu, Weijie; Liu, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a 24-week Tai Ji Quan training program on sleep quality, quality of life, and physical performance among elderly Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A 24-week randomized, controlled trial of 46 elderly women with knee OA. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Tai Ji Quan group (n = 23) or a control group (n = 23). Participants in the Tai Ji Quan group completed training sessions three times per week, while those in the control group had bi-weekly educational classes. The primary outcome was total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality of Index (PSQI). Secondary outcomes were: seven subscales of the PSQI; sleep latency; total sleep time; sleep efficiency; physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Compared with the control group, participants in the Tai Ji Quan group had significantly improved primary outcome (global PSQI score, p = 0.006) and secondary outcomes, including three PSQI sub-scores (sleep latency, p = 0.031; sleep duration, p = 0.043; daytime dysfunction, p = 0.007), total sleep time (p = 0.033), and SF-36 PCS (p = 0.006). The Tai Ji Quan group also had significant improvements compared with baseline in three PSQI sub-scores (sleep latency, p = 0.031; habitual sleep efficiency, p = 0.049; sleep disturbance, p = 0.016), sleep latency (p = 0.003), BBS (p = 0.001), and TUG (p = 0.006). Tai Ji Quan training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality and quality of life in elderly Chinese women with knee OA. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (June 16, 2013): ChiCTR-TRC-13003264. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of polymorphisms in low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein 5 gene with bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-lin ZHANG; Yue-juan QIN; Jin-wei HE; Qi-ren HUANG; Miao LI; Yun-qiu HU; Yu-juan LIU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible association of Q89R, N740N and A1330V polymorphisms in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: Q89R,N740N and A1330V genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 647 unrelated healthy postmenopausal Han Chinese women aged 43-76 years in Shanghai. BMD at lumbar spine 1-4 and the left proximal femur including the femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in all subjects. Results: The distribution of the Q89R, N740N and A1330V genotypes in this population was as follows: QQ 80.5%, QR 18.7%, and RR 0.8%; TT 66.9%,TC 31.1%, and CC 2.0%; AA 68.0%, AV 29.7%, and VV 2.3%. The frequencies of the Q89R, N740N and A1330V genotypes and alleles did not deviate from the HardyWeinberg equilibrium. We found that the Q89R and A1330V polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium in our population (x2= 13.50, P<0.01). Both before and after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, and weight, the Q89R or N740N genotypes were significantly associated with BMD at the femoral neck (P<0.05).Subjects with the Q89R QQ genotype or the N740N TT genotype had a significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck, compared with those with the QR/RR or TC/CC genotypes, respectively. No significant association was found between A1330V polymorphism and BMD at any site. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the LRP5 gene is a candidate for the genetic determination of BMD in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  15. Fast-track services for all? The preferences of Chinese-, Korean-, and Thai-speaking women attending a sexual health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Knight, Vickie; Read, Phillip J; McNulty, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC) Xpress clinic has significantly reduced the length of stay and waiting time for clients at SSHC but is currently only available to clients who can read and understand a high level of English. This reduces access for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) clients. This study sought to determine the acceptability of 4 proposed components of an express clinic model among CALD clients: computer-assisted self-interview (CASI), self-collection of swabs/urine specimens, not having a physical examination, and consultation with a health promotion officer rather than with a clinician. Differences in acceptability based on language group, new or return client status, sex worker status, clinic visited status, and age were analyzed. A cross-sectional, anonymous questionnaire was offered to all female Chinese, Thai, and Korean clients attending SSHC between March and November 2012. Multivariate regression and Pearson χ statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 12 software. A total of 366 questionnaires were returned from 149 Thai, 145 Chinese, and 72 Korean participants. After multivariate analysis, the only predictor of willingness to use an express model of service provision was language group: overall, 67% Thai (odds ratio, 3.74: confidence interval [CI], 2.03-6.89; P Korean (odds ratio, 3.58; CI, 1.77-7.25, P Korean (8.5%) (P Korean (40.9%) were happier with self-swabbing than Chinese women (23.9%, P Korean (11.1%; P < 0.001). This research shows that the components of an express model used at SSHC are not favorable to our CALD client base. Despite a CALD express clinic having the potential to reduce waiting times, most clients did not favor reduced waiting time over being physically examined or using a CASI.

