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  1. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis

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    Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%. Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285.

  2. Determinants of Outcome in Non-Septic Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury on Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration

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    Mark V. Koning

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In view of ongoing controversy, we wished to study whether patient characteristics and/or continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH characteristics contribute to the outcome of non-septic critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Methods: We retrospectively studied 102 consecutive patients in the intensive care unit (ICU with non-septic AKI needing CVVH. Patient and CVVH characteristics were evaluated. Primary outcome was mortality up to day 28 after CVVH initiation. Results: Forty-four patients (43% died during the 28-day period after the start of CVVH. In univariate analyses, non-survivors had more often a cardiovascular reason for ICU admission, greater disease acuity/severity and organ failure, lower initial creatinine levels, less use of heparin and more use of bicarbonate-based substitution fluid. The latter two can be attributed to high lactate levels and bleeding tendency in non-survivors necessitating withholding lactate-buffered fluid and heparin, respectively, according to our clinical protocol. In multivariate analyses, mortality was predicted by disease severity, use of bicarbonate-based fluids and lack of heparin, while initial creatinine and CVVH dose did not contribute. Conclusion: The outcome of non-septic AKI in need of CVVH is more likely to be determined by underlying or concurrent, acute and severe disease rather than by CVVH characteristics, including timing and dose.

  3. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Brinkmann, Saskia J. H.; Buijs, Nikki; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bet, Pierre M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of

  4. Monocyte and lymphocyte surface molecules in severe sepsis and non-septic critically ill Patients.

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    Jämsä, Joel; Syrjälä, Hannu; Huotari, Virva; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ala-Kokko, Tero

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether expression of monocyte and lymphocyte surface molecules differs between patients with severe sepsis and non-septic patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The expression of monocyte CD14, CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR, and lymphocyte CD69 were analyzed using quantitative flow cytometry on three consecutive days in 27 patients with severe sepsis and in 15 non-septic patients. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and each corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was determined. The results showed that the expression levels of CD40 on monocytes and CD69 on CD4+ T cells and on natural killer (NK) cells were highest in patients with severe sepsis (p sepsis and positive blood culture compared with those with negative blood culture (p sepsis detection were 0.836 for CD40, 0.872 for CD69 on NK cells, and 0.795 for CD69 on CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest that monocyte CD40 and CD69 on NK cells and CD4+ T cells could prove useful for new approaches in the identification of severe sepsis in the ICU. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Crystalloid or colloid fluid loading and pulmonary permeability, edema, and injury in septic and nonseptic critically ill patients with hypovolemia.

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    van der Heijden, Melanie; Verheij, Joanne; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2009-04-01

    To compare crystalloid and colloid fluids in their effect on pulmonary edema in hypovolemic septic and nonseptic patients with or at risk for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesized that 1) crystalloid loading results in more edema formation than colloid loading and 2) the differences among the types of fluid decreases at high permeability. Prospective randomized clinical trial on the effect of fluids in 24 septic and 24 nonseptic mechanically ventilated patients with clinical hypovolemia. Patients were assigned to NaCl 0.9%, gelatin 4%, hydroxyethyl starch 6%, or albumin 5% loading for 90 minutes according to changes in filling pressures. Twenty-three septic and 10 nonseptic patients had acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (p pulmonary capillary permeability, edema, and severity of lung injury than nonseptic patients (p pulmonary leak index (PLI) for Gallium-labeled transferrin, extravascular lung water (EVLW), and lung injury score (LIS), respectively. Colloids increased plasma volume, cardiac index, and central venous pressure (CVP) more than crystalloids (p pulmonary leak index increased by median 5% (p Pulmonary edema and LIS are not affected by the type of fluid loading in the steep part of the cardiac function curve in both septic and nonseptic patients. Then, pulmonary capillary permeability may be a smaller determinant of pulmonary edema than COP and CVP. Safety factors may have prevented edema during a small filtration pressure-induced rise in pulmonary protein and thus fluid transport.

  6. Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163 and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

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    Anders G Kjærgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging and there is an unmet need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Following activation of macrophages and monocytes, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (CD163 and the mannose receptor (MR are shed into the circulation (sCD163 and sMR. OBJECTIVE: We investigated monocyte expression of CD163 and MR, and levels of sCD163 and sMR in septic and non-septic patients, and in healthy controls. We hypothesised that these receptors are elevated during sepsis and can be used diagnostic and prognostic. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and 15 critically ill non-septic patients were included in this prospective observational study at three ICUs at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark. Fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of sCD163 and sMR were measured using a sandwich ELISA and monocyte expression of CD163 and MR was evaluated by flow cytometry during the first four days of ICU stay. The diagnostic and prognostic values of the receptors were assessed using AUROC curves. RESULTS: At ICU admission and during the observation period, monocyte expression of CD163 and levels of sCD163 and sMR were significantly higher in septic patients compared with non-septic patients and healthy controls (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Monocytes did not express MR. The diagnostic values estimated by AUROC were 1.00 for sMR, 0.95 for sCD163, 0.87 for CRP, and 0.75 for monocyte-bound CD163. Among the septic patients, monocyte expression of CD163 was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors at ICU admission (p = 0.02 and during the observation period (p = 0.006. The prognostic value of monocyte-bound CD163 estimated by AUROC at ICU admission was 0.82. CONCLUSION: The macrophage-specific markers CD163, sCD163, and sMR are increased in septic patients. Particularly sMR is a promising new

  7. Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profile is Altered in Both Septic and Non-Septic Critically Ill: A Correlation with Inflammatory Markers and Albumin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, F.; Borovská, J.; Vecka, M.; Rychlíková, J.; Vávrová, L.; Petrásková, H.; Žák, A.; Nováková, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2017), s. 245-254 ISSN 0024-4201 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sepsis * inflammation * oxidative stress * plasma lipids * fatty acid profile * PUFA * lipoproteins Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Critical care medicine and Emergency medicine Impact factor: 1.934, year: 2016

  8. The use of the soluble adhesion molecules sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sPECAM-1 and their ligands CD11a and CD49d as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Anders G; Dige, Anders; Nielsen, Jeppe S.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial activation is pivotal in the development and escalation of sepsis. Central to endothelial activation is the endothelial up-regulation of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) including E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM-1. Shed CAMs are also found in circulating soluble forms (s...... critically ill non-septic patients were included. All patients had an APACHE II score above 13 at ICU admission. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls. Flow cytometry was used to estimate levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sPECAM-1, and the cellular expression of CD11a and CD49d. Levels of s...

  9. High circulating N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is associated with greater systolic cardiac dysfunction and nonresponsiveness to fluids in septic vs nonseptic critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, K.J.; Twisk, J.W.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is still unclear whether circulating levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) reflect cardiac filling and function in the critically ill patient, particularly during sepsis and a proinflammatory response that may induce NT-proBNP release from the heart. Materials

  10. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2011-01-01

    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  11. [Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy].

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    Grimm, A; Günther, A; Witte, O W; Axer, H

    2012-11-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are frequent complications in critically ill patients and both are associated with sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure. Major signs are muscle weakness and problems of weaning from the ventilator. Both CIP and CIM lead to elongated times of ventilation, elongated hospital stay, elongated times of rehabilitation and increased mortality. Electrophysiological measurements help to detect CIP and CIM early in the course of the disease. State of the art sepsis therapy is the major target to prevent the development of CIP and CIM. Although no specific therapy of CIP and CIM has been established in the past, the diagnosis generally improves the therapeutic management (weaning from the ventilator, early physiotherapy, etc.). This review provides an overview of clinical and diagnostic features of CIP and CIM and summarizes current pathophysiological and therapeutic concepts.

  12. Caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.; Martin, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient was determined by measuring body composition, by multiple isotope dilution, before and at 2-wk intervals while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in 86 septic and 57 nonseptic malnourished patients. All patients received a TPN solution containing 25% dextrose and 2.75% crystalline amino acids. The body composition of the nonseptic patients, who received 51.9 +/- 1.5 kcal/kg.day, improved significantly, while that of the septic patients, receiving 46.8 +/- 1.1 kcal/kg.day was only maintained. The relationship between caloric intake and the restoration of a malnourished body cell mass (BCM) was determined for each group by correlating, using multiple linear regression, the mean daily change in the BCM with the caloric intake and the nutritional state, as determined by body composition. According to the resultant regressions, an intake of 35.1 and 50.7 kcal/kg.day was required to maintain the BCM of the septic and nonseptic patients, respectively. To restore a depleted BCM, caloric intakes in excess of this amount are required

  13. Inflammation biomarkers and delirium in critically ill patients.

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    Ritter, Cristiane; Tomasi, Cristiane D; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Pinto, Bernardo Bollen; Dyson, Alex; de Miranda, Aline S; Comim, Clarissa M; Soares, Márcio; Teixeira, Antonio L; Quevedo, João; Singer, Mervyn

    2014-05-23

    Delirium is a common occurrence in critically ill patients and is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Septic patients with delirium may differ from a general critically ill population. The aim of this investigation was to study the relationship between systemic inflammation and the development of delirium in septic and non-septic critically ill patients. We performed a prospective cohort study in a 20-bed mixed intensive care unit (ICU) including 78 (delirium = 31; non-delirium = 47) consecutive patients admitted for more than 24 hours. At enrollment, patients were allocated to septic or non-septic groups according to internationally agreed criteria. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) during the first 72 hours of ICU admission. Blood samples were collected within 12 hours of enrollment for determination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF Receptor (STNFR)-1 and -2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and adiponectin. Out of all analyzed biomarkers, only STNFR1 (P = 0.003), STNFR2 (P = 0.005), adiponectin (P = 0.005) and IL-1β (P < 0.001) levels were higher in delirium patients. Adjusting for sepsis and sedation, these biomarkers were also independently associated with delirium occurrence. However, none of them were significant influenced by sepsis. STNFR1, STNFR2, adiponectin and IL-1β were associated with delirium. Sepsis did not modify the relationship between the biomarkers and delirium occurrence.

  14. Thyroid function during critical illness.

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    Economidou, Foteini; Douka, Evangelia; Tzanela, Marinella; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic support of the critically ill patient is a relatively new target of active research and little is as yet known about the effects of critical illness on metabolism. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome, also known as the low T3 syndrome or euthyroid sick syndrome, describes a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests encountered in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of this syndrome include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and high levels of reverse T3, with normal or low levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This condition may affect 60 to 70% of critically ill patients. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels in the critically ill patient seem to result from alterations in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones, in TSH regulation, in the binding of thyroid hormone to transport-protein and in receptor binding and intracellular uptake. Medications also have a very important role in these alterations. Hormonal changes can be seen within the first hours of critical illness and, interestingly, these changes correlate with final outcome. Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves.

  15. Transfusion in critically ill children

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    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...

  16. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

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    Yang, Rumei

    2016-01-01

    By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a) antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b) attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c) outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients. PMID:28462328

  17. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

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    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  18. Decompression illness - critical review

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    C S Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression. The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 1 0 0 % oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 1 0 0 % oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions.

  19. Sepsis is associated with a preferential diaphragmatic atrophy: a critically ill patient study using tridimensional computed tomography.

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    Jung, Boris; Nougaret, Stephanie; Conseil, Matthieu; Coisel, Yannaël; Futier, Emmanuel; Chanques, Gerald; Molinari, Nicolas; Lacampagne, Alain; Matecki, Stefan; Jaber, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Diaphragm and psoas are affected during sepsis in animal models. Whether diaphragm or limb muscle is preferentially affected during sepsis in the critically ill remains unclear. Retrospective secondary analysis study including 40 patients, comparing control (n = 17) and critically ill patients, with (n = 14) or without sepsis (n = 9). Diaphragm volume, psoas volume, and cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscles at the third lumbar vertebra were measured during intensive care unit (ICU) stay using tridimensional computed tomography scan volumetry. Diaphragm strength was evaluated using magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. The primary endpoint was the comparison between diaphragm and peripheral muscle volume kinetics during the ICU stay among critically ill patients, with or without sepsis. Upon ICU admission, neither diaphragm nor psoas muscle volumes were significantly different between critically ill and control patients (163 ± 53 cm vs. 197 ± 82 cm for the diaphragm, P = 0.36, and 272 ± 116 cm vs. to 329 ± 166 cm for the psoas, P = 0.31). Twenty-five (15 to 36) days after admission, diaphragm volume decreased by 11 ± 13% in nonseptic and by 27 ± 12% in septic patients, P = 0.01. Psoas volume decreased by 11 ± 10% in nonseptic and by 19 ± 13% in septic patients, P = 0.09. Upon ICU admission, diaphragm strength was correlated with diaphragm volume and was lower in septic (6.2 cm H2O [5.6 to 9.3]) than that in nonseptic patients (13.2 cm H2O [12.3 to 15.6]), P = 0.01. During the ICU stay, both diaphragm and psoas volumes decreased. In septic patients, the authors report for the first time in humans preferential diaphragm atrophy compared with peripheral muscles.

  20. Monitoring microcirculation in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, Atila; Akin, Sakir; Ince, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewCritical illness includes a wide range of conditions from sepsis to high-risk surgery. All these diseases are characterized by reduced tissue oxygenation. Macrohemodynamic parameters may be corrected by fluids and/or vasoactive compounds; however, the microcirculation and its

  1. Delirium in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and

  2. Delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of NK cell and monocyte receptors in critically ill patients - potential biomarkers of sepsis

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    Kjaergaard, A G; Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; Tønnesen, Else

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Sepsis is characterized by activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems as a response to infection. During sepsis, the expression of surface receptors expressed on immune competent cells, such as NKG2D and NKp30 on NK cells and TLR4 and CD14 on monocytes, is partly...... regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In this observational study, we aimed to explore whether the expression of these receptors could be used as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in sepsis. Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (n = 21) were compared with critically ill non...... were higher in the septic patients compared with the non-septic patients (P sepsis...

  4. Diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol is maintained in non-septic intensive care patients.

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    Riutta, Asko; Ylitalo, Pauli; Kaukinen, Seppo

    2009-10-01

    To study the diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol in critically ill patients and to assess whether the severity of organ dysfunction, sedation and sympathetic activity correlate with the production of these hormones. Prospective clinical study. Surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Forty non-septic patients without brain injury and treatment with adrenergic agonists or corticosteroids. Twenty-five of the patients were sedated with benzodiazepines. None. The pattern of melatonin production was monitored by the determination of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in urine. The 12-h aMT6s excretions at nights (11.8 +/- 8.9 microg, mean +/- SD) were higher than in the daytime (6.8 +/- 7.5 microg; P cortisol concentrations at noon (524 +/- 276 nmol/l, mean +/- SD) were higher than at midnight (415 +/- 172 nmol/l; P cortisol concentration. The diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol is maintained in non-septic intensive care unit patients. Benzodiazepines do not impair the diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol.

  5. Clinical Pharmacology Studies in Critically Ill Children

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    Thakkar, Nilay; Salerno, Sara; Hornik, Christoph P.; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Developmental and physiological changes in children contribute to variation in drug disposition with age. Additionally, critically ill children suffer from various life-threatening conditions that can lead to pathophysiological alterations that further affect pharmacokinetics (PK). Some factors that can alter PK in this patient population include variability in tissue distribution caused by protein binding changes and fluid shifts, altered drug elimination due to organ dysfunction, and use of medical interventions that can affect drug disposition (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy). Performing clinical studies in critically ill children is challenging because there is large inter-subject variability in the severity and time course of organ dysfunction; some critical illnesses are rare, which can affect subject enrollment; and critically ill children usually have multiple organ failure, necessitating careful selection of a study design. As a result, drug dosing in critically ill children is often based on extrapolations from adults or non-critically ill children. Dedicated clinical studies in critically ill children are urgently needed to identify optimal dosing of drugs in this population. This review will summarize the effect of critical illness on pediatric PK, the challenges associated with performing studies in this vulnerable subpopulation, and the clinical PK studies performed to date for commonly used drugs. PMID:27585904

  6. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar...

  7. Association of body temperature and antipyretic treatments with mortality of critically ill patients with and without sepsis: multi-centered prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fever is frequently observed in critically ill patients. An independent association of fever with increased mortality has been observed in non-neurological critically ill patients with mixed febrile etiology. The association of fever and antipyretics with mortality, however, may be different between infective and non-infective illness. Methods We designed a prospective observational study to investigate the independent association of fever and the use of antipyretic treatments with mortality in critically ill patients with and without sepsis. We included 1,425 consecutive adult critically ill patients (without neurological injury) requiring > 48 hours intensive care admitted in 25 ICUs. We recorded four-hourly body temperature and all antipyretic treatments until ICU discharge or 28 days after ICU admission, whichever occurred first. For septic and non-septic patients, we separately assessed the association of maximum body temperature during ICU stay (MAXICU) and the use of antipyretic treatments with 28-day mortality. Results We recorded body temperature 63,441 times. Antipyretic treatment was given 4,863 times to 737 patients (51.7%). We found that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen independently increased 28-day mortality for septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 2.61, P = 0.028, acetaminophen: 2.05, P = 0.01), but not for non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 0.22, P = 0.15, acetaminophen: 0.58, P = 0.63). Application of physical cooling did not associate with mortality in either group. Relative to the reference range (MAXICU 36.5°C to 37.4°C), MAXICU ≥ 39.5°C increased risk of 28-day mortality in septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 8.14, P = 0.01), but not in non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, P = 0.11). Conclusions In non-septic patients, high fever (≥ 39.5°C) independently associated with mortality, without association of administration of NSAIDs or

  8. Physiotherapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ambrosino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU can cause muscle weakness, physical deconditioning, recurrent symptoms, mood alterations and poor quality of life.Physiotherapy is probably the only treatment likely to increase in the short- and long-term care of the patients admitted to these units. Recovery of physical and respiratory functions, coming off mechanical ventilation, prevention of the effects of bed-rest and improvement in the health status are the clinical objectives of a physiotherapy program in medical and surgical areas. To manage these patients, integrated programs dealing with both whole-body physical therapy and pulmonary care are needed.There is still limited scientific evidence to support such a comprehensive approach to all critically ill patients; therefore we need randomised studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures. Resumo: Uma estadia prolongada na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI pode causar fraqueza muscular, descondicionamento físico, sintomas recorrentes, alterações de humor e má qualidade de vida.A fisioterapia é, provavelmente, o único tratamento com potencial para aumentar nos cuidados a curto e longo prazo aos pacientes internados nestas unidades. A recuperação das funções físicas e respiratórias, retirar a ventilação mecânica, prevenção de efeitos do repouso na cama e melhoria do estado de saúde são objectivos clínicos de um programa de fisioterapia nas áreas médicas e cirúrgicas. Para tratar estes pacientes, são necessários programas integrados que englobem tanto a fisioterapia global como os cuidados respiratórios necessários.A evidência científica para apoiar esta abordagem abrangente para todos os doentes críticos é ainda limitada; portanto, são necessários estudos aleatorizados com medidas de resultados a curto e longo prazo. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Weaning, Palavras-chave: Reabilitação, Ventilação mec

  9. Physiotherapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ambrosino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU can cause muscle weakness, physical deconditioning, recurrent symptoms, mood alterations and poor quality of life. Physiotherapy is probably the only treatment likely to increase in the short- and long-term care of the patients admitted to these units. Recovery of physical and respiratory functions, coming off mechanical ventilation, prevention of the effects of bed-rest and improvement in the health status are the clinical objectives of a physiotherapy program in medical and surgical areas. To manage these patients, integrated programs dealing with both whole-body physical therapy and pulmonary care are needed. There is still limited scientific evidence to support such a comprehensive approach to all critically ill patients; therefore we need randomised studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures. Resumo: Uma estadia prolongada na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI pode causar fraqueza muscular, descondicionamento físico, sintomas recorrentes, alterações de humor e má qualidade de vida. A fisioterapia é, provavelmente, o único tratamento com potencial para aumentar nos cuida-dos a curto e longo prazo aos pacientes internados nestas unidades. A recuperação das funções físicas e respiratórias, retirar a ventilação mecânica, prevenção de efeitos do repouso na cama e melhoria do estado de saúde são objectivos clínicos de um programa de fisioterapia nas áreas médicas e cirúrgicas. Para tratar estes pacientes, são necessários programas integrados que englobem tanto a fisioterapia global como os cuidados respiratórios necessários. A evidência científica para apoiar esta abordagem abrangente para todos os doentes críticos é ainda limitada; portanto, são necessários estudos aleatorizados com medidas de resultados a curto e longo prazo. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Weaning, Palavras chave: Reabilitação, Ventilação mec

  10. Early alterations of red blood cell rheology in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiori, Giulia; Occhipinti, Giovanna; De Gasperi, Andrea; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Piagnerelli, Michael

    2009-12-01

    observed in critically ill patients.

  11. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  12. [Delirium in the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Renata Fittipaldi; Nácul, Flávio Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    Delirium is a frequent finding in the critically ill patient. Although it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it is often not recognized by intensive care doctors. This review will address the main issues regarding delirium in critically ill patients. Definition, incidence, mortality, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of delirium in the critically ill. Deliriumis defined as a disturbance of consciousness, attention, cognition and perception that occurs frequently in critically ill patients. It occurs in as many as 80% of mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Risk factors for delirium include acute systemic illnesses, older age, pre-existing cognitive impairment, sleep deprivation, and medications with anticholinergic activity. Although new assessment tools are available for rapidly and accurately measuring deliriumin critically ill patients, healthcare professionals still do not regularly monitor for this condition. In recent years, the emphasis in the approach to delirium has shifted to systematic screening and prevention. Haloperidol remains the standard treatment for delirium, but there is some evidence for the efficacy of risperidone.

  13. Nutrition therapy in the critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Heather E; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition and obesity are prevalent in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional deterioration secondary to suboptimal nutrient delivery can adversely affect outcomes during pediatric critical illness. This review highlights the recent investigations of nutrition assessment, energy balance, indirect calorimetry, nutrition therapy, barriers to nutrient delivery, monitoring during enteral feeding, and the role of nutrition guidelines in critically ill children. Critically ill children are at high risk for energy and protein imbalance. Indirect calorimetry remains the only accurate method to assess energy requirements in this population. Intensive insulin therapy to achieve glycemic control may reduce morbidity and mortality in adults, but risks hypoglycemia in critically ill children. Early enteral nutrition improves nutrition outcomes and adherence to nutrition guidelines can overcome barriers to optimal nutrition therapy. Timely and adequate nutrition therapy is essential to improve nutrition outcomes in critically ill children. Further research is required to determine clinical outcome benefits with indirect calorimetry and enteral nutrition guidelines, and to identify optimal glucose targets.

  14. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation...... in critically ill patients are unknown. This review was published in 2008 and updated in 2015.  Objectives: To examine: 1. The effect of AT III on mortality in critically ill participants. 2. The benefits and harms of AT III. We investigated complications specific and not specific to the trial intervention......, bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general.  Search methods: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

  15. Review of Critical Illness Myopathy and Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Starane; Batra, Ayush; Lerner, David P

    2017-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and neuropathy are underdiagnosed conditions within the intensive care setting and contribute to prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator wean failure and ultimately lead to significant morbidity and mortality. These conditions are often further subdivided into CIM, critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), or the combination-critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM, along with diagnostic considerations such as detailed clinical examination, electrophysiological studies, and histopathological review of muscle biopsy specimens. We also review current available treatments and prognosis. Increased awareness and early recognition of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM in the intensive care unit setting may lead to earlier treatments and rehabilitation, improving patient outcomes.

  16. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... residue, bacteria, and plaque; massaging the gums with a toothbrush, dental floss, or water irrigator ... an invasion of the patient's privacy.3 Oral hygiene care practices for a critically ill patient include assessment of the oral cavity, brushing the teeth, moisturising the lips and mouth and suctioning the mouth ...

  17. Tissue thyroid hormone levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin); S.D. van Geyten (Serge Der); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); V.M. Darras (Veerle); H. van Toor (Hans); E. Kaptein (Ellen); T.J. Visser (Theo); G. van den Berghe (Greet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pronounced alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels occur during critical illness. T3 decreases and rT3 increases, the magnitudes of which are related to the severity of disease. It is unclear whether these changes are associated with decreased tissue T3 concentrations and,

  18. Methadone analgesia in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefritz, Jessica L; Murphy, Claire V; Papadimos, Thomas J; Lyaker, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Methadone is increasingly used as an analgesic or a bridge to weaning other analgesics and sedatives in critically ill patients. This review discusses the pharmacology of methadone, summarizes available evidence for its use in the intensive care unit setting, and makes suggestions for appropriate use and monitoring. Articles evaluating the efficacy, safety, and pharmacology of methadone were identified from a PubMed search through June 2015. References from selected articles were reviewed for additional material. Experimental and observational English-language studies that focused on the efficacy, safety, and pharmacology of methadone in critically-ill adults and children were selected. Methadone is a synthetic opioid analgesic with potential advantages over other commonly used opioids. Limited evidence from critically ill pediatric, adult, and burn populations suggests that methadone protocols may expedite weaning opiate infusions, decrease the length of mechanical ventilation, and reduce the incidence of negative outcomes such as opiate withdrawal, delirium, and over-sedation. Data from current literature supports a role for methadone analgesia in weaning opiates and potentially reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. More studies are needed to confirm these benefits and determine criteria for patient selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...... secretion and sleep patterns differed in these patients with and without remifentanil infusion. Eight patients were included. Blood-melatonin was taken every 4th hour, and polysomnography was carried out continually during a 48-hour period. American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria were used for sleep...... scoring if sleep patterns were identified; otherwise, Watson's classification was applied. As remifentanil was periodically administered during the study, its effect on melatonin and sleep was assessed. Melatonin secretion in these patients followed a phase-delayed diurnal curve. We did not observe any...

  20. Fever in the critically ill medical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupland, Kevin B

    2009-07-01

    Fever, commonly defined by a temperature of >or=38.3 degrees C (101 degrees F), occurs in approximately one half of patients admitted to intensive care units. Fever may be attributed to both infectious and noninfectious causes, and its development in critically ill adult medical patients is associated with an increased risk for death. Although it is widespread and clinically accepted practice to therapeutically lower temperature in patients with hyperthermic syndromes, patients with marked hyperpyrexia, and selected populations such as those with neurologic impairment, it is controversial whether most medical patients with moderate degrees of fever should be treated with antipyretic or direct cooling therapies. Although treatment of fever may improve patient comfort and reduce metabolic demand, fever is a normal adaptive response to infection and its suppression is potentially harmful. Clinical trials specifically comparing fever management strategies in neurologically intact critically ill medical patients are needed.

  1. Patients' opinions on outcomes following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, H K; Haberlandt, T; Reichmann, P D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore which outcomes are most important to patients following ICU-discharge, and to explore whether intensive care unit (ICU)-nurses and anesthesiologists are aware of patients' priorities. METHODS: First, interviews with adult ICU-survivors were conducted until data...... lack of physical strength, fatigue, and decreased walking distance as the three most important outcomes following critical illness. Physicians had a higher focus on these physical impairments than ICU-nurses....

  2. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  3. Small nerve fiber pathology in critical illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Latronico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF is a hallmark of small fiber neuropathy of different etiology, whose clinical picture is dominated by neuropathic pain. It is unknown if critical illness can affect IENF. METHODS: We enrolled 14 adult neurocritical care patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU stay and artificial ventilation (≥ 3 days, and no previous history or risk factors for neuromuscular disease. All patients underwent neurological examination including evaluation of consciousness, sensory functions, muscle strength, nerve conduction study and needle electromyography, autonomic dysfunction using the finger wrinkling test, and skin biopsy for quantification of IENF and sweat gland innervation density during ICU stay and at follow-up visit. Development of infection, sepsis and multiple organ failure was recorded throughout the ICU stay. RESULTS: Of the 14 patients recruited, 13 (93% had infections, sepsis or multiple organ failure. All had severe and non-length dependent loss of IENF. Sweat gland innervation was reduced in all except one patient. Of the 7 patients available for follow-up visit, three complained of diffuse sensory loss and burning pain, and another three showed clinical dysautonomia. CONCLUSIONS: Small fiber pathology can develop in the acute phase of critical illness and may explain chronic sensory impairment and pain in neurocritical care survivors. Its impact on long term disability warrants further studies involving also non-neurologic critical care patients.

  4. Appropriate antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Pieralli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients in and outside Intensive Care Units. Early hemodynamic and respiratory support, along with prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy and source control of the infectious process are cornerstone management strategies to improve survival. Antimicrobial therapy should be as much appropriate as possible, since inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poorer outcome in different clinical settings. When prescribing antibiotic therapy, drug’s characteristics, along with dosing, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic properties related to the drug and to the clinical scenario should be well kept in mind in order to achieve maximal success.

  5. Hyperglycemia and mortality in critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanfar, M.R.; Dalvandy, M.; Emami, A.R.; Rafiee, M.; Eshratee, B.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the relation between serum glucose concentration and hospital outcome across the critically ill patients. A single-centre, retrospective study was performed at surgical and medical intensive care unit. Admission glucose, mean morning glucose, mean glucose, maximal glucose and time-averaged glucose levels were calculated for each patient. The time-averaged hyperglycemia was defined as the area under the curve above the upper limit of normal, divided by the total length of stay. Of 300 patients with a median stay of 16 days, the mortality rate was 32%. Mean fasting glucose was 121 mg/dl in survivors versus 160 mg/dl in non survivors (P=0.001). Mean admission glucose was 127 mg/dl in survivors versus 142 mg/dl in non survivors (0.03). Median time-averaged hyperglycemia was 4 mg/dl in survivors versus 17.5 mg/dl in non survivors (P < 0.006). The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.59 for time-averaged glucose and 0.73 for mean fasting glucose. Whereas time-averaged hyperglycemia is a useful assessment for glucose control in critically ill patients, it has no priority to admission glucose and mean fasting glucose for outcome prediction. (author)

  6. Regional analgesia in postsurgical critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner Velázquez, S; Rubio Haro, R; De Andrés Serrano, C; De Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2017-03-01

    Regional analgesia intrinsically, based on its physiological effects, is routinely used for the perioperative treatment of pain associated with surgical procedures. However, in other areas such as the non-surgical treatment of acute pain for patients in a critical condition, it has not been subjected to specific prospective studies. If we confine ourselves to the physiological effects of the nerve block, in a situation of stress, the indications for regional anaesthesia in this group of patients extend to the management of a wide variety of medical as well as postsurgical conditions, of trauma patients and of other painful procedures performed in the patient's bed. The critical patient certainly must be analyzed individually as their own primary conditions is of vital importance, as well as any associated conditions they have developed that can potentially increase the risk of systemic toxicity or morbidity, such as, coagulopathies, infection, immunosuppressive states, sedation and problems associated with mechanical ventilation. This review aims to assess the role of regional analgesia in critically ill patients, placing it within the algorithm decision tree of the professional responsible for patients in critical care units, all based on the evidence of potential benefits according to the published literature. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Treatment of nonseptic bursitis with endoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Yıldırım

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to show that endoscopic surgery is a simple and acceptable method for various problems associated with wounds, range of motion and that such surgery ensures an early return to work after treatment of nonresponding nonseptic bursitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with nonseptic bursitis caused by repeated minor trauma that did not respond to medical treatment from 2008 to 2012 were included in this study. Radiographic [anteroposterior and lateral], ultrasound, macro and microscopic analyses of drainage liquid and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the patients for the diagnosis. Results: The mean age was 40.8 years. Fifteen patients had prepatellar bursitis, 13 had olecranon bursitis and 4 had ankle bursitis. Two patients had a history of falling on their knee. The other patients had a history of repetitive stimulation .The mean follow up period was 2.6 years [range. 2-5 years] and no medical complications occurred after the endoscopic surgery; such as scarring, loss of sensation and infection. One recurrence in response to medical treatment was observed. Conclusion: Endoscopic bursectomy is a short and acceptable procedure with excellent results in terms of returning to work early and minimal wound related problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 220-223

  9. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  10. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...... developing infections (pyrexia, respiratory infections or meningitis) with no obvious benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.02, 685 participants, very low quality of evidence).Our analyses showed no effect of selenium or ebselen on adverse events (Selenium: RR 1.03, 95% Cl 0.85 to 1.24; six trials, 925...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...

  11. in Critically Ill Patients: Success and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrate anticoagulation has risen in interest so it is now a real alternative to heparin in the ICUs practice. Citrate provides a regional anticoagulation virtually restricted to extracorporeal circuit, where it acts by chelating ionized calcium. This issue is particularly true in patients ongoing CRRT, when the “continuous” systemic anticoagulation treatment is per se a relevant risk of bleeding. When compared with heparin most of studies with citrate reported a longer circuit survival, a lower rate of bleeding complications, and transfused packed red cell requirements. As anticoagulant for CRRT, the infusion of citrate is prolonged and it could potentially have some adverse effects. When citrate is metabolized to bicarbonate, metabolic alkalosis may occur, or for impaired metabolism citrate accumulation leads to acidosis. However, large studies with dedicated machines have indeed demonstrated that citrate anticoagulation is well tolerated, safe, and an easy to handle even in septic shock critically ill patients.

  12. Air Transportation of Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Rodionov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Napoleonic wars, balloon evacuation of the wounded was the first to be made in the history when Paris was being defended. In the USA, casualty helicopters are being used in 20% of cases on evacuating the victims from the accident scene and in 80% during interhospital transportation. Russia also shows an ambiguous approach to employing air medical service — from the wide use of air transportation in the country’s regions that are difficult of access to its almost complete refusal in the regions with the well-developed transportation system. Long-distance transportation of critically ill patients by chartered or commercial planes is the reality of our time. In each region, continuing specialized teams of qualified medical workers who have a good knowledge of altitude pathophysiology and handle the obligatorily certified equipment should be created on the basis of large-scale medical centers.

  13. Acquired respiratory failure in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, R

    1995-01-01

    With increasing survival rates from acute medical or surgical emergencies a new form of peripheral neuropathy, CIP, has been recognized. CIP can be seen only in patients who are considered to be critically ill; therefore, it invariably occurs in the ICU. Typically, initial symptoms begin with transient (hours to a few days) septic encephalopathy followed by generalized weakness, manifested in weaning failure, limb weakness and hyporeflexia. Diagnosis is confirmed by an EMG. CIP should be considered in any elderly patient with sepsis and prolonged respiratory muscle weakness. Prognosis is poor in severe cases, in which the EMG also shows severe axonal degeneration. In milder forms, fair to good recovery is expected within weeks. Management includes treatment of sepsis, normalization of failing organ function, physical therapy and proper nutrition.

  14. Nutritional Assessment in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Hejazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU on the days of admission and discharge via a detailed nutritional assessment. Methods: Totally, 125 patients were followed up from admission to discharge at 8ICUs in Shiraz, Iran. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA, anthropometric measurements, biochemical indices, and body composition indicators. Diet prescription and intake was also evaluated. Results: Malnutrition prevalence significantly increased on the day of discharge (58.62% compared to the day of admission (28.8% according to SGA (P<0.001. The patients’ weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference decreased significantly as well (P<0.001. Lean mass weight and body cell mass also decreased significantly (P<0.001. Biochemical indices showed no notable changes except for magnesium, which decreased significantly (P=0.013. A negative significant correlation was observed between malnutrition on discharge day and anthropometric measurements. Positive and significant correlations were observed between the number of days without enteral feeding, days delayed from ICU admission to the commencement of enteral feeding, and the length of ICU stay and malnutrition on discharge day. Energy and protein intakes were significantly less than the prescribed diet (26.26% and 26.48%, respectively. Conclusion: Malnutrition on discharge day increased in the patients in the ICU according to SGA. Anthropometric measurements were better predictors of the nutritional outcome of our critically ill patients than were biochemical tests.

  15. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitrat V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE, Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. Keywords: ICU, antimicrobial therapies, antimicrobial stewardship, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis

  16. Rhabdomyolysis in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana

    2016-07-27

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1 st till December 31 st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI.

  17. Transient hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, P D; Hamill, R W; McDonald, J V; Lee, L A; Kelly, M

    1985-03-01

    ; reductions in LH of 74% and in FSH of 62% were present by day 7 of study. We conclude that both men and women who are critically ill uniformly develop temporary hypogonadotropic gonadal insufficiency regardless of their illness. In men, it is manifested by low testosterone levels, while a comparable decrease in estradiol is present in women. The low testosterone concentrations are not due to reduced sex hormone-binding capacity. Based upon our data in postmenopausal women, hypogonadotropism also occurs in the presence of nonfunctioning gonads. Although our studies do not completely establish the pathophysiology of this disorder, they suggest a suprapituitary origin.

  18. Transfusion Therapy in Critically Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Tsung Chang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill children in pediatric intensive care units are commonly indicated for blood transfusion due to many reasons. Children are quite different from adults during growth and development, and that should be taken into consideration. It is very dif-ficult to establish a universal transfusion guideline for critically ill children, especially preterm neonates. Treating underlying disease and targeted replacement therapy are the most effective approaches. Red blood cells are the first choice for replacement therapy in decompensated anemic patients. The critical hemoglobin concentration may be higher in critically ill children for many reasons. Whole blood is used only in the following conditions or diseases: (1 exchange transfusion; (2 after cardiopulmonary bypass; (3 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; (4 massive transfusion, especially in multiple component deficiency. The characteristics of hemorrhagic diseases are so varied that their therapy should depend on the specific needs associated with the underlying disease. In general, platelet transfusion is not needed when a patient has platelet count greater than 10,000/mm3 and is without active bleeding, platelet functional deficiency or other risk factors such as sepsis. Patients with risk factors or age less than 4 months should be taken into special consideration, and the critical thrombocyte level will be raised. Platelet transfusion is not recommended in patients with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopenia due to acceleration of platelet destruction without active bleeding or life-threatening hemorrhage. There are many kinds of plasma-derived products, and recombinant factors are commonly used for hemorrhagic patients due to coagulation factor deficiency depending on the characteristics of the diseases. The most effective way to correct disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is to treat the underlying disease. Anticoagulant ther-apy is very important; heparin is the

  19. Interhospital transfer of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Thomas; Bölke, Alisa; Spieth, Peter M

    2017-10-01

    Transportation of a patient between medical facilities without interruption of the medical treatment can be a challenging task. This review aims to define the term "interhospital transport" and give a general overview of the steps for organizing a transfer. Furthermore we discuss the team qualification, equipment standards and how to manage adverse events before and during transport by means of patient triage. The advanced interhospital transport of the critically ill patient can be defined as follows: "transportation of a patient between medical facilities without interruption of the medical treatment and monitoring due to the underlying disease by means of specific medical, technical equipment and knowledge with the objective of improved patient care." Several organizational steps come along with patients transfer: the hospital of origin has to identify transfer-eligible patients and be willing to release the patient. It has to identify a destination hospital and negotiate the transfer; the patient has to be transportable, the patient/relatives must agree; the transporting unit has to have the infrastructure and acknowledge to transport the patient; the insurance company or the family has to guarantee for the additional costs. Relocation team members need a specific training that focus on typical critical events that happen during transport. Technical equipment (ventilator, stretcher, monitor, defibrillator, external pacemaker, blood-gas analyzer) facilitates smooth patient transition from one facility to a distant one. The use of checklists is associated with a reduction of incidents during the transport.

  20. Nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandagi Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU is a primary component of modern medicine. ICUs create potential for recovery in patients who otherwise may not have survived. However, they may suffer from problems associated with of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those which manifest in patients 48 hours after admission to hospital. Nosocomial infections are directly related to diagnostic, interventional or therapeutic procedures a patient undergoes in hospital, and are also influenced by the bacteriological flora prevailing within a particular unit or hospital. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for more than 40% of all nosocomial infections. Critical care units increasingly use high technology medicine for patient care, hemodynamic monitoring, ventilator support, hemodialysis, parenteral nutrition, and a large battery of powerful drugs, particularly antibiotics to counter infection. It is indeed a paradox that the use of high-tech medicine has brought in its wake the dangerous and all too frequent complication of nosocomial infections

  1. Nutrition support and the chronic critical illness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jason M; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2006-12-01

    Critical illness can be viewed as consisting of 4 distinct stages: (1) acute critical illness (ACI), (2) prolonged acute critical illness, (3) chronic critical illness, and (4) recovery. ACI represents the evolutionarily programmed response to a stressor. In ACI, substrate is shunted away from anabolism and toward vital organ support and inflammatory proteins. Nutrition support in this stage is unproven and may ultimately prove detrimental. As critical illness progresses, there is no evolutionary precedent, and man owes his life to modern critical care medicine. It is at this point that nutrition and metabolic support become integral to the care of the patient. This paper (1) delineates and develops the 4 stages of critical illness using current evidence, clinical experience, and new hypotheses; (2) defines the chronic critical illness syndrome (CCIS); and (3) details an approach to the metabolic and nutrition support of the chronically critically ill patient using the metabolic model of critical illness as a guide. It is our hope that this clinical model can generate testable hypotheses that can improve the outcome of this unique population of patients.

  2. Anemia and Blood Transfusions in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Athar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is common in critically ill patients. As a consequence packed red blood cell (PRBC transfusions are frequent in the critically ill. Over the past two decades a growing body of literature has emerged, linking PRBC transfusion to infections, immunosuppression, organ dysfunction, and a higher mortality rate. However, despite growing evidence that risk of PRBC transfusion outweighs its benefit, significant numbers of critically ill patients still receive PRBC transfusion during their intensive care unit (ICU stay. In this paper, we summarize the current literature concerning the impact of anemia on outcomes in critically ill patients and the potential complications of PRBC transfusions.

  3. Urinary neprilysin in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenda, Sahra; Mechtler, Karl; Wagner, Ludwig

    2017-05-25

    Critically ill patients in intensive care face hazardous conditions. Among these, acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently seen as a result of sepsis. Early diagnosis of kidney injury is of the utmost importance in the guidance of interventions or avoidance of treatment-induced kidney injury. On these grounds, we searched for markers that could indicate proximal tubular cell injury. Urine samples of 90 patients admitted to the intensive or intermediate care unit were collected over 2 to 5 days. The biomarker neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in urine using several methods such as dot blot, ELISA and immunofluorescence of urinary casts. Fifty-five healthy donors acted as controls. NEP was highly significantly elevated in the urine of patients who suffered AKI according to the KDIGO criteria in comparison to healthy controls. It was also found to be elevated in ICU patients without overt signs of AKI according to serum creatinine changes, however they were suffering from potential nephrotoxic insults. According to our findings, urinary NEP is indicative of epithelial cell alterations at the proximal tubule. This was elaborated in ICU patients when ghost fragments and NEP + microvesicles were observed in urinary sediment cytopreparations. Furthermore, NEP + immunofluorescence of healthy kidney tissue showed staining at the proximal tubules. NEP, a potential marker for proximal tubular epithelia, can be measured in urine. This does not originate from leakage of elevated serum levels, but indicates proximal tubular cell alterations such as brush border severing, which can heal in most cases.

  4. Continuous oscillation: outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, G A; Tyler, M L; Hudson, L D; Sherrill, D L; Quan, S F

    1995-09-01

    To compare turning by an oscillating bed to standard 2-hour turning. Outcomes were survival, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of pneumonia. One hundred and three intensive care patients were randomly assigned to standard turning or turning by an oscillating bed. Data, collected at baseline, daily for 7 days, and then three times weekly until study discharge, included demographics, initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, ventilatory/gas exchange parameters, indicators of pneumonia, nursing measures, and chest roentgenograph. There were no significant differences for LOS, duration of ventilation, nor incidence of pneumonia. Higher survival for subjects on the oscillating bed reached borderline significance (P = .056) for subjects with APACHE II greater than or equal to 20. Longitudinal data were analyzed using the random effects model. No differences in ventilatory or gas exchange parameters were identified. Among subjects who developed pneumonia there was a significantly higher respiratory score (nursing acuity scale) for subjects on the oscillating bed. In selected critically ill patients oscillating therapy may improve survival and improve airway clearance. The frequency and degree of turning needed to prevent complications and improve outcome remains unclear. These newer beds should be used with discrimination so as to not increase hospital costs unnecessarily.

  5. Remifentanil in critically ill cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggeri Laura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remifentanil has a unique pharmacokinetic profile, with a rapid onset and offset of action and a plasmatic metabolism. Its use can be recommended even in patients with renal impairment, hepatic dysfunction or poor cardiovascular function. A potential protective cardiac preconditioning effect has been suggested. Drug-related adverse effects seem to be comparable with other opioids. In cardiac surgery, many randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the potential benefits of the use of remifentanil not only include a profound protection against intraoperative stressful stimuli, but also rapid postoperative recovery, early weaning from mechanical ventilation, and extubation. Remifentanil shows ideal properties of sedative agents being often employed for minimally invasive cardiologic techniques, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation and radio frequency treatment of atrial flutter, or diagnostic procedures such as transesophageal echocardiography. In intensive care units remifentanil is associated with a reduction in the time to tracheal extubation after cessation of the continuous infusion; other advantages could be more evident in patients with organ dysfunction. Effective and safe analgesia can be provided in case of short and painful procedures (i.e. chest drain removal. In conclusion, thanks to its peculiar properties, remifentanil will probably play a major role in critically ill cardiac patients.

  6. Gut microbiota and host defense in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Max C.; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThe review aims to discuss emerging evidence in the field of microbiome-dependent roles in host defense during critical illness with a focus on lung, kidney, and brain inflammation.Recent findingsThe gut microbiota of critical ill patients is characterized by lower diversity, lower

  7. Protein, Energy and Their Interaction in Critically Ill Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.A.T. Verbruggen (Sascha)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCritically ill patients are in a catabolic state, characterized by three major metabolic changes. First, there is an increased protein turnover with enhanced hepatic protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. Second, during critical illness there is increased lipolysis, or the

  8. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...

  9. Phenotype and functions of natural killer cells in critically-ill septic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Forel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Natural killer cells, as a major source of interferon-γ, contribute to the amplification of the inflammatory response as well as to mortality during severe sepsis in animal models. OBJECTIVE: We studied the phenotype and functions of circulating NK cells in critically-ill septic patients. METHODS: Blood samples were taken <48 hours after admission from 42 ICU patients with severe sepsis (n = 15 or septic shock (n = 14 (Sepsis group, non-septic SIRS (n = 13 (SIRS group, as well as 21 healthy controls. The immuno-phenotype and functions of NK cells were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The absolute number of peripheral blood CD3-CD56(+ NK cells was similarly reduced in all groups of ICU patients, but with a normal percentage of NK cells. When NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated with degranulation assays (CD107 expression, no difference was observed between Sepsis patients and healthy controls. Under antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC conditions, SIRS patients exhibited increased CD107 surface expression on NK cells (62.9[61.3-70]% compared to healthy controls (43.5[32.1-53.1]% or Sepsis patients (49.2[37.3-62.9]% (p = 0.002. Compared to healthy (10.2[6.3-13.1]%, reduced interferon-γ production by NK cells (K562 stimulation was observed in Sepsis group (6.2[2.2-9.9]%, p<0.01, and especially in patients with septic shock. Conversely, SIRS patients exhibited increased interferon-γ production (42.9[30.1-54.7]% compared to Sepsis patients (18.4[11.7-35.7]%, p<0.01 or healthy controls (26.8[19.3-44.9]%, p = 0.09 in ADCC condition. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive monitoring of the NK-cell phenotype and function in critically-ill septic patients revealed early decreased NK-cell function with impaired interferon-γ production. These results may aid future NK-based immuno-interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTC00699868.

  10. Shock induced endotheliopathy (SHINE) in acute critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2017-01-01

    One quarter of patients suffering from acute critical illness such as severe trauma, sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI) or post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) develop severe hemostatic aberrations and coagulopathy, which are associated with excess mortality. Despite the different types of injurious...... "hit", acutely critically ill patients share several phenotypic features that may be driven by the shock. This response, mounted by the body to various life-threatening conditions, is relatively homogenous and most likely evolutionarily adapted. We propose that shock-induced sympatho......-adrenal hyperactivation is a critical driver of endothelial cell and glycocalyx damage (endotheliopathy) in acute critical illness, with the overall aim of ensuring organ perfusion through an injured microvasculature. We have investigated more than 3000 patients suffering from different types of acute critical illness...

  11. Factors associated with illness perception among critically ill patients and surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Dee; Zapka, Jane; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Yang, Chengwu; Sterba, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    We investigated illness perceptions among critically ill patients or their surrogates in a university medical ICU using a prospective survey. We hypothesized that these would vary by demographic, personal, and clinical measures. Patients (n = 23) or their surrogates (n = 77) were recruited. The Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) measured six domains of illness perception: timeline-acute/chronic, consequences, emotional impact, personal control, treatment efficacy, and illness comprehension. Multiple variable linear regression models were developed with IPQ-R scores as the outcomes. African Americans tended to perceive the illness as less enduring and reported more confidence in treatment efficacy (P < .01 for each). They also tended to report the illness as less serious, having less emotional impact, and having greater personal control (P = .0002 for each). Conversely, African Americans reported lower illness comprehension (P = .002). Faith/religion was associated with positive illness perceptions, including less concern regarding consequences (P = .02), less emotional impact (P = .03), and more confidence in treatment efficacy (P < .01). Lower patient quality of life (QOL) precritical illness was associated with negative perceptions, including greater concern about illness duration and consequences as well as perception of less personal control and less confidence in treatment efficacy (P < .01 for each). These variables were independently associated with illness perceptions after controlling for race, faith/religion, and survival to hospital discharge, whereas clinical measures were not. Illness perceptions among critically ill patients and surrogates are influenced by patient/surrogate factors, including race, faith, and precritical illness QOL, rather than clinical measures. Clinicians should recognize the variability in illness perceptions and the possible implications for patient/surrogate communication.

  12. critically ill obstetric and gynaecological patients in the intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 5 AIr Med J2000; 900 1140-1144. World literature concerning the outcome of critically ill obstetric and gynaecological patients is scarce. Those studies that are available have included heterogeneous populations where the pregnancy is often ...

  13. Monitoring of the respiratory muscles in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduin, Jonne; van Hees, Hieronymus W H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Heunks, Leo M A

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that respiratory muscle dysfunction develops in critically ill patients and contributes to prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Accordingly, it seems highly appropriate to monitor the respiratory muscles in these patients. Today, we are only at the beginning of routinely monitoring respiratory muscle function. Indeed, most clinicians do not evaluate respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients at all. In our opinion, however, practical issues and the absence of sound scientific data for clinical benefit should not discourage clinicians from having a closer look at respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients. This perspective discusses the latest developments in the field of respiratory muscle monitoring and possible implications of monitoring respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients.

  14. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill children: Incidence, risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mervat Gamal Eldin Mansour

    2012-02-21

    acquired infection in critically ill patients. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system reported that. HAP accounts for as much as 31% of all nosocomial infections acquired in medical intensive care units. (ICU).

  15. Relatives perception of writing diaries for critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    for the critically patients, they experienced that writing and reading the diary allowed for the unloading of emotions and expression of feelings. Writing a diary was a meaningful activity while enduring a situation of uncertainty and furthermore it created a distance that allowed understanding of the critical......BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient help the relatives cope and support the patient. Relatives may participate in writing a diary for the critically ill and when they do this is appreciated by the patients. However, the relative's perception of writing a diary has...... not previously been explored. AIM: To explore how relatives perceive writing a diary for the critically ill patient. METHOD: In a phenomenological-hermeneutic study building on the theory of Ricoeur interviews with seven relatives were conducted and interpreted. FINDINGS: When relatives wrote a diary...

  16. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed.

  17. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in pediatric intensive care: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen; Horrocks, Iain A; Ouvrier, Robert A; Gillis, Jonathan; Ryan, Monique M

    2007-01-01

    To review the medical literature on critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in childhood. Medline and EMBASE were searched using the following terms: critical illness (neuropathy, polyneuropathy, and myopathy), critical care (neuropathy, polyneuropathy, and myopathy), acute myopathy, acute necrotizing myopathy, children, and pediatric. The references listed in publications thus identified were also reviewed. All studies relating to pediatric critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy were included. The adult literature was also reviewed as to the current understanding of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are well recognized in adults, in whom they commonly cause generalized weakness and muscle wasting, with failure to wean from mechanical ventilation. Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are reported in 32-100% of critically ill adult patients ventilated for >3 days. There is significant clinical and neurophysiologic overlap between the two conditions, such that the term critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) is often used. Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy have only occasionally been reported in childhood, and little is known of their prevalence or clinical significance in this population. This article summarizes the pediatric literature on critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy and highlights areas for future research in critically ill children. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy may cause significant morbidity in critically ill children. These conditions seem to be clinically and electrophysiologically similar in children and adults, but prospective studies of these entities are required to better characterize their frequency, natural history, and clinical significance in pediatric practice.

  18. Nurses' pain assessment practices with critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, I B; Muliira, J K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the perceived barriers, enablers and acute pain assessment practices of nurses caring for critically ill adult patients in a resource-limited setting. Acute pain is a common problem among critically ill adult patients, and nurses' play a central role in its control. Very few studies have examined nurses' acute pain assessment practices in resource-limited settings. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was used. A total of 170 nurses working in a Ugandan hospital were enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire measuring various aspects of pain assessment for critically ill adult patients. The majority of nurses had poor pain assessment practices. The most commonly performed pain assessment practices were documenting assessment findings, discussing pain assessment and management during nurse-to-nurse reports, and assessing for analgesics need before wound care. The main barriers to pain assessment were workload; lack of education and familiarity with assessment tools; poor documentation and communication of pain assessment priorities. The only reported enabler was physician's prescriptions for analgesia. Pain assessment practices were significantly associated with perceived workload and priority given to pain assessment. Pain assessment practices of nurses caring for critically ill adult patients in a resource-limited setting are affected by several barriers. Interventions to reduce barriers and enhance enablers of acute pain assessment are needed to improve pain management in critically ill adult patients. To be effective, the interventions have to be holistic and implemented by professional bodies and employers of nurses. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Sleep Disturbance after Hospitalization and Critical Illness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Marcus T; Knauert, Melissa P; Pisani, Margaret A

    2017-09-01

    Sleep disturbance during intensive care unit (ICU) admission is common and severe. Sleep disturbance has been observed in survivors of critical illness even after transfer out of the ICU. Not only is sleep important to overall health and well being, but patients after critical illness are also in a physiologically vulnerable state. Understanding how sleep disturbance impacts recovery from critical illness after hospital discharge is therefore clinically meaningful. This Systematic Review aimed to summarize studies that identify the prevalence of and risk factors for sleep disturbance after hospital discharge for critical illness survivors. PubMed (January 4, 2017), MEDLINE (January 4, 2017), and EMBASE (February 1, 2017). Databases were searched for studies of critically ill adult patients after hospital discharge, with sleep disturbance measured as a primary outcome by standardized questionnaire or objective measurement tools. From each relevant study, we extracted prevalence and severity of sleep disturbance at each time point, objective sleep parameters (such as total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and arousal index), and risk factors for sleep disturbance. A total of 22 studies were identified, with assessment tools including subjective questionnaires, polysomnography, and actigraphy. Subjective questionnaire studies reveal a 50-66.7% (within 1 mo), 34-64.3% (>1-3 mo), 22-57% (>3-6 mo), and 10-61% (>6 mo) prevalence of abnormal sleep after hospital discharge after critical illness. Of the studies assessing multiple time points, four of five questionnaire studies and five of five polysomnography studies show improved aspects of sleep over time. Risk factors for poor sleep varied, but prehospital factors (chronic comorbidity, pre-existing sleep abnormality) and in-hospital factors (severity of acute illness, in-hospital sleep disturbance, pain medication use, and ICU acute stress symptoms) may play a role. Sleep disturbance was frequently associated with

  20. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-04-01

    The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiological insults alter this relationship, leading to induction of virulence factors in the microbiome, which, in turn, can perpetuate or worsen critical illness. This review highlights newly discovered ways in which the gut acts as the motor that perpetuates the systemic inflammatory response in critical illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indications and Effects of Plasma Transfusions in Critically Ill Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, Oliver; Demaret, Pierre; Shefler, Alison

    2015-01-01

    : To identify patient characteristics and to characterize indications leading to plasma transfusions in critically ill children, and to assess the effect of plasma transfusions on coagulation tests. METHODS: Point-prevalence study in 101 pediatric intensive care units in 21 countries, on 6 predefined weeks. All......RATIONALE: Plasma transfusions are frequently prescribed for critically ill children, although their indications lack a strong evidence base. Plasma transfusions are largely driven by physician conceptions of need, and these are poorly documented in pediatric intensive care patients. OBJECTIVES...... critically ill children admitted to a participating unit were included if they received at least one plasma transfusion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the 6 study weeks, 13,192 children were eligible. Among these, 443 (3.4%) received at least one plasma transfusion and were included. The primary...

  2. Relatives to Critically Ill Patients Have No Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objective. To investigate the relatives' satisfaction and involvement on a general surgery ward regarding the critically ill patient. Introduction. Relatives to critically ill patients are affected both physically and mentally during the hospitalization of a family member. Research has...... shown that relatives do not always receive the attention they need from health professionals. There is a lack of studies that focus on relatives' satisfaction and involvement during their family members' hospitalization. Design. A mixed methods design was chosen. Methods. A quantitative study...... was conducted with 27 relatives to critically ill patients. All participated in a questionnaire and out of the 27 relatives, six participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. Results. The questionnaire revealed that relatives were dissatisfied with care and involvement. For further exploration...

  3. The critically ill obstetric patient - Recent concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU present a challenge to an intensivist because of normal physiological changes associated with pregnancy and puerperium, the specific medical diseases peculiar to pregnancy and the need to take care of both the mother and the foetus. Most common causes of admission to an ICU for obstetric patients are eclampsia, severe preeclampsia, haemorrhage, congenital and valvular heart disease, septic abortions, severe anemia, cardiomyopathy and non-obstetric sepsis. The purpose of this review is to present the recent concepts in critical care management of obstetric patients with special focus mainly on ventilatory strategies, treatment of shock and nutrition. The details regarding management of individual diseases would not be discussed as these would be beyond the purview of this article. In addition, some specific issues of importance while managing such patients would also be highlighted.

  4. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. How diaries written for critically ill influence the relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient helps relatives cope and support the patient. When relatives participate in writing a diary for the critically ill, patients appreciate it. Furthermore, the diary may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression...... disorder; however, further research is needed to confirm this. How relatives interact through writing and reading a diary, originally intended for the patient, is unclear. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Providing relatives with a diary may help them cope. However, caution should be taken as possible...

  6. Nutrition therapy in critically ill infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Heather E; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Infants and children are susceptible to the profound metabolic effects of critical illness. In addition, preexisting malnutrition and obesity have adverse consequences during the intensive care unit stay. Early enteral and parenteral feeding can improve nutrition deficits, but neither has been sufficiently studied to show an effect on clinical outcomes in pediatric critical care. Indirect calorimetry is a useful technique that identifies patients receiving inadequate or excessive nutrition, but this technique is underused.

  7. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  8. Predictors of maternal mortality among critically ill obstetric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et al.,15 that absence of prenatal care was a predictor of maternal mortality in critically ill obstetric patients, the booking status in this study was not a predictor of mortality. This could be because the delay in recognition of the need for ICU care and delays in presentation could have removed the otherwise expected beneficial ...

  9. Memory deficits following neonatal critical illness: A common neurodevelopmental pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Schiller (Raisa); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); A. Hoskote (Aparna); T.J.H. White (Tonya); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); A.F.J. van Heijst (Arno); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSummary Over the last decade, knowledge has emerged that children growing up after neonatal critical illness, irrespective of underlying diagnosis, are at risk of memory impairment and school problems. Strikingly, these problems are manifest even when intelligence is normal. In this

  10. Critically ill obstetric and gynaecological patients in the intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To document mortality among critically ill obstetric and gynaecological patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to investigate whether any poor prognostic features could allow for earlier and more aggressive intervention. Study design: A retrospective study of all obstetric apd gynaecological ...

  11. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in critical illness polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André

    2013-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of critical illness in intensive care units. Reports on autonomic systems like lower urinary tract and bowel functions in patients with CIP are not available in medical literature. This study performed during primary rehabilitation of patients with critical illness polyneuropathy explores if sensory and motor pathways controlling the lower urinary tract function are affected from the disease. Neurourological examinations, urodynamics, electromyography and lower urinary tract imaging were performed in 28 patients with critical illness polyneuropathy. Sacral sensation was impaired in 1 patient (4%). Sacral reflexes were absent in 8 patients (30%). Anal sphincter resting tone was reduced in 3 (12%), anal sphincter voluntary contraction was absent or reduced in 8 patients (30%). Urodynamic findings were detrusor overactivity and detrusor overactivity incontinence in 9 (37.5%), incomplete voiding in 8 (30%), abnormal sphincter activity in 4 (16%), abnormal bladder sensation in 4 (16%) and detrusor acontractility in 2 patients (8.3%). Morphological abnormalities of the lower urinary tract had 10 patients (41.6%). Sensory and motor pathways controlling the lower urinary tract might be affected from CIP. During urodynamics dysfunctions of the storage as well as the voiding phase were found. Morphological lower urinary tract abnormalities were common.

  12. Continuous renal replacement therapy for critically ill infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jepsen, Søren Bruun; Toft, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important treatment in critically ill children with acute kidney injury (AKI). Over the past decade, CRRT has been the preferred method of renal replacement therapy. We compared children with CRRT-treated adults with AKI in terms of return of kidney...

  13. Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill septic patients at Dr George ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rationale: Adrenal insufficiency occurs with varying frequency in critically ill patients. It is usually associated with a high mortality and poor clinical outcome. Objective: To determine the incidence of adrenal failure in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to our intensive care unit. Design: Prospective ...

  14. [The microbiome of the gut in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberger, B; Rauscher, C

    2015-10-01

    The complexity and diversity of the human intestinal microbiome has only recently been characterized. The multiple metabolic and immunologic effects of the bacterial flora have demonstrated the symbiosis between the microbiome and its host. This symbiosis is disturbed in a multitude of diseases, especially in critically ill patients. A review of the changes in the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients and the use of probiotics. Nonsystematic literature search in PubMed on the topics: (1) changes in the intestinal microbiome in critically ill patients, (2) interventions using probiotics in critically ill patients, and (3) use of fecal transplantation in Clostridium difficile colitis. Trauma, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and other conditions lead to shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome, which are correlated with clinical outcome. The most obvious change is a profound loss of obligate anaerobe bacteria, leading also to metabolic changes. Probiotics have been used in several studies and show efficacy in the reduction of infectious complication but not in overall mortality. C. difficile colitis as the model disease for a disturbed microbiome can be treated effectively by transfer of donor feces, which also restores the diversity of the microbiome. Taking into account the successful intervention of fecal transplantation on the intestinal microbiome, new products developed using the current knowledge of the intestinal microbiome could be more effective.

  15. Clinical monitoring of systemic hemodynamics in critically ill newborns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, W.P. de

    2010-01-01

    Circulatory failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in critically ill newborn infants. Since objective measurement of systemic blood flow remains very challenging, neonatal hemodynamics is usually assessed by the interpretation of various clinical and biochemical parameters. An overview

  16. OBESITY AND CRITICAL ILLNESS: INSIGHTS FROM ANIMAL MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittwede, Peter N; Clemmer, John S; Bergin, Patrick F; Xiang, Lusha

    2016-04-01

    Critical illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. While obesity is often detrimental in the context of trauma, it is paradoxically associated with improved outcomes in some septic patients. The reasons for these disparate outcomes are not well understood. A number of animal models have been used to study the obese response to various forms of critical illness. Just as there have been many animal models that have attempted to mimic clinical conditions, there are many clinical scenarios that can occur in the highly heterogeneous critically ill patient population that occupies hospitals and intensive care units. This poses a formidable challenge for clinicians and researchers attempting to understand the mechanisms of disease and develop appropriate therapies and treatment algorithms for specific subsets of patients, including the obese. The development of new, and the modification of existing animal models, is important in order to bring effective treatments to a wide range of patients. Not only do experimental variables need to be matched as closely as possible to clinical scenarios, but animal models with pre-existing comorbid conditions need to be studied. This review briefly summarizes animal models of hemorrhage, blunt trauma, traumatic brain injury, and sepsis. It also discusses what has been learned through the use of obese models to study the pathophysiology of critical illness in light of what has been demonstrated in the clinical literature.

  17. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients | Human | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral hygiene care includes a combination of nursing activities that are often placed very low on the priority care list for a critically ill patient. This may have detrimental implications for the patient. A literature review was done to identify and describe the available evidence related to the beneficial effects of oral hygiene care ...

  18. The management of motility disorders in critical illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    melatonin and hypnosis in the form of music therapy can modulate. GI motility.7 The safety or efficacy of such treatments have not been shown, especially in critically ill patient and are not advocated. The authors warn that practitioners need to become more aware of these treatments because of their potential adverse ...

  19. Monitoring of the respiratory muscles in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, J.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that respiratory muscle dysfunction develops in critically ill patients and contributes to prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Accordingly, it seems highly appropriate to monitor the respiratory muscles in these patients. Today, we are only at the beginning of

  20. Predicting recovery from acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Berthelsen, Rasmus Ehrenfried; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    these patients. DESIGN: Observational study with development and validation of a risk prediction model. SETTING: Nine academic ICUs in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Development cohort of critically ill patients with AKI at ICU admission from the Procalcitonin and Survival Study cohort (n = 568), validation cohort...

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill African patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress ulcer prophylaxis is an integral part of the care of the critically ill. Agents that alter gastric pH may predispose these patients to gastric colonisation, with subsequent pneumonia and/or sepsis. Cytoprotective agents such as sucralfate preserve gastric acidity and may be protective. Objective: To determine ...

  2. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  3. Coagulation and complement system in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, H; Stephan, B; Pindur, G

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation and inflammatory response including the complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of critical illness. However, only limited data are available addressing the relationship of both pathways and its assessment of a predictive value for the clinical outcome in intense care medicine. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation and complement system were studied in patients with septicaemia and multiple trauma regarded as being exemplary for critical illness. 34 patients (mean age: 51.38 years (±16.57), 15 females, 19 males) were investigated at day 1 of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Leukocytes, complement factors C3a and C5a were significantly (p complement system as part of the inflammatory response is a significant mechanism in septicaemia, whereas loss and consumption of blood components including parts of the coagulation and complement system is more characteristic for multiple trauma. Protein C in case of severe reduction might be of special concern for surviving in sepsis. Activation of haemostasis was occurring in both diseases, however, overt DIC was not confirmed in this study to be a leading mechanism in critically ill patients. MOF score, lactate, C1-inhibitor and prothrombin time have been the only statistically significant predictors for lethal outcome suggesting that organ function, microcirculation, haemostasis and inflammatory response are essential elements of the pathomechanism and clinical course of diseases among critically ill patients.

  4. Gut dysfunction in the critically ill − mechanisms and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common problem in the critically ill patient, and is commonly observed in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is recognised that a functional gastrointestinal tract is an important factor in the clinical outcome of patients in the ICU. The difficulty in clinical practice has been the lack of an objective or ...

  5. [ABCDE--a systematic approach to critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thim, Troels; Krarup, Niels Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Løfgren, Bo

    2010-11-22

    This systematic approach to the immediate assessment and treatment of the critically ill or injured patient is applicable in all clinical emergencies. The aim of the ABCDE approach is to facilitate immediate life-saving treatment and thus buy time for definite diagnosis and treatment by breaking down complex clinical situations into manageable parts. Application of the ABCDE approach may improve treatment quality.

  6. Facilitating critical reflection in mothers of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C H

    1999-05-01

    The hybrid model, developed by Schwartz-Barcott & Kim guided the conduct of a study of empowerment in mothers of chronically ill children. Integral to the model of empowerment that emerged from the study was an ongoing process of critical reflection. Through this process, mothers became aware of their strengths, abilities and resources. This paper is an in-depth analysis of the process of critical reflection, which corroborates recent theory on women's development. The process of critical reflection is illuminated by women's ways of knowing, as exemplified in the story of one mother, and by elements of maternal thinking. Implications for nursing practice in working with mothers of chronically ill children are highlighted.

  7. Delirium in the Critically Ill Child: Assessment and Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rebecca S; Kenardy, Justin A; De Young, Alexandra C; Dow, Belinda L; Long, Debbie A

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature. In particular, our knowledge of how to assess delirium is complicated by challenges in recognizing symptoms of delirium in pediatric patients especially in critical and intensive care settings, and our understanding of its impact on acute and long-term functioning remains in its infancy. This paper focuses on (a) the challenges associated with assessing delirium in critically ill children, (b) the current literature on the outcomes of delirium including morbidity following discharge from PICU, and care-giver well-being, and (c) the importance of assessment in determining impact of delirium on outcome. Current evidence suggests that delirium is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and may play a detrimental role in a child's recovery after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Recommendations are proposed for how our knowledge and assessment of delirium in children could be improved.

  8. Gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders in critically ill dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, KimMi; Cortes, Yonaira; Eirmann, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To review the human and veterinary literature regarding gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility disorders in respect to pathogenesis, patient risk factors, and treatment options in critically ill dogs and cats. GI dysmotility is a common sequela of critical illness in people and small animals. The most common GI motility disorders in critically ill people and small animals include esophageal dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, functional intestinal obstruction (ie, ileus), and colonic motility abnormalities. Medical conditions associated with the highest risk of GI dysmotility include mechanical ventilation, sepsis, shock, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure. The incidence and pathophysiology of GI dysmotility in critically ill small animals is incompletely understood. A presumptive diagnosis of GI dysmotility is often made in high-risk patient populations following detection of persistent regurgitation, vomiting, lack of tolerance of enteral nutrition, abdominal pain, and constipation. Definitive diagnosis is established via radioscintigraphy; however, this diagnostic tool is not readily available and is difficult to perform on small animals. Other diagnostic modalities that have been evaluated include abdominal ultrasonography, radiographic contrast, and tracer studies. Therapy is centered at optimizing GI perfusion, enhancement of GI motility, and early enteral nutrition. Pharmacological interventions are instituted to promote gastric emptying and effective intestinal motility and prevention of complications. Promotility agents, including ranitidine/nizatidine, metoclopramide, erythromycin, and cisapride are the mainstays of therapy in small animals. The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal

  9. Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jay Wook

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances in fluid and electrolytes are among the most common clinical problems encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies have reported that fluid and electrolyte imbalances are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. To provide optimal care, health care providers should be familiar with the principles and practice of fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology. Fluid resuscitation should be aimed at restoration of normal...

  10. Physiological and management implications of obesity in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaty, Michael G S; Stapleton, Renee D

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is highly prevalent in the United States and is becoming increasingly common worldwide. The anatomic and physiological changes that occur in obese individuals may have an impact across the spectrum of critical illness. Obese patients may be more susceptible to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. During mechanical ventilation, elevated end-expiratory pressures may be required to improve lung compliance and to prevent ventilation-perfusion mismatch due to distal airway collapse. Several studies have shown an increased risk of organ dysfunction such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury in obese patients. Predisposition to ventricular hypertrophy and increases in blood volume should be considered in fluid management decisions. Obese patients have accelerated muscle losses in critical illness, making nutrition essential, although the optimal predictive equation to estimate nutritional needs or formulation for obese patients is not well established. Many common intensive care unit medications are not well studied in obese patients, necessitating understanding of pharmacokinetic concepts and consultation with pharmacists. Obesity is associated with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis and catheter-associated bloodstream infections, likely related to greater average catheter dwell times. Logistical issues such as blood pressure cuff sizing, ultrasound assistance for procedures, diminished quality of some imaging modalities, and capabilities of hospital equipment such as beds and lifts are important considerations. Despite the physiological alterations and logistical challenges involved, it is not clear whether obesity has an effect on mortality or long-term outcomes from critical illness. Effects may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity, and obesity-associated comorbidities.

  11. Physiological and Management Implications of Obesity in Critical Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Shashaty, Michael G. S.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is highly prevalent in the United States and is becoming increasingly common worldwide. The anatomic and physiological changes that occur in obese individuals may have an impact across the spectrum of critical illness. Obese patients may be more susceptible to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. During mechanical ventilation, elevated end-expiratory pressures may be required to improve lung compliance and to prevent ventilation–perfusion mismatch due to distal airway collapse. Several studies ...

  12. Probiotics in critically ill children [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunit C. Singhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics

  13. Interventions to reduce cognitive impairments following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, H K; Jensen, H I; Toft, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective treatment or prevention has not been established. The aim of this review was to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning clinical interventions during intensive care admission to reduce cognitive...... affected by study limitations, imprecision and indirectness in evidence. Clinical research on cognition is feasible, but large, well designed trials with a specific aim at reducing cognitive impairments are needed....

  14. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiologic insults alter this relationship, l...

  15. Clinical examination, critical care ultrasonography and outcomes in the critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J; Koster, Geert

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I (SICS-I), we aim to unravel the value of clinical and haemodynamic variables obtained by physical examination and critical care ultrasound (CCUS) that currently guide daily practice in critically ill patients. We intend to (1) measure all available ...

  16. [Impact of early elective tracheotomy in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Isabel Araújo Marques; Sousa, Vítor; Pinto, Luis Marques; Barros, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    Tracheotomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures performed in critically ill patients hospitalized at intensive care units. The ideal timing for a tracheotomy is still controversial, despite decades of experience. To determine the impact of performing early tracheotomies in critically ill patients on duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, overall hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. Retrospective and observational study of cases subjected to elective tracheotomy at one of the intensive care units of this hospital during five consecutive years. The patients were stratified into two groups: early tracheotomy group (tracheotomy performed from day one up to and including day seven of mechanical ventilation) and late tracheotomy group (tracheotomy performed after day seven). The outcomes of the groups were compared. In the early tracheotomy group, there was a statistically significant reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation (6 days vs. 19 days; p<0.001), duration of intensive care unit stay (10 days vs. 28 days; p=0.001), and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (1 case vs. 44 cases; p=0.001). Early tracheotomy has a significant positive impact on critically ill patients hospitalized at this intensive care unit. These results support the tendency to balance the risk-benefit analysis in favor of early tracheotomy. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Stefanie; Norris, Ross; Tu, Quyen; van Breda, Karin; Riney, Kate; Foster, Kelly; Lister, Bruce; Charles, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the population pharmacokinetics of bound and unbound phenytoin in critically ill children, including influences on the protein binding profile. A population pharmacokinetic approach was used to analyze paired protein-unbound and total phenytoin plasma concentrations (n = 146 each) from 32 critically ill children (0.08-17 years of age) who were admitted to a pediatric hospital, primarily intensive care unit. The pharmacokinetics of unbound and bound phenytoin and the influence of possible influential covariates were modeled and evaluated using visual predictive checks and bootstrapping. The pharmacokinetics of protein-unbound phenytoin was described satisfactorily by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption in conjunction with a linear partition coefficient parameter to describe the binding of phenytoin to albumin. The partitioning coefficient describing protein binding and distribution to bound phenytoin was estimated to be 8.22. Nonlinear elimination of unbound phenytoin was not supported in this patient group. Weight, allometrically scaled for clearance and volume of distribution for the unbound and bound compartments, and albumin concentration significantly influenced the partition coefficient for protein binding of phenytoin. The population model can be applied to estimate the fraction of unbound phenytoin in critically ill children given an individual's albumin concentration. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Chani; Silver, Gabrielle; Reeder, Ron W; Doyle, Hannah; Hegel, Emily; Wolfe, Heather A; Schneller, Christopher; Chung, Melissa G; Dervan, Leslie A; DiGennaro, Jane L; Buttram, Sandra D W; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Madden, Kate; Hartman, Mary E; deAlmeida, Mary L; Walson, Karen; Ista, Erwin; Baarslag, Manuel A; Salonia, Rosanne; Beca, John; Long, Debbie; Kawai, Yu; Cheifetz, Ira M; Gelvez, Javier; Truemper, Edward J; Smith, Rebecca L; Peters, Megan E; O'Meara, A M Iqbal; Murphy, Sarah; Bokhary, Abdulmohsen; Greenwald, Bruce M; Bell, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors. Multi-institutional point prevalence study. Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia. All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994). Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse. Demographic and treatment-related variables were collected. Primary study outcome measure was prevalence of delirium. In 159 children, a final determination of mental status could not be ascertained. Of the 835 remaining subjects, 25% screened positive for delirium, 13% were classified as comatose, and 62% were delirium-free and coma-free. Delirium prevalence rates varied significantly with reason for ICU admission, with highest delirium rates found in children admitted with an infectious or inflammatory disorder. For children who were in the PICU for 6 or more days, delirium prevalence rate was 38%. In a multivariate model, risk factors independently associated with development of delirium included age less than 2 years, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepines, narcotics, use of physical restraints, and exposure to vasopressors and antiepileptics. Delirium is a prevalent complication of critical illness in children, with identifiable risk factors. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal studies are required to investigate effect of delirium on long-term outcomes and possible preventive and treatment measures. Universal delirium screening is practical and can be implemented in pediatric critical care units.

  19. Critical care and the global burden of critical illness in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Neill K J; Fowler, Robert A; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2010-10-16

    Critical care has evolved from treatment of poliomyelitis victims with respiratory failure in an intensive care unit to treatment of severely ill patients irrespective of location or specific technology. Population-based studies in the developed world suggest that the burden of critical illness is higher than generally appreciated and will increase as the population ages. Critical care capacity has long been needed in the developing world, and efforts to improve the care of the critically ill in these settings are starting to occur. Expansion of critical care to handle the consequences of an ageing population, natural disasters, conflict, inadequate primary care, and higher-risk medical therapies will be challenged by high costs at a time of economic constraint. To meet this challenge, investigators in this discipline will need to measure the global burden of critical illness and available critical-care resources, and develop both preventive and therapeutic interventions that are generalisable across countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding the critically ill obese patient: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, Paul; Harley, Simon; Chapman, Marianne; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify effective enteral nutritional regimens targeting protein and calorie delivery for the critically ill obese patient on morbidity and mortality.More specifically, the review question is:In the critically ill obese patient, what is the optimal enteral protein and calorie target that improves mortality and morbidity? The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health, or, empirically, as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m. Twenty-eight percent of the Australian population is obese with the prevalence rising to 44% in rural areas, and there is evidence that rates of obesity are increasing. The prevalence of obese patients in intensive care largely mirrors that of the general population. There is concern, however, that this may also be rising. A recently published multi-center nutritional study of critically ill patients reported a mean BMI of 29 in their sample, suggesting that just under 50% of their intensive care population is obese. It is inevitable, therefore, that the intensivist will care for the critically ill obese patient.Managing the critically ill obese patient is challenging, not least due to the co-morbid diseases frequently associated with obesity, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, sleep disordered breathing and respiratory insufficiency, hepatic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and hypertension. There is also evidence that metabolic processes differ in the obese patient, particularly those with underlying insulin resistance, itself a marker of the metabolic syndrome, which may predispose to futile cycling, altered fuel utilization and protein catabolism. These issues are compounded by altered drug pharmacokinetics, and the additional logistical issues associated with prophylactic, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions.It is entirely plausible that the altered metabolic processes observed in the obese

  1. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, Nienke J.; de Wildt, Saskia N.; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; Mooij, Miriam G.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Tibboel, Dick; de Hoog, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically ventilated critically ill children with

  2. Inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, E

    2009-10-01

    Most Irish paediatric tertiary care services are centralised in Dublin. Many children are transferred there each year from regional paediatric units around the country. We aimed to quantify and describe all children transferred from one regional tertiary hospital over a two year period. Seventy three out of 75 identified transfers were examined. Sixty nine transfers (94.5%) were sent to the major tertiary centre. Fifteen (20.5%) required intensive care services for transfer. Seventeen seriously ill neonates required transfer, however only 4 (23.5%) of those met both the criteria for and the availability of the National Neonatal Transfer Team (NNTT). Significant events during transfer were only documented in 3 cases. Most transfers arrived in Dublin outside normal working hours. Standards of documentation were found to be very inconsistent. In conclusion, a national transport service for all critically ill children is urgently needed in Ireland.

  3. The association between obesity and outcomes in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Stephan; Wall, Alastair; Bryce, Rhonda; Gjevre, John A; Laframboise, Karen; Reid, John Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide, particularly in North America. The impact of obesity on the outcome of critically ill patients is unclear. A prospective observational cohort study of consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary critical care unit in Canada between January 10, 2008 and March 31, 2009 was conducted. Exclusion criteria were age care unit (ICU) admission. Coprimary end points were ICU mortality and a composite of ICU mortality, reintubation, ventilator-associated pneumonia, line sepsis and ICU readmission. Subjects were stratified as obese or nonobese, using two separate metrics: body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and a novel measurement of 75th percentile for waist-to-height ratio (WHR). Among 449 subjects with a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2), both BMI and WHR were available for comparative analysis in 348 (77.5%). Neither measure of obesity was associated with the primary end points. BMI ≥ 3 0 kg/m(2) was associated with a lower odds of six-month mortality than the BMI Obesity was not necessarily associated with worse outcomes in critically ill patients.

  4. Features of Infusion Therapy in Critically Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snisar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review shows that the appointment of infusion therapy on generally accepted recommendations of M.A. Holliday, M.E. Segar often leads to hyponatremia and significant complications. Injected volume of fluid in the critical ill children cannot accurately be determined. It depends on many factors: the diseases severity in child, used methods of intensive care. Critical state, pain, administration of a number of drugs stimulate increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone. This restricts the release of water with urine, especially in a situation when administration of the electrolyte-free liquid results in hyponatremia and a positive water balance. What is the ideal solution during infusion therapy in children: a hypotonic fluid or isotonic one? Until now the debate continues while the use of hypotonic solutions is yet widespread enough. However, this leads to hyponatremia and increases the risk of adverse neurological complications in critically ill children. Therefore, the routine use of hypotonic solutions should be reconsidered. In all cases, a minimum monitoring of water balance and electrolyte levels in the blood plasma should be provided.