  16. [Sexual hormone and traditional Chinese patent medicine for early postmenopausal women: effect on quality of life and cost-utility analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang-Zhi; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Liu-Lin; Zhuang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Xian; Qiao, Lin

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Premarin and Kuntai capsule (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) on the quality of life (QOL) and their cost-utility in early postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven women with menopausal syndrome in the early postmenopausal stage were randomly allocated into Premarin group (0.3 mg/day and 0.6 mg/day alternately, n=29) and Kuntai group (4 g/day, n=28). The therapies lasted for one year and the patients were followed up every 3 months. The QOL of the patients was evaluated and the utility scores were obtained from rating scale to conduct a cost-utility analysis (CUA). At each follow-up examination, no significant difference was found in the QOL between the two groups (P>0.05). The QOL obviously increased after the 1-year-long therapy in both the groups, and Kuntai required longer treatment time than Premarin to take effect. The cost-utility ratio of Premarin and Kuntai were 13581.45 yuan/QALY (quality adjusted life year) and 25105.12 yuan/QALY, respectively. Both incremental cost analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that Kuntai was more costly than Premarin. The result of per-protocol analysis was consistent with that of intention-to-treat analysis. At early stage of menopause, the QOL of women with menopausal syndrome can be significantly improved by low-dose Premarin and Kuntai capsule, but the latter is more costly.

  17. Work and family stress is associated with menstrual disorders but not with fibrocystic changes: cross-sectional findings in Chinese working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Wege, Natalia; Gu, Huakang; Shang, Li; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    To explore the separate and combined effects of work and family stress on menstrual disorders and fibrocystic changes in Chinese working women. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1,642 female railway workers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and Family Stress Scale were used to measure work stress and family stress, respectively; the menstrual and breast conditions were evaluated by gynecologic interview and a medical examination. Multivariate log-binomial regression was performed to analyze the associations. Menstrual disorders were found in 59.3% of female workers, and 54.8% had fibrocystic changes. The risk of menstrual disorders was significantly elevated with respect to work and family stress. The highest risk was found in the group with combined exposure to both work and family stress (RR with 95% CI 1.33 (1.18-1.49)). No significant association between stress and fibrocystic changes was observed. Menstrual disorders were associated with stress from work and family life, but not fibrocystic changes, in working women. Tailored intervention measures reducing the burden of stressful psychosocial work and family environment are needed to improve women's reproductive well-being.

  18. Measures of Implicit Gender Attitudes May Exaggerate Differences in Underlying Associations among Chinese Urban and Rural Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.

  19. Psychologicai study on independence consciousness of chinese female university students : Applying Cinderella Complex Scales and of Women's Social Roles

    OpenAIRE

    鄭, 艶花; Zheng, Yanhua

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and clarify the independence consciousness of female university students of China applying psychological research methods. In the course of the study a questionnaire research was conducted on eighty three Chinese female university students with regard to the scales of Cinderella complex and the social role attitudes. Firstly the results indicate positive correlations between the independent variable of "defend-family-traditionalism factor" with three fa...

  20. Clinical study on the prevalence and comparative analysis of metabolic syndrome and its components among Chinese breast cancer women and control population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tuan; Luo, Qing-Qing; Li, Xin; Arshad, Bilal; Xu, Zhou; Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Wu, He; Shi, Yan-Ling; Chen, Hao-Ran; Li, Hao; Li, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Kai-Nan; Kong, Ling-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been previously identified as a risk factor for breast cancer and is increasingly a public health concern. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among primary breast cancer and control population. The clinical data of metabolic syndrome and its components in the breast cancer (605 cases) and control population (3212 cases), from Breast Cancer Center and Physical Examination Center of Chongqing, China, from July 2015 to February 2017, were collected for comparative analysis. This study was prospectively registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/, number: ChiCTR-OOB-15007543). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer (32.6%) was obviously higher than that in control population (18.2%) (pmetabolic syndrome in breast cancer group aged below 60 years (24.9%, pmetabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese breast cancer women, and metabolic syndrome is closely related with breast cancer. Therefore, screening and prevention strategy of metabolic syndrome should be carried out in the management of breast cancer.

  1. Towards a Hybrid Conceptualisation of Chinese Women Primary School Teachers' Changing Femininities--A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I posit a hybrid conceptualisation of women teachers' identities in the globalising and localising negotiation of gender. Drawing on Homi Bhabha's theory of hybridities, this paper argues for a fluid, hybrid and multifaceted reality of women teachers' lives in the areas of family, the husband and wife relationship, and the place of…

  2. Traditional Chinese Pregnancy Restrictions, Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Pregnant Women in Macao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lau, RN, RM, IBCLC, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings provided cultural rationales of pregnancy restrictions within a Macao context that may assist health professionals to better understand women from different cultures. It is essential in the development of culturally appropriate healthcare to support women in making a healthy transition to motherhood.