  5. [Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-03-01

    Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P=.01), jugular vein central catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.03), and sepsis (P<.001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P<.001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P=.02), femoral vein catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P=.006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P<.001). Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  7. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Critically Ill Children Requiring Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Gerard; McRae, Rosemary; Chiletti, Roberto; Butt, Warwick

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the clinical indications, procedural safety, and outcome of critically ill children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange. Retrospective observational study based on a prospective registry. Tertiary and quaternary referral 30-bed PICU. Forty-eight critically ill children who received therapeutic plasma exchange during an 8-year period (2007-2014) were included in the study. Therapeutic plasma exchange. A total of 48 patients underwent 244 therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Of those, therapeutic plasma exchange was performed as sole procedure in 193 (79%), in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy in 40 (16.4%) and additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 11 (4.6%) sessions. The most common admission diagnoses were hematologic disorders (30%), solid organ transplantation (20%), neurologic disorders (20%), and rheumatologic disorders (15%). Complications associated with the procedure occurred in 50 (21.2%) therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Overall, patient survival from ICU was 82%. Although patients requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone (n = 31; 64%) had a survival rate of 97%, those with additional continuous renal replacement therapy (n = 13; 27%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 4; 8%) had survival rates of 69% and 50%, respectively. Factors associated with increased mortality were lower Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, need for mechanical ventilation, higher number of failed organs, and longer ICU stay. Our results indicate that, in specialized centers, therapeutic plasma exchange can be performed relatively safely in critically ill children, alone or in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Outcome in children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone is excellent. However, survival decreases with the number of failed organs and the need for continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  8. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words "nutritional risk assessment", "critically ill" and "cancer". Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic Score and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, is suggested given that their use is simple, feasible and useful in such

  9. Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordillo R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Gordillo,1 Tania Ahluwalia,2 Robert Woroniecki3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, IL, USA; 3Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Stony Brook Children’s Hospital, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children. However, it is not clear whether hyperglycemia is associated with AKI. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on kidney function and its effect on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in children. Methods: We studied retrospective and prospective cohorts of pediatric critically ill subjects admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We analyzed data from admission that included estimated glomerular filtration rate, plasma and urine NGAL, serum glucose and peak glycemia (highest glycemia during PICU admission, and length of hospital and PICU stay from two different institutions. Results: We found that the prevalence of hyperglycemia was 89% in the retrospective cohort and 86% in the prospective cohort, P=0.99. AKI was associated with peak glycemia, P=0.03. There was a statistically significant correlation between peak glycemia and hospital and PICU stays, P=<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. Urine NGAL and plasma NGAL were not statistically different in subjects with and without hyperglycemia, P=0.99 and P=0.85, respectively. Subjects on vasopressors had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher

  10. Management Issues in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients with Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Omar Z; Burd, Randall S

    2017-10-01

    The management of critically ill pediatric patients with trauma poses many challenges because of the infrequency and diversity of severe injuries and a paucity of high-level evidence to guide care for these uncommon events. This article discusses recent recommendations for early resuscitation and blood component therapy for hypovolemic pediatric patients with trauma. It also highlights the specific types of injuries that lead to severe injury in children and presents challenges related to their management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy as neurological complications of sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmar, R

    2016-03-01

    Intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) is a frequent and severe complication of intensive care management. Within ICUAW critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and myopathy (CIM) can be differentiated. The major symptom of ICUAW is progressive quadriparesis, which makes weaning from the respirator more difficult, can appear early after admission to an ICU and can often be detected several months after discharge from the ICU. The pathophysiology of ICUAW is multifactorial and complex. Potential therapeutic approaches are the early and sufficient therapy of mulitorgan dysfunction, optimal control of glucose levels as well as early and intensive physiotherapy. This review article discusses the data on incidence, pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and prognosis of ICUAW.

  12. Oral care practices for orally intubated critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feider, Laura L; Mitchell, Pamela; Bridges, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major threat to patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospitals. Oral care is a nursing intervention that may help prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. To describe oral care practices performed by critical care nurses for orally intubated critically ill patients and compare these practices with recommendations for oral care in the 2005 AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care and the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A descriptive, cross-sectional design with a 31-item Web-based survey was used to describe oral care practices reported by 347 randomly selected members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Oral care was performed every 2 (50%) or 4 (42%) hours, usually with foam swabs (97%). Oral care was reported as a high priority (47%). Nurses with 7 years or more of critical care experience performed oral care more often (P=.008) than did less experienced nurses. Nurses with a bachelor's degree in nursing used foam swabs (P=.001), suctioned the mouth before the endotracheal tube (P=.02), and suctioned after oral care (Ptoothpaste (40%), brushing with a foam swab (90%), using chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse (49%), suctioning the oral cavity (84%), and assessing the oral cavity (73%). Oral care practices and policies differed for all those items. Survey results indicate that discrepancies exist between reported practices and policies. Oral care policies appear to be present, but not well used.

  13. Acetazolamide therapy for metabolic alkalosis in critically ill pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Amir; Cies, Jeff; Stapleton, Kathleen; Tauber, Danna; Chopra, Arun; Shore, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Despite a paucity of supporting literature, acetazolamide is commonly used in critically ill children with metabolic alkalosis (elevated plasma bicarbonate [pHco-3] and pH). The objective of this study was to assess the change in 18 hours after initiation of acetazolamide therapy. Retrospective study. PICU of an urban, tertiary-care children's hospital. Mechanically ventilated children (≤ 17 yr) with metabolic alkalosis (pHco-3 ≥ 35 mmol/L). None. Of 153 consecutively screened patients, 61 patients (29 female patients) were enrolled: 18 cardiac patients (after congenital heart disease repair) and 43 noncardiac patients. The cardiac patients were younger than the noncardiac patients (median [interquartile range] age, 0.6 mo [0.3-2.5 mo] vs 7.4 mo [2.8-39.9 mo]; p metabolic alkalosis in critically ill children with congenital heart disease. Further study is required to determine why these cardiac patients respond differently to acetazolamide than noncardiac patients and whether this response impacts important clinical outcomes, for example, weaning mechanical ventilation.

  14. Continuous propofol infusion in 142 critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfield, David N; Tegtmeyer, Ken; Nelson, Michael D; Milla, Carlos E; Sweeney, Michael

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, continuous intravenous propofol infusion has been widely used in pediatric intensive care units. Several case reports have raised concerns about its safety. The objective of this study was to report our experience with continuous intravenous propofol in consecutive patients during an 18-month period. The study design was a retrospective review of a case series. Case was defined as a critically ill child who was treated with continuous intravenous propofol. The attending physician staff agreed to prescribe propofol via continuous intravenous infusion at a dose not to exceed 50 microg/kg/min. The protocol allowed for each patient to receive an additional intravenous bolus of propofol at a dose of 1 mg/kg no more than once per hour. The study entailed data collection from consecutive patients who were prescribed a continuous infusion of propofol in either the pediatric intensive care unit or bone marrow transplant unit. Data from 142 patients were analyzed. Each patient enrolled was adequately sedated. Administration of propofol via continuous intravenous infusion was not associated with metabolic acidosis or hemodynamic compromise. No patient in the study group was inadvertently extubated or had a central venous catheter accidentally discontinued. Propofol can be safely and effectively used to provide sedation to critically ill infants and children. We speculate that continuous infusion of propofol for extended periods of time should not exceed 67 microg/kg/min.

  15. Serum selenium and zinc levels in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Young; Shim, Hongjin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gil

    2014-04-01

    The authors designed this study to determine how serum selenium and zinc affect the outcomes of critically ill surgical patients. The medical records of 162 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) from October 2010 to July 2012 and managed for more than 3 days were retrospectively investigated. Overall, the mean patient age was 61.2 ± 15.0 years, and the median ICU stay was 5 (3-115) days. The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.0 ± 8.0. Eighteen (11.1%) of the study subjects died in ICU. mean selenium levels were 83.5 ± 23.8 ng/dL in the survivor group and 83.3 ± 29.6 ng/dL in the nonsurvivor group, and corresponding mean zinc levels were 46.3 ± 21.7 and 65.6 ± 41.6 μg/dL, respectively. Mean selenium concentrations were significantly different in patients with and without shock (77.9 ± 25.4 and 87.2 ± 23.1 ng/dL, P = .017). Furthermore, mean serum selenium was lower in patients with sepsis than in traumatic or simply postoperative patients (P selenium and zinc levels on critically ill surgical patients, a large-scale prospective study is needed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Doripenem pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients receiving continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Seigo; Goto, Koji; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Objectives of the prospective, open-label study were to investigate pharmacokinetics of doripenem and determine appropriate doripenem regimens during continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) in critically ill patients with renal failure (creatinine clearance times during one dosing interval were measured in order to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters and clearance via hemodiafiltration. Mean half-life (+/-standard deviation) of doripenem was 7.9+/-3.7 hours. Total body clearance of doripenem was 58.0+/-12.7 ml/min, including clearance of 13.5+/-1.6 ml/min via CHDF. An IV dose of 250 mg of doripenem every 12 hours during CHDF provided adequate plasma concentrations for critically ill patients with renal failure, without resulting in accumulation upon steady-state. Thus, under the conditions tested, CHDF appeared to have little effect on doripenem clearance. Therefore, the blood level of doripenem can be satisfactorily controlled by adjustment of doripenem dose and dosing interval, in accordance with residual renal function in patients receiving CHDF.

  17. Semiology of subtle motor phenomena in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Bogdan; Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Demény, Helga; Beniczky, Sándor

    2017-05-01

    to investigate the semiology of subtle motor phenomena in critically ill patients, with- versus without nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). 60 consecutive comatose patients, in whom subtle motor phenomena were observed in the intensive care unit (ICU), were analysed prospectively. The semiology of the subtle phenomena was described from video-recordings, blinded to all other data. For each patient, the type, location and occurrence-pattern/duration were described. EEGs recorded in the ICU were classified using the Salzburg criteria for NCSE. only 23% (14/60) of the patients had NCSE confirmed by EEG. None of the semiological features could distinguish between patients with NCSE and those without. In both groups, the following phenomena were most common: discrete myoclonic muscle twitching and discrete tonic muscle activation. Besides these, automatisms and eye deviation were observed in both groups. subtle motor phenomena in critically ill patients can raise the suspicion of NCSE. Nevertheless, EEG is needed to confirm the diagnosis, since none of the semiological features are specific. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constipation in the Critically Ill Child: Frequency and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge; Botrán, Marta; García, Ana; González, Rafael; Solana, María J; Urbano, Javier; Fernández, Sarah N; Sánchez, César; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the incidence and factors associated with constipation in critically ill children. We performed a prospective observational study that included children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for more than 3 days. Constipation was defined as more than 3 days without a bowel movement. Relationships between constipation and demographic data; clinical severity score; use of mechanical ventilation, use of vasoconstrictors, sedatives, and muscle relaxants; nutritional data; electrolyte disturbances; and clinical course were analyzed. Constipation developed in 46.7% of the 150 patients studied (mean age, 34.3 ± 7.1 months). It was most common in postoperative, older, and higher-body-weight patients, and in those with fecal continence (P constipation, patients with constipation had higher severity scores and more frequently received midazolam, fentanyl, muscle relaxants, and inotropic support (P constipation also started nutrition later and with a lower volume of nutrition (P constipation were body weight (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13), Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09), admission after surgery (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 2.56-22.81), and treatment with vasoconstrictors (OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 3.53-29.93). Constipation is common in critically ill children. Body weight, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 clinical severity score, admission after surgery, and the need for vasoconstrictor therapy are major independent risk factors associated with constipation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl in the Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Leena; Ferrell, Benjamin A; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Heltsley, Rebecca; Ely, E Wesley; Stein, C Michael; Girard, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize fentanyl population pharmacokinetics in patients with critical illness and identify patient characteristics associated with altered fentanyl concentrations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Medical and surgical ICUs in a large tertiary care hospital in the United States. Patients Patients with acute respiratory failure and/or shock who received fentanyl during the first five days of their ICU stay. Measurements and Main Results We collected clinical and hourly drug administration data and measured fentanyl concentrations in plasma collected once daily for up to five days after enrollment. Among 337 patients, the mean duration of infusion was 58 hours at a median rate of 100 µg/hr. Using a nonlinear mixed-effects model implemented by NONMEM, we found fentanyl pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model in which weight, severe liver disease, and congestive heart failure most affected fentanyl concentrations. For a patient population with a mean weight of 92 kg and no history of severe liver disease or congestive heart failure, the final model, which performed well in repeated 10-fold cross-validation, estimated total clearance (CL), intercompartmental clearance (Q), and volumes of distribution for the central (V1) and peripheral compartments (V2) to be 35 (95% confidence interval: 32 to 39) L/hr, 55 (42 to 68) L/hr, 203 (140 to 266) L, and 523 (428 to 618) L, respectively. Severity of illness was marginally associated with fentanyl pharmacokinetics but did not improve the model fit after liver and heart disease were included. Conclusions In this study, fentanyl pharmacokinetics during critical illness were strongly influenced by severe liver disease, congestive heart failure, and weight, factors that should be considered when dosing fentanyl in the ICU. Future studies are needed to determine if data-driven fentanyl dosing algorithms can improve outcomes for ICU patients. PMID:26491862

  20. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic Score and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, is suggested given that

  1. How Many Nonprotein Calories Does a Critically Ill Patient Require? A Case for Hypocaloric Nutrition in the Critically Ill Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugeles, Saúl J; Ochoa Gautier, Juan B; Dickerson, Roland N; Coss-Bu, Jorge A; Wernerman, Jan; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Calculation of energy and protein doses for critically ill patients is still a matter of controversy. For more than 40 years of nutrition support, the total amount of nutrients to be delivered to these patients has been calculated based on expert recommendations, and this calculation is based on the administration of nonprotein calories in one attempt to ameliorate catabolic response and avoid the weight loss. New evidence suggests protein delivery is the most important intervention to improve clinical and metabolic outcomes. This article describes the metabolic rationale and the new evidence supporting a change in the approach of metabolic support of the critically ill, proposing a physiological-based intervention supported by the recognition of ancillary characteristics of the metabolic response to trauma and injury. A moderate dose of calories around 15 kcal/kg/d with a delivery of protein of 1.5 g/kg/d appears to be the new recommendation for many hypercatabolic patients in the first week following injury.

  2. Paracetamol in fever in critically ill patients-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumello, D; Gotti, M; Vergani, G

    2017-04-01

    Fever, which is arbitrary defined as an increase in body temperature above 38.3°C, can affect up to 90% of patients admitted in intensive care unit. Induction of fever is mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferons). Fever is associated with increased length of stay in intensive care unit and with a worse outcome in some subgroups of patients (mainly neurocritically ill patients). Although fever can increase oxygen consumption in unstable patients, on the contrary, it can activate physiologic systems that are involved in pathogens clearance. Treatments to reduce fever include the use of antipyretics. Thus, the reduction of fever might reduce the ability to develop an efficient host response. This balance, between harms and benefits, has to be taken into account every time we decide to treat or not to treat fever in a given patient. Among the antipyretics, paracetamol is one of the most common used. Paracetamol is a synthetic, nonopioid, centrally acting analgesic, and antipyretic drug. Its antipyretic effect occurs because it inhibits cyclooxygenase-3 and the prostaglandin synthesis, within the central nervous system, resetting the hypothalamic heat-regulation center. In this clinical review, we will summarize the use of paracetamol as antipyretic in critically ill patients (sepsis, trauma, neurological, and medical). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vital Signs Monitoring and Interpretation for Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan

    In current clinical practice, vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation level, respiratory rate and temperature are continuously measured for critically ill patients. Monitored by medical devices, each vital sign provides information about basic body functions and allows...... the estimation of physiological condition, text-based electronic health records (EHR) were collected, and time-labeled entries were extracted through algorithms from Natural Language Processing (NLP). The combination of EWS and NLP enabled the development of a system which could present and quantify...... between systolic and diastolic blood pressures during the first two hours of admission. The final study dealt with classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) in ischemic stroke patients, where current findings indicate that one third of patients have unrecognized DM. A support vector machine was trained...

  4. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve 57: 395-400, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How do we approach thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2017-04-01

    A low platelet count is a frequently encountered haematological abnormality in patients treated in intensive treatment units (ITUs). Although severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count classical view for thrombocytopenia in this setting is consumption associated with thrombin-mediated platelet activation, but other concepts, including platelet adhesion to endothelial cells and leucocytes, platelet aggregation by increased von Willebrand factor release, red cell damage and histone release, and platelet destruction by the complement system, have recently been described. The management of severe thrombocytopenia is platelet transfusion in the presence of active bleeding or invasive procedure, but the risk-benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusions in this setting is uncertain. In this review, the incidence and mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in patients with ITU, its prognostic significance and the impact on organ function is discussed. A practical approach based on the authors' experience is described to guide management of a critically ill patient who develops thrombocytopenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Tissue oxygen saturation in the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruartmoner, G; Mesquida, J; Baigorri, F

    2014-05-01

    Hemodynamic resuscitation seeks to correct global macrocirculatory parameters of pressure and flow. However, current evidence has shown that despite the normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations can persist, and these alterations have been independently associated with a poorer patient prognosis. This in turn has lead to growing interest in new technologies for exploring regional circulation and microcirculation. Near infra-red spectroscopy allows us to monitor tissue oxygen saturation, and has been proposed as a noninvasive, continuous and easy-to-obtain measure of regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on near infra-red spectroscopy and its potential clinical role in the resuscitation of critically ill patients in shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving blood sugar control during critical illness: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Enda; Tragen, David; Fahey, Paul; Robinson, Michael; Cremasco, Theresa

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare blood sugar control and safety profile of nurse-titrated and medically ordered glucose-insulin regimens. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a 9-bedded regional intensive care unit (ICU) in Queensland, Australia. Seventy critically ill patients requiring one-on-one nursing and intravenous insulin were included. In the nursing group, the ICU nurse decided initial and ongoing insulin infusion rates and glucose measurement frequency. The medical group had a traditional insulin sliding scale prescription. Thirty-seven patients in the nursing group had 1949 glucose measurements. Thirty-three patients in the medical group had 2118 measurements. Mean blood sugar levels (+/-SD) were 8.33 +/- 2.34 and 8.78 +/- 2.74 in nursing and medical groups (P control is safe, effective, and results in high compliance with a glucose target range. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Powered intraosseous device (EZ-IO) for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksan, Derinoz; Ayfer, Keles

    2013-07-01

    We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent powered intraosseous line insertion between July 1, 2008 and August 31, 2010 to determine its users, indications, procedural details, success rates, and complications. Intraosseous (IO) line was inserted in the anteromedial aspect of the proximal tibia in all patients. The first attempt was successful in 80%, and the median duration for insertion of the IO line was 4 hours. Extravasation was the most common complication. Ninety-six percent of the physicians had undergone prior training in IO insertion. Because of its high success and short procedure time, IO access should be the first alternative to failed vascular access in critically ill children. Training in IO should be extended to all who care for pediatric patients in inpatient as well as in prehospital and emergency department settings.

  9. Unmeasured anions and mortality in critically ill patients in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of acid-base disturbances, especially metabolic acidosis may negatively affect the outcome of critically ill patients. Lactic acidosis is the most frequent etiology and has largest impact on the prognosis. Since lactate measurement might not have always been available at bedside, it had been regarded as one of the unmeasured anions. Therefore, anion gap and strong ion gap has been used to as a surrogate of lactate concentration. From this perspective, the relationship between either anion gap or strong ion gap and mortality has been explored. Then, lactate became routinely measurable at bedside and the direct comparison between directly measured lactate and these surrogate parameters can be possible. Currently available evidence suggests that directly measured lactate has larger prognostic ability for mortality than albumin-corrected anion gap and strong ion gap without lactate. In this commentary, the rationale and possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkuk Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the maximum glucose value within 7 days in PICU, PRISM-III score and SOFA score within 24 hours, and mortality. We did not perform an adjustment analysis of drugs affecting glucose level. Results : The maximum glucose level within 7 days in PICU was higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group. Using 4 cutoff values (125, 150, 175, and 200 mg/dL, the mortality of patients with hyperglycemia was found to be 13.0 %, 14.4%, 19.8%, and 21.1%, respectively, and the cutoff values of 175 and 200 mg/dL revealed significant differences in mortalities between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups. The PRISM-III score was not significantly different between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups under a glucose cutoff value of 175 mg/dL, but the SOFA score was higher in the hyperglycemic group. Under a glucose cutoff value of 200 mg/dL, the PRISM-III score was higher in the hyperglycemic group, and the SOFA score did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusion : Hyperglycemia with a maximal glucose value ?#241;75 mg/dL during the first 7 days after PICU admission was associated with increased mortality in critically ill children.

  11. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legriel Stéphane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT in critically ill immunocompromised patients. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. Results We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-68 years. The general severity (SAPSII and organ dysfunction (LOD scores on day 1 were 45 (35-62.7 and 4 (2-6, respectively, and overall hospital mortality was 32.8%. Causes of immunodepression were hematological disorders (64 patients, 53.8%, HIV infection (31 patients, 26%, and solid cancers (26 patients, 21.8%. Bacterial sepsis was diagnosed in 58 patients and nonbacterial infections in nine patients (7.6%; 52 patients (43.7% had no infection. PCT concentrations on the first ICU day were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis (4.42 [1.60-22.14] vs. 0.26 [0.09-1.26] ng/ml in patients without bacterial infection, P 0.5 ng/ml had 100% sensitivity but only 63% specificity for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.851 (0.78-0.92. In multivariate analyses, PCT concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml on day 1 independently predicted bacterial sepsis (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-29.3; P = 0.0006. PCT concentrations were not significantly correlated with hospital mortality. Conclusion Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, PCT concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.

  13. Outcomes in critically ill chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

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    Xhaard, Aliénor; Epelboin, Loic; Schnell, David; Vincent, François; Levy, Vincent; Malphettes, Marion; Azoulay, Elie; Darmon, Michaël

    2013-07-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated an improvement in the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients, little is known regarding the prognosis of patients with non-aggressive underlying malignancies. The aims of this study were to assess the prognosis of critically ill patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and to evaluate risk factors for hospital mortality. In retrospective mono-center cohort study, consecutive adult patients with CLL requiring ICU admission from 1997 to 2008 were included. Sixty-two patients of 67 years (62-75) were included. Median time interval between CLL diagnosis and ICU admission was 6.7 years (2.6-10.8). Nine patients (15 %) had stage C disease at the time of ICU admission, and seven patients (11 %) had Richter syndrome. Most ICU admissions were related to bacterial or fungal pulmonary infections (n = 47; 76 %). ICU, in-hospital, and 90-day mortality were 35 % (n = 22), 42 % (n = 26), and 58 % (n = 36), respectively. Only three factors were independently associated with in-hospital mortality: oxygen saturation lower than 95 % when breathing room air (odds ratio (OR) 5.80; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23-27.33), need for vasopressors (OR 27.94; 95 % CI 5.37-145.4), and past history of infection (OR 6.62; 95 % CI 1.34-32.68). The final model did not change when disease-related variables (Binet classification, Richter syndrome, long-term steroids) or treatment-related variables (fludarabine, rituximab, or alemtuzumab) were included. Acute pulmonary infections remain the leading cause of ICU admission in patients with CLL. The severity at ICU admission and past history of infection were the only factors associated with hospital mortality. Neither disease characteristics nor previous cancer treatments were associated with outcome.

  14. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

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    Ahmad, T.M.; Mehmood, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  15. The impact of music on hypermetabolism in critical illness.

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    Nelson, Aaron; Hartl, Wolfgang; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Warshaw, Andrew L; Conrad, Claudius

    2008-11-01

    Although the literature on complementary therapy, including music, is vast, there are few studies conducted in a scientific fashion exploring physiologic mechanisms. This review summarizes recent evidence on the effects of music on the hypermetabolic response of critical illness. Music may restore some of the distorted homeostasis observed in ICU patients, as well as reducing pain and the need for sedation. Music likely reduces alterations in the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-peripheral hormone axes that produce cortisol and growth hormone. Music may also increase growth hormone levels, which can induce decreased production of cytokines such as IL-6 by white blood cells. Further, ovarian steroid secretion may paradoxically protect women by increasing baseline circulating stress hormones, providing an opportunity for music therapy to intervene effectively. Dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated as a means by which music can modulate the central nervous system. Music may play an important role as an adjunct therapy in critical care. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate how music can be further integrated clinically and the precise underlying mechanisms of its beneficial effects.

  16. Premorbid obesity, but not nutrition, prevents critical illness-induced muscle wasting and weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Chloë; Marques, Mirna; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; Dufour, Thomas; Thiessen, Steven; Güiza, Fabian; Janssens, Thomas; Hermans, Greet; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; De Bock, Katrien; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Background The ‘obesity paradox’ of critical illness refers to better survival with a higher body mass index. We hypothesized that fat mobilized from excess adipose tissue during critical illness provides energy more efficiently than exogenous macronutrients and could prevent lean tissue wasting. Methods In lean and premorbidly obese mice, the effect of 5 days of sepsis-induced critical illness on body weight and composition, muscle wasting, and weakness was assessed, each with fas...

  17. Association of gender with outcomes in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kamran; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Wahidi, Momen M

    2012-05-22

    The influence of gender on mortality and other outcomes of critically ill patients is not clear. Different studies have been performed in various settings and patient populations often yielding conflicting results. We wanted to assess the relationship of gender and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes in the patients included in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV database (Cerner Corporation, USA). We performed a retrospective review of the data available in the APACHE IV database. A total of 261,255 consecutive patients admitted to adult ICUs in United States from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008 were included. Readmissions were excluded from the analysis. The primary objective of the study was to assess the relationship of gender with ICU mortality. The secondary objective was to evaluate the association of gender with active therapy, mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the ICU, readmission rate and hospital mortality. The gender-related outcomes for disease subgroups including acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, sepsis, trauma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were assessed as well. ICU mortality was 7.2% for men and 7.9% for women, odds ratio (OR) for death for women was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04 to 1.1). There was a statistically significant interaction between gender and age. In patients women had a reduced ICU mortality compared with men, after adjustment for acute physiology score, ethnicity, co-morbid conditions, pre-ICU length of stay, pre-ICU location and hospital teaching status (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.91). But among patients ≥ 50 years of age, there was no significant difference in ICU mortality between men and women (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.06). Among the critically ill patients, women less than 50 years of age had a lower ICU mortality compared to men, while 50 years of age or older women did not have a significant

  18. [Vitamin D deficiency and morbimortality in critically ill paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soler, Patricia; Morales-Martínez, Antonio; Rosa-Camacho, Vanessa; Lillo-Muñoz, Juan Antonio; Milano-Manso, Guillermo

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and risks factors of vitamin D deficiency, as well as its relationship with morbidity and mortality in a PICU. An observational prospective study in a tertiary children's University Hospital PICU conducted in two phases: i: cohorts study, and ii: prevalence study. The study included 340 critically ill children with ages comprising 6 months to 16 years old. Chronic kidney disease, known parathyroid disorders, and vitamin D supplementation. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in the first 48hours of admission to a PICU. Parathormone, calcium, phosphate, blood gases, blood count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were also analysed. A record was also made of demographic features, characteristics of the episode, and complications during the PICU stay. The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 43.8%, with a mean of 22.28 (95% CI 21.15-23.41) ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were older (61 vs 47 months, P=.039), had parents with a higher level of academic studies (36.5% vs 20%, P=.016), were admitted more often in winter and spring, had a higher PRISM-III (6.8 vs 5.1, P=.037), a longer PICU stay (3 vs 2 days, P=.001), and higher morbidity (61.1% vs 30.4%, P<001) than the patients with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. Patients who died had lower levels of 25(OH)D (14±8.81ng/ml versus 22.53±10.53ng/ml, P=.012). Adjusted OR for morbidity was 5.44 (95%CI; 2.5-11.6). Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in critically ill children, and it is related to both morbidity and mortality, although it remains unclear whether it is a causal relationship or it is simply a marker of severity in different clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis.

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    Parker, Ann M; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Raparla, Sandeep; Schneck, Kyle W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Needham, Dale M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients. Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles. The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17-24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18-34%) and 44% (36-52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9-24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10-26%) and 34% (22-50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce

  20. The impact of disability in survivors of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Carol L; Udy, Andrew A; Bailey, Michael; Barrett, Jonathan; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bucknall, Tracey; Gabbe, Belinda J; Higgins, Alisa M; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Hunt-Smith, Julian; Murray, Lynne J; Myles, Paul S; Ponsford, Jennie; Pilcher, David; Walker, Craig; Young, Meredith; Cooper, D J

    2017-07-01

    To use the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning to measure disability following critical illness using patient-reported outcomes. A prospective, multicentre cohort study conducted in five metropolitan intensive care units (ICU). Participants were adults who had been admitted to the ICU, received more than 24 h of mechanical ventilation and survived to hospital discharge. The primary outcome was measurement of disability using the World Health Organisation's Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The secondary outcomes included the limitation of activities and changes to health-related quality of life comparing survivors with and without disability at 6 months after ICU. We followed 262 patients to 6 months, with a mean age of 59 ± 16 years, and of whom 175 (67%) were men. Moderate or severe disability was reported in 65 of 262 (25%). Predictors of disability included a history of anxiety/depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.23), P = 0.001]; being separated or divorced [OR 2.87 (CI 1.35, 6.08), P = 0.006]; increased duration of mechanical ventilation [OR 1.04 (CI 1.01, 1.08), P = 0.03 per day]; and not being discharged to home from the acute hospital [OR 1.96 (CI 1.01, 3.70) P = 0.04]. Moderate or severe disability at 6 months was associated with limitation in activities, e.g. not returning to work or studies due to health (P Disability measured using patient-reported outcomes was prevalent at 6 months after critical illness in survivors and was associated with reduced health-related quality of life. Predictors of moderate or severe disability included a prior history of anxiety or depression, separation or divorce and a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. NCT02225938.

  1. Understanding the mechanisms of glutamine action in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele P. Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine (Gln is an important energy source and has been used as a supplementary energy substrate. Furthermore, Gln is an essential component for numerous metabolic functions, including acid-base homeostasis, gluconeogenesis, nitrogen transport and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, glutamine plays a significant role in cell homeostasis and organ metabolism. This article aims to review the mechanisms of glutamine action during severe illnesses. In critically ill patients, the increase in mortality was associated with a decreased plasma Gln concentration. During catabolic stress, Gln consumption rate exceeds the supply, and both plasma and skeletal muscle pools of free Gln are severely reduced. The dose and route of Gln administration clearly influence its effectiveness: high-dose parenteral appears to be more beneficial than low-dose enteral administration. Experimental studies reported that Gln may protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury through the following mechanisms: attenuation of NF (nuclear factor-kB activation, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reduction in neutrophil accumulation, improvement in intestinal integrity and immune cell function, and enhanced of heat shock protein expression. In conclusion, high-doses of parenteral Gln (>0.50 g/kg/day demonstrate a greater potential to benefit in critically ill patients, although Gln pathophysiological mechanisms requires elucidation.A glutamina (Gln é uma importante fonte de energia e tem sido usada como substrato energético suplementar. Além disso, a Gln é um componente essencial para numerosas funções metabólicas tais como: homeostase ácido-base, gliconeogênese, transporte de nitrogênio e síntese de proteínas e ácidos nucléicos. Portanto, a glutamina desempenha um papel importante na homeostase celular e no metabolismo dos órgãos. Esse artigo objetiva rever os mecanismos de ação da glutamina na doen

  2. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critical illness: a Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Melissa; Alhazzani, Waleed; Marshall, John C; Muscedere, John; Hall, Richard; English, Shane W; Dodek, Peter M; Lauzier, François; Kanji, Salmaan; Duffett, Mark; Barletta, Jeffrey; Alshahrani, Mohammed; Arabi, Yaseen; Deane, Adam; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-06-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) using histamine-2-receptor antagonists has been a standard of care in intensive care units (ICUs) for four decades. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly used despite apparently lower background rates of gastrointestinal bleeding and growing concerns about PPI-associated complications. Our objective was to understand the views and prescribing habits amongst Canadian physicians regarding SUP in the ICU and to gauge interest in a future randomized-controlled trial (RCT). We created a short self-administered survey about SUP for critically ill adults, evaluated its clinical sensibility, and pilot tested the instrument. We surveyed all physician members of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group (CCCTG) by e-mail and sent reminders three and five weeks later. We received 94 of 111 (85%) surveys from the validated respondent pool between May and June, 2015. Respondents reported use of SUP most commonly in patients 1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (62, 66%), 2) expected to be ventilated for ≥ two days (25, 27%), or 3) receiving mechanical ventilation but nil per os (NPO) (20, 21%). Stress ulcer prophylaxis is discontinued when patients no longer receive mechanical ventilation (75%), no longer are NPO (22%), or are discharged from the ICU (19%). Stress ulcer prophylaxis involves PPIs in 68% of centres. Most respondents endorsed the need for a large rigorous RCT of PPI vs placebo to understand the risks and benefits of this practice. Stress ulcer prophylaxis is reportedly used primarily for the duration of mechanical ventilation. The CCCTG physicians believe that a placebo-controlled RCT is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of contemporary SUP with PPIs.

  3. Insulin therapy for hyperglycemia in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianti Julianti

    2013-10-01

    Results Forty subjects were enrolled in this study, with 20 subjects assigned to the insulin therapy group and 20 subjects to the standard therapy group. Two subjects, one from each group, were not included in the final analysis due to their deaths within 24 hours. There was no significant difference in distribution of PELOD scores before intervention between the groups (OR=0.5; 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9, P=0.32. However, after intervention, the PELOD scores was significantly lower in insulin therapy group compared to control group (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.8, P=0.02. In the insulin group after intervention, fewer subjects had scores >20.5 and more subjects had scores ≤20.5, indicated a lower risk of organ dysfunction. There was also a significantly lower mortality rate in the insulin group compared to the control group (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.8, P=0.02. None of the subjects suffered hypoglycemia. Conclusion Insulin is beneficial in improving organ dysfunction and decreasing mortality for critically ill patients.

  4. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Auler Junior, Jose Otávio Costa; Santos, Luciana; Galas, Filomena

    2007-08-01

    Anemia is one of the most common abnormal findings in critically ill patients, and many of these patients will receive a blood transfusion during their intensive care unit stay. However, the determinants of exactly which patients do receive transfusions remains to be defined and have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Concerns and doubts have emerged regarding the benefits and safety of blood transfusion, in part due to the lack of evidence of better outcomes resulting from randomized studies and in part related to the observations that transfusion may increase the risk of infection. As a result of these concerns and of several studies suggesting better or similar outcomes with a lower transfusion trigger, there has been a general tendency to decrease the transfusion threshold from the classic 10 g/dL to lower values. In this review, we focus on some of the key studies providing insight into current transfusion practices and fueling the current debate on the ideal transfusion trigger.

  5. Obesity, Acute Kidney Injury, and Mortality in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, John; Chen, Ken P; Lee, Joon; Feng, Mengling; Mark, Roger G; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Although obesity is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease and improved survival, less is known about the associations of obesity with risk of acute kidney injury and post acute kidney injury mortality. In a single-center inception cohort of almost 15,000 critically ill patients, we evaluated the association of obesity with acute kidney injury and acute kidney injury severity, as well as in-hospital and 1-year survival. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative criteria. The acute kidney injury prevalence rates for normal, overweight, class I, II, and III obesity were 18.6%, 20.6%, 22.5%, 24.3%, and 24.0%, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios of acute kidney injury were 1.18 (95% CI, 1.06-1.31), 1.35 (1.19-1.53), 1.47 (1.25-1.73), and 1.59 (1.31-1.87) when compared with normal weight, respectively. Each 5-kg/m² increase in body mass index was associated with a 10% risk (95% CI, 1.06-1.24; p Obesity is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, which is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality.

  6. Synchronization of Cardio-Respiratory Dynamics in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burykin, Anton; Buchman, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    We studied changes in cardio-respiratory synchronization and dynamics of cardiovascular system during transition from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous respiration in critically ill patients. This observational study exploits a standard clinical practice---the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). The SBT consists of a period of mechanical ventilation, followed by a period of spontaneous breathing, followed by resumption of mechanical ventilation. We collected continuous respiratory, cardiac (EKG), and blood pressure signals of mechanically ventilated patients before, during and after SBT. The data were analyzed by means of spectral analysis, phase dynamics, and entropy measures. Mechanical ventilation appears to affect not only the lungs but also the cardiac and vascular systems. Spontaneous cardiovascular rhythms are entrained by the mechanical ventilator and are drawn into synchrony. Sudden interruption of mechanical ventilation causes gross desynchronization, which is restored by reinstitution of mechanical ventilation. The data suggest (1) therapies intended to support one organ system may propagate unanticipated effects to other organ systems and (2) sustained therapies may adversely affect recovery of normal organ system interactions.

  7. Metabolic response to the stress of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, J-C; Ichai, C; Orban, J-C; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic response to stress is part of the adaptive response to survive critical illness. Several mechanisms are well preserved during evolution, including the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the release of pituitary hormones, a peripheral resistance to the effects of these and other anabolic factors, triggered to increase the provision of energy substrates to the vital tissues. The pathways of energy production are altered and alternative substrates are used as a result of the loss of control of energy substrate utilization by their availability. The clinical consequences of the metabolic response to stress include sequential changes in energy expenditure, stress hyperglycaemia, changes in body composition, and psychological and behavioural problems. The loss of muscle proteins and function is a major long-term consequence of stress metabolism. Specific therapeutic interventions, including hormone supplementation, enhanced protein intake, and early mobilization, are investigated. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms, the clinical consequences, and therapeutic implications of the metabolic response to stress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ventilator-associated pneumonia management in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertos, Raquel; Caralt, Berta; Rello, Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent adverse event in the intensive care unit.We review recent publications about the management and prevention of VAP. The latest care bundles introduced standard interventions to facilitate implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines and to improve the outcome of patients. Recent studies find that prevention management of ventilated patients decreases the risk of VAP. Enteral feeding, considered a risk factor for VAP, currently has been recommended, with appropriate administration, for all critical ill patients if no contraindications exist. In view of the recently available data, it can be concluded that the implementation of care bundles on the general management of ventilated patients in daily practice has reduced the VAP rates. The main pharmacological measures to prevent VAP are proper hands hygiene, high nurse-to-patient ratio, avoid unnecessary transfer of ventilated patients, use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation, shortening weaning period, avoid the use of nasal intubation, prevent bio-film deposition in endotracheal tube, aspiration of subglottic secretions, maintenance of adequate pressure of endotracheal cuffs, avoid manipulation of ventilator circuits, semi-recumbent position and adequate enteral feeding.In addition, updated guidelines incorporate more comprehensive diagnostic protocols to the evidence-based management of VAP.

  9. IVC Measurements in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Renal Failure

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    Rami Jambeih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the inferior vena cava (IVC measurement by bedside ultrasound (US-IVC predicts improvement in renal function in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Medical intensive care unit. Patients. 33 patients with AKI were included. Intervention. US-IVC was done on admission. The patients’ management was done by the primary teams, who were unaware of the US-IVC findings. Two groups of patients were identified. Group 1 included patients who were managed in concordance with their US-IVC (potential volume responders who had a positive fluid balance at 48 h after admission and potential volume nonresponders who had an even or negative fluid balance at 48 hours after admission. Group 2 included patients in whom the fluid management was discordant with their US-IVC. Measurements and Main Results. At 48 hours, Group 1 patients had a greater improvement in creatinine [85% versus 31%, p=0.0002], creatinine clearance (78±93% versus 8±64%, p=0.002, and urine output (0.86±0.54 versus 0.45±0.36 ml/Kg/h, p=0.03. Conclusion. In critically ill patients with AKI, concurrence of fluid therapy with IVC predicted fluid management, as assessed by bedside ultrasound, was associated with improved renal function at 48 hours. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02064244.

  10. Proliferation and differentiation of adipose tissue in prolonged lean and obese critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Chloë; Vander Perre, Sarah; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-12-01

    In prolonged non-obese critically ill patients, preservation of adipose tissue is prioritized over that of the skeletal muscle and coincides with increased adipogenesis. However, we recently demonstrated that in obese critically ill mice, this priority was switched. In the obese, the use of abundantly available adipose tissue-derived energy substrates was preferred and counteracted muscle wasting. These observations suggest that different processes are ongoing in adipose tissue of lean vs. overweight/obese critically ill patients. We hypothesize that to preserve adipose tissue mass during critical illness, adipogenesis is increased in prolonged lean critically ill patients, but not in overweight/obese critically ill patients, who enter the ICU with excess adipose tissue. To test this, we studied markers of adipogenesis in subcutaneous and visceral biopsies of matched lean (n = 24) and overweight/obese (n = 24) prolonged critically ill patients. Secondly, to further unravel the underlying mechanism of critical illness-induced adipogenesis, local production of eicosanoid PPARγ agonists was explored, as well as the adipogenic potential of serum from matched lean (n = 20) and overweight/obese (n = 20) critically ill patients. The number of small adipocytes, PPARγ protein, and CEBPB expression were equally upregulated (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill patients. Gene expression of key enzymes involved in eicosanoid production was reduced (COX1, HPGDS, LPGDS, ALOX15, all p ≤ 0.05) or unaltered (COX2, ALOX5) during critical illness, irrespective of obesity. Gene expression of PLA2G2A and ALOX15B was upregulated in lean and overweight/obese patients (p ≤ 0.05), whereas their end products, the PPARγ-activating metabolites 15s-HETE and 9-HODE, were not increased in the adipose tissue. In vitro, serum of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill

  11. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, N.J.; Wildt, S.N. de; Verlaat, C.W.; Knibbe, C.A.; Mooij, M.G.; Woensel, J.B. van; Rosmalen, J. van; Tibboel, D.; Hoog, M. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically ventilated critically

  12. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically...