  3. Assess the discrimination of Achilles InSight calcaneus quantitative ultrasound device for osteoporosis in Chinese women: Compared with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Ningning, E-mail: ningning_jin@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Lin Shouqing, E-mail: Shouqing_Lin2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Zhang Ying, E-mail: steel_lee@sina.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Chen Fengling, E-mail: bjzqk@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since the implementation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology may become a part of future clinical decision making to identify osteoporosis and prevent fractures, this study was initiated to evaluate the correlations of QUS parameters and axial bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to assess the discrimination of QUS measurements for osteoporosis and osteopenia defined by WHO criteria. 106 native Chinese women (aged 50.2 {+-} 10.9 SD, 21-74 years) were involved. Each subject received both QUS measurements at left calcaneus with Achilles InSight and DXA measurements with DPX-L at lumbar spine (L{sub 2-4}), total hip and femoral neck. Achilles InSight provided the stiffness index (SI) which derived from Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS), and the T-scores of SI were calculated. We found that the QUS parameter SI was statistically significant but medium correlated (r = 0.458-0.587) with DXA at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck (P < 0.0001 for all correlations). With ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve of diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 0.933 and 0.796, respectively. To identify osteoporosis, when the T-score threshold of SI was defined as -1.4, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 73.7%. Our study confirmed that QUS measurements performed with Achilles InSight were capable to identify osteoporosis defined by axial BMD using DXA in Chinese women.

  4. Assess the discrimination of Achilles InSight calcaneus quantitative ultrasound device for osteoporosis in Chinese women: Compared with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ningning; Lin Shouqing; Zhang Ying; Chen Fengling

    2010-01-01

    Since the implementation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology may become a part of future clinical decision making to identify osteoporosis and prevent fractures, this study was initiated to evaluate the correlations of QUS parameters and axial bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to assess the discrimination of QUS measurements for osteoporosis and osteopenia defined by WHO criteria. 106 native Chinese women (aged 50.2 ± 10.9 SD, 21-74 years) were involved. Each subject received both QUS measurements at left calcaneus with Achilles InSight and DXA measurements with DPX-L at lumbar spine (L 2-4 ), total hip and femoral neck. Achilles InSight provided the stiffness index (SI) which derived from Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS), and the T-scores of SI were calculated. We found that the QUS parameter SI was statistically significant but medium correlated (r = 0.458-0.587) with DXA at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck (P < 0.0001 for all correlations). With ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve of diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 0.933 and 0.796, respectively. To identify osteoporosis, when the T-score threshold of SI was defined as -1.4, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 73.7%. Our study confirmed that QUS measurements performed with Achilles InSight were capable to identify osteoporosis defined by axial BMD using DXA in Chinese women.

  5. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  6. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  7. [A prospective follow-up study on the association between serum level of C-reactive protein and risk of digestive system cancers in Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Cao, L Y; Chen, S H; Xie, S H; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Guo, L W; Li, F; Su, K; Chang, S; Ren, J S; Dai, M; Li, N; Wu, S L; He, J

    2016-11-23

    Objective: It has been reported by some prospective studies that C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with cancer risk. However, the correlation between CRP and digestive system cancers has not been evaluated in Chinese females. We conducted a large population-based cohort study to investigate whether elevated level of CRP in serum is associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Methods: From the Chinese Kailuan Female Cohort, 19, 437 women were enrolled in this study in July 2006, and all of the subjects were followed up through 2014. At the baseline investigation, the serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) were tested for all subjects, and demographic information and risk factor data were collected. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios ( HR ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI ) for the baseline levels of hsCRP after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking, drinking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and physical activity, and risk of digestive system tumors (including colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreas cancer, liver and gallbladder cancer, and other cancers). Results: By Dec 31, 2014, a total of 100 incident cancer cases were observed, including 47 colorectal cancers, 17 stomach cancers, and altogether 29 pancreas, liver and gallbladder cancers. All the subjects investigated were divided into three groups according to the level of hsCRP (3 mg/L). The 8-year cumulative incidence of digestive system cancers were 405/100 000, 520/100 000 and 787/100 000 in these 3 groups, respectively (Log rank test χ 2 = 8.37, P =0.015). Compared to those with lower hsCRP levels (3 mg/L) had a significantly increased risk of pancreas, liver and gallbladder cancers ( HR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.06-6.91; P trend = 0.036). Conclusions: Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline may be associated with increased risk of certain digestive system cancers.

  8. Association between lumbar bone mineral density and serum uric acid in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study of healthy Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen; Bai, Xiaojuan; Wang, Nan; Han, Lulu; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-12-01

    Partial correlation and regression analyses were used in this study. We showed that there is a linear relationship between bone mineral density and serum uric acid within the normal physiologic range, and higher serum uric acid levels had a protective effect on bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The significance of the relationship between lumbar bone mineral density ( BMD) and serum uric acid (SUA) levels is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate on a population-level the association between lumbar BMD and SUA within the normal physiologic range and to determine whether SUA plays a protective role in bone loss in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 390 healthy postmenopausal women, 47-89 years of age, conducted in Shenyang, China. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The SUA levels were obtained at each DXA visit. Partial correlation and regression analyses were applied to determine the associations. The SUA levels were significantly different between the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. The lumbar BMD was positively correlated with SUA in postmenopausal women after adjustment for age (r = 0.212). After adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hip circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, milk intake, physical exercise, fracture history, total protein, total bilirubin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the lumbar BMD was associated with SUA and the odds ratio of the third SUA quartile was 0.408 (95%CI, 0.198-0.841, P = 0.015), compared to the first quartile of SUA levels. The lumbar BMD was linearly associated with SUA levels within the normal physiologic range of postmenopausal women. Higher SUA levels had a protective effect on bone loss

  9. Differences in neural activation to depictions of physical exercise and sedentary activity: an fMRI study of overweight and lean Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T; Gao, X; Chen, H

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented differences in neural responses to food cues in obese versus lean samples but little is known about weight status differences in responsiveness to other key features of obesogenic environments, particularly cues reflecting physical activity. To address this gap, patterns of activation related to visual depictions of sedentary activities and vigorous physical exercise were assessed in overweight (O-W) and average weight (A-W) samples via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirteen O-W and 13 A-W Chinese women were instructed to imagine engaging in 90 physical exercise activities and 90 sedentary activities and to watch 90 landscape images presented during three runs of an fMRI scan within a cross-sectional design. Behavioral results indicated O-W women endorsed more negative attitudes toward physical activity than A-W did. Imaging analyses indicated that body mass index had a significant negative association with activation of the right putamen and a positive correlation with activation in the right medial frontal gyrus, specifically Brodmann Area 10 in the exercise-sedentary image contrast condition. For the sedentary-control contrast, significantly less activation in an insula area related to negative affect was observed for the O-W group. Finally, for the exercise-control contrast, O-W women also displayed comparatively weaker activation in a cingulate gyrus area implicated in kinesthetic memory of body movements and the re-experiencing real events. Together, results supported contentions that exposure to depictions of physical exercise corresponds to reduced activation of reward centers and heightened activation in regions associated with negative affect regulation among O-W women compared with leaner peers.

  10. The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese overweight and obese women: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is associated with substantially elevated risk of adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. This quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess whether a lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and excessive gestational weight (GWG) gain among Chinese overweight women. Convenience samples of 74 women in gestational weeks 8-12 with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2) were enrolled. They were divided into intervention (N=37) or control group (N=37) according to the time sequence of seeing the doctor. The intervention group was provided with exercise, dietary, weight gain counseling and detailed plans at weeks 8-12 and every month in the second trimester. In addition, each counseling session included a personalized feedback based on their 5-day-records. Follow-up phone calls or emails were conducted every week between antenatal visits. The control group was just provided with exercise, dietary and weight gain counseling at weeks 8-12, besides the usual health education provided at the O&G outpatient department. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a lower incidence of gestational diabetes in the intervention group (9/32, 28.1%) compared with the control group (19/34, 55.9%), p=0.023. Women in the intervention group gained much less weight (6.86 ± 2.31 versus 10.08 ± 3.84 kg, p=0.000) at the end of second trimester. Lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and prevent excessive maternal weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and long-term estradiol kinetics in smoking postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Jørgensen, H L; Christiansen, C

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study 2-h estrogen kinetics in smoking versus non-smoking postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy. Moreover, we wished to study estrogen concentrations over 2 years in smokers using ten or fewer cigarettes daily versus non-smokers in postmenopausal women on estrogen treatment....

  12. SMOKING / NON-SMOKING IN THE CERN RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS

    CERN Document Server

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

    2001-01-01

    As you may remember, all CERN buildings and cars are considered to be non-smoking areas with a few exceptions (Safety Instruction no. 46). The ban on smoking applies in particular to all public areas, such as restaurants and cafétérias. Smoking is therefore prohibited in all parts of the free-flow and the dining rooms. As for the cafétérias, they are divided into well-defined non-smoking and smoking areas, the latter being clearly indicated as such, i.e : Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 1 : at the back of the cafétéria (on the outside terrace side) opposite the Users' Office and the offices of the Staff Association; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 2 : the full length of the cafétéria on the wineyard side, except for the room next to the entrance to the building, furnished with red arm-chairs; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 3 : between the bar and the row of artificial ...

  13. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  14. Association Analysis between g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A Genetic Polymorphisms of OPG and Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report that the OPG is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This study aimed to detect the potential association of OPG gene polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We recruited 928 subjects containing 463 with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis and 465 healthy volunteers as controls. The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (L2–4, and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all P values A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all P values T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  15. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  16. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  17. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  18. Two Sets of Business Cards: Responses of Chinese Immigrant Women Entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia to Sexism and Racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Chiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing entrepreneurial discourses have been dominated by white middle-class androcentric approach, giving little space to the discussions of racism and sexism experienced by minority women entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill this gap through an examination of the experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia using an intersectional approach. The key research question addressed in the paper is to what extent, and in what ways, do racism and sexism impact on the entrepreneurial experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs and what strategies do they use in managing discrimination to protect themselves and their businesses? Four main strategies were derived from our findings, namely, creating a comfortable niche, playing the mainstream card, swallowing the pain, and resisting.