  13. Clinical review: Emergency department overcrowding and the potential impact on the critically ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Robert M; Trzeciak, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Critical care constitutes a significant and growing proportion of the practice of emergency medicine. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding in the USA represents an emerging threat to patient safety and could have a significant impact on the critically ill. This review describes the causes and effects of ED overcrowding; explores the potential impact that ED overcrowding has on care of the critically ill ED patient; and identifies possible solutions, focusing on ED based critical care. PMID:15987383

  14. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.M.; Looijaard, W.G.P.M.; Dekker, I.M.; Stapel, S.N.; Girbes, A.R.; van Straaten, H.M.; Beishuizen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, it is yet unclear which body component is responsible for this relationship.Methods: This retrospective analysis in 240 mechanically ventilated critically ill

  15. Hormones in the critically ill patient : to intervene or not to intervene?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; Girbes, ARJ; Beentjes, JAM; Tulleken, JE; van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG

    2001-01-01

    Critically ill patients show a variety of hormonal changes that appear to differ considerably in acute and prolonged critical illness. Whether these endocrine alterations serve as physiological adaptation or contribute to further deterioration remains an intriguing question. We review the recent

  16. Nutritional management of acute kidney injury in the critically ill: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-08

    Jul 8, 2013 ... Abstract. Optimal nutritional management of critically ill patients who present with acute kidney injury (AKI) is paramount. The management of this ... feeding or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and usually dialysis or haemofiltration to limit waste ..... critically ill cancer patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 ...

  17. Clinical studies to investigate pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.C.E. Buijk (Steven)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The intensive care unit (ICU) is an essential part of the surgical department, providing an environment for surveillance and treatment of the critically ill. Patients are admitted either with a life threatening condition due to a critical illness or they need

  18. Intensive care diaries reduce new onset post traumatic stress disorder following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Christina; Bäckman, Carl; Capuzzo, Maurizia

    2010-01-01

    Patients recovering from critical illness have been shown to be at risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). This study was to evaluate whether a prospectively collected diary of a patient's intensive care unit (ICU) stay when used during convalescence following critical illness...... will reduce the development of new onset PTSD....

  19. Ketamine Continuous Infusions in Critically Ill Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Charles L; Miller, Jamie L; Gessouroun, Morris R; Johnson, Peter N

    2016-03-01

    To review the role of ketamine continuous infusions (CINs) in critically ill children for sedation and analgesia, withdrawal, and bronchospasm. Relevant articles were identified using MEDLINE (1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (1988 to December 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to December 2015), and the Cochrane Library (1996 to December 2015) using the terms ketamine, children, and CIN. All English-language articles in humans identified from data sources were evaluated. Three studies and 8 case reports/series representing 74 patients were included. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that blocks glutamate in the limbic system, resulting in sedation and analgesia. Additionally, it provides bronchodilation by increasing catecholamine transmission and stimulation of β2 receptors. The majority of reports evaluated ketamine for bronchospasm in children with status asthmaticus or bronchospasm refractory to conventional treatments. A total of 72 patients (97.3%) received a loading dose ranging from 0.2 to 2 mg/kg prior to CIN initiation. The CIN dosing range was 0.2 to 3.6 mg/kg/h. Children who received ketamine for sedation or opioid withdrawal received a lower dose than children initiated on it for bronchospasm: 0.24 to 0.9 versus 0.2 to 3.6 mg/kg/h, respectively. Duration of use ranged from 1 to 96 hours. Six of the reports mentioned that the ketamine CIN was tapered prior to discontinuation. Approximately 10.8% of patients included in the analysis experienced adverse events, with only 3 children (4.1%) experiencing emergence phenomenon. Limited evidence was noted, so ketamine CINs could be considered an adjunct therapy at this time. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine ketamine's role in sedation and analgesia, withdrawal treatment, and bronchospasm treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Acetazolamide in critically ill neonates and children with metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Megan G; Johnson, Peter N; Lammers, Erin M; Harrison, Donald L; Miller, Jamie L

    2013-09-01

    Acetazolamide is an option for hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, but there are limited reports in children. To describe the acetazolamide regimen and outcomes in critically ill children with metabolic alkalosis. This was a descriptive, retrospective study of patients metabolic alkalosis (ie, pH > 7.45 and bicarbonate [HCO3] > 26 mEq/L). Patients receiving other treatments for metabolic alkalosis within 24 hours of acetazolamide were excluded. The primary objective was to identify the mean dose and duration of acetazolamide. Secondary objectives were to determine the number of patients with treatment success (ie, serum HCO3 22-26 mEq/L) and occurrence of adverse events. Thirty-four patients were included for analysis, the median age was 0.25 years (range = 0.05-12 years). The acetazolamide regimen included a mean dose of 4.98 ± 1.14 mg/kg for a mean number of 6.1 ± 5.3 (range = 3-24) doses. The majority (70.6%) received acetazolamide every 8 hours. Treatment success was achieved in 10 (29.4%) patients. Statistically significant differences were noted between the pre-acetazolamide and post-acetazolamide pH and HCO3, 7.51 ± 0.05 versus 7.37 ± 0.05 (P metabolic alkalosis in children with and without cardiac disease. Acetazolamide treatment resulted in improved HCO3, but the majority of patients did not achieve our definition of treatment success. Future studies should elucidate the optimal acetazolamide regimen.

  1. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%. Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%, followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  2. Pharmacologic management of constipation in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanwala, Asad E; Abarca, Jacob; Huckleberry, Yvonne; Erstad, Brian L

    2006-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of common laxatives in producing a bowel movement in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Retrospective medical record review. MICU of an academic medical center. Ninety-five patients admitted to the MICU from July 1-October 31, 2004. Fifty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Patient-specific data such as age, weight, sex, length of MICU stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, dietary intake, opioid intake, laxative intake, and bowel movements were recorded during the first 96 hours of admission. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare patients who did and did not have a bowel movement. Of the 50 patients, 25 did not have a bowel movement during the first 96 hours of MICU admission. Patients given a stimulant laxative (senna, bisacodyl) and/or an osmotic laxative (lactulose, milk of magnesia) were more likely to have a bowel movement (odds ratio [OR] 26.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-221, p=0.002). Opioid intake, expressed as logarithmic morphine equivalents, was negatively associated with occurrence of a bowel movement (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97, p=0.027). Disease severity, as determined by APACHE II score, was also negatively associated with a bowel movement (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.7-0.99, p=0.04). Critically ill patients have a high frequency of constipation, and opioid therapy is a significant risk factor. Routine administration of stimulant or osmotic laxatives should be considered for this patient population.

  3. Human growth hormone kinetics in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesmayr, M; Hölzenbein, T; Valentini, L; Sautner, T; Karner, J; Roth, E

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have shown that exogenous human growth hormone (HGH) exerts an anabolic effect on protein metabolism in surgical patients with mild or moderate catabolism. However, contradictory results have been demonstrated in polytrauma patients where HGH did not improve protein metabolism. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether the pharmacokinetics of recombinant biosynthetic human GH (r-HGH) are altered in critically ill patients. After an overnight fast, r-HGH was infused at a rate of 460 micrograms/h/kg/bw during 120 min to five intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The patients were catabolic (nitrogen balance -11 +/- 0.5), showed normal liver function, and only one patient had a slightly impaired kidney function (creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl). Endogenous GH secretion was suppressed by continuous infusion of 50 micrograms/m2/h somatostatin. From plasma GH curves, elimination half life (t1/2kle), whole body clearance (Cltot) and steady state distribution space (DS) were calculated in an open two compartment model. Additionally, the effects of r-HGH infusion on plasma insulin, glucagon and amino acid concentrations were evaluated. T1/2kle was 19.6 +/- 2.3 min, Cltot 2.9 +/- 0.4 ml/kg/bw/min and DS 76.4 +/- 3.8 ml/kg/bw for 90 min. The plasma levels of total amino acids including the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine and of glutamine were significantly higher during r-HGH infusion than during the basal and somatostatin periods. In conclusion, the elimination of r-HGH in catabolic ICU patients is not different from that of healthy volunteers.

  4. Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients in ICU: how much do we know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Y.; Ording, H.; Jennum, Poul

    2012-01-01

    the underlying literature. There are no studies of level 1 evidence proving the positive impact of the tested interventions on the critically ill patients sleep pattern. Thus, disturbed sleep in critically ill patients with all the severe consequences remains an unresolved problem and needs further investigation.......Sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) seem to lead to development of delirium, prolonged ICU stay, and increased mortality. That is why sufficient sleep is important for good outcome and recovery in critically ill patients. A variety of small studies reveal pathological sleep patterns...... in critically ill patients including abnormal circadian rhythm, high arousal and awakening index, reduced Slow Wave Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement sleep. The purpose of this study is to summarise different aspects of sleep-awake disturbances, causes and handling methods in critically ill patients by reviewing...

  5. Role of Glucagon in Catabolism and Muscle Wasting of Critical Illness and Modulation by Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, Steven E; Derde, Sarah; Derese, Inge

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Critical illness is hallmarked by muscle wasting and disturbances in glucose, lipid, and amino acid homeostasis. Circulating concentrations of glucagon, a catabolic hormone that affects these metabolic pathways, are elevated during critical illness. Insight in the nutritional regulation...... with insulin did not lower glucagon, whereas parenteral nutrition containing amino acids increased glucagon. In critically ill mice, infusion of amino acids increased glucagon and up-regulated markers of hepatic amino acid catabolism without affecting muscle wasting. Immunoneutralizing glucagon in critically...... glucagon, without preventing muscle wasting. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00512122)....

  6. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' - a constructivist grounded theory of surviving critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela

    2017-10-01

    To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in

  7. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouche, Lies; Marques, Mirna B; Ingels, Catherine; Gunst, Jan; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; D'Hoore, André; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2

  8. Relevance of Serum Leptin and Leptin-Receptor Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin was implicated to link inflammation and metabolic alterations. We investigated the potential role of leptin components in critically ill patients, because systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are common features of critical illness. Upon admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU, free leptin and soluble leptin-receptor serum concentrations were determined in 137 critically ill patients (95 with sepsis, 42 without sepsis and 26 healthy controls. Serum leptin or leptin-receptor did not differ between patients or controls and were independent of sepsis. However, serum leptin was closely associated with obesity and diabetes and clearly correlated with markers of metabolism and liver function. Leptin-receptor was an unfavourable prognostic indicator, associated with mortality during three years follow-up. Our study indicates a functional role of leptin in the pathogenesis of severe illness and emphasizes the impact of complex metabolic alterations on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients.

  9. Prophylactic use of laxative for constipation in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was designed to evaluate the use of laxative prophylaxis for constipation in intensive care unit (ICU and the impact of early versus late bowel movement on patient′s outcome. Methods : The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in critically ill ventilated adult patients, who were expected to stay on ventilator for >72 h. Control group did not receive any intervention for bowel movement for the first 72 h, whereas interventional group received prophylactic dose of lactulose 20 cc enterally every 12 h for the first 72 h. The parameters measured during the study were admission diagnosis, age, gender, comorbid conditions, admission Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II, sedative and narcotic agents with doses and duration, timing and tolerance of nutrition, daily assessment of bowel movement, total use of prokinetic, doses of suppositories, and enema for first bowel movement, total number of days on ventilator, weaning failures, extubation or tracheostomy, ICU length of stay, and death or discharge. Results : A total of 100 patients were enrolled, 50 patients in each control and interventional group. Mean age was 38.8 years, and both groups had male predominance. Mean SAPS II score for both was 35. Mean dose of Fentanyl (323.8 ± 108.89 mcg/h in control and 345.83 ± 94.43 mcg/h in interventional group and mean dose of Midazolam (11.1 ± 4.04 mg/h in control and 12.4 ± 3.19 mg/h in interventional group. There were only two (4% patients in control, while nine (18% patients in interventional group who had bowel movement in <72 h (P < 0.05. Mean ventilator days were 16.19, and 17.36 days in control and interventional groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the patients who moved bowel in <5 days in both groups had mean ventilator days of 18.5, whereas it was 15.88 days for the patients who moved bowel after 5 days in both groups (P< 0.05. Mean ICU days for control was 21.15 ± 10.44 and 20

  10. Assessing fluid balance in critically ill pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontant, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Abdoul, Hendy; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Naudin, Jérôme; Jones, Peter; Dauger, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring fluid balance (FB) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is crucial to assess fluid overload. Pediatric intensivists (PI) frequently use the fluid intake minus output (FIMO) or FIMO with adjustments for insensible fluid loss (AFIMO). However, the accuracy of FIMO/AFIMO has never been tested in critically ill children. We designed a prospective, monocentric cohort study in a PICU of a university hospital. Body weight (BW) was measured in all children consecutively admitted to PICU and 24 h later. Every 12 h, the nurses calculated FIMO/AFIMO. Time burden and convenience of each procedure (median; [interquartile range]) were recorded and compared using a Wilcoxon test. Data were analysed using linear regression (r (2) coefficient) and the Bland-Altman plot (mean difference ± standard deviation; absolute mean difference), with a 300-ml variation of FB considered clinically relevant. Sixty consecutive patients, 304-day [39-1,565] old with admission weight of 9.2 kg [4.4-17.8] were included. Although correlations between FIMO/AFIMO and BW changes (BWC) were strong (r (2) FIMO = 0.63, p < 0.0001 and r (2) AFIMO = 0.72, p < 0.0001, respectively), agreement between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC were over 300 mL (-0.305 ± 0.451, 0.382 L and -0.007 ± 0.447, 0.302 L, respectively). No significant differences were noted between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC measurements for time burden (5 min [5-10] vs. 5 min [5-10], p = 0.84) or convenience (1 min [1-2] vs. 1 min [0-1.3], p = 0.13). Because agreement between FIMO/AFIMO and BWC is poor during the first 24 h after admission into PICU, PIs may reserve FIMO/AFIMO to monitor FB in patients with absolute contraindications of BW measurements.

  11. Physical rehabilitation for critical illness myopathy and neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Kugler, Joachim; Burridge, Jane; Mückel, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-03-04

    Intensive care unit (ICU) acquired or generalised weakness due to critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are major causes of chronically impaired motor function that can affect activities of daily living and quality of life. Physical rehabilitation of those affected might help to improve activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to assess the effects of physical rehabilitation therapies and interventions for people with CIP and CIM in improving activities of daily living such as walking, bathing, dressing and eating. Secondary objectives were to assess effects on muscle strength and quality of life, and to assess adverse effects of physical rehabilitation. On 16 July 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register and on 14 July 2014 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus. In July 2014, we searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, http://www.pedro.org.au/) and three trials registries for ongoing trials and further data about included studies. There were no language restrictions. We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and screened reference lists to identify further trials. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and randomised controlled cross-over trials of any rehabilitation intervention in people with acquired weakness syndrome due to CIP/CIM. We would have extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and classified the quality of evidence for outcomes in duplicate, according to the standard procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. Outcome data collection would have been for activities of daily living (for example, mobility, walking, transfers and self care). Secondary outcomes included muscle strength, quality of life and adverse events. The search strategy retrieved 3587 references. After examination of titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 24 potentially relevant studies. None of these studies met the inclusion criteria

  12. Oncology-critical care nursing collaboration: recommendations for optimizing continuity of care of critically ill patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Christine S; O'Rourke, Maureen E

    2007-12-01

    Highly specialized care is required for critically ill patients with cancer, but continuity of care equally is important to their survival when they are admitted to the critical care setting. The use of oncology nurses as liaisons to critical care nurses may help ensure the continuity of care and reduce rates of morbidity and mortality. This article provides a framework for collaborative consultation between oncology and critical care nurses.

  13. Wrist inflammation: a retrospective comparison between septic and non-septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gavrielle; Leow, Mabel Q H; Tay, Shian-Chao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify differences in demographics, clinical and laboratory data between wrist septic arthritis and non-septic arthritis in patients admitted for wrist inflammation. A retrospective review of inpatients from May 2012 to April 2015 was conducted. Seventy-seven patients were included. Non-septic arthritis patients were more likely to have chronic kidney disease, pre-existing gout, or both. All septic arthritis patients had normal serum uric acid levels, and two or more raised inflammatory markers (white cell count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate). In patients with isolated wrist inflammation, the mean C-reactive protein in the septic arthritis group was significantly higher compared with the non-septic arthritis group (mean difference 132 mg/L, 95% CI 30.9-234). In this study, polyarticular involvement did not exclude a septic cause; nor did it imply a non-septic aetiology. Diabetic or immunosuppressed patients were not more likely to develop septic arthritis. The presence of chondrocalcinosis on wrist radiographs was virtually diagnostic of non-septic arthritis. IV.

  14. Critical illness myopathy and polyneuropathy - A challenge for physiotherapists in the intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, Renu B; Gaude, Gajanan S

    2011-04-01

    The development of critical patient related generalized neuromuscular weakness, referred to as critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), is a major complication in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Both CIP and CIM cause muscle weakness and paresis in critically ill patients during their ICU stay. Early mobilization or kinesiotherapy have shown muscle weakness reversion in critically ill patients providing faster return to function, reducing weaning time, and length of hospitalization. Exercises in the form of passive, active, and resisted forms have proved to improve strength and psychological well being. Clinical trials using neuromuscular electrical stimulation to increase muscle mass, muscle strength and improve blood circulation to the surrounding tissue have proved beneficial. The role of electrical stimulation is unproven as yet. Recent evidence indicates no difference between treated and untreated muscles. Future research is recommended to conduct clinical trials using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, exercises, and early mobilization as a treatment protocol in larger populations of patients in ICU.

  15. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  16. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  17. Special populations: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Devereaux, Asha V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Past disasters have highlighted the need to prepare for subsets of critically ill, medically fragile patients. These special patient populations require focused disaster planning that will address their medical needs throughout the event to prevent clinical deterioration. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in large-scale disasters or pandemics with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including frontline clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. Key questions regarding the care of critically ill or injured special populations during disasters or pandemics were identified, and a systematic literature review (1985-2013) was performed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. The panel did not include pediatrics as a separate special population because pediatrics issues are embedded in each consensus document. Fourteen suggestions were formulated regarding the care of critically ill and injured patients from special populations during pandemics and disasters. The suggestions cover the following areas: defining special populations for mass critical care, special population planning, planning for access to regionalized service for special populations, triage and resource allocation of special populations, therapeutic considerations, and crisis standards of care for special populations. Chronically ill, technologically dependent, and complex critically ill patients present a unique challenge to preparing and implementing mass critical care. There are, however, unique opportunities to engage patients, primary physicians, advocacy groups, and professional organizations to lessen the impact of disaster on these special populations.

  18. Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Patients: A Review of Assessment Tools and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ada W; Contreras, Sofia; Mehta, Sangeeta; Korman, Jennifer; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Burry, Lisa D

    2017-12-01

    To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management. Reference list of identified literature was searched for additional references as well as www.clinicaltrials.gov . We restricted articles to those in English and dealing with humans. We identified 2 validated pediatric critically ill opioid withdrawal assessment tools: (1) Withdrawal Assessment Tool-Version 1 (WAT-1) and (2) Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOS). Neither tool differentiated between opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal. WAT-1 was evaluated in critically ill adults but not found to be valid. No other adult tool was identified. For management, we identified 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective studies, and 2 systematic reviews. Most studies were small and only 2 studies utilized a validated assessment tool. Enteral methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized weaning were studied. We identified 2 validated assessment tools for pediatric intensive care unit patients; no valid tool for adults. Management strategies tested in small trials included methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized sedation/weaning. We challenge researchers to create validated tools assessing specifically for opioid withdrawal in critically ill children and adults to direct management.

  19. Relatives perception of writing diaries for critically ill. A phenomenological hermeneutical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne H; Angel, Sanne

    2015-09-28

    Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient help the relatives cope and support the patient. Relatives may participate in writing a diary for the critically ill and when they do this is appreciated by the patients. However, the relative's perception of writing a diary has not previously been explored. To explore how relatives perceive writing a diary for the critically ill patient. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic study building on the theory of Ricoeur interviews with seven relatives were conducted and interpreted. When relatives wrote a diary for the critically patients, they experienced that writing and reading the diary allowed for the unloading of emotions and expression of feelings. Writing a diary was a meaningful activity while enduring a situation of uncertainty and furthermore it created a distance that allowed understanding of the critical situation. Involving relatives in writing a diary may support relatives and help them cope with the critical situation. Relatives are distressed and struggle to understand what is happening during the patient's course of illness. Involving relatives in writing a diary for the critically ill could be one way to meet their needs in the critical situation. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  20. Reproducibility of Protected Brush Catheter Specimen Cultures in Critically Ill Patients with Suspected Nosocomial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Fox

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of two protected brush catheter (PBC specimens obtained during the same bronchoscopy in critically ill patients with suspected ventilator associated pneumonia.

  1. Corticosteroid Therapy in Critical Illness due to Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Yale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability.

  2. Micafungin versus anidulafungin in critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis: A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Geest (Patrick); N.G. Hunfeld; S.E. Ladage (Sophie E.); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ In critically ill patients the incidence of invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. has increased remarkably. Echinocandins are recommended as initial treatment for invasive fungal infections. The safety and efficacy of micafungin compared to caspofungin is

  3. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynski, Jennifer A; Spinella, Philip C; Cholette, Jill M; Acker, Jason P; Hall, Mark W; Juffermans, Nicole P; Kelly, Daniel P; Blumberg, Neil; Nicol, Kathleen; Liedel, Jennifer; Doctor, Allan; Remy, Kenneth E; Tucci, Marisa; Lacroix, Jacques; Norris, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is difficult to define and likely represents a complicated set of physiologic responses to transfusion, including both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Similarly, the immunologic response to critical illness in both adults and children is highly complex and is characterized by both acute inflammation and acquired immune suppression. How transfusion may contribute to or perpetuate these phenotypes in the ICU is poorly understood, despite the fact that transfusion is common in critically ill patients. Both hyperinflammation and severe immune suppression are associated with poor outcomes from critical illness, underscoring the need to understand potential immunologic consequences of blood product transfusion. In this review we outline the dynamic immunologic response to critical illness, provide clinical evidence in support of immunomodulatory effects of blood product transfusion, review preclinical and translational studies to date of TRIM, and provide insight into future research directions. © 2016 AABB.

  4. The relation of near-infrared spectroscopy with changes in peripheral circulation in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Alexandre; van Bommel, Jasper; Sikorska, Karolina; van Genderen, Michel; Klijn, Eva; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Ince, Can; Bakker, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We conducted this observational study to investigate tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test in relationship with the condition of peripheral circulation and outcome in critically ill patients. Prospective observational study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit in a university

  5. 'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, C; Jordens, C F C; Montgomery, K; Kerridge, I H

    2006-10-01

    Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it.

  6. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zongdao; Xie, Huixu; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Q.; Wu, Yan; Chen, E.; Ng, Linda; Worthington, Helen V.; Needleman, Ian; Furness, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in persons who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. To assess the effects of OHC on the incidence of VAP in critically ill patients receivi...

  7. Supplemental parenteral nutrition versus usual care in critically ill adults: a pilot randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Emma J.; Davies, Andrew R.; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, D. James; McGuinness, Shay

    2018-01-01

    Background In the critically ill, energy delivery from enteral nutrition (EN) is often less than the estimated energy requirement. Parenteral nutrition (PN) as a supplement to EN may increase energy delivery. We aimed to determine if an individually titrated supplemental PN strategy commenced 48–72 hours following ICU admission and continued for up to 7 days would increase energy delivery to critically ill adults compared to usual care EN delivery. Methods This study was a prospective, parall...

  8. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the

  9. Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elke, Gunnar; Felbinger, Thomas W; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EN) is consistently recommended as first-line nutrition therapy in critically ill patients since it favorably alters outcome, providing both nutrition and nonnutrition benefits. However, critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk for regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, and eventually ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). EN may increase these risks when gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is present. Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered a surrogate parameter of GI dysfunction during the progression of enteral feeding in the early phase of critical illness and beyond. By monitoring GRV, clinicians may detect patients with delayed gastric emptying earlier and intervene with strategies that minimize or prevent VAP as one of the major risks of EN. The value of periodic GRV measurements with regard to risk reduction of VAP incidence has frequently been questioned in the past years. Increasing the GRV threshold before interrupting gastric feeding results in marginal increases in EN delivery. More recently, a large randomized clinical trial revealed that abandoning GRV monitoring did not negatively affect clinical outcomes (including VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The results have revived the discussion on the role of GRV monitoring in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients receiving early EN. This review summarizes the most recent clinical evidence on the use of GRV monitoring in critically ill patients. Based on the clinical evidence, it discusses the pros and cons and further addresses whether GRV is a dead marker or still alive for the nutrition management of critically ill patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. The influence of illness severity and family resources on maternal uncertainty during critical pediatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, P S; Kirschbaum, M; Harbaugh, B; Anderson, K H

    1996-03-01

    Psychological management of parents during a child's critical illness is a challenge to intensive care nurses because of the uncertainty that accompanies hospitalization. To explore the relationship among illness severity, family resources, and maternal uncertainty during the initial stage of a child's hospitalization in a pediatric intensive care unit for a life-threatening illness. A convenience sample of 40 mothers rated perceptions of uncertainty (using Mishel's Uncertainty of Illness Scale: Parent Child Form), family cohesion (using Olson's Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale), and social support (using Norbeck's Social Support Questionnaire). Illness severity was estimated with the Pediatric Risk of Mortality Scale. ¿ Results showed a positive association between illness severity and maternal uncertainty and a negative association between family cohesion and maternal uncertainty. Severity of illness contributed less to maternal uncertainty than did family cohesion. Family relationship are important factors to consider when clinicians estimated the effect on parents of their child's critical illness, particularly when uncertainty over their child's outcome may lead to parental stress that can interfere with coping and child management. (American Journal of Critical Care.)

  11. A comparison of critical care research funding and the financial burden of critical illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Craig M; Wunsch, Hannah; Fink, Mitchell P; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T; Olsen, Keith M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2012-04-01

    To estimate federal dollars spent on critical care research, the cost of providing critical care, and to determine whether the percentage of federal research dollars spent on critical care research is commensurate with the financial burden of critical care. The National Institutes of Health Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects database was queried to identify funded grants whose title or abstract contained a key word potentially related to critical care. Each grant identified was analyzed by two reviewers (three if the analysis was discordant) to subjectively determine whether it was definitely, possibly, or definitely not related to critical care. Hospital and total costs of critical care were estimated from the Premier Database, state discharge data, and Medicare data. To estimate healthcare expenditures associated with caring for critically ill patients, total costs were calculated as the combination of hospitalization costs that included critical illness as well as additional costs in the year after hospital discharge. Of 19,257 grants funded by the National Institutes of Health, 332 (1.7%) were definitely related to critical care and a maximum of 1212 (6.3%) grants were possibly related to critical care. Between 17.4% and 39.0% of total hospital costs were spent on critical care, and a total of between $121 and $263 billion was estimated to be spent on patients who required intensive care. This represents 5.2% to 11.2%, respectively, of total U.S. healthcare spending. The proportion of research dollars spent on critical care is lower than the percentage of healthcare expenditures related to critical illness.

  12. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients | Human | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Palliative care for critically ill older adults: dimensions of nursing advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katherine A

    2008-01-01

    Overall, critical care nursing and medical teams are inadequately prepared to deliver palliative care for the critically ill geriatric patient. Conversations with nursing and medical providers caring for the frail elderly within an intensive care unit often reveal feelings of concern for overtreatment of patients when hope for improvement has diminished. Decline of critically ill elders regularly results in conflicts and disagreements surrounding care directives among patient, family, nursing, and specialty service teams. Uncertainty shrouds the care goals as the patient declines within a critical care setting. Nursing and medical providers caring for the critically ill elderly population often waver anxiously between aggressive verses palliative care measures and are troubled by ethical dilemmas of "doing more harm than good." Collaborative, interdisciplinary practice in the face of such dilemmas offers an interactive and practical approach that promotes clinical excellence and improves quality of care for the critically ill. This article defines palliative care, discusses the complexities of caring for the critically ill older adult, and suggests recommendations for nursing practice.

  14. Incontinence-associated dermatitis in the critically ill patient: an intensive care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona; Campbell, Jill

    2017-12-20

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a skin disorder evident as a complication of incontinence. It is characterized by perineal, buttock and groin erythema and skin breakdown. Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a ubiquitous, nosocomial condition commonly present in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Critically ill patients, by the nature of their critical illness and therapies used to treat their presenting condition, are commonly predisposed to faecal incontinence and are consequently at high risk of developing incontinence-associated dermatitis. However, this condition is under-explored and under-reported in the intensive care literature. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the literature relating to incontinence-associated dermatitis from the critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. There is a paucity of literature addressing this condition in the intensive care context, with only 11 studies identified. This paper will provide an overview of the definitions, prevalence and incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis. Furthermore, an exposition of incontinence-associated dermatitis from the critically ill patient and intensive care nursing perspectives will be presented through a review of the skin barrier function, clinical presentation, risk factors, clinical assessment and severity categorization, prevention and management of incontinence-associated dermatitis. It is imperative that critical care nurses have an appreciation of incontinence-associated dermatitis as a common, yet preventable condition, and are equipped with knowledge to appropriately prevent and manage this common complication. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  15. A critical appraisal of point-of-care coagulation testing in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M; Hunt, B J

    2015-11-01

    Derangement of the coagulation system is a common phenomenon in critically ill patients, who may present with severe bleeding and/or conditions associated with a prothrombotic state. Monitoring of this coagulopathy can be performed with conventional coagulation assays; however, point-of-care tests have become increasingly attractive, because not only do they yield a more rapid result than clinical laboratory testing, but they may also provide a more complete picture of the condition of the hemostatic system. There are many potential areas of study and applications of point-of-care hemostatic testing in critical care, including patients who present with massive blood loss, patients with a hypercoagulable state (such as in disseminated intravascular coagulation), and monitoring of antiplatelet treatment for acute arterial thrombosis, mostly acute coronary syndromes. However, the limitations of near-patient hemostatic testing has not been fully appreciated, and are discussed here. The currently available evidence indicates that point-of-care tests may be applied to guide appropriate blood product transfusion and the use of hemostatic agents to correct the hemostatic defect or to ameliorate antithrombotic treatment. Disappointingly, however, only in cardiac surgery is there adequate evidence to show that application of near-patient thromboelastography leads to an improvement in clinically relevant outcomes, such as reductions in bleeding-related morbidity and mortality, and cost-effectiveness. More research is required to validate the utility and cost-effectiveness of near-patient hemostatic testing in other areas, especially in traumatic bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Estimating long-term survival of critically ill patients: the PREDICT model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok M Ho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term survival outcome of critically ill patients is important in assessing effectiveness of new treatments and making treatment decisions. We developed a prognostic model for estimation of long-term survival of critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective linked data cohort study involving 11,930 critically ill patients who survived more than 5 days in a university teaching hospital in Western Australia. Older age, male gender, co-morbidities, severe acute illness as measured by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II predicted mortality, and more days of vasopressor or inotropic support, mechanical ventilation, and hemofiltration within the first 5 days of intensive care unit admission were associated with a worse long-term survival up to 15 years after the onset of critical illness. Among these seven pre-selected predictors, age (explained 50% of the variability of the model, hazard ratio [HR] between 80 and 60 years old = 1.95 and co-morbidity (explained 27% of the variability, HR between Charlson co-morbidity index 5 and 0 = 2.15 were the most important determinants. A nomogram based on the pre-selected predictors is provided to allow estimation of the median survival time and also the 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year survival probabilities for a patient. The discrimination (adjusted c-index = 0.757, 95% confidence interval 0.745-0.769 and calibration of this prognostic model were acceptable. SIGNIFICANCE: Age, gender, co-morbidities, severity of acute illness, and the intensity and duration of intensive care therapy can be used to estimate long-term survival of critically ill patients. Age and co-morbidity are the most important determinants of long-term prognosis of critically ill patients.

  17. [Cytokine imbalance in critically ill patients: SIRS and CARS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, A; Kikuchi, M; Mishima, S; Sakaki, S; Goto, H; Matsuoka, T; Tanaka, H; Yukioka, T; Shimazaki, S

    1999-07-01

    It remains difficult to treat severely ill patients, especially those who have sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We propose the hypothesis that the pathophysiology in the sequential sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome may be strongly related to the imbalance between inflammatory cytokines and antiinflammatory cytokines induced for the host defense to active neutrophils and endothelial cells. Thus we attempted to develop cytokine modulation therapy to normalize the cytokine balance in the host defense system. In this review, we elucidate the relationship between cytokine imbalance and SIRS/CARS in patients with severe burn injury. Furthermore, we examine the possible usage of G-CSF to amplify neutrophil function, and clarify the reasons why various innovative therapies against sepsis have failed.

  18. Recovery after critical illness: putting the puzzle together-a consensus of 29

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azoulay, E.; Vincent, J.L.; Angus, D.C.; Arabi, Y.M.; Brochard, L.; Brett, S.J.; Citerio, G.; Cook, D.J.; Curtis, J.R.; Santos, C.C. Dos; Ely, E.W.; Hall, J.; Halpern, S.D.; Hart, N. t; Hopkins, R.O.; Iwashyna, T.J.; Jaber, S.; Latronico, N.; Mehta, S.; Needham, D.M.; Nelson, J.; Puntillo, K.; Quintel, M.; Rowan, K.; Rubenfeld, G.; Berghe, G. Van den; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Wunsch, H.; Herridge, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we seek to highlight how critical illness and critical care affect longer-term outcomes, to underline the contribution of ICU delirium to cognitive dysfunction several months after ICU discharge, to give new insights into ICU acquired weakness, to emphasize the importance of

  19. Improving the quality of care of the critically ill patients: Implementing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of quality patient care remains a challenge in critical care services, especially where resources are stretched and the health care system fragmented. Integrating sound theory with clinical practice can benefit from the introduction of valid, reliable research findings at the bedside for the benefit of the critically ill ...

  20. "Less is more" in critically ill patients: not too intensive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    The current view in intensive care medicine is that very sick patients need very intensive treatment. However, in this group of highly vulnerable patients, more intensive treatment may promote the chances of unwanted adverse effects and hence, iatrogenic damage. Therefore, we state that critically

  1. Tracheostomy in special groups of critically ill patients: Who, when, and where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Aisling; Veitch, David; Gudibande, Sandeep; Whitehouse, Tony; Snelson, Catherine; Veenith, Tonny

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy is one of the most common procedures undertaken in critically ill patients. It offers many theoretical advantages over translaryngeal intubation. Recent evidence in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients, however, has not demonstrated a benefit for tracheostomy, in terms of mortality, length of stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. It may be a beneficial intervention in articular subsets of ICU patients. In this article, we will focus on the evidence for the timing of tracheostomy and its effect on various subgroups of patients in critical care. PMID:27275076

  2. Accounting for vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage in pandemic critical care triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In a pandemic situation, resources in intensive care units may be stretched to the breaking point, and critical care triage may become necessary. In such a situation, I argue that a patient's combined vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage should be a justification for giving that patient some priority for critical care. In this article I present an example of a critical care triage protocol that recognizes the moral relevance of vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

  3. Haloperidol for delirium in critically ill patients - protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients......, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....

  4. Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center investigators: protocols and standard operating procedures for a prospective cohort study of sepsis in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Tyler J; Mira, Juan C; Ozrazgat-Baslanti, Tezcan; Ghita, Gabriella L; Wang, Zhongkai; Stortz, Julie A; Brumback, Babette A; Bihorac, Azra; Segal, Mark S; Anton, Stephen D; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Mohr, Alicia M; Efron, Philip A; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Frederick A; Brakenridge, Scott C

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis is a common, costly and morbid cause of critical illness in trauma and surgical patients. Ongoing advances in sepsis resuscitation and critical care support strategies have led to improved in-hospital mortality. However, these patients now survive to enter state of chronic critical illness (CCI), persistent low-grade organ dysfunction and poor long-term outcomes driven by the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome (PICS). The Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center (SCIRC) was created to provide a platform by which the prevalence and pathogenesis of CCI and PICS may be understood at a mechanistic level across multiple medical disciplines, leading to the development of novel management strategies and targeted therapies. Here, we describe the design, study cohort and standard operating procedures used in the prospective study of human sepsis at a level 1 trauma centre and tertiary care hospital providing care for over 2600 critically ill patients annually. These procedures include implementation of an automated sepsis surveillance initiative, augmentation of clinical decisions with a computerised sepsis protocol, strategies for direct exportation of quality-filtered data from the electronic medical record to a research database and robust long-term follow-up. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board and is actively enrolling subjects. Dissemination of results is forthcoming. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Detecting critical illness outside the ICU: the role of track and trigger systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan O; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2010-06-01

    Critical illness is often preceded by physiological deterioration. Track and trigger systems are intended to facilitate the timely recognition of patients with potential or established critical illness outside critical care areas. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the use of such systems. Existing track and trigger systems have low sensitivity, low positive predictive values, and high specificity. They often fail to identify patients who need additional care and have not been shown to improve outcomes. The development of such systems must be based on robust methodological and statistical principles. At present, few track and trigger systems meet these standards. Although track and trigger systems, combined with appropriate response algorithms, have the potential to improve the recognition and management of critical illness, further work is required to validate their utility.

  6. New insights into the gut as the driver of critical illness and organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-04-01

    The gut has long been hypothesized to be the 'motor' of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This review serves as an update on new data elucidating the role of the gut as the propagator of organ failure in critical illness. Under basal conditions, the gut absorbs nutrients and serves as a barrier that prevents approximately 40 trillion intraluminal microbes and their products from causing host injury. However, in critical illness, gut integrity is disrupted with hyperpermeability and increased epithelial apoptosis, allowing contamination of extraluminal sites that are ordinarily sterile. These alterations in gut integrity are further exacerbated in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. The normally commensal microflora is also altered in critical illness, with increases in microbial virulence and decreases in diversity, which leads to further pathologic responses within the host. All components of the gut are adversely impacted by critical illness. Gut injury can not only propagate local damage, but can also cause distant injury and organ failure. Understanding how the multifaceted components of the gut interact and how these are perturbed in critical illness may play an important role in turning off the 'motor' of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the future.

  7. Central Venous Catheter-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis in Critically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Edward Vincent S

    2018-02-01

    The presence of a central venous catheter and admission to the intensive care unit are the most important risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children. At least 18% of critically ill children with a catheter develop radiologically confirmed catheter-associated thrombosis. Clinically apparent thrombosis occurs in 3% of critically ill children with a catheter and is associated with 8 additional days of mechanical ventilation. Even when the thrombus is initially asymptomatic, 8 to 18% of critically ill children with catheter-associated thrombosis develop postthrombotic syndrome. Thrombosis is uncommon within 24 hours after insertion of a nontunneled catheter in critically ill children, but nearly all thrombi have developed by 4 days after insertion. Hypercoagulability during or immediately after insertion of the catheter plays an essential role in the development of thrombosis. Pharmacologic prophylaxis, including local anticoagulation with heparin-bonded catheter, has not been shown to reduce the risk of catheter-related thrombosis in children. Systemic anticoagulation in critically ill children started soon after the insertion of the catheter, however, may be beneficial. A multicenter clinical trial that is testing this hypothesis is currently underway. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation during the weaning process in chronically critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Sancho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronically critically ill patients often undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV during weaning of these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the value of NIV and whether a parameter can predict the need for NIV in chronically critically ill patients during the weaning process. We conducted a prospective study that included chronically critically ill patients admitted to Spanish respiratory care units. The weaning method used consisted of progressive periods of spontaneous breathing trials. Patients were transferred to NIV when it proved impossible to increase the duration of spontaneous breathing trials beyond 18 h. 231 chronically critically ill patients were included in the study. 198 (85.71% patients achieved weaning success (mean weaning time 25.45±16.71 days, of whom 40 (21.4% needed NIV during the weaning process. The variable which predicted the need for NIV was arterial carbon dioxide tension at respiratory care unit admission (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01–1.15, p=0.013, with a cut-off point of 45.5 mmHg (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.67, positive predictive value 0.76, negative predictive value 0.97. NIV is a useful tool during weaning in chronically critically ill patients. Hypercapnia despite mechanical ventilation at respiratory care unit admission is the main predictor of the need for NIV during weaning.