  19. Mobile Breast Cancer e-Support Program for Chinese Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy (Part 1): Qualitative Study of Women's Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Guo, Dongmei; Yang, Sumei; Han, Qiuying; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2018-04-11

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience difficulty in accessing adequate cancer care in China. Mobile apps have the potential to provide easily accessible support for these women. However, there remains a paucity of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of app-based programs targeting specifically women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Moreover, women's perceptions and experiences related to using and interacting within the app-based program have rarely been reported. Therefore, an app-based Breast Cancer e-Support program was developed and evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. Based on the incorporation of Bandura's self-efficacy and social exchange theory, Breast Cancer e-Support program lasted for 12 weeks covering 4 cycles of chemotherapy and had 4 components: (1) a Learning forum, (2) a Discussion forum, (3) an Ask-the-Expert forum, and (4) a Personal Stories forum. As a part of the randomized controlled trial, the aim of this study was to explore the participants' perception of Breast Cancer e-Support program, its strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions to improve the program. A descriptive qualitative study was employed. Thirteen women with breast cancer from 2 university-affiliated hospitals in China, who were randomly allocated to the Breast Cancer e-Support program in the randomized controlled trial, were interviewed from November 2016 to February 2017. Purposive sampling was used based on women's scores of self-efficacy after the completion of the intervention. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts, allowing the categories and subcategories to flow from the data. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants perceived the Breast Cancer e-Support program to be helpful in enhancing knowledge, improving confidence level, and promoting emotional well-being. Women also identified access to tailored advice from experts and convenience as the benefits of this program

  20. A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence, Potential Risk Factors, and Symptom-specific Bother of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adult Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Li, Zhaoai; Gong, Jian; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are few in China, and none has been conducted nationwide. To estimate the prevalence and potential risk factors of LUTS and the bother they impose on adult women in China. This is the second analysis of a population-based cross-sectional survey on urinary incontinence conducted between February and July 2006 in six regions of China. Cluster samples were randomly selected for interviews. No intervention was implemented. A modified Chinese Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire was administered. The participants were asked about the presence of individual LUTS and rated their symptom bother. Descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and multivariate logistic regressions were used for data analysis. A total of 18 992 respondents (94.96%) were included. The prevalence of any LUTS, storage symptoms, or voiding symptoms was 55.5%, 53.9%, and 12.9%, respectively, and increased with age. Nocturia was the most common symptom (23.4%), followed by urgency (23.3%) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI; 18.9%). Nocturia was most frequently rated as bothersome (93.0%) but was generally minor (80.5%). Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were most frequently reported as severe (11.5% and 10.8%) or moderate (18.5% and 16.8%) bothers. Any LUTS were more prevalent in urban women (57.1% vs 53.9%). Multiple factors increased the odds of bother and individual LUTS, and older age and coexisting pelvic organ prolapse were strong predictors (pfactors influenced bother and individual LUTS. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers and should be targeted for medical intervention. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A randomised translational trial of lifestyle intervention using a 3-tier shared care approach on pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus but without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xilin; Tian, Huiguang; Zhang, Fuxia; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Leng, Junhong; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Liu, Gongsu; Dong, Ling; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang; Chan, Juliana Cn

    2014-10-28

    There are no randomised controlled trials to demonstrate whether lifestyle modifications can improve pregnancy outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group's (IADPSG) criteria. We tested the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications implemented in a 3-tier's shared care (SC) on pregnancy outcomes of GDM. Between December 2010 and October 2012, we randomly assigned 700 women with IADPSG-defined GDM but without diabetes at 26.3 (interquartile range: 25.4-27.3) gestational weeks in Tianjin, China, to receive SC or usual care (UC). The SC group received individual consultations and group sessions and performed regular self-monitoring of blood glucose compared to one hospital-based education session in the UC group. The outcomes were macrosomia defined as birth weight ≥ 4.0 kg and the pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Women in the SC (n = 339) and UC (n = 361) groups delivered their infants at similar gestational weeks. Birth weight of infants in the SC group was lower than that in the UC group (3469 vs. 3371 grams, P = 0.021). The rate of macrosomia was 11.2% (38/339) in the SC group compared to 17.5% (63/361) in the UC group with relative risk (RR) of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.44-0.93). The rate of PIH was 8.0% (27/339) in the SC compared to 4.4% (16/361) in the UC with RR of 1.80 (0.99-3.28). Apgar score at 1 min Lifestyle modifications using a SC system improved pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with GDM. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01565564.

  2. Genetic Polymorphisms of TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 Are Associated with Endometrial Cancer Susceptibility in Chinese Han Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is a complex disease involving multiple gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. TGF-β signaling plays pivotal roles in EC development. This study aimed to investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms of TGF-β signaling related genes TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 contribute to EC susceptibility. Using the TaqMan Genotyping Assay, 19 tagging-SNPs of these four genes were genotyped in 516 EC cases and 707 controls among Chinese Han women. Logistic regression (LR showed that the genetic variants of TGFB1 rs1800469, TGFBR1 rs6478974 and rs10733710, TWIST1 rs4721745 were associated with decreased EC risk, and these four loci showed a dose-dependent effect (Ptrend < 0.0001. Classification and regression tree (CART demonstrated that women carrying both the genotypes of TGFBR1 rs6478974 TT and rs10512263 TC/CC had the highest risk of EC (aOR = 7.86, 95% CI = 3.42-18.07, P<0.0001. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR revealed that TGFB1 rs1800469 plus TGFBR1 rs6478974 was the best interactional model to detect EC risk. LR, CART and MDR all revealed that TGFBR1 rs6478974 was the most important protective locus for EC. In haplotype association study, TGFBR1 haplotype CACGA carrier showed the lowest EC risk among women with longer menarche-first full term pregnancy intervals (˃11 years and BMI˂24 (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17-0.90, P = 0.0275. These results suggest that polymorphisms in TGFB1, TGFBR1, SNAI1 and TWIST1 may modulate EC susceptibility, both separately and corporately.

  3. [A study of behavior patterns between smokers and nonsmokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S

    1990-04-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) have from time to time over the last three decades found associations between prevalence of CHD and behavioral attributes and cigarette smoking. The main purpose of this study is reduced to major risk factor of coronary heart disease through prohibition of smoking and control of behavior pattern. The subjects consisted of 120 smokers and 90 nonsmokers who were married men older than 30 years working in officers. The officers were surveyed by means of questionnaire September 26 through October 6, 1989. The Instruments used for this study was a self-administered measurement tool composed of 59 items was made through modifications of Jenkuns Activity Survey (JAS). The Data were analysed by SAS (Statistical Analysis System) program personal computer. The statistical technique used for this study were Frequency, chi 2-test, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The 15 items were chosen with items above 0.3 of the factor loading in the factor analysis. In the first factor analysis 19 factors were extracted and accounted for 86% of the total variance. However when the number of factors were limited to 3 in order to derive Jenkins classification, three factors were derived. There names are Job-Involvement, Speed & Impatience, Hard-Driving. Each of them includes 21 items, 21 and 9, respectively. The results of this study were as follow: 1. The score of the smoker group and non-smoker group in Job-Involvement (t = 5.7147, p less than 0.0001), Speed & Impatience (t = 4.6756, p less than .0001), Hard-Driving (t = 8.0822, p less than .0001) and total type A behavior pattern showed statistically significant differences (t = 8.1224, p less than .0001). 2. The score of type A behavior pattern by number of cigarettes smoked daily were not statistically significant differences. 3. The score of type A behavior pattern by duration of smoking were not significant differences. It was concluded that the

  4. A multicenter hospital-based diagnosis study of automated breast ultrasound system in detecting breast cancer among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Lin, Xi; Tan, Yanjuan; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Hui; Feng, Ruimei; Tang, Guoxue; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Anhua; Qiao, Youlin

    2018-04-01

    The automated breast ultrasound system (ABUS) is a potential method for breast cancer detection; however, its diagnostic performance remains unclear. We conducted a hospital-based multicenter diagnostic study to evaluate the clinical performance of the ABUS for breast cancer detection by comparing it to handheld ultrasound (HHUS) and mammography (MG). Eligible participants underwent HHUS and ABUS testing; women aged 40-69 years additionally underwent MG. Images were interpreted using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Women in the BI-RADS categories 1-2 were considered negative. Women classified as BI-RADS 3 underwent magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish true- and false-negative results. Core aspiration or surgical biopsy was performed in women classified as BI-RADS 4-5, followed by a pathological diagnosis. Kappa values and agreement rates were calculated between ABUS, HHUS and MG. A total of 1,973 women were included in the final analysis. Of these, 1,353 (68.6%) and 620 (31.4%) were classified as BI-RADS categories 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. In the older age group, the agreement rate and Kappa value between the ABUS and HHUS were 94.0% and 0.860 (P<0.001), respectively; they were 89.2% and 0.735 (P<0.001) between the ABUS and MG, respectively. Regarding consistency between imaging and pathology results, 78.6% of women classified as BI-RADS 4-5 based on the ABUS were diagnosed with precancerous lesions or cancer; which was 7.2% higher than that of women based on HHUS. For BI-RADS 1-2, the false-negative rates of the ABUS and HHUS were almost identical and were much lower than those of MG. We observed a good diagnostic reliability for the ABUS. Considering its performance for breast cancer detection in women with high-density breasts and its lower operator dependence, the ABUS is a promising option for breast cancer detection in China.