  9. The Potential Harm of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Immunocompetent Critically Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidan Alyazidi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a ubiquitous infection that causes disease in congenitally infected children and immunocompromised patients. Although nearly all CMV infections remain latent and asymptomatic in immunologically normal individuals, numerous studies have found that systemic viral reactivation is common in immunocompetent critically ill adults, as measured by detection of CMV in the blood (viremia. Furthermore, CMV viremia is strongly correlated with adverse outcomes in the adult intensive care unit (ICU, including prolonged stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and death. Increasing evidence, including from a randomized clinical trial of antiviral treatment, suggests that these effects of CMV may be causal. Therefore, interventions targeting CMV might improve outcomes in adult ICU patients. CMV may have an even greater impact on critically ill children, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC, where CMV is regularly acquired in early childhood, and where inpatient morbidity and mortality are inordinately high. However, to date, there are few data regarding the clinical relevance of CMV infection or viremia in immunocompetent critically ill children. We propose that CMV infection should be studied as a potential modifiable cause of disease in critically ill children, and that these studies be conducted in LMIC. Below, we briefly review the role of CMV in immunologically normal critically ill adults and children, outline age-dependent differences in CMV infection that may influence ICU outcomes, and describe an agenda for future research.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance parameters in critically ill children: importance of reactance and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Zina Maria Almeida; Moore, Daniella Campelo Batalha Cox; de Matos, Flavia Aparecida Alves; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez C; Santinoni, Erika; Dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Currently, there are no clinical or laboratory parameters that can be used efficiently to predict the prognosis of critically ill patients, but in some situations, raw bioelectrical impedance parameters have been shown to be useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of reactance and resistance in the severity of the critically ill pediatric patient. We prospectively analyzed bioelectrical impedance in a sample of 332 critically ill pediatric patients submitted to mechanical ventilation. The values taken on admission and discharge were correlated with major outcomes to the critically ill patient. We found an association of low values of Xc/H (Bioelectrical impedance is a useful tool for monitoring of critically ill pediatric patients. A possible role of R/H and Xc/H, especially the latter, as a predictive biomarker of evolution for septic shock and organ dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Noninvasive ventilation during the weaning process in chronically critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servera, Emilio; Barrot, Emilia; Sanchez-Oro-Gómez, Raquel; Gómez de Terreros, F. Javier; Martín-Vicente, M. Jesús; Utrabo, Isabel; Núñez, M. Belen; Binimelis, Alicia; Sala, Ernest; Zamora, Enrique; Segrelles, Gonzalo; Ortega-Gonzalez, Angel; Masa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Chronically critically ill patients often undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during weaning of these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the value of NIV and whether a parameter can predict the need for NIV in chronically critically ill patients during the weaning process. We conducted a prospective study that included chronically critically ill patients admitted to Spanish respiratory care units. The weaning method used consisted of progressive periods of spontaneous breathing trials. Patients were transferred to NIV when it proved impossible to increase the duration of spontaneous breathing trials beyond 18 h. 231 chronically critically ill patients were included in the study. 198 (85.71%) patients achieved weaning success (mean weaning time 25.45±16.71 days), of whom 40 (21.4%) needed NIV during the weaning process. The variable which predicted the need for NIV was arterial carbon dioxide tension at respiratory care unit admission (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01–1.15), p=0.013), with a cut-off point of 45.5 mmHg (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.67, positive predictive value 0.76, negative predictive value 0.97). NIV is a useful tool during weaning in chronically critically ill patients. Hypercapnia despite mechanical ventilation at respiratory care unit admission is the main predictor of the need for NIV during weaning. PMID:28053973

  12. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Bott, J; Johnson, M; Dean, E; Nava, S; Norrenberg, M; Schönhofer, B; Stiller, K; van de Leur, H; Vincent, J L

    2008-07-01

    The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However, the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy were identified: deconditioning, impaired airway clearance, atelectasis, intubation avoidance, and weaning failure. Discrepancies and lack of data on the efficacy of physiotherapy in clinical trials support the need to identify guidelines for physiotherapy assessments, in particular to identify patient characteristics that enable treatments to be prescribed and modified on an individual basis. There is a need to standardize pathways for clinical decision-making and education, to define the professional profile of physiotherapists, and increase the awareness of the benefits of prevention and treatment of immobility and deconditioning for critically ill adult patients.

  13. Comparasion between effects of nutritional immunomodulation with glutamine: An integral part of the treatment of critically ill: Trend and perspective (immunonitrition in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Miomir 0000-0001-9537-7975 0000-0001-9537-7975

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades the advanced technology significantly changed the treatment of critically ill patients. Mechanical ventilation, transfusion of blood products, renal replacement therapy, invasive monitoring and many other procedures drastically prolonged and changed life, modulating homeostasis, developing new pathways and mechanisms of adaptation - allostasis. Systemic inflammatory response and immunomodulatory activity are a part of complex underlying mechanisms involved in allostasis. Based on recently published results of certain studies, a few nutrients (omega-3 fatty acids, arginine, glutamine added to the standard formula for enteral and parenteral nutrition, reduced ICU stay and rate of infection as well as duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. Glutamine, 'essential' nonessential amino acid has high immunomodulatory capacity, as fuel for muscles and 'shuttle' for nitrogen, protecting lung and gut function as well as the function of immunocompetent cells. Despite that there is no universally accepted strategy concerning nutritional immunomodulation, it is implemented in ASPEN and ESPEN guidelines.

  14. The Gut as the Motor of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-04-01

    All elements of the gut - the epithelium, the immune system, and the microbiome - are impacted by critical illness and can, in turn, propagate a pathologic host response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this can occur by release of toxic gut-derived substances into the mesenteric lymph where they can cause distant damage. Further, intestinal integrity is compromised in critical illness with increases in apoptosis and permeability. There is also increasing recognition that microbes alter their behavior and can become virulent based upon host environmental cues. Gut failure is common in critically ill patients; however, therapeutics targeting the gut have proven to be challenging to implement at the bedside. Numerous strategies to manipulate the microbiome have recently been used with varying success in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of CT-compatible EEG electrodes in critically ill children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Zhu, Xiaowei; Schwartz, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalographic monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in critically ill children who may require frequent and sometimes urgent brain CT scans. Standard metallic disk EEG electrodes commonly produce substantial imaging artifact, and they must be removed and later reapplied when CT scans are indicated. To determine whether conductive plastic electrodes caused artifact that limited CT interpretation. We describe a retrospective cohort of 13 consecutive critically ill children who underwent 17 CT scans with conductive plastic electrodes during 1 year. CT images were evaluated by a pediatric neuroradiologist for artifact presence, type and severity. All CT scans had excellent quality images without artifact that impaired CT interpretation except for one scan in which improper wire placement resulted in artifact. Conductive plastic electrodes do not cause artifact limiting CT scan interpretation and may be used in critically ill children to permit concurrent electroencephalographic monitoring and CT imaging. (orig.)

  16. Amikacin treatment of Serratia septicemia in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, J M; de Villota, E D; de la Serna, J L; Diez-Balda, V; Tomás, M I; Galdos, P; Rubio, J J

    1981-09-01

    Serratia marcescens septicemia represents a serious problem in high risk critical care patients. Treatment is difficult because Serratia is usually resistant to most antibiotics. Amikacin is at present the most effective antibiotic in vitro against gentamycin-resistant Serratia, although significant loss of activity may occur in vivo in the group of compromised patients, whose ultimate prognosis may depend eventually upon other associated conditions. In this Medical ICU, 15 patients with Serratia septicemia who were treated with in vitro effective antibiotics (14 were given amikacin) had a mortality of 60%, while 5 patients who received ineffective in vitro antibiotics had a mortality of 100%. In this ICU, 80% of the Serratia isolates were resistant to gentamycin, while only 2.8% were resistant to amikacin. Because amikacin-resistant strains of Serratia have already emerged, appropriate use of this antibiotic is essential in order not to promote the selection of amikacin-resistant strains.

  17. Advance directives lessen the decisional burden of surrogate decision-making for the chronically critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Pinto, Melissa D

    2014-03-01

    To identify the relationships between advance directive status, demographic characteristics and decisional burden (role stress and depressive symptoms) of surrogate decision-makers (SDMs) of patients with chronic critical illness. Although the prevalence of advance directives among Americans has increased, SDMs are ultimately responsible for complex medical decisions of the chronically critically ill patient. Decisional burden has lasting psychological effects on SDMs. There is insufficient evidence on the influence of advance directives on the decisional burden of surrogate decision-makers of patients with chronic critical illness. The study was a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional data. Data were obtained from 489 surrogate decision-makers of chronically critically ill patients at two academic medical centres in Northeast Ohio, United States, between September 2005-May 2008. Data were collected using demographic forms and questionnaires. A single-item measure of role stress and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) scale were used to capture the SDM's decisional burden. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square and path analyses were performed. Surrogate decision-makers who were nonwhite, with low socioeconomic status and low education level were less likely to have advance directive documentation for their chronically critically ill patient. The presence of an advance directive mitigates the decisional burden by directly reducing the SDM's role stress and indirectly lessening the severity of depressive symptoms. Most SDMs of chronically critically ill patients will not have the benefit of knowing the patient's preferences for life-sustaining therapies and consequently be at risk of increased decisional burden. Study results are clinically useful for patient education on the influence of advance directives. Patients may be informed that SDMs without advance directives are at risk of increased decisional burden and will require

  18. The effects of critical illness on intestinal glucose sensing, transporters, and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Adam M; Rayner, Chris K; Keeshan, Alex; Cvijanovic, Nada; Marino, Zelia; Nguyen, Nam Q; Chia, Bridgette; Summers, Matthew J; Sim, Jennifer A; van Beek, Theresia; Chapman, Marianne J; Horowitz, Michael; Young, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Providing effective enteral nutrition is important during critical illness. In health, glucose is absorbed from the small intestine via sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 and glucose transporter-2, which may both be regulated by intestinal sweet taste receptors. We evaluated the effect of critical illness on glucose absorption and expression of intestinal sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1, glucose transporter-2, and sweet taste receptors in humans and mice. Prospective observational study in humans and mice. ICU and university-affiliated research laboratory. Human subjects were 12 critically ill patients and 12 healthy controls. In the laboratory 16-week-old mice were studied. Human subjects underwent endoscopy. Glucose (30 g) and 3-O-methylglucose (3 g), used to estimate glucose absorption, were infused intraduodenally over 30 minutes. Duodenal mucosa was biopsied before and after infusion. Mice were randomized to cecal ligation and puncture to model critical illness (n = 16) or sham laparotomy (control) (n = 8). At day 5, mice received glucose (100 mg) and 3-O-methylglucose (10 mg) infused intraduodenally prior to mucosal tissue collection. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure absolute (human) and relative levels of sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1, glucose transporter-2, and taste receptor type 1 member 2 (T1R2) transcripts. Blood samples were assayed for 3-O-methylglucose to estimate glucose absorption. Glucose absorption was three-fold lower in critically ill humans than in controls (p = 0.002) and reduced by a similar proportion in cecal ligation and puncture mice (p = 0.004). In critically ill patients, duodenal levels of sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1, glucose transporter-2, and T1R2 transcript were reduced 49% (p absorption, associated with reduced intestinal expression of glucose transporters (sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 and glucose transporter-2) and sweet taste receptor transcripts

  19. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  20. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Biehl,1 Paul Y Takahashi,2 Stephen S Cha,3 Rajeev Chaudhry,2 Ognjen Gajic,1 Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 3Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods: A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years, and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2% suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14% suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48. The area under the

  1. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls.......Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors...

  2. Postoperative Haematocrit and Outcome in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Martins; Silva, Diana; Sousa, Gabriela; Silva, Joana; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José

    2017-08-31

    Haematocrit has been studied as an outcome predictor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between low haematocrit at surgical intensive care unit admission and high disease scoring system score and early outcomes. This retrospective study included 4398 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and simplified acute physiology score II values were calculated and all variables entered as parameters were evaluated independently. Patients were classified as haematocrit if they had a haematocrit < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission. The correlation between admission haematocrit and outcome was evaluated by univariate analysis and linear regression. A total of 1126 (25.6%) patients had haematocrit. These patients had higher rates of major cardiac events (4% vs 1.9%, p < 0.001), acute renal failure (11.5% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001), and mortality during surgical intensive care unit stay (3% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001) and hospital stay (12% vs 5.9%, p < 0.001). A haematocrit level < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission was frequent and appears to be a predictor for poorer outcome in critical surgical patients. Patients with haematocrit had longer surgical intensive care unit and hospital stay lengths, more postoperative complications, and higher surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  4. Oxidative stress status: possible guideline for clinical management of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bela, P; Bahl, R; Sane, A S; Sawant, P H; Shah, V R; Mishra, V V; Trivedi, H L

    2001-03-01

    Critical care medicine has developed in the last few years into a separate scientific discipline and studies related to the outcome after intensive care usually suggest a long hospital stay that becomes cost prohibitive. The majority of problems (death) amongst critically ill patients requiring critical care involve sepsis, inflammation, tissue damage-oxidative stress, oxygen tension PO2, lipid peroxidation. The present investigation involves monitoring of serum levels of MDA, SOD as a possible guideline for severity of clinical situations in critically ill patients. Fifty critically ill heterogeneous patients requiring intensive care in the ICU of IKDRC were selected as subjects with ages varying from 17 to 75 years. Serum levels of MDA (ng/ml), SOD (U/ml) were determined right from admission to discharge due to improvement / DAMA / death. MDA and SOD were estimated according to the methods of Buege and Aust et al. (1978), Nandi and Chatterji (1988). Critically ill patients irrespective of the disease process indicated significantly very high serum levels of MDA and low levels of SOD at the time of admission (13.28+/-4.26 ng/ml, 3.80+/-2.60 U/ml, respectively) according to the severity of the prevalent clinical situation. The pattern of serum levels of MDA and SOD according to subsequent clinical performance did indicate a decreasing trend of MDA (oxidant) and fluctuating trend of SOD (antioxidant enzyme except in those who inevitably succumbed to death in spite of adequate clinical management. The results of the present study have amply revealed the utility and relevance of monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients as biochemical markers, cost-effectiveness and role in decision making (withdrawal/continuation of different support modalities) as deemed fit.

  5. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Bas C. T.; van de Poll, Marcel C. G.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Bergmans, Dennis C. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone) that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care. PMID:28178202

  6. Issues affecting the delivery of physical therapy services for individuals with critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Amy J; Kress, John P

    2013-02-01

    Research supports the provision of physical therapy intervention and early mobilization in the management of patients with critical illness. However, the translation of care from that of well-controlled research protocols to routine practice can be challenging and warrants further study. Discussions in the critical care and physical therapy communities, as well as in the published literature, are investigating factors related to early mobilization such as transforming culture in the intensive care unit (ICU), encouraging interprofessional collaboration, coordinating sedation interruption with mobility sessions, and determining the rehabilitation modalities that will most significantly improve patient outcomes. Some variables, however, need to be investigated and addressed specifically by the physical therapy profession. They include assessing and increasing physical therapist competence managing patients with critical illness in both professional (entry-level) education programs and clinical settings, determining and providing an adequate number of physical therapists for a given ICU, evaluating methods of prioritization of patients in the acute care setting, and adding to the body of research to support specific functional outcome measures to be used with patients in the ICU. Additionally, because persistent weakness and functional limitations can exist long after the critical illness itself has resolved, there is a need for increased awareness and involvement of physical therapists in all settings of practice, including outpatient clinics. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues that the physical therapy profession needs to address as the rehabilitation management of the patient with critical illness evolves.

  7. Critical illness myopathy and polyneuropathy - A challenge for physiotherapists in the intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, Renu B.; Gaude, Gajanan S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of critical patient related generalized neuromuscular weakness, referred to as critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), is a major complication in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Both CIP and CIM cause muscle weakness and paresis in critically ill patients during their ICU stay. Early mobilization or kinesiotherapy have shown muscle weakness reversion in critically ill patients providing faster return to function, reducing weaning time, and length of hospitalization. Exercises in the form of passive, active, and resisted forms have proved to improve strength and psychological well being. Clinical trials using neuromuscular electrical stimulation to increase muscle mass, muscle strength and improve blood circulation to the surrounding tissue have proved beneficial. The role of electrical stimulation is unproven as yet. Recent evidence indicates no difference between treated and untreated muscles. Future research is recommended to conduct clinical trials using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, exercises, and early mobilization as a treatment protocol in larger populations of patients in ICU. PMID:21814370

  8. Smart Care? versus respiratory physiotherapy?driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Corinne; Victor, Elivane S.; Pieri, Talita; Henn, Renata; Santana, Carolina; Giovanetti, Erica; Saghabi, Cilene; Timenetsky, Karina; Caserta Eid, Raquel; Silva, Eliezer; Matos, Gustavo F. J.; Schettino, Guilherme P. P.; Barbas, Carmen S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent meta-analysis showed that weaning with SmartCare? (Dr?ger, L?beck, Germany) significantly decreased weaning time in critically ill patients. However, its utility compared with respiratory physiotherapist?protocolized weaning is still a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weaning with SmartCare? would be as effective as respiratory physiotherapy?driven weaning in critically ill patients. Methods Adult critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hou...

  9. Prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria, and ketoacidosis during liberal glycemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Luethi, Nora; Cioccari, Luca; Crisman, Marco; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Eastwood, Glenn M.; M?rtensson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background It is uncertain whether liberal glucose control in critically ill diabetic patients leads to increased ketone production and ketoacidosis. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria and ketoacidosis in critically ill diabetic patients treated in accordance with a liberal glycemic control protocol. Methods We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 critically ill diabetic patients with blood and/or urine ketone bodies tested in ICU. All patie...

  10. The "Critical" Elements of Illness Management and Recovery: Comparing Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; White, Dominique; White, Laura M; McGrew, John; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-01-01

    This study examined three methodological approaches to defining the critical elements of Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), a curriculum-based approach to recovery. Sixty-seven IMR experts rated the criticality of 16 IMR elements on three dimensions: defining, essential, and impactful. Three elements (Recovery Orientation, Goal Setting and Follow-up, and IMR Curriculum) met all criteria for essential and defining and all but the most stringent criteria for impactful. Practitioners should consider competence in these areas as preeminent. The remaining 13 elements met varying criteria for essential and impactful. Findings suggest that criticality is a multifaceted construct, necessitating judgments about model elements across different criticality dimensions.

  11. [Metabolic control in the critically ill patient an update: hyperglycemia, glucose variability hypoglycemia and relative hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Guillén-Vidaña, Ariadna; Fraire-Félix, Irving Santiago; Anica-Malagón, Eduardo Daniel; Briones Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    Metabolic changes of glucose in critically ill patients increase morbidity and mortality. The appropriate level of blood glucose has not been established so far and should be adjusted for different populations. However concepts such as glucose variability and relative hypoglycemia of critically ill patients are concepts that are changing management methods and achieving closer monitoring. The purpose of this review is to present new data about the management and metabolic control of patients in critical areas. Currently glucose can no longer be regarded as an innocent element in critical patients; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia increase morbidity and mortality of patients. Protocols and better instruments for continuous measurement are necessary to achieve the metabolic control of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Critically Ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Macias, Alejandro E; Pinto, Ruxandra; Espinosa-Perez, Lourdes; de la Torre, Alethse; Poblano-Morales, Manuel; Baltazar-Torres, Jose A; Bautista, Edgar; Martinez, Abril; Martinez, Marco A; Rivero, Eduardo; Valdez, Rafael; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Hernández, Martín; Stewart, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A

    2009-11-04

    In March 2009, novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) was first reported in the southwestern United States and Mexico. The population and health care system in Mexico City experienced the first and greatest early burden of critical illness. To describe baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of consecutive critically ill patients in Mexico hospitals that treated the majority of such patients with confirmed, probable, or suspected 2009 influenza A(H1N1). Observational study of 58 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) at 6 hospitals between March 24 and June 1, 2009. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbid conditions, illness progression, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected using a piloted case report form. The primary outcome measure was mortality. Secondary outcomes included rate of 2009 influenza (A)H1N1-related critical illness and mechanical ventilation as well as intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay. Critical illness occurred in 58 of 899 patients (6.5%) admitted to the hospital with confirmed, probable, or suspected 2009 influenza (A)H1N1. Patients were young (median, 44.0 [range, 10-83] years); all presented with fever and all but 1 with respiratory symptoms. Few patients had comorbid respiratory disorders, but 21 (36%) were obese. Time from hospital to ICU admission was short (median, 1 day [interquartile range {IQR}, 0-3 days]), and all patients but 2 received mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia (median day 1 ratio of Pao(2) to fraction of inspired oxygen, 83 [IQR, 59-145] mm Hg). By 60 days, 24 patients had died (41.4%; 95% confidence interval, 28.9%-55.0%). Patients who died had greater initial severity of illness, worse hypoxemia, higher creatine kinase levels, higher creatinine levels, and ongoing organ dysfunction. After adjusting for a reduced opportunity of patients dying early to receive neuraminidase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitor treatment (vs

  13. A retrospective evaluation of critically ill patients infected with H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-12

    Nov 12, 2009 ... Background: H1N1 influenza A virus infections were first reported in April 2009 and spread rapidly, resulting in mortality worldwide. The aim of this study ... Key words: pandemic influenza, H1N1 infection, critically ill patient, intensive care unit ..... Borgatta B, Pérez M, Rello J et al; pH1N1 GTEI/. SEMICYUC.

  14. Surviving critical illness: what is next? : an expert consensus statement on physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Major, M.E.; Kwakman, R.; Kho, M.E.; Connolly, B.; McWilliams, D.; Denehy, L.; Hanekom, S.; Patman, S.; Gosselink, R.; Jones, C.; Nollet, F.; Needham, D.M.; Engelbert, R.H.H.; van der Schaaf, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study objective was to obtain consensus on physical therapy (PT) in the rehabilitation of critical illness survivors after hospital discharge. Research questions were: what are PT goals, what are recommended measurement tools, and what constitutes an optimal PT intervention for

  15. Surviving critical illness: what is next? An expert consensus statement on physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Major, M. E.; Kwakman, R.; Kho, M. E.; Connolly, B.; McWilliams, D.; Denehy, L.; Hanekom, S.; Patman, S.; Gosselink, R.; Jones, C.; Nollet, F.; Needham, D. M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Schaaf, M.

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to obtain consensus on physical therapy (PT) in the rehabilitation of critical illness survivors after hospital discharge. Research questions were: what are PT goals, what are recommended measurement tools, and what constitutes an optimal PT intervention for survivors of

  16. Gastrointestinal tract access for enteral nutrition in critically ill and trauma patients: indications, techniques, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, M; Latifi, R; El-Menyar, A; Al Thani, H

    2013-06-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is a widely used, standard-of-care technique for nutrition support in critically ill and trauma patients. To review the current techniques of gastrointestinal tract access for EN. For this traditional narrative review, we accessed English-language articles and abstracts published from January 1988 through October 2012, using three research engines (MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE) and the following key terms: "enteral nutrition," "critically ill," and "gut access." We excluded outdated abstracts. For our nearly 25-year search period, 44 articles matched all three terms. The most common gut access techniques included nasoenteric tube placement (nasogastric, nasoduodenal, or nasojejunal), as well as a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Other open or laparoscopic techniques, such as a jejunostomy or a gastrojejunostomy, were also used. Early EN continues to be preferred whenever feasible. In addition, evidence is mounting that EN during the early phase of critical illness or trauma trophic feeding has an outcome comparable to that of full-strength formulas. Most patients tolerate EN through the stomach, so postpyloric tube feeding is not needed initially. In critically ill and trauma patients, early EN through the stomach should be instituted whenever feasible. Other approaches can be used according to patient needs, available expertise, and institutional guidelines. More research is needed in order to ensure the safe use of surgical tubes in the open abdomen.

  17. Pharmacokinetic properties of micafungin in critically ill patients diagnosed with invasive candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, J M; van der Elst, K C; Veringa, A; Jongedijk, E M; Brüggemann, R J; Koster, R A; Kampinga, G A; Kosterink, J G; van der Werf, T S; Zijlstra, J G; Touw, D J; Alffenaar, J W C

    2017-01-01

    Background: The estimated attributable mortality rate for invasive candidiasis (IC) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting varies from 30-40%. Physiological changes in critically ill patients may affect the distribution and elimination of micafungin and therefore dosing adjustments might be

  18. Guideline implementation results in a decrease of pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, E.H. de; Pickkers, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Feuth, T.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the short-term and long-term effects of a hospital-wide pressure ulcer prevention and treatment guideline on both the incidence and the time to the onset of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Adult intensive care department

  19. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Vet (Nienke); S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); M.G. Mooij (Miriam); J.B. van Woensel (Job); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); D. Tibboel (Dick); M. de Hoog (Matthijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare daily sedation interruption plus protocolized sedation (DSI + PS) to protocolized sedation only (PS) in critically ill children. Methods: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial in three pediatric intensive care units in the Netherlands, mechanically

  20. Neurobiologic Correlates of Attention and Memory Deficits Following Critical Illness in Early Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, R.M.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Madderom, M.J.; Rietman, A.B.; Smits, M; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Tibboel, D.; White, T.; Muetzel, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Survivors of critical illness in early life are at risk of long-term-memory and attention impairments. However, their neurobiologic substrates remain largely unknown. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with mortality among critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barberena Moraes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels 12 ng/mL (32.2% vs. 13.2%, with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05. There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients.

  2. Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, Shigehiko; Kellum, John A.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doig, Gordon S.; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Ronco, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world. To determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive

  3. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors...

  4. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors...

  5. Body Mass Index Is Associated With Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: An Observational Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickkers, Peter; de Keizer, Nicolette; Dusseljee, Joost; Weerheijm, Daan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Peek, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill

  6. Body mass index is associated with hospital mortality in critically ill patients: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickkers, P.; Keizer, N. de; Dusseljee, J.; Weerheijm, D.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Peek, N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill

  7. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the clinical course of critically ill children with confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (H1N1) infection in a southern African paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to compare them with a similar group with respiratory virus infections other than H1N1 admitted to the same PICU during the ...

  8. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness

  9. Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Critically Ill Children: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy T. Dao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients refer to a group of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements that serve many functions in metabolism. Assessment of micronutrient status in critically ill children is challenging due to many complicating factors, such as evolving metabolic demands, immature organ function, and varying methods of feeding that affect nutritional dietary intake. Determination of micronutrient status, especially in children, usually relies on a combination of biomarkers, with only a few having been established as a gold standard. Almost all micronutrients display a decrease in their serum levels in critically ill children, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency in this setting. While vitamin D deficiency is a well-known phenomenon in critical illness and can predict a higher need for intensive care, serum concentrations of many trace elements such as iron, zinc, and selenium decrease as a result of tissue redistribution in response to systemic inflammation. Despite a decrease in their levels, supplementation of micronutrients during times of severe illness has not demonstrated clear benefits in either survival advantage or reduction of adverse outcomes. For many micronutrients, the lack of large and randomized studies remains a major hindrance to critically evaluating their status and clinical significance.

  10. Histological investigations of muscle atrophy and end plates in two critically ill patients with generalized weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, J.H.J.; Jennekens, F.G.I.; Oord, C.J.M. van den; Veldman, H.; Gijn, Jan van

    1988-01-01

    We describe pathological alterations at the light microscopical and ultrastructural level of motor end plates and muscle fibres in 2 critically ill patients with generalized muscular atrophy and weakness. Axonal degeneration of intramuscular nerve fibres was not conspicuous. The sural nerve in one

  11. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in the critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, A.D.; Hunfeld, N.G.; Touw, D.J.; Melief, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (PCM) is a drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Despite its frequent use, little is known about its efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) when intravenously administered in the critically ill patient. A previous study suggests that therapeutic concentrations are not

  12. Oral care of critically ill patients: practice of attending nurses at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral care has been rated as a basic nursing care activity which provides respite and comfort to patients, who due to critical illness cannot perform this activity themselves. Oral care practices vary widely with attending nurses providing different level of care at varying frequency.Research in health care ...

  13. Free T4, Free T3, and Reverse T3 in Critically Ill, Thermally Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    urinary catecholamine excretion rate, and post-traumatic basal metabolic rate, tachycardia , hyperventilation, by- hypermetabolism could be attenuated by... newborn . J. Clin. Invest., 48: 1670, 1969. may have functional significance for the critically ill 20. Golstein-Golaire, J., Vanhaelst, L., Bruno, 0. D

  14. A comparative study of varying doses of enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sian; Zincuk, Aleksander; Larsen, Ulla Lei

    2013-01-01

    critically ill patients weighing 50 - 90 kilograms were randomised in a double-blinded study to receive subcutaneous (sc) enoxaparin: 40 mg once daily (QD), 30 mg twice daily (BID), 40mg BID, or 1mg/kg QD, each administered for three days. Anti-Xa activity was measured at baseline, and daily at 4, 12, 16...

  15. Reduced activation and increased inactivation of thyroid hormone in tissues of critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); E. Kaptein (Ellen); H. van Toor (Hans); T.J. Visser (Theo); G. van den Berghe (Greet)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCritical illness is often associated with reduced TSH and thyroid hormone secretion as well as marked changes in peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in low serum T(3) and high rT(3) levels. To study the mechanism(s) of the latter changes, we determined

  16. Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Prinsen, M.A.; Willems, J.L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of strict glucose control in most intensive care units has resulted in increased use of point-of-care glucose devices in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of point-of-care testing glucose meters among critically ill patients

  17. Comfortably Calm: Soothing Sedation of Critically Ill Children without Withdrawal Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ista (Erwin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCritically ill children admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are bound to experience some degree of discomfort, distress and pain, more than in other settings in a children’s hospital. Inserting intravenous lines, catheters and tubes is a major source of these adverse effects. In

  18. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  19. A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Critically ill patients are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers because of the presence of confounding factors such as reduced mobility, poor nutrition, reduced tissue perfusion, neurologic deficits, faecal or urinary incontinence. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for the development ...

  20. Healthcare resource utilisation by critically ill older patients following an intensive care unit stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitziner, Marie-Madlen; Zwakhalen, Sandra Mg; Hantikainen, Virpi; Hamers, Jan Ph

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the utilisation of healthcare resources by critically ill older patients over one year following an intensive care unit stay. Information on healthcare resource utilisation following intensive care unit treatment is essential during times of limited financial resources. Prospective longitudinal nonrandomised study. Healthcare resource utilisation by critically ill older patients (≥65 years) was recorded during one year following treatment in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. Age-matched community-based participants served as comparison group. Data were collected at one-week following intensive care unit discharge/study recruitment and after 6 and 12 months. Recorded were length of stay, (re)admission to hospital or intensive care unit, general practitioner and medical specialist visits, rehabilitation program participation, medication use, discharge destination, home health care service use and level of dependence for activities of daily living. One hundred and forty-five critically ill older patients and 146 age-matched participants were recruited into the study. Overall, critically ill older patients utilised more healthcare resources. After 6 and 12 months, they visited general practitioners six times more frequently, twice as many older patients took medications and only the intensive care unit group patients participated in rehabilitation programs (n = 99, 76%). The older patients were less likely to be hospitalised, very few transferred to nursing homes (n = 3, 2%), and only 7 (6%) continued to use home healthcare services 12 months following the intensive care unit stay. Critically ill older patients utilise more healthcare resources following an intensive care unit stay, however, most are able to live at home with no or minimal assistance after one year. Adequate healthcare resources, such as facilitated access to medical follow-up care, rehabilitation programs and home healthcare services, must be easily accessible for older

  1. Effect of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in critically ill patients: A structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdulaziz S; Hites, Maya; Lipman, Jeffrey; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-04-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity presents challenges for clinicians aiming to provide optimised antimicrobial dosing in the intensive care unit. Obesity is likely to exacerbate the alterations to antimicrobial pharmacokinetics when the chronic diseases associated with obesity exist with the acute pathophysiological changes associated with critical illness. The purpose of this paper is to review the potential pharmacokinetic (PK) changes of antimicrobials in obese critically ill patients and the implications for appropriate dosing. We found that hydrophilic antimicrobials (e.g. β-lactams, vancomycin, daptomycin) were more likely to manifest altered pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients who are obese. In particular for β-lactam antibiotics, obesity is associated with a larger volume of distribution (V(d)). In obese critically ill patients, piperacillin is also associated with a lower drug clearance (CL). For doripenem, these PK changes have been associated with reduced achievement of pharmacodynamic (PD) targets when standard drug doses are used. For vancomycin, increases in Vd are associated with increasing total body weight (TBW), meaning that the loading dose should be based on TBW even in obese patients. For daptomycin, an increased Vd is not considered to be clinically relevant. For antifungals, little data exist in obese critically ill patients; during fluconazole therapy, an obese patient had a lower V(d) and higher CL than non-obese comparators. Overall, most studies suggested that standard dosage regimens of most commonly used antimicrobials are sufficient to achieve PD targets. However, it is likely that larger doses would be required for pathogens with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of Predictive Equations Specifically Developed to Estimate Resting Energy Expenditure in Ventilated Critically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand Chaparro, Corinne; Taffé, Patrick; Moullet, Clémence; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne; Longchamp, David; Perez, Marie-Hélène; Cotting, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    To determine, based on indirect calorimetry measurements, the biases of predictive equations specifically developed recently for estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) in ventilated critically ill children, or developed for healthy populations but used in critically ill children. A secondary analysis study was performed using our data on REE measured in a previous prospective study on protein and energy needs in pediatric intensive care unit. We included 75 ventilated critically ill children (median age, 21 months) in whom 407 indirect calorimetry measurements were performed. Fifteen predictive equations were used to estimate REE: the equations of White, Meyer, Mehta, Schofield, Henry, the World Health Organization, Fleisch, and Harris-Benedict and the tables of Talbot. Their differential and proportional biases (with 95% CIs) were computed and the bias plotted in graphs. The Bland-Altman method was also used. Most equations underestimated and overestimated REE between 200 and 1000 kcal/day. The equations of Mehta, Schofield, and Henry and the tables of Talbot had a bias ≤10%, but the 95% CI was large and contained values by far beyond ±10% for low REE values. Other specific equations for critically ill children had even wider biases. In ventilated critically ill children, none of the predictive equations tested met the performance criteria for the entire range of REE between 200 and 1000 kcal/day. Even the equations with the smallest bias may entail a risk of underfeeding or overfeeding, especially in the youngest children. Indirect calorimetry measurement must be preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living after Critical Illness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Suchyta, Mary R; Kamdar, Biren B; Darowski, Emily; Jackson, James C; Needham, Dale M

    2017-08-01

    Poor functional status is common after critical illness, and can adversely impact the abilities of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors to live independently. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which encompass complex tasks necessary for independent living, are a particularly important component of post-ICU functional outcome. To conduct a systematic review of studies evaluating IADLs in survivors of critical illness. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for all relevant English-language studies published through December 31, 2016. Additional articles were identified from personal files and reference lists of eligible studies. Two trained researchers independently reviewed titles and abstracts, and potentially eligible full text studies. Eligible studies included those enrolling adult ICU survivors with IADL assessments, using a validated instrument. We excluded studies involving specific ICU patient populations, specialty ICUs, those enrolling fewer than 10 patients, and those that were not peer-reviewed. Variables related to IADLs were reported using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Thirty of 991 articles from our literature search met inclusion criteria, and 23 additional articles were identified from review of reference lists and personal files. Sixteen studies (30%) published between 1999 and 2016 met eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Study definitions of impairment in IADLs were highly variable, as were reported rates of pre-ICU IADL dependencies (7-85% of patients). Eleven studies (69%) found that survivors of critical illness had new or worsening IADL dependencies. In three of four longitudinal studies, survivors with IADL dependencies decreased over the follow-up period. Across multiple studies, no risk factors were consistently associated with IADL dependency. Survivors of critical illness commonly experience new or worsening IADL dependency that may

  4. A meta-analysis of sleep-promoting interventions during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongkunran, Chithra; John, Santosh G; Kannan, Arun S; Shetty, Safal; Bime, Christian; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-10-01

    Sleep quality and quantity are severely reduced in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation with a potential for adverse consequences. Our objective was to synthesize the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that measured the efficacy of sleep-promoting interventions on sleep quality and quantity in critically ill patients. We included RCTs that objectively measured sleep with electroencephalography or its derivatives and excluded observational studies and those that measured sleep by subjective reports. The research was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Of 6022 studies identified, 13 met eligibility criteria involving 296 critically ill patients. Eight trials looked at different modes of mechanical ventilation as sleep interventions, and the remaining 5 involved pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or environmental interventions. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that sleep-promoting interventions improved sleep quantity (pooled standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.69; P = .02) and sleep quality through reduction in sleep fragmentation (SMD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.01; P = .04). Subgroup analysis revealed that timed modes of ventilation improved sleep quantity when compared with spontaneous modes of ventilation (SMD, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.10-0.81; P = .01). Nonmechanical ventilation interventions tended to improve sleep quantity (SMD, 0.65; 95% CI, -0.03 to 1.33; P = .06) and to reduce sleep fragmentation (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.61 to 0.03; P = .07). The synthesized evidence suggests that both mechanical ventilation- and nonmechanical ventilation-based therapies improve sleep quantity and quality in critically ill patients, but the clinical significance is unclear. In the future, adequately powered multicenter RCTs involving pharmacologic interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients are warranted. Copyright © 2015

  5. TNF -308G > a promoter polymorphism (rs1800629) and outcome from critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskulin, Diego D'Ávila; Fallavena, Paulo Rv; Paludo, Francis Jo; Borges, Thiago J; Picanço, Juliane B; Dias, Fernando S; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    The susceptibility to adverse outcome from critical illness (occurrence of sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction/failure, and mortality) varies dramatically due to different degrees of inflammatory response. An over expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) can lead to the progression of the inflammatory condition. We assessed the relationship of the genotype distribution of -308G >A TNF-α polymorphism with regard to the development of sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients. Observational, hospital-based cohort study of 520 critically ill Caucasian patients from southern Brazil admitted to the general ICU of São Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were monitored daily from the ICU admission day to hospital discharge or death, measuring SOFA score, sepsis, and septic shock occurrences. The -308G >A TNF-α SNP effect was analyzed in the entire patient group, in patients with sepsis (349/520), and in those who developed septic shock (248/520). The genotypic and allelic frequencies were -308GG = 0.72; -308GA = 0.27; -308AA = 0.01; -308G = 0.85; -308A = 0.15. No associations were found with sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction, and/or mortality rates among the TNF-α genotypes. Our results reveal that the -308G >A TNF-α SNP alone was not predictive of severe outcomes in critically ill patients. The principal novel input of this study was the larger sample size in an investigation with -308G > A TNF-α SNP. The presence of -308A allele is not associated with sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients.

  6. The interobserver agreement of handheld dynamometry for muscle strength assessment in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpee, Goele; Segers, Johan; Van Mechelen, Helena; Wouters, Pieter; Van den Berghe, Greet; Hermans, Greet; Gosselink, Rik

    2011-08-01

    Muscle weakness often complicates critical illness and is associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and limiting functional outcome even years later. To assess the presence of muscle weakness and to examine the effects of interventions, objective and reliable muscle strength measurements are required. The first objective of this study is to determine interobserver reliability of handheld dynamometry. Secondary objectives are to quantify muscle weakness, to evaluate distribution of muscle weakness, and to evaluate gender-related differences in muscle strength. Cross-sectional observational study. The surgical and medical intensive care units of a large, tertiary referral, university hospital. A cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of awake and cooperative critically ill patients. None. Handheld dynamometry was performed in critically ill patients who had at least a score of 3 (movement against gravity) on the Medical Research Council scale. Three upper limb and three lower limb muscle groups were tested at the right-hand side. Patients were tested twice daily by two independent raters. Fifty-one test-retests were performed in 39 critically ill patients. Handheld dynamometry demonstrated good interobserver agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients >0.90 in four of the muscle groups tested (range, 0.91-0.96) and somewhat less for hip flexion (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.80) and ankle dorsiflexion (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.76). Limb muscle strength was considerably reduced in all muscle groups as shown by the median z-score (range, -1.08 to -3.48 sd units). Elbow flexors, knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors were the most affected muscle groups. Loss of muscle strength was comparable between men and women. Handheld dynamometry is a tool with a very good interobserver reliability to assess limb muscle strength in awake and cooperative critically ill patients. Future studies should focus on the sensitivity of handheld

  7. TNF -308G > a promoter polymorphism (rs1800629 and outcome from critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego D'Ávila Paskulin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The susceptibility to adverse outcome from critical illness (occurrence of sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction/failure, and mortality varies dramatically due to different degrees of inflammatory response. An over expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α can lead to the progression of the inflammatory condition. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of the genotype distribution of -308G >A TNF-α polymorphism with regard to the development of sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Observational, hospital-based cohort study of 520 critically ill Caucasian patients from southern Brazil admitted to the general ICU of São Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were monitored daily from the ICU admission day to hospital discharge or death, measuring SOFA score, sepsis, and septic shock occurrences. The -308G >A TNF-α SNP effect was analyzed in the entire patient group, in patients with sepsis (349/520, and in those who developed septic shock (248/520. RESULTS: The genotypic and allelic frequencies were -308GG = 0.72; -308GA = 0.27; -308AA = 0.01; -308G = 0.85; -308A = 0.15. No associations were found with sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction, and/or mortality rates among the TNF-α genotypes. Our results reveal that the -308G >A TNF-α SNP alone was not predictive of severe outcomes in critically ill patients. CONCLUSION: The principal novel input of this study was the larger sample size in an investigation with -308G > A TNF-α SNP. The presence of -308A allele is not associated with sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients.