  5. Association of germline variation in CCNE1 and CDK2 with breast cancer risk, progression and survival among Chinese Han women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22-2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31-5.34, and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (P(trend = 0.0001. Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.90. Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06-3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15-5.03; in stage II-IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09-3.79. For CDK2, no significant association was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further validation studies are needed.

  6. The impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) fasting glucose diagnostic criterion on the prevalence and outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Mei, J; Song, W; Liu, Y; Tan, Y-D; Chi, S; Li, P; Chen, X; Deng, S

    2014-03-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) proposed that a one-time value of fasting plasma glucose of 5.1 mmol/l or over at any time of the pregnancy is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. We evaluated the repercussions of the application of this threshold in pregnant Han Chinese women. This is a retrospective study of 5360 (72.3% of total) consecutively recruited pregnant Han Chinese women in one centre from 2008 to 2011. These women underwent a two-step gestational diabetes diagnostic protocol according to the previous American Diabetes Association criteria. The IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was used to reclassify these 5360 women. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were compared among the women classified as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (approximately 90% were treated), those reclassified as having gestational diabetes by the single IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion (untreated), but not as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria, and those with normal glucose tolerance. There were 626 cases of gestational diabetes defined by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (11.7%) and these cases were associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes when compared with the women with normal glucose tolerance. With the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion, another 1314 (24.5%) women were reclassified as having gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes classified by the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was associated with gestational hypertension (P = 0.0094) and neonatal admission to nursery (P = 0.035) prior to adjustment for maternal age and BMI, but was no longer a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment. The simple IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion increased the Chinese population with gestational diabetes by 200%. The

  7. Retrospective and comparative analysis of 99mTc-Sestamibi breast specific gamma imaging versus mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiuyan; Hu, Guoming; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Fuming; Shao, Xuan; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhan, Hongwei; Chen, Yiding; Deng, Yongchuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing breast cancer during the early stage may be helpful for decreasing cancer-related mortality. In Western developed countries, mammographies have been the gold standard for breast cancer detection. However, Chinese women usually have denser and smaller-sized breasts compared to Caucasian women, which decreases the diagnostic accuracy of mammography. However, breast specific gamma imaging, a type of molecular functional breast imaging, has been used for the accurate diagnosis of breast cancer and is not influenced by breast density. Our objective was to analyze the breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI) diagnostic value for Chinese women. During a 2-year period, 357 women were diagnosed and treated at our oncology department and received BSGI in addition to mammography (MMG), ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic assessment. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of each method of detection and compared the biological profiles of the four imaging methods. A total of 357 women received a final surgical pathology diagnosis, with 168 malignant diseases (58.5 %) and 119 benign diseases (41.5 %). Of these, 166 underwent the four imaging tests preoperatively. The sensitivity of BSGI was 80.35 and 82.14 % by US, 75.6 % by MMG, and 94.06 % by MRI. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosis specificity of BSGI was high (83.19 % vs. 77.31 % vs. 66.39 % vs. 67.69 %, respectively). The BSGI diagnostic sensitivity for mammographic breast density in women was superior to mammography and more sensitive for non-luminal A subtypes (luminal A vs. non-luminal A, 68.63 % vs. 88.30 %). BSGI may help improve the ability to diagnose early stage breast cancer for Chinese women, particularly for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), mammographic breast density and non-luminal A breast cancer

  8. "I just couldn't step out of the circle. I was trapped": Patterns of endurance and distress in Chinese-Canadian women with a history of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Juveria; Shera, Wes; Tsang, A Ka Tat; Law, Samuel; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Eynan, Rahel; Lam, June; Zheng, Xiaoqian; Pozi, Liu; Links, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have highlighted higher rates of suicidal ideation and behaviour and associated themes of gender role stress in Chinese women residing in North America. However, qualitative studies, which privilege their voices in the discourse of suicide prevention and provide insight into their experiences, are lacking. To gain an understanding of the life histories, patterns of distress and constructions of suicide of Chinese-Canadian women with a history of suicidal behaviour. Ten women were recruited from four mental health programs in Toronto, Canada and participated in qualitative interviewing and analysis informed by constructivist grounded theory. Chinese-Canadian women describe experiencing "stress" or "pressure" leading to the exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Stress and pressure are managed through a coping strategy of endurance, informed by the cultural conception of "ren". Cultural influences contribute to the manifestation of stress and pressure as somatic symptoms and sleeplessness. Finally, the women describe feeling unable to endure through worsening distress, reaching a "breaking point"; suicidal behaviour is constructed as a strategy to disrupt this cycle. This study challenges the binary notion that suicidal behaviour is either a consequence of mental illness or a reaction to interpersonal stress. Rather, the women describe an ingrained pattern of enduring through psychosocial problems without acknowledging worsening anxiety, depressive and physical symptoms. The pattern of endurance also prevents early treatment of these difficulties, resulting in the intensification of symptoms until a breaking point is reached. Knowledge of these patterns and coping strategies can allow for earlier identification and intervention for women at risk to prevent the worsening of distress leading to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Retrospective and comparative analysis of (99m)Tc-Sestamibi breast specific gamma imaging versus mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuyan; Hu, Guoming; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Fuming; Shao, Xuan; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhan, Hongwei; Chen, Yiding; Deng, Yongchuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-07-11

    Diagnosing breast cancer during the early stage may be helpful for decreasing cancer-related mortality. In Western developed countries, mammographies have been the gold standard for breast cancer detection. However, Chinese women usually have denser and smaller-sized breasts compared to Caucasian women, which decreases the diagnostic accuracy of mammography. However, breast specific gamma imaging, a type of molecular functional breast imaging, has been used for the accurate diagnosis of breast cancer and is not influenced by breast density. Our objective was to analyze the breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI) diagnostic value for Chinese women. During a 2-year period, 357 women were diagnosed and treated at our oncology department and received BSGI in addition to mammography (MMG), ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic assessment. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of each method of detection and compared the biological profiles of the four imaging methods. A total of 357 women received a final surgical pathology diagnosis, with 168 malignant diseases (58.5 %) and 119 benign diseases (41.5 %). Of these, 166 underwent the four imaging tests preoperatively. The sensitivity of BSGI was 80.35 and 82.14 % by US, 75.6 % by MMG, and 94.06 % by MRI. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosis specificity of BSGI was high (83.19 % vs. 77.31 % vs. 66.39 % vs. 67.69 %, respectively). The BSGI diagnostic sensitivity for mammographic breast density in women was superior to mammography and more sensitive for non-luminal A subtypes (luminal A vs. non-luminal A, 68.63 % vs. 88.30 %). BSGI may help improve the ability to diagnose early stage breast cancer for Chinese women, particularly for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), mammographic breast density and non-luminal A breast cancer.

  10. [Prenatal supplementations of iron, iron-containing multimicronutrients and antianemic Chinese patent medicines in women in Shaanxi province, 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D M; Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Wu, X Y; Zhang, R; Yan, H; Yan, H

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of prenatal supplementations of iron, iron-containing multi-micronutrients (IMMN) and antianemic Chinese patent medicines (ACPM) and associated factors in women in Shaanxi province. Methods: A sample of 28 367 childbearing-age women who gave birth during 2010-2013 and had specific information of the prenatal nutrients supplementation were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in Shaanxi province. The information about their basic characteristics and prenatal supplementation of nutrients were collected by a questionnaire survey. Descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the intake rate of iron, IMMN and ACPM during each period of pregnancy, and logistic regression model was used to identify associated factors. Results: The overall prevalence of prenatal iron, IMMN and ACPM supplementation was low (28.99%), and the intake rate of iron was the lowest (5.33%). The prevalence of prenatal supplementation of iron, IMMN and ACPM were lower before pregnancy and in the first trimester than in the second and third trimester. The intake rates for consecutive 2 periods were very low (all were lower than 2.00%). The intake rates of iron, IMMN and ACPM significantly increased year by year. Women living in central Shaanxi had relatively high intake rates of iron (7.22%) and IMMN (16.55%), and women in southern Shaanxi had relatively high intake rate of ACPM (18.50%). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that higher educational level ( OR =1.920, 95 %CI : 1.617-2.279), antenatal care times≥6 ( OR =1.832, 95 %CI : 1.604-2.091), etc . were the positive factors for iron intake, and these positive factors were similar to those for IMMN intake. Additionally, rural residence was the negative factor for IMMN intake (compared with urban residence, OR =0.872, 95 %CI : 0.788-0.966). Conversely, higher educational level ( OR =0.855, 95 %CI : 0.746-0.979), higher household income ( OR =0.864, 95 %CI : 0

  11. Relationship between urodynamic patterns and lower urinary tract symptoms in Chinese women with a non-neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Five UDS patterns were identified among neurologically intact women with LUTS. Functional abnormalities of the detrusor and/or sphincter were the main causes of LUTS, and were correlated with the BOO or SUI status. Thus, the UDS pattern can provide additional informatio