  8. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and Neuromuscular Dysfunction Acquired in Critical Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David R; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Umscheid, Craig A; Armstrong, Ehrin J

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness remains unclear. We examined the association between neuromuscular blocking agents and ICU-acquired weakness, critical illness polyneuropathy, and critical illness myopathy. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies of included studies were searched from database inception until September 24, 2015. Randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies examining the association between neuromuscular blocking agents and ICU-acquired weakness, critical illness polyneuropathy, or critical illness myopathy. One author screened titles/abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed full text and extracted data from included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random effects model (OpenMetaAnalyst 10.10 for OS.X). We assessed reporting bias with funnel plots and heterogeneity with the I statistic. Of 2,170 titles/abstracts screened, 99 full texts were selected for review, yielding one randomized controlled trial and 18 prospective observational studies, for a total of 2,254 patients. The randomized controlled trial did not show an association between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.67-2.19), but pooled data from all included studies suggested a modest association (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.48; I = 16%). Funnel plots suggested reporting bias, and sensitivity analyses showed a disproportionate contribution from critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy and severe sepsis/septic shock studies. This meta-analysis suggests a modest association between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness; limitations include studies with a high risk of bias and a

  9. Behavioral pain assessment tool for critically ill adults unable to self-report pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Haslam, Lynn; Dale, Craig; Knechtel, Leasa; McGillion, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Critically ill adults often cannot self-report pain. To determine the effect of the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool on frequency of documentation of pain assessment and administration of analgesics and sedatives in critically ill patients unable to self-report pain. Data on patients in 2 intensive care units of a university-affiliated hospital were collected before and after implementation of the tool. Patients were prospectively screened for eligibility; data were extracted retrospectively. Data were recorded for a maximum of 72 hours before and after implementation of the tool in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (130 patients before and 132 after) and in the medical/surgical/trauma unit (59 patients before and 52 after). Proportion of pain assessment intervals with pain assessment documented increased from 15% to 64% (P tool increased frequency of pain assessment and appeared to influence administration of analgesics in both units.

  10. A double concern: Grandmothers' experiences when a small grandchild is critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Grandmothers play an active part in family health and illness, but so far they are peripheral in both nursing and nursing research. This article addresses grandmothers' lived experiences when a small grandchild is critically ill. A convenience sample of 7 grandmothers was interviewed once....... With the use of the methodology of Van Manen, (1990), the essence of the phenomenon was found to be a "double concern," a worry and loving care that encompassed both parents and grandchildren. Although the findings have limitations, they constitute a systematic and thematic description of Danish grandmothers......' experiences and therefore add to a family-oriented body of knowledge in pediatric nursing....

  11. Development and validation of a printed information brochure for families of chronically critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shannon S; Vu, Maihan; Danis, Marion; Camhi, Sharon L; Scheunemann, Leslie P; Cox, Christopher E; Hanson, Laura C; Nelson, Judith E

    2012-01-01

    Families and other surrogate decisionmakers for chronically critically ill patients often lack information about patient prognosis or options for care. This study describes an approach to develop and validate a printed information brochure about chronic critical illness aimed at improving comprehension of the disease process and outcomes for patients' families and other surrogate decisionmakers. Investigators reviewed existing literature to identify key domains of informational needs. Content of these domains was incorporated in a draft brochure that included graphics and a glossary of terms. Clinical sensibility, balance, and emotional sensitivity of the draft brochure were tested in a series of evaluations by cohorts of experienced clinicians (n = 49) and clinical content experts (n = 8) with revisions after each review. Cognitive testing of the brochure was performed through interviews of ten representative family members of chronically critically ill patients with quantitative and qualitative analysis of responses. Clinical sensibility and balance were rated in the two most favorable categories on a five-point scale by more than two thirds of clinicians and content experts. After review, family members described the brochure as clear and readable and recommended that the brochure be delivered to family members by clinicians followed by a discussion of its contents. They indicated that the glossary was useful and recommended supplementation by additional lists of local resources. After reading the brochure, their prognostic estimates became more consistent with actual outcomes. We have developed and validated a printed information brochure that may improve family comprehension of chronic critical illness and its outcomes. The structured process that is described can serve as a template for the development of other information aids for use with seriously ill populations.

  12. Simulator-based crew resource management training for interhospital transfer of critically ill patients by a mobile ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogh, Joep M; Kruger, H. L.; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transporting critically ill ICU patients by standard ambulances, with or without an accompanying physician, imposes safety risks. In 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Public Health required that all critically ill patients transferred between ICUs in different hospitals be transported by a

  13. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness...

  14. Assessment of sleep quality post-hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solverson, Kevin J; Easton, Paul A; Doig, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Sleep quality is impaired during critical illness and may remain abnormal after discharge from hospital. Sleep dysfunction in patients after critical illness may impair recovery and health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to use objective and subjective measures to evaluate sleep quality in critical illness survivors 3 months after hospital discharge. This was a prospective cohort study of 55 patients admitted to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) between April 1st, 2009 and March 31, 2010. Patients enrolled were over 17 years of age and stayed a minimum of 4 days in the ICU. Patients were assessed in an outpatient clinic 3-months after hospital discharge. Sleep quality was measured using multi-night sleep actigraphy and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 62% of patients had poor sleep quality measured with the PSQI. The average (SD) sleep time, sleep efficiency and number of sleep disruptions per night was 6.15 h (3.4), 78% (18), and 11 disruptions (5) respectively. The APACHE II score was correlated with total sleep time (β = -12.6, P = 0.019) and sleep efficiency (β = -1.18, P = 0.042). The PSQI score was associated with anxiety (β = 4.00, p = 0.001), reduced mobility (β = 3.39, p = 0.002) and EuroQol-5D visual analogue scale score (β = -0.85, p = 0.003) and low Physical Composite Scores (β = -0.13, p = 0.004) and Mental Composite Scores (β = -0.15, p = 0.002) of the Short-Form 36 survey. Reduced sleep quality following critical illness is common and associated with reduced health related quality of life. Critical illness severity is a predictor of reduced sleep duration and sleep disruption 3 months after hospital discharge. This cohort study highlights the important role sleep may contribute to the long-term recovery from critical illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal crosstalk: a new paradigm for understanding the gut as the "motor" of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-10-01

    For more than 20 years, the gut has been hypothesized to be the "motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As critical care research has evolved, there have been multiple mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to drive systemic inflammation. Many of these disparate mechanisms have proved to be important in the origin and propagation of critical illness. However, this has led to an unusual situation where investigators describing the gut as a "motor" revving the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are frequently describing wholly different processes to support their claim (i.e., increased apoptosis, altered tight junctions, translocation, cytokine production, crosstalk with commensal bacteria, etc). The purpose of this review is to present a unifying theory as to how the gut drives critical illness. Although the gastrointestinal tract is frequently described simply as "the gut," it is actually made up of (1) an epithelium; (2) a diverse and robust immune arm, which contains most of the immune cells in the body; and (3) the commensal bacteria, which contain more cells than are present in the entire host organism. We propose that the intestinal epithelium, the intestinal immune system, and the intestine's endogenous bacteria all play vital roles driving multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and the complex crosstalk between these three interrelated portions of the gastrointestinal tract is what cumulatively makes the gut a "motor" of critical illness.

  16. Complication rates of open surgical versus percutaneous tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie; Veljkovic, Andrea; Javidnia, Hedyeh

    2016-11-01

    In the setting of critical care, the most common indications for tracheostomy include: prolonged intubation, to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation, and for pulmonary toileting. In this setting, tracheostomy can be performed either via open surgical or percutaneous technique. Advantages for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) include: simplicity, smaller incision, less tissue trauma, lower incidence of wound infection, lower incidence of peristomal bleeding, decreased morbidity from patient transfer, and cost-effectiveness. Despite many studies comparing surgical tracheostomy (ST) versus PDT, there remains no consensus on which of these techniques minimizes complications in critically ill patients. To provide an updated meta-analysis to answer the following question: Is there a difference in complication rates between ST and PDT in the setting of critically ill patients? Our secondary outcome of interest was to examine the difference in procedure time in the ST versus PDT groups. We conducted a literature search using the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies from 1985 until October 2014 published in French or English languages in peer-reviewed journals were included. With regard to rates of mortality, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative hemorrhage, there was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques. Evaluation of infections rates and operative time, however, revealed a statistically significant difference, favoring PDT over ST. In critically ill patients, PDT appears to be a safe and efficient alternative to open ST. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2459-2467, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Comparison of 2 intravenous insulin protocols: Glycemia variability in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garrido, Marta; Rodilla-Fiz, Ana M; Girón-Lacasa, María; Rodríguez-Rubio, Laura; Martínez-Blázquez, Anselmo; Martínez-López, Fernando; Pardo-Ibáñez, María Dolores; Núñez-Marín, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Glycemic variability is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to compare two intravenous insulin protocols in critically ill patients regarding the glycemic variability. This was a retrospective observational study performed by reviewing clinical records of patients from a Critical Care Unit for 4 consecutive months. First, a simpler Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SBIIP) was reviewed and later it was compared for the same months of the following year with a Sliding Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SSBIIP). All adult patients admitted to the unit during the referred months were included. Patients in whom the protocol was not adequately followed were excluded. A total of 557 patients were reviewed, of whom they had needed intravenous insulin 73 in the first group and 52 in the second group. Four and two patients were excluded in each group respectively. Glycemic variability for both day 1 (DS1) and total stay (DST) was lower in SSBIIP patients compared to SBIIP patients: SD1 34.88 vs 18.16 and SDT 36.45 vs 23.65 (P<.001). A glycemic management protocol in critically ill patients based on sliding scales decreases glycemic variability. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related thrombosis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochios, Vasileios; Umar, Imraan; Simpson, Nicola; Jones, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are being increasingly used in critical care setting. However, PICCs are associated with a number of complications, particularly upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT), leading to post-thrombotic syndrome, pulmonary embolism and increased risk of catheter-related infection. To review the literature surrounding PICCs and highlight the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of PICC-related thrombosis in critically ill patients. We performed an electronic literature search of the databases PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar using set search terms, from their commencement date to the end of January 2014. It has been shown that PICCs may double the risk of deep venous thrombosis compared with centrally inserted venous catheters, in critically ill patients. However, the incidence of PICC-related thrombosis in critically ill patients has not been quantified. Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging modality. There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the best treatment of PICC-related thrombosis in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting and in most cohort studies, anticoagulation strategies with or without PICC removal have been used. Decision to insert a PICC should be taken after careful risk stratification. There is lack of high-quality evidence assessing prevention strategies and management of PICC-related thrombosis in the ICU. Well-designed RCTs are required to estimate the prevalence of UEVT in ICU patients with PICCs and evaluate the efficacy and magnitude of clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic strategies.

  19. The experience of critically ill children: A phenomenological study of discomfort and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A; Gaudreault, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that critically ill children are particularly at risk for incurring significant psychological harm. Little is known about these children's actual experiences. The aim of the study was to examine children's experience of critical illness. The research question was: What are a critically ill child's sources of discomfort and comfort? Interpretive phenomenology was selected as the study's method. Children's accounts were examined to identify what they considered meaningful, in terms of their experienced discomfort and comfort. Data sources included formal and informal interviews with child-participants, drawings provided by some participants, and field-notes documenting observed non-verbal data. Twelve children were enrolled in the study, ranging from 3 to 17years of age; including four girls and eight boys. Although all participants were able to discuss the discomfort and comfort they experienced, they reported difficulties in remembering part or most of their experience. Some participants characterized their Pediatric Intensive Care Unit stay quite favourably or as "not that bad", while some described their experience unfavourably. Diverse types of discomforts were reported, including fears and worries, hurt and pain, invasive interventions, missing significant people, noise, food or eating problems, boredom, physical symptoms, as well as four additional discomforts reported by individual participants. Several sources of comfort were described, including parents, visitors and friends, hospital staff (principally nurses), stuffed animal/favourite blanket, entertainment and play, food, selected medical interventions, thinking of going home, being able to walk or run, sleep, waking up, gifts, along with two other comforts reported by individual participants. Embodiment and a tension between aloneness and being with were identified as the principal phenomena underlying these children's experiences. The findings complement existing knowledge

  20. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study. PMID:23392368

  1. Baseline serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L; Dean, J Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. None. Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study.

  2. Validation Study of Energy Requirements in Critically Ill, Obese Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajchman, Sharla K; Tucker, Anne M; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Current guidelines from the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (ASPEN/SCCM) regarding caloric requirements and the provision of nutrition support in critically ill, obese adults may not be suitable for similar patients with cancer. We sought to determine whether the current guidelines accurately estimate the energy requirements, as measured by indirect calorimetry (IC), of critically ill, obese cancer patients. This was a retrospective validation study of critically ill, obese cancer patients from March 1, 2007, to July 31, 2010. All patients ≥18 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) who underwent IC were included. We compared the measured energy expenditure (MEE) against the upper limit of the recommended guideline (25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW]) and MEE between medical and surgical patients in the intensive care unit. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. Mean MEE (28.7 ± 5.2 kcal/kg IBW) was significantly higher than 25 kcal/kg IBW (P nutrition requirements greater than the current guideline recommendations. No significant differences in MEE between medical and surgical patients in the ICU were observed. Critically ill, obese cancer patients require more calories than the current guidelines recommend, likely due to malignancy-associated metabolic variations. Our results demonstrate the need for IC studies to determine the energy requirements in these patients and for reassessment of the current recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Being family: the family experience when an adult member is hospitalized with a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Sandra K; Nelms, Tommie P

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and interpret the 'family experience' with an adult member hospitalized with a critical illness. Nursing practice in critical care settings has traditionally focused on individual patient needs with only tangential recognition of family needs. Investigation to describe the family experience to illuminate family nursing practice has been lacking. The majority of studies thus far related to critical illness and family are quantitative and reveal constraints to family care and problematic nurse-family interactions. The logical next step is a new kind of family research to enhance nursing of the family as a whole. Family systems theory and existential phenomenology provided the frameworks guiding the study. Semi-structured 'family as a group' interviews were performed with 11 families. Data were analysed using Van Manen's hermeneutic method. Rigor was addressed with trustworthiness criteria. The family experience was analysed within Van Manen's framework of lived space, lived relation, lived body and lived time. A constitutive pattern of being family was revealed. Being family bonds families and makes them exceedingly strong during the critical illness experience. Being a family unit is what gives most families the ability to endure the emotional upheaval and suffering that come with the critical illness experience. Nurses have profound power to help families bear this experience. Family caring is enhanced with the presence of nurses who recognize the importance of 'Being Family' for the family, acknowledge the significance of the nurse-family relationship and act on a commitment to be with and for the family.

  4. Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; James, Karen; Bromfield, Tom; Temblett, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been reported in survivors of critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of critical illness. Patients attending the intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up clinic completed the UK-Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory and data was collected from their medical records. Predictors investigated included age, gender, Apache II score, ICU length of stay, pre-illness psychopathology; delirium and benzodiazepine administration during ICU stay and delusional memories of the ICU stay following discharge. A total of 198 patients participated, with 54 (27%) patients suffering with post-traumatic stress disorder. On multivariable logistic regression, the significant predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder were younger age, lower Apache II score, pre-illness psychopathology and delirium during the ICU stay. The predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in this study concur with previous research however a lower Apache II score has not been previously reported.

  5. Delirium em pacientes críticos Delirium in the critically ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fittipaldi Pessoa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O delirium é um achado freqüente em pacientes críticos. Apesar de estar associado a um aumento da morbidade e mortalidade, ainda é pouco reconhecido pelos intensivistas. Esta revisão teve como objetivo revisar os principais aspectos relacionados ao delirium no paciente critico. CONTEÚDO: Definição, incidência, mortalidade, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento do delirium no paciente crítico. CONCLUSÕES: O delirium é um distúrbio da consciência, cognição e percepção que pode acometer até 80% dos pacientes em ventilação mecânica. Os fatores de risco incluem doenças sistêmicas agudas, idade avançada, distúrbios cognitivos preexistentes, privação do sono e certas medicações, como os fármacos com atividade anticolinérgica. Embora novas ferramentas estejam disponíveis para o seu rápido diagnóstico em pacientes críticos, os profissionais de saúde ainda não costumam monitorizar esta condição. Nos últimos anos a prevenção e o diagnóstico têm sido priorizados. O haloperidol continua sendo a medicação de escolha embora exista alguma evidência da eficácia da risperidona.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delirium is a frequent finding in the critically ill patient. Although it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it is often not recognized by intensive care doctors. This review will address the main issues regarding delirium in critically ill patients. CONTENTS: Definition, incidence, mortality, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of delirium in the critically ill. CONCLUSIONS: Deliriumis defined as a disturbance of consciousness, attention, cognition and perception that occurs frequently in critically ill patients. It occurs in as many as 80% of mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Risk factors for delirium include acute systemic illnesses, older age, pre-existing cognitive impairment, sleep deprivation, and medications with anticholinergic

  6. Clinical outcome of critically ill, not fully recompensated, patients undergoing MitraClip therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Volker; Huntgeburth, Michael; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: As periprocedural risk is low, MitraClip implantation is often performed in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients, who are in NYHA functional class IV at the time of the procedure, to accelerate convalescence. We herein sought to evaluate the procedural and 30-day outcome...... of this patient group. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 803 patients undergoing MitraClip implantation were included in the German Mitral Valve Registry, and 30-day outcomes were prospectively assessed. Patients were separated based on NYHA functional class [(NYHA IV (n = 143), III (n = 572), and I/II (n = 88.......3%. CONCLUSION: MitraClip therapy is feasible and safe even in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients and leads to symptomatic improvement in over two-thirds of these patients; however, it is associated with an elevated 30-day mortality....

  7. Pain management in critically ill patients: a review of multimodal treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Matthew; Chiu, Felicia; Gelber, Katherine M; Webb, Christopher Aj; Weyker, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    Pain management for critically ill patients provides physicians with the challenge of maximizing patient comfort while avoiding the risks that arise with oversedation. Preventing oversedation has become increasingly important as we better understand the negative impact it has on patients' experiences and outcomes. Current research suggests that oversedation can result in complications such as thromboembolism, pulmonary compromise, immunosuppression and delirium. Fortunately, the analgesic options available for physicians to limit these complications are growing as more treatment modalities are being researched and implemented in the intensive care unit. Our goal is to outline some of the effective and widely utilized tools available to physicians to appropriately and safely manage pain while avoiding oversedation in the critically ill population.

  8. A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Thomas; Martinussen, Torben; Toft, Palle

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation is continuous sedation. Daily interruption of sedation has a beneficial effect, and in the general intesive care unit of Odense University Hospital, Denmark, standard practice is a protocol of no sedation....... We aimed to establish whether duration of mechanical ventilation could be reduced with a protocol of no sedation versus daily interruption of sedation. METHODS: Of 428 patients assessed for eligibility, we enrolled 140 critically ill adult patients who were undergoing mechanical ventilation and were...... with bolus doses of morphine (2.5 or 5 mg). The primary outcome was the number of days without mechanical ventilation in a 28-day period, and we also recorded the length of stay in the intensive care unit (from admission to 28 days) and in hospital (from admission to 90 days). Analysis was by intention...

  9. Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Gerard

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

  10. [Nutritional support in the critically ill patient: to whom, how, and when?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ortega, E J; Ordóñez González, F J; Blesa Malpica, A L

    2005-06-01

    Existing data about indication and time of onset of nutritional support are not homogeneous. However, the presence of a deterioration of the nutritional status is accompanied by harmful effects so that, broadly speaking, specialized nutritional support onset would be advisable if a fasting period longer than 5-7 days is foreseen. Parenteral nutrition routinely administered to critically ill patients may increase their morbidity and mortality. Whenever possible, enteral nutrition should be the preferred route of nutrients intake since it has been shown to have a favorable effect on infectious complications rates. Enteral nutrition should be started early on (within the first 36 hours of admission). Although transpyloric nutrients administration may however reduce bronchoaspiration and increase the diet effective volume received by patients, there are no data for recommending routinary usage of the transpyloric route for nutritional support in the critically ill patients.

  11. Prediction of chronic critical illness in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio H. Loss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, costs, and mortality associated with chronic critical illness (CCI, and to identify clinical predictors of CCI in a general intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study. All patients receiving supportive treatment for over 20 days were considered chronically critically ill and eligible for the study. After applying the exclusion criteria, 453 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was an 11% incidence of CCI. Total length of hospital stay, costs, and mortality were significantly higher among patients with CCI. Mechanical ventilation, sepsis, Glasgow score < 15, inadequate calorie intake, and higher body mass index were independent predictors for cci in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: CCI affects a distinctive population in intensive care units with higher mortality, costs, and prolonged hospitalization. Factors identifiable at the time of admission or during the first week in the intensive care unit can be used to predict CCI.

  12. Prediction of chronic critical illness in a general intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Sérgio H; Marchese, Cláudia B; Boniatti, Márcio M; Wawrzeniak, Iuri C; Oliveira, Roselaine P; Nunes, Luciana N; Victorino, Josué A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the incidence, costs, and mortality associated with chronic critical illness (CCI), and to identify clinical predictors of CCI in a general intensive care unit. This was a prospective observational cohort study. All patients receiving supportive treatment for over 20 days were considered chronically critically ill and eligible for the study. After applying the exclusion criteria, 453 patients were analyzed. There was an 11% incidence of CCI. Total length of hospital stay, costs, and mortality were significantly higher among patients with CCI. Mechanical ventilation, sepsis, Glasgow score intensive care units with higher mortality, costs, and prolonged hospitalization. Factors identifiable at the time of admission or during the first week in the intensive care unit can be used to predict CCI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-05-01

    Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, L. D.; Hutton, Brian; Guenette, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however......, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our......-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible...

  15. Rehabilitation, weaning and physical therapy strategies in chronic critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, N; Venturelli, E; Vagheggini, G; Clini, E

    2012-02-01

    In critically ill patients, a prolonged hospital stay, due to the initial acute insult and adverse side-effects of drug therapy, may cause severe late complications, such as muscle weakness, prolonged symptoms, mood alterations and poor health-related quality of life. The clinical aims of physical rehabilitation in both medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) are focussed on the patient to improve their short- and even long-term care. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available evidence on comprehensive rehabilitation programmes in critically ill patients, and describe the key components and techniques used, particularly in specialised ICUs. Despite the literature suggesting that several techniques have led to beneficial effects and that muscle training is associated with weaning success, scientific evidence is limited. Due to limitations in undertaking comparative studies in ICUs, further studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures are now welcomed.

  16. An audit of airway management in critically ill patients in a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola Olubodun Adekola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients have poor physiological reserves, and are at increased risk of cardiopulmonary complications such as hypoxia, hypotension, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest when undergoing airway management. This study audited airway management in critically ill patients. Patients Method: A Prospective observational study in 120 critically ill adult patients who required endotracheal intubation over a one year period. Induction was with IV midazolam (0.15mg/kg, and suxamethonium (1.5mg/kg. Data collected included immediate complications (complications during intubation, and early complications (complications on days one to seven of tube insertion. Results: The median age was 32 years, males constituted 68 (56.6% and female 52 (43.4%. One hundred and fifty-eight intubation attempts were recorded, one attempt to success in 93 (77.5%, and 2 attempts in 22 (18.33%. Difficult intubation occurred in 17 (10.49%, of whom 5 subjects had more than 3 intubation attempts, and 2 had surgical tracheostomy performed. The intubation aids used included stylet in 86.67%, bougie (3.33%, and laryngeal mask airway (1.67%. There was a significant association between the number of attempts at intubation, and trauma, bleeding, oesophageal intubation, aspiration or cardiac arrest, P<0.05. Tubal blockade occurred in 65 (36.31% subjects after a median duration of 38.5 hours. Conclusion: This study elicited the need to review the airway management of critically ill patients in our institution, provide different airway and intubating devices during difficult intubation, and ensure appropriate training in airway skills.

  17. INTRA-ABDOMINAL HYPERTENSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, also referred to as intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, affects organ function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of IAH is between 32% - 65% in intensive care units. Normal IAP is ≈ 5–7 mmHg. According to WSACS definition, IAH = IAP ≥12 mmHg and is divided into 4 grades. They are Grade I (12-15 mmHg, Grade II (16-20 mmHg, Grade III (21-25 mmHg, Grade IV (>25 mmHg. Transvesical measurement of IAP currently is the most popular technique. Several systems with or without the need for electronic equipment are available that allow IAP measurement. The aim is to study the incidence of IAH in critically ill patients, to assess the risk factors for development of IAH, to study the role of IAH as a risk factor for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, to assess the role of IAH as a risk factor for increased (Intensive Care Unit ICU mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This is a prospective observational study. Study period was six months. The study included 52 patients admitted to Medical ICU in Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION There was a very high incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients. IAH was significantly associated with risk factors like sepsis, mechanical ventilation, pancreatitis, capillary leak, ascites, cumulative fluid balance and cirrhosis. IAH is an independent risk factor for development of acute kidney injury. IAH is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.

  18. Infection in critically ill pediatric patients on continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Maria J; López-Herce, Jesús; Vierge, Eva; Castillo, Ana; Bustinza, Amaya; Bellón, Jose M; Sánchez, Amelia; Fernández, Sarah

    2017-05-29

    Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are frequently used in critically ill children and may increase the risk of infection. However, the incidence, characteristics and prognosis of infection in critically ill children on CRRT have not been studied. Data from a prospective, single-center register of critically ill children treated with CRRT was analyzed. 55 children (40% under 1 year of age) were treated with CRRT between June 2008 and January 2012; 43 patients (78.2%) presented 1 or more infections. The most common condition of patients requiring CRRT was heart disease (69%). Infection occurred a median of 11 days after the initiation of CRRT (IQ range: 4 to 21 days). A total of 21 patients (48.8 %) developed 1 infection, 7 (16.2%) developed 2 infections and 15 (34.9%) developed 3 or more infections. The most frequent infection was catheter-related bacteremia, with no differences in catheter location. CRRT duration longer than 4.5 days was the only risk factor for infection. Patients with infection had a longer length of stay (LOS) in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) than patients without it (37.8 vs. 17.6, p = 0.019), but there were no differences in mortality (30.2% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.84). Infection rate is high in critically ill children treated with CRRT. More than 4 days of CRRT increases the risk of infection. Infection in these patients entails a longer stay in the PICU but did not increase mortality.

  19. Assessment of serum zinc, selenium, and prolactin concentrations in critically ill children

    OpenAIRE

    Negm, Farida F; Soliman, Doaa R; Ahmed, Enas S; Elmasry, Rasha A

    2016-01-01

    Farida F Negm,1 Doaa R Soliman,1 Enas S Ahmed,2 Rasha A Elmasry1 1Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, El-Kalyobia, Banha, Egypt Background: In critically ill patients, there are reduced stores of antioxidants, which are associated with increased organ failure and even higher mortality. Trace elements, especially zinc and selenium, are the cornerstone of the antioxidant defense in acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Pr...

  20. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen; Furness, Susan; Qi, Zhang; Li, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. Objectives To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventil...

  1. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients.

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    Jakob G Jespersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box O (FoxO pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICU patients were systemically inflamed, moderately hyperglycemic, received insulin therapy, and showed a tendency to lower plasma branched chain amino acids compared with controls. Using Western blotting we measured Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1; and by RT-PCR we determined mRNA expression of, among others, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, FoxO 1, 3 and 4, atrogin1, MuRF1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and myostatin. Unexpectedly, in critically ill ICU patients Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling was substantially higher compared with controls. FoxO1 mRNA was higher in patients, whereas FoxO3, atrogin1 and myostatin mRNAs and MuRF1 protein were lower compared with controls. A moderate correlation (r2=0.36, p<0.05 between insulin infusion dose and phosphorylated Akt was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present for the first time muscle protein turnover signaling in critically ill ICU patients, and we show signaling pathway activity towards a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and a somewhat inhibited proteolysis.

  2. Probiotic and synbiotic therapy in critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, William; Lemieux, Margot; Langlois, Pascal L; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2016-08-19

    Critical illness is characterized by a loss of commensal flora and an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria, leading to a high susceptibility to nosocomial infections. Probiotics are living non-pathogenic microorganisms, which may protect the gut barrier, attenuate pathogen overgrowth, decrease bacterial translocation and prevent infection. The purpose of this updated systematic review is to evaluate the overall efficacy of probiotics and synbiotic mixtures on clinical outcomes in critical illness. Computerized databases from 1980 to 2016 were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating clinical outcomes associated with probiotic therapy as a single strategy or in combination with prebiotic fiber (synbiotics). Overall number of new infections was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), and diarrhea. Subgroup analyses were performed to elucidate the role of other key factors such as probiotic type and patient mortality risk on the effect of probiotics on outcomes. Thirty trials that enrolled 2972 patients were identified for analysis. Probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in infections (risk ratio 0.80, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 0.95, P = 0.009; heterogeneity I (2) = 36 %, P = 0.09). Further, a significant reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was found (risk ratio 0.74, 95 % CI 0.61, 0. 90, P = 0.002; I (2) = 19 %). No effect on mortality, LOS or diarrhea was observed. Subgroup analysis indicated that the greatest improvement in the outcome of infections was in critically ill patients receiving probiotics alone versus synbiotic mixtures, although limited synbiotic trial data currently exists. Probiotics show promise in reducing infections, including VAP in critical illness. Currently, clinical heterogeneity and potential publication bias reduce strong clinical recommendations and indicate further high

  3. Resilience in Survivors of Critical Illness in the Context of the Survivors' Experience and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Jason H; Brewster, Isabel; Mayoral, Iris; Siruckova, Renata; Adams, Sarah; McGraw, Kelley A; Piech, Angela A; Detsky, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), defined as new or worsening impairment in cognition, mental health, or physical function after critical illness, is an important development in survivors. Although studies to date have focused on the frequency of these impairments, fundamental questions remain unanswered regarding the survivor experience and the impact of the critical illness event on survivor resilience and recovery. To examine the association between resilience and neuropsychological and physical function and to contextualize these findings within the survivors' recovery experience. We conducted a mixed-methods pilot investigation of resilience among 43 survivors from two medical intensive care units (ICUs) within an academic health-care system. We interviewed survivors to identify barriers to and facilitators of recovery in the ICU, on the medical ward, and at home, using qualitative methods. We used a telephone battery of standardized tests to examine resilience, neuropsychological and physical function, and quality of life. We examined PICS in two ways. First, we identified how frequently survivors were impaired in one or more domains 6-12 months postdischarge. Second, we identified how frequently survivors reported that neuropsychological or physical function was worse. Resilience was low in 28% of survivors, normal in 63% of survivors, and high in 9% of survivors. Resilience was inversely correlated with self-reported executive dysfunction, symptoms of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, difficulty with self-care, and pain (P critical illness. We identified challenges along the recovery path of ICU survivors, finding that physical limitations and functional dependence were the most frequent challenges experienced in the ICU, medical ward, and on return to home. Spiritual and family support facilitated recovery. Resilience was inversely correlated with neuropsychological impairment, pain, and difficulty with self-care. PICS was

  4. Candidemia in critically ill patients: difference of outcome between medical and surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Doise, Jean Marc; Quenot, Jean Pierre; Aube, Hervé; Dalle, Frédéric; Chavanet, Pascal; Milesi, Nadine; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Portier, Henri; Blettery, Bernard

    2003-12-01

    Candidemia is increasingly encountered in critically ill patients with a high fatality rate. The available data in the critically ill suggest that patients with prior surgery are at a higher risk than others. However, little is known about candidemia in medical settings. The main goal of this study was to compare features of candidemia in critically ill medical and surgical patients. Ten-year retrospective cohort study (1990-2000). Medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a teaching hospital. Fifty-one patients with at least one positive blood culture for Candida species. Risk factors were retrieved in all of the patients: central venous catheter (92.1%), mechanical ventilation (72.5%), prior bacterial infection (70.6%), high fungal colonization index (45.6%). Candida albicans accounts for 55% of all candidemia. The overall mortality was 60.8% (85% and 45.2% in medical and surgical patients, respectively). Independent factors associated with survival were prior surgery (hazard ratio [HR] =0.25; 0.09-0.67 95% confidence interval [CI], p<0.05), antifungal treatment (HR =0.11; 0.04-0.30 95% CI, p<0.05) and absence of neutropenia (HR =0.10; 0.02-0.45 95% CI, p<0.05). Steroids, neutropenia and high density of fungal colonization were more frequently found among medical patients compared to surgical ones. Candidemia occurrence is associated with a high mortality rate among critically ill patients. Differences in underlying conditions could account for the poorer outcome of the medical patients. Screening for fungal colonization could allow identification of such high-risk patients and, in turn, improve outcome.

  5. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pettila, Ville

    2011-04-15

    Abstract Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121\\/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25\\/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death.

  7. Triage: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L; King, Mary A; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V; Gomersall, Charles D

    2014-10-01

    Pandemics and disasters can result in large numbers of critically ill or injured patients who may overwhelm available resources despite implementing surge-response strategies. If this occurs, critical care triage, which includes both prioritizing patients for care and rationing scarce resources, will be required. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all who are involved in large-scale pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. The Triage topic panel reviewed previous task force suggestions and the literature to identify 17 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Suggestions from the previous task force that were not being updated were also included for validation by the expert panel. The suggestions from the task force outline the key principles upon which critical care triage should be based as well as a path for the development of the plans, processes, and infrastructure required. This article provides 11 suggestions regarding the principles upon which critical care triage should be based and policies to guide critical care triage. Ethical and efficient critical care triage is a complex process that requires significant planning and preparation. At present, the prognostic tools required to produce an effective decision support system (triage protocol) as well as the infrastructure, processes, legal protections, and training are largely lacking in most jurisdictions. Therefore, critical care triage should be a last resort after mass critical care surge strategies.

  8. Characteristics of Resting Metabolic Rate in Critically Ill, Mechanically Ventilated Adults With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfield, David C; Ashcraft, Christine M; Drasher, Tammy L; Reid, Elizabeth K; Vender, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill patients with cystic fibrosis may be especially sensitive to the negative consequences of overfeeding and underfeeding, yet there is almost no information available about the energy needs of these patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolic rate of critically ill adult patients with cystic fibrosis requiring mechanical ventilation. This was an observational study in which the resting metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production of adult patients with cystic fibrosis requiring critical care, sedation, and mechanical ventilation were measured with indirect calorimetry. This group was compared with a cohort of adult critical care patients without cystic fibrosis. Twelve patients with cystic fibrosis were identified and measured. These were compared with a control group of 25 critically ill patients. Both groups were underweight (body mass index, 17.4 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 in cystic fibrosis and 18.4 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 in control). Adjusting for differences in age, sex, height, and weight, there was no difference in resting metabolic rate between the cystic fibrosis and control groups (1702 ± 193 vs 1642 ± 194 kcal/d, P = .388). Measured resting metabolic rate matched predicted values 58% of the time in cystic fibrosis and 60% of the time in control. The resting metabolic rate of sedated adult patients with cystic fibrosis being assisted with mechanical ventilation is not different from that of adult critical care patients without cystic fibrosis. In both these underweight groups, accurate prediction of resting metabolic rate is difficult to obtain.

  9. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion Is Not Associated With Decreased Red Blood Cell Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Chandran, Arun; Jenkins, Gregory; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill patients frequently receive plasma transfusion under the assumptions that abnormal coagulation test results confer increased risk of bleeding and that plasma transfusion will decrease this risk. However, the effect of prophylactic plasma transfusion remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between prophylactic plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a single academic institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years and an international normalized ratio measured during ICU admission. Multivariable propensity-matched analyses were used to evaluate associations between prophylactic plasma transfusion and outcomes of interest with a primary outcome of red blood cell transfusion in the ensuing 24 hours and secondary outcomes of hospital- and ICU-free days and mortality within 30 days of ICU discharge. A total of 27,561 patients were included in the investigation with 2472 (9.0%) receiving plasma therapy and 1105 (44.7%) for which plasma transfusion was prophylactic in nature. In multivariable propensity-matched analyses, patients receiving plasma had higher rates of red blood cell transfusion (odds ratio: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 3.3-5.7], P plasma in the critically ill was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further investigation examining the utility of plasma transfusion in this population is warranted.

  10. Critical Illness Polyneuromyopathy Developing After Diabetic Ketoacidosis in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM is a primary axonal-degenerative condition that occurs in sensory and motor fibers after the onset of a critical illness. It is thought that it develops due to tissue damage due to hypoxia/ischemia. When 24-year-old female patient was followed in the intensive care unit (ICU due to diabetic ketoacidosis, she was extubated on the second day. She was reintubated on the third day because of respiratory acidosis. Sedation was withdrawn on the fifth day, however the patient could not recover consciousness until the 14th day and tetraplegia was found during her neurological examination. Motor peripheral nerve-transmission response in the upper-and lower-extremity was evaluated to be of low amplitude in the conducted needle electroneuromyography. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation on the 23rd day. The neuromuscular symptoms developing as a result of critical illnesses reflect themselves as an increase in the hospitalization duration in the ICU, a difficulty in separation from the mechanical ventilator and an extension of rehabilitation.

  11. Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-01-01

    Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.

  12. The Impact of Pain Assessment on Critically Ill Patients’ Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Georgiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In critically ill patients, pain is a major problem. Efficient pain management depends on a systematic, comprehensive assessment of pain. We aimed to review and synthesize current evidence on the impact of a systematic approach to pain assessment on critically ill patients’ outcomes. A systematic review of published studies (CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases with predetermined eligibility criteria was undertaken. Methodological quality was assessed by the EPHPP quality assessment tool. A total of 10 eligible studies were identified. Due to big heterogeneity, quantitative synthesis was not feasible. Most studies indicated the frequency, duration of pain assessment, and types of pain assessment tools. Methodological quality assessment yielded “strong” ratings for 5/10 and “weak” ratings for 3/10 studies. Implementation of systematic approaches to pain assessment appears to associate with more frequent documented reports of pain and more efficient decisions for pain management. There was evidence of favorable effects on pain intensity, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, mortality, adverse events, and complications. This systematic review demonstrates a link between systematic pain assessment and outcome in critical illness. However, the current level of evidence is insufficient to draw firm conclusions. More high quality randomized clinical studies are needed.

  13. Pharmacological Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Weakness After Critical Illness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen J; Newman, Richard; Brett, Stephen J; Griffith, David M

    2016-06-01

    ICU-acquired weakness is a common complication of critical illness and can have significant effects upon functional status and quality of life. As part of preliminary work to inform the design of a randomized trial of a complex intervention to improve recovery from critical illness, we sought to identify pharmacological interventions that may play a role in this area. We systematically reviewed the published literature relating to pharmacological intervention for the treatment and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL+, Web of Science, and both U.S. and European trial registries up to July 2014 alongside reviews and reference lists from populations with no age or language restrictions. We included studies that reported a measure of muscle structure or physical function as an outcome measure. We estimated pooled odds ratios and 95% CI using data extracted from published articles or where available, original data provided by the authors. Assessment of bias was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The current body of evidence does not support the use of any pharmacological agent in this setting, although maintaining euglycemia may reduce the prevalence of critical illness polyneuropathy. At present, no pharmacological intervention can be recommended to prevent or treat ICU-acquired weakness. Further research is required into this field to include more novel agents such as myostatin inhibitors. Challenges in the conduct of research in this area are highlighted.

  14. Intracardiac Origin of Heart Rate Variability, Pacemaker Funny Current and their Possible Association with Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Vasilios E; Verkerk, Arie O; Amin, Ahmed S; de Bakker, Jaques MT

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indirect estimator of autonomic modulation of heart rate and is considered a risk marker in critical illness, particularly in heart failure and severe sepsis. A reduced HRV has been found in critically ill patients and has been associated with neuro-autonomic uncoupling or decreased baroreflex sensitivity. However, results from human and animal experimental studies indicate that intracardiac mechanisms might also be responsible for interbeat fluctuations. These studies have demonstrated that different membrane channel proteins and especially the so-called ‘funny’ current (If), an hyperpolarization-activated, inward current that drives diastolic depolarization resulting in spontaneous activity in cardiac pacemaker cells, are altered during critical illness. Furthermore, membrane channels kinetics seem to have significant impact upon HRV, whose early decrease might reflect a cellular metabolic stress. In this review article we present research findings regarding intracardiac origin of HRV, at the cellular level and in both isolated sinoatrial node and whole ex vivo heart preparations. In addition, we will review results from various experimental studies that support the interrelation between If and HRV during endotoxemia. We suggest that reduced HRV during sepsis could also be associated with altered pacemaker cell membrane properties, due to ionic current remodeling. PMID:22920474

  15. Endocrine emergencies in critically ill patients: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management.

  16. Moisture chamber versus lubrication for corneal protection in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Liu, Jing; Cui, Yun; Zhu, Hechen; Lu, Zhaozeng

    2014-11-01

    Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit are at increased risk of exposure keratopathy. There is limited evidence available to make the best choice of eye care modality. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture chamber compared with lubrication for corneal protection in critically ill patients. Studies were identified through PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and complementary manual searches, up to May 31, 2014. Randomized controlled trials of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit comparing moisture chamber with lubrication and evaluating risk of corneal damage were included. Seven trials were included. The pooled analysis showed that the use of moisture chambers resulted in a reduction of the incidence of corneal damage [risk ratio (RR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.67; P = 0.005]. In 1 subgroup analysis, there was a significant difference between the use of moisture chambers and lubricating drops, and the moisture chamber group had a decreased incidence of corneal damage (RR, 0.13; 95% CI: 0.05-0.35; P lubricating ointments (RR, 0.81; 95% CI: 0.51-1.29; P = 0.38). The overall quality of evidence was low. The use of moisture chambers is associated with more effective corneal protection compared with lubrication. The analytic result is limited by serious risk of bias and imprecision.

  17. Early Prediction of Sepsis Incidence in Critically Ill Patients Using Specific Genetic Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vlad Laurentiu; Ercisli, Muhammed Furkan; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Boia, Eugen S; Horhat, Razvan; Nitu, Razvan; Diaconu, Mircea M; Pirtea, Laurentiu; Ciuca, Ioana; Horhat, Delia; Horhat, Florin George; Licker, Monica; Popovici, Sonia Elena; Tanasescu, Sonia; Tataru, Calin

    2017-06-01

    Several diagnostic methods for the evaluation and monitoring were used to find out the pro-inflammatory status, as well as incidence of sepsis in critically ill patients. One such recent method is based on investigating the genetic polymorphisms and determining the molecular and genetic links between them, as well as other sepsis-associated pathophysiologies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in critical patients with sepsis can become a revolutionary method for evaluating and monitoring these patients. Similarly, the complications, as well as the high costs associated with the management of patients with sepsis, can be significantly reduced by early initiation of intensive care.

  18. [Predictive value of four pediatric scores of critical illness and mortality on evaluating mortality risk in pediatric critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lidan; Huang, Huimin; Cheng, Yucai; Xu, Lingling; Huang, Xueqiong; Pei, Yuxin; Tang, Wen; Qin, Zhaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    To assess the performance of pediatric clinical illness score (PCIS), pediatric risk of mortality score III (PRISM III), pediatric logistic organ dysfunction score 2 (PELOD-2), and pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS) in predicting mortality in critically ill pediatric patients. The data of critically ill pediatric patients admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from August 2012 to May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The gender, age, basic diseases, the length of PICU stay were collected. The children were divided into survival group and non-survival group according to the clinical outcome during hospitalization. The variables of PCIS, PRISM III, PELOD-2, and P-MODS were collected and scored. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, the efficiency of PCIS, PRISM III, PELOD-2, and P-MODS for predicting death were evaluated by the area under ROC curve (AUC). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test was used to evaluate the fitting degree of each scoring system to predict the mortality and the actual mortality. Of 461 critically ill children, 35 children were excluded because of serious data loss, hospital stay not exceeding 24 hours, and death within 8 hours after admission. Finally, a total of 426 pediatric patients were enrolled in this study. 355 pediatric patients were survived, while 71 were not survived during hospitalization, with the mortality of 16.7%. There was no significant difference in gender, age, underlying diseases or length of PICU stay between the two groups. PCIS score in non-survival group was significantly lower than that of survival group [80 (76, 88) vs. 86 (80, 92)], and PRISM III, PELOD-2 and P-MODS scores were significantly increased [PRISM III: 16 (13, 22) vs. 12 (10, 15), PELOD-2: 6 (5, 9) vs. 4 (2, 5), P-MODS: 6 (4, 9) vs. 3 (2, 6), all P < 0.01]. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUCs of PCIS, PRISM III, PELOD-2, and P-MODS for predicting

  19. Validity, reliability and applicability of Portuguese versions of sedation-agitation scales among critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paulo Nassar Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Sedation scales are used to guide sedation protocols in intensive care units (ICUs. However, no sedation scale in Portuguese has ever been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of Portuguese translations of four sedation-agitation scales, among critically ill patients: Glasgow Coma Score, Ramsay, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study in two mixed ICUs of a university hospital. METHODS: All scales were applied to 29 patients by four different critical care team members (nurse, physiotherapist, senior critical care physician and critical care resident. We tested each scale for interrater reliability and for validity, by correlations between them. Interrater agreement was measured using weighted kappa (k and correlations used Spearman's test. RESULTS: 136 observations were made on 29 patients. All scales had at least substantial agreement (weighted k 0.68-0.90. RASS (weighted k 0.82-0.87 and SAS (weighted k 0.83-0.90 had the best agreement. All scales had a good and significant correlation with each other. CONCLUSIONS: All scales demonstrated good interrater reliability and were comparable. RASS and SAS showed the best correlations and the best agreement results in all professional categories. All these characteristics make RASS and SAS good scales for use at the bedside, to evaluate sedation-agitation among critically ill patients in terms of validity, reliability and applicability.

  20. Clinical conundrums in management of hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Rinku; Bajaj, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly. Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology. Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients.

  1. Structure, process, and annual ICU mortality across 69 centers: United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, William; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Samuel M; Chang, Steven Y; Dabbagh, Ousama; Fremont, Richard D; Girard, Timothy D; Rice, Todd W; Howell, Michael D; Johnson, Steven B; O'Brien, James; Park, Pauline K; Pastores, Stephen M; Patil, Namrata T; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Putman, Maryann; Rotello, Leo; Siner, Jonathan; Sajid, Sahul; Murphy, David J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2014-02-01

    Hospital-level variations in structure and process may affect clinical outcomes in ICUs. We sought to characterize the organizational structure, processes of care, use of protocols, and standardized outcomes in a large sample of U.S. ICUs. We surveyed 69 ICUs about organization, size, volume, staffing, processes of care, use of protocols, and annual ICU mortality. ICUs participating in the United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study. Sixty-nine intensivists completed the survey. We characterized structure and process variables across ICUs, investigated relationships between these variables and annual ICU mortality, and adjusted for illness severity using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. Ninety-four ICU directors were invited to participate in the study and 69 ICUs (73%) were enrolled, of which 25 (36%) were medical, 24 (35%) were surgical, and 20 (29%) were of mixed type, and 64 (93%) were located in teaching hospitals with a median number of five trainees per ICU. Average annual ICU mortality was 10.8%, average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 19.3, 58% were closed units, and 41% had a 24-hour in-house intensivist. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and multiple ICU structure and process factors, annual ICU mortality was lower in surgical ICUs than in medical ICUs (5.6% lower [95% CI, 2.4-8.8%]) or mixed ICUs (4.5% lower [95% CI, 0.4-8.7%]). We also found a lower annual ICU mortality among ICUs that had a daily plan of care review (5.8% lower [95% CI, 1.6-10.0%]) and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio (1.8% lower when the ratio decreased from 2:1 to 1.5:1 [95% CI, 0.25-3.4%]). In contrast, 24-hour intensivist coverage (p = 0.89) and closed ICU status (p = 0.16) were not associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. In a sample of 69 ICUs, a daily plan of care review and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio were both associated with a

  2. SIRS-associated coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Gando, Satoshi; Iba, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Yutaka; Ohtomo, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kohji; Koseki, Kazuhide; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Murata, Atsuo; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Ueyama, Masashi; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Endo, Shigeatsu; Shimazaki, Shuji

    2007-10-01

    Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia often occur in critically ill patients, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and a poor outcome. However, the relation between coagulopathy and systemic inflammatory response has not been thoroughly clarified. Thus, we evaluated coagulative activity, organ dysfunction, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia and examined the balance between coagulopathy and systemic inflammation. Two hundred seventy-three patients, who were admitted to 13 critical care centers in Japan and fulfilled the criteria of platelet count of less than 150*10(9)/L, were included. Coagulative variables (platelet count, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and DIC scores), organ dysfunction index (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] score), and SIRS score in each patient were evaluated for 4 consecutive days after fulfilling the above entry criteria. The effect of SIRS on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction was evaluated in these patients. Both the maximum SIRS score and entry SIRS score had significant relation to the maximum SOFA score during the observation period. Coagulation disorders indicated by the minimum platelet count, maximum DIC scores, and positivity for DIC worsened gradually with increases in SIRS scores. Both the minimum platelet count and maximum DIC scores were significantly correlated with the maximum SOFA score, indicating that a relation exists between coagulopathy and organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and organ dysfunction progress with significant mutual correlation, depending on the increase in SIRS scores. The SIRS-associated coagulopathy may play a critical role in inducing organ dysfunction after severe insult.

  3. Sedation for critically ill or injured adults in the intensive care unit: a shifting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Haroon, Babar; Hall, Richard I

    2012-10-01

    As most critically ill or injured patients will require some degree of sedation, the goal of this paper was to comprehensively review the literature associated with use of sedative agents in the intensive care unit (ICU). The first and selected latter portions of this article present a narrative overview of the shifting paradigm in ICU sedation practices, indications for uninterrupted or prolonged ICU sedation, and the pharmacology of sedative agents. In the second portion, we conducted a structured, although not entirely systematic, review of the available evidence associated with use of alternative sedative agents in critically ill or injured adults. Data sources for this review were derived by searching OVID MEDLINE and PubMed from their first available date until May 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses and economic evaluations. Advances in the technology of mechanical ventilation have permitted clinicians to limit the use of sedation among the critically ill through daily sedative interruptions or other means. These practices have been reported to result in improved mortality, a decreased length of ICU and hospital stay and a lower risk of drug-associated delirium. However, in some cases, prolonged or uninterrupted sedation may still be indicated, such as when patients develop intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury. The pharmacokinetics of sedative agents have clinical importance and may be altered by critical illness or injury, co-morbid conditions and/or drug-drug interactions. Although use of validated sedation scales to monitor depth of sedation is likely to reduce adverse events, they have no utility for patients receiving neuromuscular receptor blocking agents. Depth of sedation monitoring devices such as the Bispectral Index (BIS©) also have limitations. Among existing RCTs, no sedative agent has been reported to improve the risk of mortality among the critically ill or

  4. Light and the outcome of the critically ill: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Light before and during acute illness has been associated with both benefit and harm in animal models and small human studies. Our objective was to determine the associations of light duration (photoperiod) and intensity (insolation) before and during critical illness with hospital mortality in ICU patients. Based on the 'winter immunoenhancement' theory, we tested the hypothesis that a shorter photoperiod before critical illness is associated with improved survival. Methods We analyzed data from 11,439 patients admitted to 8 ICUs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between June 30, 1999 and July 31, 2004. Daily photoperiod and insolation prior to and after ICU admission were estimated for each patient by using data provided by the United States Naval Observatory and National Aeronautics and Space Administration and direct measurement of light gradient from outside to bedside for each ICU room. Our primary outcome was hospital mortality. The association between light and risk of death was analyzed using multivariate analyses, adjusting for potential confounders, including severity of illness, case mix, and ICU type. Results The cohort had an average APACHE III of 52.9 and a hospital mortality of 10.7%. In total, 128 ICU beds were analyzed; 108 (84%) had windows. Pre-illness photoperiod ranged from 259 to 421 hours in the prior month. A shorter photoperiod was associated with a reduced risk of death: for each 1-hour decrease, the adjusted OR was 0.997 (0.994 to 0.999, p = 0.03). In the ICU, there was near complete (99.6%) degradation of natural light from outside to the ICU bed. Thus, light exposure once in the ICU approached zero; the 24-hour insolation was 0.005 ± 0.003 kWh/m2 with little diurnal variation. There was no association between ICU photoperiod or insolation and mortality. Conclusions Consistent with the winter immunoenhancement theory, a shorter photoperiod in the month before critical illness is associated with a reduced risk

  5. Light and the outcome of the critically ill: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ricardo A; Angus, Derek C; Hong, Seo Yeon; Lee, Chingwen; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Clermont, Gilles; Rosengart, Matthew R

    2012-07-24

    Light before and during acute illness has been associated with both benefit and harm in animal models and small human studies. Our objective was to determine the associations of light duration (photoperiod) and intensity (insolation) before and during critical illness with hospital mortality in ICU patients. Based on the 'winter immunoenhancement' theory, we tested the hypothesis that a shorter photoperiod before critical illness is associated with improved survival. We analyzed data from 11,439 patients admitted to 8 ICUs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between June 30, 1999 and July 31, 2004. Daily photoperiod and insolation prior to and after ICU admission were estimated for each patient by using data provided by the United States Naval Observatory and National Aeronautics and Space Administration and direct measurement of light gradient from outside to bedside for each ICU room. Our primary outcome was hospital mortality. The association between light and risk of death was analyzed using multivariate analyses, adjusting for potential confounders, including severity of illness, case mix, and ICU type. The cohort had an average APACHE III of 52.9 and a hospital mortality of 10.7%. In total, 128 ICU beds were analyzed; 108 (84%) had windows. Pre-illness photoperiod ranged from 259 to 421 hours in the prior month. A shorter photoperiod was associated with a reduced risk of death: for each 1-hour decrease, the adjusted OR was 0.997 (0.994 to 0.999, p = 0.03). In the ICU, there was near complete (99.6%) degradation of natural light from outside to the ICU bed. Thus, light exposure once in the ICU approached zero; the 24-hour insolation was 0.005 ± 0.003 kWh/m² with little diurnal variation. There was no association between ICU photoperiod or insolation and mortality. Consistent with the winter immunoenhancement theory, a shorter photoperiod in the month before critical illness is associated with a reduced risk of death. Once in the ICU, patients are

  6. Insulin injection guidelines for peri-operative and critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesiologists and intensivists are encountering increasing number of diabetic patients in daily clinical practice. Majority of such patients may require insulin injections for control of hyperglycemia. Advancements in diabetes management have led to usage of newer insulin injections ranging from human insulin and insulin analogs to glucagon-like peptides-1 analogs. The adequacy of glycemic control and successful outcome with such therapeutic interventions depends upon the adoption of correct injection techniques and procedures. Peri-operative and critically ill diabetic patients are highly prone to develop acute complications of diabetes if appropriate therapeutic strategies are not formulated and implemented. As such, the in-depth knowledge and awareness about various injection technique guidelines is essential from the patient care and healthcare provider′s perspective in the operative and critical care settings. This description is an abridged version of the Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique and their significance in peri-operative period and critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU. These insulin injection techniques are based on evidence-based recommendations and are meant to improve the management of diabetes by the attending staff and physicians in operative and critical care arenas.

  7. Intermittent and continuous enteral nutrition in critically ill dogs: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, M; Abood, S; Hauptman, J; Koenigsknecht, C; Brown, A

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in critically ill dogs and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human medicine. Enteral nutrition (EN) delivery methods have been evaluated in humans to determine which is most effective in achieving caloric goals. To compare continuous infusion and intermittent bolus feeding of EN in dogs admitted to a critical care unit. Fifty-four dogs admitted to the critical care unit and requiring nutritional support with a nasoenteric feeding tube. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to receive either continuous infusion (Group C) or intermittent bolus feeding (Group I) of liquid EN. The percentage of prescribed nutrition delivered (PPND) was calculated every 24 hours. Frequencies of gastrointestinal (GI), mechanical, and technical complications were recorded and gastric residual volumes (GRVs) were measured. PPND was significantly lower in Group C (98.4%) than Group I (100%). There was no significant difference in GI or mechanical complications, although Group C had a significantly higher rate of technical complications. GRVs did not differ significantly between Group C (3.1 mL/kg) and Group I (6.3 mL/kg) and were not correlated with the incidence of vomiting or regurgitation. There was a statistically significant difference in the PPND between continuously and intermittently fed dogs, but this difference is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Critically ill dogs can be successfully supported with either continuous infusion or intermittent bolus feeding of EN with few complications. Increased GRVs may not warrant termination of enteral feeding.

  8. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide elevations in the course of septic and non-septic shock reflect systolic left ventricular dysfunction assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Groeneveld; R.J. Trof (R.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The cardiac correlates, if any, of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in septic and non-septic shock patients remain controversial. Methods: In the 38 septic and 22 non-septic shock patients in the transpulmonary thermodilution arm of a previous

  9. Acetylsalicylic acid in critically ill patients: a cross-sectional and a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Hobl, Eva-Luise; Schwameis, Michael; Gelbenegger, Georg; Staudinger, Thomas; Heinz, Gottfried; Speidl, Walter S; Zauner, Christian; Reiter, Birgit; Lang, Irene; Jilma, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    Despite decades of clinical use, the pharmacokinetics and the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in critically ill patients remain ill-defined. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and the effects of different ASA formulations during critical illness. A cross-sectional study and a randomized, parallel-group trial were performed. Critically ill patients under chronic oral ASA treatment (100 mg enteric-coated) were screened for high 'on-treatment' platelet reactivity (HTPR) according to arachidonic acid-induced whole-blood aggregometry. Thirty patients with HTPR were randomized to receive 100 mg ASA intravenously, 100 mg enteric-coated ASA bid (bis in die) or 81 mg chewable ASA (n = 10 per group). Serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2) levels, ASA and salicylic acid levels were quantified. Of 66 patients, 85% (95% confidence intervals 74-93%) had HTPR. Compared to baseline infusion of 100 mg, ASA significantly reduced platelet aggregation after 24 h to median 80% (Quartiles: 66-84%). Intake of 81 mg chewable ASA significantly reduced platelet aggregation to 75% (54-86%) after four hours, but increased it to 117% after 24 h (81-163%). Treatment with 100 mg enteric-coated ASA bid decreased platelet aggregation after 24 h to median 56% (52-113%). Baseline TXB2 levels were median 0·35 ng/mL (0·07-0·94). Infusion of ASA or intake of 100 mg ASA bid reduced TXB2 levels to 0·07-0·18 ng/mL after 24 h, respectively. Chewable ASA reduced TXB2 levels only transiently. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed highly variable absorption patterns of oral ASA formulations. There is a very high prevalence of HTPR in critically ill patients on peroral ASA therapy, caused by an incomplete suppression of TXB2 and/or by impaired absorption of ASA. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Comparison of Self-Reported and Behavioral Pain Assessment Tools in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajram, Rima H; Sebat, Christian M; Love, Dawn; Louie, Erin L; Wilson, Machelle D; Duby, Jeremiah J

    2018-01-01

    Self-reported and behavioral pain assessment scales are often used interchangeably in critically ill patients due to fluctuations in mental status. The correlation between scales is not well elucidated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation between self-reported and behavioral pain scores in critically ill patients. Pain was assessed using behavioral and self-reported pain assessment tools. Behavioral pain tools included Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) and Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS). Self-reported pain tools included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scales. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit. Patient preference regarding pain assessment method was queried. Correlation between scores was evaluated. A total of 115 patients were included: 67 patients were nondelirious and 48 patients were delirious. The overall correlation between self-reported (NRS) and behavioral (CPOT) pain scales was poor (0.30, P = .018). In patients without delirium, a strong correlation was found between the 2 BPSs (0.94, P self-reported pain scales (0.77, P Self-reported pain scale (NRS) and BPS (CPOT) were poorly correlated with each other (0.28, P = .021). In patients with delirium, there was a strong correlation between BPSs (0.86, P self-reported pain scales (0.69, P self-reported (NRS) and BPSs (CPOT) in patients with delirium (0.23, P = .12). Most participants preferred self-reported pain assessment. Self-reported pain scale and BPS cannot be used interchangeably. Current validated BPSs may not accurately reflect self-reported pain in critically ill patients.

  11. Harris-Benedict Equation and Resting Energy Expenditure Estimates in Critically Ill Ventilator Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picolo, Michele Ferreira; Lago, Alessandra Fabiane; Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Nicolini, Edson Antonio; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In routine practice, assessment of the nutritional status of critically ill patients still relies on traditional methods such as anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, and predictive equations. To compare resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry (REEIC) with REE calculated by using the Harris-Benedict equation with 3 different sources of body weight (from bed scale, REEHB1; ideal body weight, REEHB2; and predicted body weight, REEHB3). This study included 205 critically ill patients (115 men, 90 women) evaluated within the first 48 hours of admission and undergoing mechanical ventilation. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry for 30 minutes and calculated by using the Harris-Benedict equation with the 3 sources of body weight. Data were compared by the Bland-Altman method. The values based on ideal and predicted body weight (REEHB2 and REEHB3) did not agree with REEIC. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement varied from +796.1 kcal/d to -559.6 kcal/d for REEHB2 and from +809.2 kcal/d to -564.7 kcal/d for REEHB3. REEIC and REEHB1 (body weight determined by bed scale) agreed the best; the bias was -18.8 kcal/d. However, REEHB1 still overestimated REEIC by +555.3 kcal/d and underestimated it by -593.0 kcal/d. For measuring REE in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, calculation via the Harris-Benedict equation, regardless of the source of body weight, cannot be substituted for indirect calorimetry. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Legal preparedness: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G; Toner, Eric S; Roxland, Beth E; Penn, Matthew S; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Powell, Tia

    2014-10-01

    Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee's methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community's duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should contribute to protecting

  13. Nutrition therapy of the severely obese, critically ill patient: summation of conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClave, Stephen A; Kushner, Robert; Van Way, Charles W; Cave, Matt; DeLegge, Mark; Dibaise, John; Dickerson, Roland; Drover, John; Frazier, Thomas H; Fujioka, Ken; Gallagher, Dympna; Hurt, Ryan T; Kaplan, Lee; Kiraly, Lazlo; Martindale, Robert; McClain, Craig; Ochoa, Juan

    2011-09-01

    This report compiles the conclusions and recommendations for nutrition therapy of the obese, critically ill patient derived by the group of experts participating in this workshop on obesity in critical care nutrition. The recommendations are based on consensus opinions of the group after review of the current literature. Obesity clearly adds to the complexity of nutrition therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Obesity alters the incidence and severity of comorbidities, tolerance of the prescribed regimen, and ultimately patient outcome through the course of hospitalization. Although the basic principles of critical care nutrition apply to the obese ICU patient, a high-protein, hypocaloric regimen should be provided to reduce the fat mass, improve insulin sensitivity, and preserve lean body mass. The ideal enteral formula should have a low nonprotein calorie to nitrogen ratio and have a variety of pharmaconutrient agents added to modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation.

  14. The difference between critical care initiation anion gap and prehospital admission anion gap is predictive of mortality in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnick, Michael S; Braun, Andrea B; Cheung, Joyce Ting-Wai; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the delta anion gap defined as difference between critical care initiation standard anion gap and prehospital admission standard anion gap is associated with all cause mortality in the critically ill. Observational cohort study. Two hundred nine medical and surgical intensive care beds in two hospitals in Boston, MA. Eighteen thousand nine hundred eighty-five patients, age ≥18 yrs, who received critical care between 1997 and 2007. The exposure of interest was delta anion gap and categorized a priori as 10 mEq/L. Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90, and 365 postcritical care initiation and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. The discrimination of delta anion gap for 30-day mortality was evaluated using receiver operator characteristic curves performed for a subset of patients with all laboratory data required to analyze the data via physical chemical principles (n = 664). None. Delta anion gap was a particularly strong predictor of 30-day mortality with a significant risk gradient across delta anion gap quartiles following multivariable adjustment: delta anion gap anion gap 5-10 mEq/L odds ratio 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.35-1.81; p anion gap >10 mEq/L odds ratio 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.76-2.71; p anion gap 0-5 mEq/L. Similar significant robust associations post multivariable adjustments are seen with death by days 90 and 365 as well as in-hospital mortality. Correcting for albumin or limiting the cohort to patients with standard anion gap at critical care initiation of 10-18 mEq/L did not materially change the delta anion gap-mortality association. Delta anion gap has similarly moderate discriminative ability for 30-day mortality in comparison to standard base excess and strong ion gap. An increase in standard anion gap at critical care initiation relative to prehospital admission standard anion gap is a predictor of the risk of all cause patient

  15. Context-dependent risks and benefits of transfusion in the critically ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harahsheh Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yusrah Harahsheh,1,2 Kwok M Ho1,3,4 1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, 2School of Medicine & Pharmacology, 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, 4School of Veterinary & Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs and other blood products to critically ill patients is common. Blood products are expensive, and not without risks. Recent evidence from high-quality multicenter randomized controlled trials confirmed the safety of allogeneic RBC transfusions, including the use of aged RBCs, and mild to moderate anemia for most stable and nonbleeding critically ill patients. Emerging evidence suggests that a liberal RBC transfusion target may have potential divergent effects on patient outcomes depending on their clinical context, with possible harms for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding due to portal hypertension and, conversely, benefits for patients with severe underlying cardiovascular diseases. Despite an apparent increased risk of bleeding in critically ill patients with deranged coagulation parameters and thrombocytopenia, recent studies suggested that fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet transfusions may not be beneficial and, indeed, also not very effective in correcting these abnormalities. As for patients who have active severe critical bleeding, use of empirical 1:1:1 RBC: platelets: FFP transfusion appears justifiable in an attempt to reduce deaths as a result of exsanguination. In conjunction with platelet count and fibrinogen concentration, whole blood viscoelastic and platelet function tests are particularly useful to assist clinicians to rationalize FFP and platelet transfusions, when imminent death from exsanguination is not anticipated. Because the risks and benefits of blood product transfusion are heavily context-dependent, a thorough consideration of the characteristics and clinical status of the patients, in

  16. Single induction dose of etomidate versus other induction agents for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Eric A; Ball, Ian M; Ridi, Stacy; Pickett, William; Hohl, Corinne

    2015-01-08

    The use of etomidate for emergency airway interventions in critically ill patients is very common. In one large registry trial, etomidate was the most commonly used agent for this indication. Etomidate is known to suppress adrenal gland function, but it remains unclear whether or not this adrenal gland dysfunction affects mortality. The primary objective was to assess, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects mortality.The secondary objectives were to address, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects adrenal gland function, organ dysfunction, or health services utilization (as measured by intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor requirements).We repeated analyses within subgroups defined by the aetiologies of critical illness, timing of adrenal gland function measurement, and the type of comparator drug used. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; LILACS; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; Web of Science; the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); and ISI BIOSIS Citation index(SM) on 8 February 2013. We reran the searches in August 2014. We will deal with any studies of interest when we update the review.We also searched the Scopus database of dissertations and conference proceedings and the US Food and Drug Administration Database. We handsearched major emergency medicine, critical care, and anaesthesiology journals.We handsearched the conference proceedings of major emergency medicine, anaesthesia, and critical care conferences from 1990 to current, and performed a grey literature search of the following: Current Controlled Trials; National Health Service - The National Research Register; ClinicalTrials.gov; NEAR website. We included randomized controlled

  17. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  18. The role of infection models and PK/PD modelling for optimising care of critically ill patients with severe infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangden, T.; Martin, V.; Felton, T.W.; Nielsen, E.I.; Marchand, S.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Bulitta, J.B.; Bassetti, M.; Theuretzbacher, U.; Tsuji, B.T.; Wareham, D.W.; Friberg, L.E.; Waele, J.J. De; Tam, V.H.; Roberts, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed.

  19. How Dutch neurologists involve families of critically ill patients in end-of-life care and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, A.A.; Pols, A.J.; Hijdra, A.; Willems, D.L.

    When critically ill neurologic patients are cognitively incapacitated, decisions about treatment options are delegated to surrogates, usually family members. We conducted qualitative interviews with 20 Dutch neurologists and residents in neurology varying in age, work experience, and workplace to

  20. Bioactivity of enoxaparin in critically ill patients with normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouya, Ghazaleh; Palkovits, Stefan; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Madl, Christian; Locker, Gottfried; Stella, Alexander; Wolzt, Michael; Heinz, Gottfried

    2012-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent complication in critically ill patients that has a negative impact on patient outcomes. Critically ill patients have significantly lower plasma anti-factor-Xa activity levels compared with control patients after administration of subcutaneous heparin. The clinical relevance of the different anti-factor-Xa levels after prophylactic doses of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in critically ill patients is not completely understood. The standard dose of 40 mg enoxaparin led to a significant increase in anti-FXa levels in this selected cohort of ICU patients with normal renal function. This study found only subtle pharmacokinetic differences, but a comparable pharmacodynamic action, after enoxaparin administration in critically ill and normal medical ward patients. Thrombin generation with TGA RC-low and TGARC-high reagents was significantly reduced in ICU and normal ward patients after receiving LMWH. Both readouts appear equally useful for estimating the pharmacodynamics of enoxaparin. The ex vivo model of thrombosis was used for the first time in patients to evaluate the anti-thrombotic activity of LMWH. This method did not show any difference in thrombus formation after administration of enoxaparin in the individual group of patients. In critically ill patients, reduced anti-FXa plasma activity following subcutaneous administration of enoxaparin or nadroparin has been described. In this study, we aimed to investigate the bioactivity of enoxaparin in critically ill patients and controls. A prospective, controlled, open label study was performed on a medical intensive care unit (ICU) and a general medical ward. Fifteen ICU patients (male = 12, median age 52 years [IQR 40-65], with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score of 30 [IQR 18-52]) and sex- and age-matched medical ward patients were included. The anti-FXa plasma activity was measured after a single subcutaneous dose of40 mg enoxaparin. The thrombus size of a clot formed

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Critical Illness: Anti-Inflammatory, Proresolving, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Prognosis and outcomes of critically ill patients are strictly related with inflammatory status. Inflammation involves a multitude of interactions between different cell types and chemical mediators. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are able to inhibit different pathways including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and interactions, and production of inflammatory cytokines, through the action of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). SPMs from omega-6 fatty acids, such as lipoxins, and from omega-3 fatty acids such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, act in reducing/resolving the inflammatory process in critical diseases, stimulating the phases of resolution of inflammation. In this light, the resolution of inflammation is nowadays considered as an active process, instead of a passive process. In critical illness, SPMs regulate the excessive posttrauma inflammatory response, protecting organs from damage. This review focuses on the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents. PMID:28694914

  2. The Effects of Homocysteine Level in the Critically Ill Patient. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of homocysteine (HCYS represent a risk factor for a series of physiopathological conditions: mental retardation, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, depression, osteoporosis, endothelial dysfunction and inhibition of cell proliferation. This paper aims to present the pathophysiological implications of HCYS and the correlation of hyperhomocysteinemia (H-HCYS with critical condition in the intensive care unit (ICU. Hypovitaminosis B and folate deficiency is directly involved in the inhibition of HCYS metabolism and the accumulation of HCYS in the plasma and tissues. Critically ill patients are more prone to H-HCYS due to hypermetabolism and accelerated synthesis produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In conclusion it can be affirmed that the determination and monitoring of HCYS plasma levels may be of interest in optimizing the therapy for critically ill patients. Moreover, by controlling HCYS levels, and implicitly the essential cofactors that intervene in the specific biochemical pathways, such as vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid can provide a diversified and personalized treatment for each patient.

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Critical Illness: Anti-Inflammatory, Proresolving, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and outcomes of critically ill patients are strictly related with inflammatory status. Inflammation involves a multitude of interactions between different cell types and chemical mediators. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are able to inhibit different pathways including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and interactions, and production of inflammatory cytokines, through the action of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs. SPMs from omega-6 fatty acids, such as lipoxins, and from omega-3 fatty acids such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, act in reducing/resolving the inflammatory process in critical diseases, stimulating the phases of resolution of inflammation. In this light, the resolution of inflammation is nowadays considered as an active process, instead of a passive process. In critical illness, SPMs regulate the excessive posttrauma inflammatory response, protecting organs from damage. This review focuses on the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents.

  4. Issues of Acute Kidney Injury Staging and Management in Sepsis and Critical Illness: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusshag, Christian; Weigand, Markus A.; Zeier, Martin; Morath, Christian; Brenner, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high incidence on intensive care units around the world and is a major complication in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis or septic shock. The short- and long-term complications are thereby devastating and impair the quality of life. Especially in terms of AKI staging, the determination of kidney function and the timing of dialytic AKI management outside of life-threatening indications are ongoing matters of debate. Despite several studies, a major problem remains in distinguishing between beneficial and unnecessary “early” or even harmful renal replacement therapy (RRT). The latter might prolong disease course and renal recovery. AKI scores, however, provide an insufficient outcome-predicting ability and the related estimation of kidney function via serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/urea is not reliable in AKI and critical illness. Kidney independent alterations of creatinine- and BUN/urea-levels further complicate the situation. This review critically assesses the current AKI staging, issues and pitfalls of the determination of kidney function and RRT timing, as well as the potential harm reflected by unnecessary RRT. A better understanding is mandatory to improve future study designs and avoid unnecessary RRT for higher patient safety and lower health care costs. PMID:28657585

  5. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugas, Mohamed Ali; Cho, Hyongyu; Trilling, Gregory M; Tahir, Zainab; Raja, Humaera Farrukh; Ramadan, Sami; Jerjes, Waseem; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2012-09-04

    Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

  6. Micafungin Plasma Levels Are Not Affected by Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Experience in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidinger, M.; Lemmerer, R.; Unger, M.; Pferschy, S.; Lamm, W.; Maier-Salamon, A.; Jäger, W.; Thalhammer, F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critically ill patients often experience acute kidney injury and the need for renal replacement therapy in the course of their treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). These patients are at an increased risk for candidiasis. Although there have been several reports of micafungin disposition during renal replacement therapy, to this date there are no data describing the elimination of micafungin during high-dose continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with modified AN69 membranes. The aim of this prospective open-label pharmacokinetic study was to assess whether micafungin plasma levels are affected by continuous hemodiafiltration in critical ill patients using the commonly employed AN69 membrane. A total of 10 critically ill patients with micafungin treatment due to suspected or proven candidemia were included in this trial. Prefilter/postfilter micafungin clearance was measured to be 46.0 ml/min (±21.7 ml/min; n = 75 individual time points), while hemofilter clearance calculated by the sieving coefficient was 0.0038 ml/min (±0.002 ml/min; n = 75 individual time points). Total body clearance was measured to be 14.0 ml/min (±7.0 ml/min; n = 12). The population area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) was calculated as 158.5 mg · h/liter (±79.5 mg · h/liter; n = 13). In spite of high protein binding, no dose modification is necessary in patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with AN69 membranes. A dose elevation may, however, be justified in certain cases. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02651038.) PMID:28584142

  7. Augmented Renal Clearance in Critical Illness: An Important Consideration in Drug Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Hanafy Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Augmented renal clearance (ARC is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide and up-to-date summary of the available evidence pertaining to the phenomenon of ARC. A literature search of databases of available evidence in humans, with no language restriction, was conducted. Databases searched were MEDLINE (1946 to April 2017, EMBASE (1974 to April 2017 and the Cochrane Library (1999 to April 2017. A total of 57 records were included in the present review: 39 observational studies (25 prospective, 14 retrospective, 6 case reports/series and 12 conference abstracts. ARC has been reported to range from 14–80%. ARC is currently defined as an increased creatinine clearance of greater than 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 best measured by 8–24 h urine collection. Patients exhibiting ARC tend to be younger (<50 years old, of male gender, had a recent history of trauma, and had lower critical illness severity scores. Numerous studies have reported antimicrobials treatment failures when using standard dosing regimens in patients with ARC. In conclusion, ARC is an important phenomenon that might have significant impact on outcome in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk, using higher doses of renally eliminated drugs or use of non-renally eliminated alternatives might need to be considered in ICU patients with ARC. More research is needed to solidify dosing recommendations of various drugs in patients with ARC.

  8. Linezolid extracorporeal removal during haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Cassetta, Maria Iris; Tofani, Lorenzo; Valente, Serafina; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Falsini, Silvia; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Adembri, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed. To calculate the extracorporeal clearance of linezolid and the PK parameters, effluent, pre-filter and post-filter samples were contemporaneously collected before linezolid infusion, just after 1-h infusion (maximum serum concentration; C(max)), at 3 h and 6 h after dosing, and before the next dose (trough serum concentration; C(min)). Linezolid C(max) and C(min) (pre-filter) ranged from 10.4-23.5 mg/L and from 2.9-10.3 mg/L. The dialysate saturation coefficient was 0.66-0.85 and the extracorporeal clearance with a diffusive dose of 35 m L/kg/h ranged from 2.1-2.5 L/h. Total linezolid clearance was between 1.7 L/h and 6.3 L/h. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) ranged from 95.1 mgh/L to 352.9 mgh/L, in accordance with the different clinical conditions. AUCfree/MIC ratios were always clearance may affect linezolid total clearance, the clinical features of critically ill septic patients appear to be mainly responsible for the high variability of linezolid serum concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Bedside upper gastrointestinal series in critically ill low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gopi K; Levin, Terry L; Kurian, Jessica; Kohli, Anirudh; Borenstein, Steven H; Goldman, Harold S

    2014-10-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is the preferred method for the diagnosis of malrotation. A bedside UGI technique was developed at our institution for use in low birth weight, critically ill neonates to minimize the risks of transportation from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) such as hypothermia and dislodgement of support lines and tubes. To determine the ability of a bedside UGI technique to identify the position of the duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) in low birth weight, critically ill infants in the NICU. We retrospectively reviewed bedside UGI examinations performed in premature infants weighing less than 1,500 g from 2008 to 2013 and correlated the findings with clinical data, imaging studies and surgical findings. Of 27 patients identified (weight range: 633-1,495 g), 21 (78%) bedside UGI series were diagnostic. Twenty of 27 cases (74%) demonstrated normal intestinal rotation. One case demonstrated malrotation with midgut volvulus, which was confirmed at surgery. In six cases (22%), the position of the DJJ could not be accurately determined. No cases of malrotation with midgut volvulus were missed. None of the patients with normal bedside UGI studies was found to have malrotation based on clinical follow-up (mean: 20 months), surgical findings or further imaging. The bedside UGI is a useful technique to exclude malrotation in critically ill neonates and minimizes potential risks of transportation to the radiology suite. Pitfalls that may preclude a diagnostic examination include incorrect timing of radiographs, patient rotation, suboptimal enteric tube position and bowel distention. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, a follow-up study should be performed.

  10. Comparison of APACHE II and SAPS II Scoring Systems in Prediction of Critically ill Patients’ Outcome

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    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using physiologic scoring systems for identifying high-risk patients for mortality has been considered recently. This study was designed to evaluate the values of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II models in prediction of 1-month mortality of critically ill patients.Methods: The present prospective cross sectional study was performed on critically ill patients presented to emergency department during 6 months. Data required for calculation of the scores were gathered and performance of the models in prediction of 1-month mortality were assessed using STATA software 11.0.Results: 82 critically ill patients with the mean age of 53.45 ± 20.37 years were included (65.9% male. Their mortality rate was 48%. Mean SAPS II (p < 0.0001 and APACHE II (p = 0.0007 scores were significantly higher in dead patients. Area under the ROC curve of SAPS II and APACHE II for prediction of mortality were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 - 0.86 and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.60 - 0.83, respectively (p = 0.24. The slope and intercept of SAPS II were 1.02 and 0.04, respectively. In addition, these values were 0.92 and 0.09 for APACHE II, respectively.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that APACHE II and SAPS II had similar value in predicting 1-month mortality of patients. Discriminatory powers of the mentioned models were acceptable but their calibration had some amount of lack of fit, which reveals that APACHE II and SAPS II are partially perfect.

  11. Pharmacoeconomics of parenteral nutrition in surgical and critically ill patients receiving structured triglycerides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo Hao; Ehm, Alexandra; Bellone, Marco; Pradelli, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    A prior meta-analysis showed favorable metabolic effects of structured triglyceride (STG) lipid emulsions in surgical and critically ill patients compared with mixed medium-chain/long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) emulsions. Limited data on clinical outcomes precluded pharmacoeconomic analysis. We performed an updated meta-analysis and developed a cost model to compare overall costs for STGs vs MCT/LCTs in Chinese hospitals. We searched Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, the China Hospital Knowledge Database, and Google Scholar for clinical trials comparing STGs to mixed MCT/LCTs in surgical or critically ill adults published between October 10, 2013 and September 19, 2015. Newly identified studies were pooled with the prior studies and an updated meta-analysis was performed. A deterministic simulation model was used to compare the effects of STGs and mixed MCT/LCT's on Chinese hospital costs. The literature search identified six new trials, resulting in a total of 27 studies in the updated meta-analysis. Statistically significant differences favoring STGs were observed for cumulative nitrogen balance, pre- albumin and albumin concentrations, plasma triglycerides, and liver enzymes. STGs were also associated with a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay (mean difference, -1.45 days; 95% confidence interval, -2.48 to -0.43; p=0.005) versus mixed MCT/LCTs. Cost analysis demonstrated a net cost benefit of ¥675 compared with mixed MCT/LCTs. STGs are associated with improvements in metabolic function and reduced length of hospitalization in surgical and critically ill patients compared with mixed MCT/LCT emulsions. Cost analysis using data from Chinese hospitals showed a corresponding cost benefit.

  12. Combined dysfunctions of immune cells predict nosocomial infection in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway Morris, A; Anderson, N; Brittan, M; Wilkinson, T S; McAuley, D F; Antonelli, J; McCulloch, C; Barr, L C; Dhaliwal, K; Jones, R O; Haslett, C; Hay, A W; Swann, D G; Laurenson, I F; Davidson, D J; Rossi, A G; Walsh, T S; Simpson, A J

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial infection occurs commonly in intensive care units (ICUs). Although critical illness is associated with immune activation, the prevalence of nosocomial infections suggests concomitant immune suppression. This study examined the temporal occurrence of immune dysfunction across three immune cell types, and their relationship with the development of nosocomial infection. A prospective observational cohort study was undertaken in a teaching hospital general ICU. Critically ill patients were recruited and underwent serial examination of immune status, namely percentage regulatory T-cells (Tregs), monocyte deactivation (by expression) and neutrophil dysfunction (by CD88 expression). The occurrence of nosocomial infection was determined using pre-defined, objective criteria. Ninety-six patients were recruited, of whom 95 had data available for analysis. Relative to healthy controls, percentage Tregs were elevated 6-10 days after admission, while monocyte HLA-DR and neutrophil CD88 showed broader depression across time points measured. Thirty-three patients (35%) developed nosocomial infection, and patients developing nosocomial infection showed significantly greater immune dysfunction by the measures used. Tregs and neutrophil dysfunction remained significantly predictive of infection in a Cox hazards model correcting for time effects and clinical confounders {hazard ratio (HR) 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.4] and 6.9 (95% CI 1.6-30), respectively, P=0.001}. Cumulative immune dysfunction resulted in a progressive risk of infection, rising from no cases in patients with no dysfunction to 75% of patients with dysfunction of all three cell types (P=0.0004). Dysfunctions of T-cells, monocytes, and neutrophils predict acquisition of nosocomial infection, and combine additively to stratify risk of nosocomial infection in the critically ill.

  13. Optimal amount of calories for critically ill patients: depends on how you slice the cake!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Cahill, Naomi; Day, Andrew G

    2011-12-01

    The optimal amount of calories required by critically ill patients continues to be controversial. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between the amount of calories administered and mortality. Prospective, multi-institutional audit. Three hundred fifty-two intensive care units from 33 countries. A total of 7,872 mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients who remained in the intensive care unit for at least 96 hrs. None. We evaluated the association between the amount of calories received and 60-day hospital mortality using various sample restriction and statistical adjustment techniques and demonstrate the influence of the analytic approach on the results. In the initial unadjusted analysis, we observe a significant association between increased caloric intake and increased mortality (odds ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.48 for patients receiving more than two-thirds of their caloric prescription vs. those receiving less than one-third of their prescription). Excluding days after permanent progression to oral intake attenuated the estimates of harm (unadjusted analysis: odds ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.20). Restricting the analysis to patients with at least 4 days in the intensive care unit before progression to oral intake and excluding days of observation after progression to oral intake resulted in a significant benefit to increased caloric intake (unadjusted odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.85). When further adjusting for both evaluable days and other important covariates, patients who received more than two-thirds of their caloric prescription are much less likely to die than those receiving less than one-third of their prescription (odds ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.79; p calories associated with decreasing mortality (p calories and mortality is significantly influenced by the statistical methodology used. The most appropriate available analyses suggest that attempting to meet

  14. Assessment of candidemia-attributable mortality in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Candidemia in critically ill patients is usually a severe and life-threatening condition with a high crude mortality. Very few studies have focused on the impact of candidemia on ICU patient outcome and attributable mortality still remains controversial. This study was carried out to determine the attributable mortality of ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted of all consecutive non-neutropenic adult patients admitted for at least seven days to 36 ICUs in Spain, France, and Argentina between April 2006 and June 2007. The probability of developing candidemia was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Each patient with ICU-acquired candidemia was matched with two control patients with the nearest available Mahalanobis metric matching within the calipers defined by the propensity score. Standardized differences tests (SDT) for each variable before and after matching were calculated. Attributable mortality was determined by a modified Poisson regression model adjusted by those variables that still presented certain misalignments defined as a SDT > 10%. Results Thirty-eight candidemias were diagnosed in 1,107 patients (34.3 episodes/1,000 ICU patients). Patients with and without candidemia had an ICU crude mortality of 52.6% versus 20.6% (P candidemia was RR 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.98) and RR 1.096 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.69), respectively. Conclusions ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients is not associated with an increase in either ICU or hospital mortality. PMID:22698004

  15. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-10-01

    Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery. Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appraisal. Reporting quality was assessed and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach applied to summarise overall quality of evidence. Five eligible SR were included in this overview, of which three included meta-analyses. Reporting quality of the reviews was judged as medium to high. Two reviews reported moderate-to-high quality evidence of the beneficial effects of physical therapy commencing during intensive care unit (ICU) admission in improving critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilisation. These interventions included early mobilisation, cycle ergometry and electrical muscle stimulation. Two reviews reported very low to low quality evidence of the beneficial effects of electrical muscle stimulation delivered in the ICU for improving muscle strength, muscle structure and critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. One review reported that due to a lack of good quality randomised controlled trials and inconsistency in measuring outcomes, there was insufficient evidence to support beneficial effects from physical rehabilitation delivered post-ICU discharge. Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for design of future interventional trials

  16. Use of Indirect Calorimetry to Detect Overfeeding in Critically Ill Children: Finding the Appropriate Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerklaan, Dorian; Hulst, Jessie M; Verhoeven, Jennifer J; Verbruggen, Sascha C A T; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-10-01

    Overfeeding during critical illness is associated with adverse effects such as metabolic disturbances and increased risk of infection. Because of the lack of sound studies with clinical endpoints, overfeeding is arbitrarily defined as the ratio caloric intake/measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) or alternatively as a comparison of measured respiratory quotient (RQ) to the predicted RQ based on the macronutrient intake (RQmacr). We aimed to compare definitions of overfeeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated children based on mREE, RQ, and caloric intake to find an appropriate definition. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in 78 mechanically ventilated children, median age 6.3 months. Enteral and/or parenteral nutrition was provided according to the local guidelines. Definitions used to indicate overfeeding were the ratio caloric intake/mREE of >110% and >120% and by the measured RQ > RQmacr + 0.05. The proportion of patients identified as overfed varied widely depending on the definition used, ranging from 22% (RQ > RQmacr + 0.05), to 40% and 50% (caloric intake/mREE of >120% and >110%, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that all patients would be identified as overfed with the definition RQ > RQmacr + 0.05 when the ratio caloric intake/mREE exceeded 165%. Caloric intake was higher in children with a standard deviation-score weight for age definition applied. These currently used definitions fail to take into account several relevant factors affecting metabolism during critical illness and are therefore not generally applicable to the pediatric intensive care unit population.

  17. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated

  18. Low plasma leptin level at admission predicts delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicheng; Lei, Xiaobao; Ai, Chenmu; Li, Tao; Chen, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU. Patients were examined at least twice daily and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained after ICU entry. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Delirium occurred in 30.4% (102/336) of patients. Patients who developed delirium showed significantly lower leptin level at ICU entry than those who did not (6.1±3.2 vs. 9.2±5.9ng/mL; Pdelirium (OR, 0.865; 95%CI, 0.802-0.934; Pdelirium included increasing age (OR, 1.050; 95%CI, 1.020-1.080; P=0.001) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score (OR, 1.148; 95%CI, 1.092-1.208; Pdelirium had a prolonged duration of ICU stay and higher mortality. Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was associated with the occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical course teaching in transport of critically ill patients: Small group methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.

  20. Continuous renal replacement therapy: a potential source of calories in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Andrea M; Nystrom, Erin M; Frazee, Erin; Dillon, John J; Kashani, Kianoush B; Miles, John M

    2017-06-01

    Background: Overfeeding can lead to multiple metabolic and clinical complications and has been associated with increased mortality in the critically ill. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) represents a potential source of calories that is poorly recognized and may contribute to overfeeding complications. Objective: We aimed to quantify the systemic caloric contribution of acid-citrate-dextrose regional anticoagulation and dextrose-containing replacement fluids in the CVVH circuit. Design: This was a prospective study in 10 critically ill adult patients who received CVVH from April 2014 to June 2014. Serial pre- and postfilter blood samples ( n = 4 each) were drawn and analyzed for glucose and citrate concentrations on each of 2 consecutive days. Results: Participants included 5 men and 5 women with a mean ± SEM age of 61 ± 4 y (range: 42-84 y) and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 28 ± 2 (range: 18.3-36.2). There was generally good agreement between data on the 2 study days (CV: 7-11%). Mean ± SEM pre- and postfilter venous plasma glucose concentrations in the aggregate group were 152 ± 10 and 178 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively. Net glucose uptake from the CVVH circuit was 54 ± 5 mg/min and provided 295 ± 28 kcal/d. Prefilter plasma glucose concentrations were higher in patients with diabetes ( n = 5) than in those without diabetes (168 ± 12 compared with 140 ± 14 mg/dL; P calories in critically ill patients receiving nutrition on CVVH may result in overfeeding. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Outcomes of ICU Patients With a Discharge Diagnosis of Critical Illness Polyneuromyopathy: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmenson, Daniel A; Held, Natalie; Allen, Richard R; Quan, Dianna; Burnham, Ellen L; Clark, Brendan J; Ho, P Michael; Kiser, Tyree H; Vandivier, R William; Moss, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuromyopathy on health-related outcomes in a large cohort of patients requiring ICU admission. Retrospective cohort with propensity score-matched analysis. Analysis of a large multihospital database. Adult ICU patients without preexisting neuromuscular abnormalities and a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy along with adult ICU propensity-matched control patients. None. Of 3,567 ICU patients with a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy, we matched 3,436 of these patients to 3,436 ICU patients who did not have a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy. After propensity matching and adjusting for unbalanced covariates, we used conditional logistic regression and a repeated measures model to compare patient outcomes. Compared to patients without a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy, patients with a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy had fewer 28-day hospital-free days (6 [0.1] vs 7.4 [0.1] d; p analysis of a large national database, a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy is strongly associated with deleterious outcomes including fewer hospital-free days, fewer ventilator-free days, higher hospital charges, and reduced discharge home but also an unexpectedly lower in-hospital mortality. This study demonstrates the clinical importance of a discharge diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy and the need for effective preventive interventions.

  2. Involving parents in decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment for critically ill infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, C H; Glover, J J

    1990-05-01

    A moral framework based on principles of beneficence and respect for persons requires shared decision-making. In the best interest of critically ill children, parents should be the primary decisionmakers in collaboration with health care professionals. When parents are unable to function in their proper role as surrogate, health care professionals must seek an alternative surrogate decisionmaker. A balanced partnership between parents and professionals can be supported by attention to the environmental stessors, enhanced communication, networks of support and institutional mechanisms for conflict resolution.

  3. Right-Sided Pleural Effusion in a Critically Ill Stroke Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bautista MD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleural fluid collections are common in those critically ill. We report the case of a left middle cerebral artery stroke patient who developed respiratory distress and required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although the patient’s clinical status and oxygenation improved, there was persistence of right-sided opacity in the chest radiograph. Further workup proved a right-sided pleural effusion, which was drained and managed. Following extubation, a swallow study was ordered, which led to a fluoroscopic examination that demonstrated esophageal perforation. Thoracic surgery was consulted and did a primary repair of perforation and noted non–small cell carcinoma on the perforated site.

  4. Use of a High-Flow Oxygen Delivery System in a Critically Ill Patient with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    facial mask. We saw a 92-year-old woman with delirium and dementia in the intensive care unit for multi-lobar pneumonia with severe hypoxemia. Attempts to...a high oxygen concentration. Key words: high-flow oxygen, palliative care , hypoxemia. [Respir Care 2008;53(12):1739–1743] Introduction We have...Fig. 2. Radiograph on hospital day 4. HIGH-FLOW OXYGEN IN A CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT WITH DEMENTIA 1740 RESPIRATORY CARE • DECEMBER 2008 VOL 53 NO 12

  5. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-01-01

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm

  6. Intravenous amino acid therapy for kidney function in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Heighes, Philippa T; Sweetman, Elizabeth A; Chesher, Douglas; Pollock, Carol; Davies, Andrew; Botha, John; Harrigan, Peter; Reade, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by severe loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is associated with a prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and increased risk of death. No interventions have yet been shown to prevent AKI or preserve GFR in critically ill patients. Evidence from mammalian physiology and small clinical trials suggests higher amino acid intake may protect the kidney from ischemic insults and thus may preserve GFR during critical illness. To determine whether amino acid therapy, achieved through daily intravenous (IV) supplementation with standard amino acids, preserves kidney function in critically ill patients. Multicenter, phase II, randomized clinical trial conducted between December 2010 and February 2013 in the ICUs of 16 community and tertiary hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants were adult critically ill patients expected to remain in the study ICU for longer than 2 days. Random allocation to receive a daily supplement of up to 100 g of IV amino acids or standard care. Duration of renal dysfunction (primary outcome); estimated GFR (eGFR) derived from creatinine; eGFR derived from cystatin C; urinary output; renal replacement therapy (RRT) use; fluid balance and other measures of renal function. 474 patients were enrolled and randomized (235 to standard care, 239 to IV amino acid therapy). At time of enrollment, patients allocated to receive amino acid therapy had higher APACHE II scores (20.2 ± 6.8 vs. 21.7 ± 7.6, P = 0.02) and more patients had pre-existing renal dysfunction (29/235 vs. 44/239, P = 0.07). Duration of renal dysfunction after enrollment did not differ between groups (mean difference 0.21 AKI days per 10 patient ICU days, 95 % CI -0.27 to 1.04, P = 0.45). Amino acid therapy significantly improved eGFR (treatment group × time interaction, P = 0.004), with an early peak difference of 7.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95 % CI 1.0-14.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.02) on study day 4. Daily urine output was also

  7. Acute Kidney Injury and Subsequent Frailty Status in Survivors of Critical Illness: A Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Girard, Timothy D; Brummel, Nathan E; Saunders, Christina T; Blume, Jeffrey D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Jackson, James C; Bell, Susan P; Archer, Kristin R; Ikizler, T Alp; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Siew, Edward D

    2018-01-25

    Acute kidney injury frequently complicates critical illness and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Frailty is common in critical illness survivors, but little is known about the impact of acute kidney injury. We examined the association of acute kidney injury and frailty within a year of hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Medical/surgical ICU of a U.S. tertiary care medical center. Three hundred seventeen participants with respiratory failure and/or shock. None. Acute kidney injury was determined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes stages. Clinical frailty status was determined using the Clinical Frailty Scale at 3 and 12 months following discharge. Covariates included mean ICU Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score as well as baseline comorbidity (i.e., Charlson Comorbidity Index), kidney function, and Clinical Frailty Scale score. Of 317 patients, 243 (77%) had acute kidney injury and one in four patients with acute kidney injury was frail at baseline. In adjusted models, acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 were associated with higher frailty scores at 3 months (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.14-3.24; odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.31-4.42; and odds ratio, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.20-8.82, respectively). At 12 months, a similar association of acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 and higher Clinical Frailty Scale score was noted (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.14; odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.94-3.48; and odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.34-5.66, respectively). In supplemental and sensitivity analyses, analogous patterns of association were observed. Acute kidney injury in survivors of critical illness predicted worse frailty status 3 and 12 months postdischarge. These findings have important implications on clinical decision making among acute kidney injury survivors and underscore the need to understand the drivers of

  8. Methodology: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Joe; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Devereaux, Asha V; Kissoon, Niranjan; Livinski, Alicia; Christian, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Natural disasters, industrial accidents, terrorism attacks, and pandemics all have the capacity to result in large numbers of critically ill or injured patients. This supplement provides suggestions for all those involved in a disaster or pandemic with multiple critically ill patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, professional societies, and public health or government officials. The field of disaster medicine does not have the required body of evidence needed to undergo a traditional guideline development process. In result, consensus statement-development methodology was used to capture the highest-caliber expert opinion in a structured, scientific approach. Task Force Executive Committee members identified core topic areas regarding the provision of care to critically ill or injured patients from pandemics or disasters and subsequently assembled an international panel for each identified area. International disaster medicine experts were brought together to identify key questions (in a population, intervention, comparator, outcome [PICO]-based format) within each of the core topic areas. Comprehensive literature searches were then conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions that are presented in this supplement using a modified Delphi process. A total of 315 suggestions were drafted across all topic groups. After two rounds of a Delphi consensus-development process, 267 suggestions were chosen by the panel to include in the document and published in a total of 12 manuscripts composing the core chapters of this supplement. Draft manuscripts were prepared by the topic editor and members of the working groups for each of the topics, producing a total of 11 papers. Once the preliminary drafts were received, the Executive Committee (Writing Committee) then met to review, edit, and

  9. Vitamin B deficiencies in a critically ill autistic child with a restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Scott; Ravindranath, Thyyar M

    2015-02-01

    An 11-year-old male with autism became less responsive and was hospitalized with hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, as well as severe lactic acidosis. His diet for several years was self-limited exclusively to a single "fast food"-a particular type of fried chicken-and was deficient in multiple micronutrients, including the B vitamins thiamine and pyridoxine. Lactic acidosis improved rapidly with thiamine; 2 weeks later, status epilepticus-with low serum pyridoxine-resolved rapidly with pyridoxine. Dietary B vitamin deficiencies complicated the care of this critically ill autistic child and should be considered in this setting. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Effects of levosimendan for low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    in the systematic review and 49 trials (6,688 patients) in the meta-analysis. One trial had low risk of bias and nine trials (2,490 patients) were considered lower risk of bias. Trials compared levosimendan with placebo, control interventions, and other inotropes. Pooling all trials including heterogenous...... populations was considered inappropriate. Pooled analysis of 30 trials including critically ill patients not having cardiac surgery showed an association between levosimendan and mortality (RR 0.83, TSA-adjusted 95 % CI 0.59-0.97), while trials with lower risk of bias showed no significant difference (RR 0...

  11. Critically Ill Children Have Low Vitamin D–Binding Protein, Influencing Bioavailability of Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Henry A.; Chun, Rene F.; Smith, Ellen M.; Sullivan, Ryan M.; Agan, Anna A.; Keisling, Shannon M.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Randolph, Adrienne G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Vitamin D deficiency, often defined by total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) interquartile range, 108–221), lower than has been reported in healthy children. Factors predicting lower levels in multivariate analysis included age <1 year, nonwhite race, being previously healthy, 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml and greater illness severity. In the subgroup that was genotyped, GC haplotype had the strongest association with VDBP level; carriage of one additional copy of GC1S was associated with a 37.5% higher level (95% confidence interval, 31.9–44.8; P < 0.001). Bioavailable 25(OH)D was also inversely associated with illness severity (r = −0.24, P < 0.001), and ratio to measured total 25(OH)D was variable and related to haplotype. Conclusions: Physiologic deficiency of 25(OH)D in critical illness may be more difficult to diagnose, given that lower VDBP levels increase bioavailability. Treatment studies conducted on the basis of total 25(OH)D level, without consideration of VDBP concentration and genotype, may increase the risk of falsely negative results. PMID:26356094

  12. Insufficient autophagy contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, organ failure, and adverse outcome in an animal model of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Derese, Inge; Aertgeerts, Annelies; Ververs, Eric-Jan; Wauters, Andy; Van den Berghe, Greet; Vanhorebeek, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction as an early, important event in the pathogenesis of critical illness-induced multiple organ failure. We previously demonstrated that prevention of hyperglycemia limits damage to mitochondria in vital organs, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. We now hypothesize that inadequate activation of mitochondrial repair processes (clearance of damaged mitochondria by autophagy, mitochondrial fusion/fission, and biogenesis) may contribute to accumulation of mitochondrial damage, persistence of organ failure, and adverse outcome of critical illness. Prospective, randomized studies in a critically ill rabbit model. University laboratory. Three-month-old male rabbits. We studied whether vital organ mitochondrial repair pathways are differentially affected in surviving and nonsurviving hyperglycemic critically ill animals in relation to mitochondrial and organ damage. Next, we investigated the impact of preventing hyperglycemia over time and of administering rapamycin as an autophagy activator. In both liver and kidney of hyperglycemic critically ill rabbits, we observed signs of insufficient autophagy, including accumulation of p62 and a concomitant decrease in the microtubule-associated protein light-chain-3-II/microtubule-associated protein light-chain-3-I ratio. The phenotype of insufficient autophagy was more pronounced in nonsurviving than in surviving animals. Molecular markers of insufficient autophagy correlated with impaired mitochondrial function and more severe organ damage. In contrast, key players in mitochondrial fusion/fission or biogenesis were not significantly different regarding survival status. Therefore, we focused on autophagy to study the impact of preventing hyperglycemia. Both after 3 and 7 days of illness, autophagy was better preserved in normoglycemic than in hyperglycemic rabbits, which correlated with improved mitochondrial function and less organ damage. Stimulation of autophagy in

  13. Feasibility and reliability of frailty assessment in the critically ill: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Richard J; Ellison, Amy; Pye, Kate; Subbe, Christian P; Thorpe, Chris M; Lone, Nazir I; Clegg, Andrew

    2018-02-26

    For healthcare systems, an ageing population poses challenges in the delivery of equitable and effective care. Frailty assessment has the potential to improve care in the intensive care setting, but applying assessment tools in critical illness may be problematic. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence for the feasibility and reliability of frailty assessment in critical care. Our primary search was conducted in Medline, Medline In-process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science (January 2001 to October 2017). We included observational studies reporting data on feasibility and reliability of frailty assessment in the critical care setting in patients 16 years and older. Feasibility was assessed in terms of timing of evaluation, the background, training and expertise required for assessors, and reliance upon proxy input. Reliability was assessed in terms of inter-rater reliability. Data from 11 study publications are included, representing 8 study cohorts and 7761 patients. Proxy involvement in frailty assessment ranged from 58 to 100%. Feasibility data were not well-reported overall, but the exclusion rate due to lack of proxy availability ranged from 0 to 45%, the highest rate observed where family involvement was mandatory and the assessment tool relatively complex (frailty index, FI). Conventional elements of frailty phenotype (FP) assessment required modification prior to use in two studies. Clinical staff tended to use a simple judgement-based tool, the clinical frailty scale (CFS). Inter-rater reliability was reported in one study using the CFS and although a good level of agreement was observed between clinician assessments, this was a small and single-centre study. Though of unproven reliability in the critically ill, CFS was the tool used most widely by critical care clinical staff. Conventional FP assessment required modification for general application in critical care, and an FI

  14. Using operations research to plan improvement of the transport of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Awasthi, Anjali; Shechter, Steven; Atkins, Derek; Lemke, Linda; Fisher, Les; Dodek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Operations research is the application of mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization to understand and improve processes in organizations. The objective of this study was to illustrate how the methods of operations research can be used to identify opportunities to reduce the absolute value and variability of interfacility transport intervals for critically ill patients. After linking data from two patient transport organizations in British Columbia, Canada, for all critical care transports during the calendar year 2006, the steps for transfer of critically ill patients were tabulated into a series of time intervals. Statistical modeling, root-cause analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis were used to test the effect of changes in component intervals on overall duration and variation of transport times. Based on quality improvement principles, we focused on reducing the 75th percentile and standard deviation of these intervals. We analyzed a total of 3808 ground and air transports. Constraining time spent by transport personnel at sending and receiving hospitals was projected to reduce the total time taken by 33 minutes with as much as a 20% reduction in standard deviation of these transport intervals in 75% of ground transfers. Enforcing a policy of requiring acceptance of patients who have life- or limb-threatening conditions or organ failure was projected to reduce the standard deviation of air transport time by 63 minutes and the standard deviation of ground transport time by 68 minutes. Based on findings from our analyses, we developed recommendations for technology renovation, personnel training, system improvement, and policy enforcement. Use of the tools of operations research identifies opportunities for improvement in a complex system of critical care transport.

  15. Identification of risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ting; Yang, Wen-Qun; Liang, Ze-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Ci

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients, thereby, provide some reference for healthcare staff to assess the risk of feeding intolerance, and lay the foundation for future scale development. Methods: This study used a mixed methodology, including a literature review, semi-structured interviews, the Delphi technique, and the analytic hierarchy process. We used the literature review and semi-structured interviews (n=22) to draft a preliminarily item pool for feeding intolerance, Delphi technique (n=30) to screen and determine the items, and the analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight of each item. The study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2015 in Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Results: Twenty-three risk factors were selected for the scale, including 5 dimensions. We assigned a weight to each item according to their impact on the feeding intolerance, with a higher score indicating a greater impact. The weight of each dimension was decreasing as follows: patient conditions, weight score equals 42; general conditions, weight score equals 23; gastrointestinal functions, weight score equals 15; biochemical indexes, weight score equals 14; and treatment measures, weight score equals 6. Conclusion: Developed list of risk factors based on literature review, survey among health care professionals and expert consensus should provide a basis for future studies assessing the risk of feeding intolerance in critically ill patients. PMID:28762434

  16. Enteral vs. parenteral nutrition for the critically ill patient: a combined support should be preferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2008-08-01

    Current recommendations suggest starting enteral feeding as soon as possible whenever the gastrointestinal tract is functioning. The disadvantage of enteral support is that insufficient energy and protein coverage can occur. This review focuses on some recent findings regarding the nutritional support of critically ill patients and evaluates the data presented. An increasing nutritional deficit during a long ICU stay is associated with increased morbidity (infection rate, wound healing, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, duration of recovery), and costs. Evidence shows that enteral nutrition can result in underfeeding and that nutritional goals are frequently reached only after 1 week. Contrary to former beliefs, recent meta-analyses of ICU studies showed that parenteral nutrition is not related to a surplus mortality and may even be associated with improved survival. Early enteral nutrition is recommended for critically ill patients. Supplemental parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition can be considered to cover the energy and protein targets when enteral nutrition alone fails to achieve the caloric goal. Whether such a combined nutritional support provides additional benefit on the overall outcome has to be proven in further studies on clinical outcome, including physical and cognitive functioning, quality of life, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility.

  17. Quality indicators on the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Palomar, M; Álvarez-Lerma, F

    2014-12-01

    Quality indicators have been applied to many areas of health care in recent years, including intensive care. However, they have not been specifically developed and validated for antimicrobial use in critically ill patients. Antimicrobials play a key role in intensive care units not only in the prognosis of each individual patient, but also in the development of resistance and changes in the flora in this setting. Evaluating the use of these agents is complex in the intensive care unit, however, because the indications vary greatly and antimicrobial treatment is often changed during admission. We designed and developed specific quality indicators regarding the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. These indicators are proposed as a tool for application in intensive care units to detect problems in the use of antimicrobials. Future trials are needed, however, to validate these indicators in a large population over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Cindy L; Grap, Mary Jo; Jones, Deborah J; McClish, Donna K; Sessler, Curtis N

    2009-09-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To examine the effects of mechanical (toothbrushing), pharmacological (topical oral chlorhexidine), and combination (toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine) oral care on the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Critically ill adults in 3 intensive care units were enrolled within 24 hours of intubation in a randomized controlled clinical trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia at the time of intubation and edentulous patients were excluded. Patients (n = 547) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 0.12% solution chlorhexidine oral swab twice daily, toothbrushing thrice daily, both toothbrushing and chlorhexidine, or control (usual care). Ventilator-associated pneumonia was determined by using the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS). The 4 groups did not differ significantly in clinical characteristics. At day 3 analysis, 249 patients remained in the study. Among patients without pneumonia at baseline, pneumonia developed in 24% (CPIS >or=6) by day 3 in those treated with chlorhexidine. When data on all patients were analyzed together, mixed models analysis indicated no effect of either chlorhexidine (P = .29) or toothbrushing (P = .95). However, chlorhexidine significantly reduced the incidence of pneumonia on day 3 (CPIS >or=6) among patients who had CPIS Toothbrushing had no effect on CPIS and did not enhance the effect of chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine, but not toothbrushing, reduced early ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients without pneumonia at baseline.

  19. Ultrasound-guided or landmark techniques for central venous catheter placement in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego-Erroz, Ignacio; González-Cortes, Rafael; García-Soler, Patricia; Balaguer-Gargallo, Mónica; Frías-Pérez, Manuel; Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan; Llorente-de-la-Fuente, Ana; Santos-Herraiz, Paula; Menéndez-Suso, Juan José; Sánchez-Porras, María; Palanca-Arias, Daniel; Clavero-Rubio, Carmen; Holanda-Peña, Mª Soledad; Renter-Valdovinos, Luis; Fernández-De-Miguel, Sira; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether ultrasound guidance improves central venous catheter placement outcomes compared to the landmark technique in critically ill children. A prospective multicentre observational study was carried out in 26 paediatric intensive care units over 6 months. Children 0-18 years old who received a temporary central venous catheter, inserted using either ultrasound or landmark techniques, were eligible. The primary outcome was the first-attempt success rate. Secondary outcomes included overall placement success, number of puncture attempts, number of procedures requiring multiple punctures (> 3 punctures), number of procedures requiring punctures at more than one vein site and immediate mechanical complications. To account for potential confounding factors, we used propensity scores. Our primary analysis was based on 1:1 propensity score matching. The association between cannulation technique and outcomes in the matched cohort was estimated using generalized estimating equations and mixed-effects models to account for patient-level and hospital-level confounders. Five hundred central venous catheter-placement procedures involving 354 patients were included. Ultrasound was used for 323 procedures, and the landmark technique was used for 177. Two hundred and sixty-six procedures were matched (133 in the ultrasound group and 133 in the landmark group). Ultrasound was associated with an increase in the first-attempt success rate [46.6 vs. 30%, odds ratio 2.09 (1.26-3.46); p central venous catheter placement in critically ill children.

  20. The potential role of nano- and micro-technology in the management of critical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2014-11-20

    In recent years nanomedicine has become an attractive concept for the targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to injured or inflamed organs. Nanoscale drug delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and increase the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, thereby resulting in improved efficacy and reduced drug toxicity. These systems are exploited for therapeutic purposes to carry the drug in the body in a controlled manner from the site of administration to the therapeutic target. The mortality in many of the critical illnesses such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome continues to remain high despite of an increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Several promising targets that have been identified as potential therapies for these devastating diseases have been limited because of difficulty with delivery systems. In particular, delivery of peptides, proteins, and miRNAs to the lung is an ongoing challenge. Hence, it is an attractive strategy to test potential targets by employing nanotechnology. Here some of the novel nanomedicine approaches that have been proposed and studied in recent years to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic agents in the setting of critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and ventilator associated pneumonia are reviewed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in critically ill adults: clinical evaluation of a new sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelid, Karim; Schütz, Nicolas; Stotz, Martin; Gerard, Isabelle; Suter, Peter M; Romand, Jacques-André

    2005-10-01

    In critically ill patients, arterial blood gas analysis is the gold standard for evaluating systemic oxygenation and carbon dioxide partial pressure. A new miniaturized carbon dioxide tension Pco2-Spo2 single sensor (TOSCA, Linde Medical Sensors AG, Basel, Switzerland) continuously and noninvasively (transcutaneously) monitors both Paco2 and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2). The present study was designed to investigate the usability and the accuracy of this device in critically ill patients. Prospective clinical investigation. A 20-bed, university-affiliated, surgical intensive care unit. Patients admitted after major surgery, multiple trauma, or septic shock equipped with an arterial catheter. The heated (42 degrees C) sensor was fixed at the earlobe using an attachment clip. Transcutaneous Pco2 (TcPco2) measurements were correlated with Paco2 values (measured using a blood gas analyzer). In addition, the differences between Paco2 and TcPco2 values were evaluated using the method of Bland-Altman. We studied 55 patients, aged 18-80 (mean 57 +/- 15) yrs. A total of 417 paired measurements were compared. Correlation between TcPco2 and Paco2 was r = .86 (p TcPco2 slightly overestimating arterial carbon dioxide tension. Nineteen percent of the measured values were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of +/-7.5 mm Hg. The present study suggests that Paco2 can be acceptably assessed by measuring TcPco2 using the TOSCA Pco2-Spo2 sensor.

  2. Acute psychological trauma in the critically ill: Patient and family perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadzko, Volha; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Johnson, Margaret M; Gajic, Ognjen; Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V

    2017-07-01

    Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families. Fifty patients and 44 family members were interviewed following ICU discharge. Patients reported a high level of psychological distress. The families' perception of patient's stress level correlated with the patient's self-estimated stress level both in daily life (rho=0.59; ppsychological stress during an ICU stay; the presence of family, and physician's attention are categorized as important mitigating factors. Patients and families identified several practical recommendations which may help assuage the psychological burden of the ICU stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes toward the American nutrition guidelines for the critically ill patients of Chinese intensive care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Jian-cang; Pan, Kong-han; Zhao, Hong-chen; Ying, Ke-jing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition therapy is essential for the management of critically ill patients. Some guidelines have been published to standardize and optimize the nutrition therapy. However, there are still many controversies in nutrition practice and there is a gap between guidelines and clinical nutrition therapy for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to assess attitudes and beliefs toward nutrition therapy of Chinese intensive care physicians by using the American guidelines as a surrogate. A questionnaire was sent to 45 adult ICUs in China, in which surveyed physicians were asked to rate their attitudes toward the American guidelines. A total of 162 physicians from 45 ICUs returned the questionnaires. Physicians were categorized into groups according to their professional seniority, hospital levels and whether they were members of Chinese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (CSPEN). Overall, 94% of the respondents thought that nutrition therapy for critically ill patients was very important, and 80% mentioned that they used the American guidelines. There was diversity of opinion on the recommendations pertaining to nutrition assessment, supplemental parenteral nutrition and cutoff values for gastric residual volume, negative or neutral attitudes about these recommendations were 43%, 59% and 41%, respectively. Members of CSPEN were more likely to select a greater strength of recommendation than non-members. In conclusion, the overall attitudes of Chinese intensive care physicians toward the American guidelines were positive. Nevertheless, given the great guideline-practice gap, nutrition-focused education is warranted for many intensive care physicians in China.

  4. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  5. [Severe acute kidney injury in critically ill children: Epidemiology and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touza Pol, P; Rey Galán, C; Medina Villanueva, J A; Martinez-Camblor, P; López-Herce, J

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication in critically ill children. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of AKI, as well as to analyse the prognostic factors for mortality and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) in Spain. Prospective observational multicentre study including children from 7 days to 16 years old who were admitted to a PICU. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for mortality and renal replacement therapy at PICU discharge were performed. A total of 139 cases of AKI were analysed. RRT was necessary in 60.1% of cases. Mortality rate was 32.6%. At PICU discharge RRT was necessary in 15% of survivors. Thrombopenia and low creatinine clearance values were prognostic markers of RRT at PICU discharge. High values of platelets, serum creatinine and weight were associated with higher survival. Critically ill children with AKI had a high mortality and morbidity rate. Platelet values and creatinine clearance are markers of RRT at PICU discharge, whereas number of platelets, serum creatinine and weight were associated with mortality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of adrenocortical reserve capacity and inflammatory parameters in critically ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöndes, Judit; Fábián, Ibolya; Szabó, Bernadett; Máthé, Ákos; Vajdovich, Péter

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory markers and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test results may help us recognise critically ill dogs with poor disease outcome. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, the fast version of the Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation Score (APPLE fast ), complete blood count, albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, baseline and stimulated cortisol levels and Δcortisol value were recorded in 50 client-owned dogs admitted to the Small Animal Hospital of the University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest with various inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Increasing APPLE fast score was associated with a decreasing chance of survival (P = 0.0420). The Δcortisol value was significantly higher in SIRS dogs than in non-SIRS dogs (mean ± SD Δcortisol SIRS : 342.5 ± 273.96; mean ± SD Δcortisol non-SIRS : 175.3 ± 150.35; P = 0.0443). Elevated baseline or stimulated cortisol levels were associated with a higher chance of non-survival (P = 0.0135 and P = 0.0311, respectively). These data indicate that pathologically higher baseline and stimulated cortisol levels represent an exaggerated stress response in critically ill dogs, which is negatively associated with survival.

  7. Interventions to reduce cognitive impairments following critical illness: a topical systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, H K; Jensen, H I; Toft, P

    2017-02-01

    Critical illness is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective treatment or prevention has not been established. The aim of this review was to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning clinical interventions during intensive care admission to reduce cognitive impairments after discharge. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PsycInfo and Cinahl were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies assessing the effect of interventions during intensive care admission on cognitive function in adult patients. Studies were excluded if they were reviews or reported solely on survivors of cardiac arrest, stroke or traumatic brain injury. Of 4877 records were identified. Seven studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The interventions described covered strategies for enteral nutrition, fluids, sedation, weaning, mobilization, cognitive activities, statins and sleep quality improvement. Data were synthesized to provide an overview of interventions, quality, follow-up assessments and neuropsychological outcomes. None of the interventions had significant positive effects on cognitive impairments following critical illness. Quality was negatively affected by study limitations, imprecision and indirectness in evidence. Clinical research on cognition is feasible, but large, well designed trials with a specific aim at reducing cognitive impairments are needed. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Procalcitonin Clearance for Early Prediction of Survival in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basri Mat Nor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serum procalcitonin (PCT diagnosed sepsis in critically ill patients; however, its prediction for survival is not well established. We evaluated the prognostic value of dynamic changes of PCT in sepsis patients. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in adult ICU. Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS were recruited. Daily PCT were measured for 3 days. 48 h PCT clearance (PCTc-48 was defined as percentage of baseline PCT minus 48 h PCT over baseline PCT. Results. 95 SIRS patients were enrolled (67 sepsis and 28 noninfectious SIRS. 40% patients in the sepsis group died in hospital. Day 1-PCT was associated with diagnosis of sepsis (AUC 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76 but was not predictive of mortality. In sepsis patients, PCTc-48 was associated with prediction of survival (AUC 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.84. Patients with PCTc-48 > 30% were independently associated with survival (HR 2.90 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.90. Conclusions. PCTc-48 is associated with prediction of survival in critically ill patients with sepsis. This could assist clinicians in risk stratification; however, the small sample size, and a single-centre study, may limit the generalisability of the finding. This would benefit from replication in future multicentre study.

  9. Spectrum of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: A single center study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eswarappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in intensive care unit (ICU and carries a high mortality rate. Reliable and comparable data about the clinical spectrum of AKI is necessary for optimizing management. The study was conducted to describe epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, diagnosed using RIFLE criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 500 adult patients admitted to ICU with AKI or who developed AKI in ICU. Patients with pre-existing renal disease, renal transplant recipients were excluded. AKI was predominantly encountered in older males. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease were the most commonly prevalent comorbidities. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI, accounting for 38.6% of patients. 24.4% belonged to risk class, 37.0% to injury class, 35.0% to failure class, 3% to loss and 0.6% to ESRD class of the RIFLE criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT was required in 37.2% (n = 186 of patients. About 60% recovered complete renal function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was a sequel in 2.4% (n = 12 of patients. Average duration of ICU stay was 5.6 days. Crude mortality rate was 37.6% (n = 188. In critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, elderly age, male sex, type 2 diabetes along with a primary diagnosis of sepsis were most commonly associated with AKI. Majority of the patients′ recovered complete renal function.

  10. Candida spp. colonization significance in critically ill medical patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Dalle, Frédéric; Aube, Hervé; Doise, Jean Marc; Quenot, Jean Pierre; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Chavanet, Pascal; Blettery, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    Multiple-site colonization with Candida species is commonly recognized as a major risk factor for invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. The fungal colonization density could be of predictive value for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis in high-risk surgical patients. Little is known about it in the medical ICU setting. Prospective observational study in the eight-bed medical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. 92 consecutive nonneutropenic patients hospitalized for more than 7 days. The colonization index (ratio of the number of culture-positive surveillance sites for Candida spp. to the number of sites cultured) was calculated weekly upon ICU admission until death or discharge. The 0.50 threshold was reached in 36 (39.1%) patients, almost exclusively in those with detectable fungal colonization upon ICU admission. The duration of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was found to be the main factor that independently promoted fungal growth as measured through the colonization index. Candida spp. multiple-site colonization is frequently met among the critically ill medical patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was found to promote fungal growth in patients with prior colonization. Since most of the invasive candidiasis in the ICU setting are thought to be subsequent to colonization in high-risk patients, reducing antibiotic use could be useful in preventing fungal infections.

  11. Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Doise, Jean-Marc; Aube, Hervé; Olsson, Nils-Olivier; Blettery, Bernard

    2006-10-01

    Candidemia is a life-threatening infection in the ICU whose prognosis is highly dependent on the stage at which it is recognized. Procalcitonin (PCT) levels have been shown to accurately distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states in critically ill patients with clinical signs of sepsis. Little is known about the accuracy of PCT for the diagnosis of candidemia in this setting. A medical intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Review of the medical records of every non-neutropenic patient with either bacteremia or candidemia and clinical sepsis in whom PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available between May 2004 and December 2005. Fifty episodes of either bacteremia (n=35) or candidemia (n=15) were included. PCT levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with bacteremia than in those with candidemia. Moreover, a low PCT value was found to be an independent predictor of candidemia in the study population. According to the calculation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, PCT was found to be accurate in distinguishing between candidemia and bacteremia (0.96 [0.03]). A PCT level of higher than 5.5 ng/ml yields a 100% negative predictive value and a 65.2% positive predictive value for candidemia-related sepsis. A high PCT value in a critically ill non-neutropenic patient with clinical sepsis is unlikely in the setting of candidemia.

  12. Profile and outcomes of critically ill children in a lower middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Irfan; Khan, Khalid Mehmood A

    2018-01-01

    To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. We performed a retrospective analysis of children (children; their most frequent presenting complaints were respiratory symptoms, followed by fever and reluctance to feed. Above the neonatal age group, the most common presenting complaints were gastrointestinal symptoms (with signs of hypoperfusion), followed by seizures, reluctance to feed and respiratory symptoms. 64% of children of >28 days presenting were malnourished. Interventions included cardiopulmonary resuscitation, application of bubble continuous positive airway pressure and endotracheal intubation. Overall mortality was 13%; 63% of all deaths were in the neonatal age group. Children with the highest triage acuity represent 8% of all visits to a paediatric ED. In this group, neonates account for nearly half of all the children, and more than half of all the deaths among critically ill children came in ED. A large proportion of high-acuity children are malnourished. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Persistent Delirium in Chronic Critical Illness as a Prodrome Syndrome before Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Anna; Blinderman, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium. Despite both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to improve his delirium, the patient ultimately continued to have symptoms of delirium and subsequently died in the CTICU. Efforts to reconsider the goals of care, given his family's understanding of his values, were met with resistance as his cardiothoracic surgeon believed that he had a reasonable chance of recovery since his organs were not in failure. This case description raises the question of whether we should consider persistent delirium as a prodrome syndrome before death in patients with CCI. Study and analysis of a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiothoracic surgery who was hemodynamically stable with persistent delirium. Further studies of the prevalence and outcomes of prolonged or persistent agitated delirium in patients with chronic critical illness are needed to provide prognostic information that can assist patients and families in receiving care that accords with their goals and values.

  14. Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: The Delirium and Catatonia Prospective Cohort Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo E; Carlson, Richard; Duggan, Maria C; Pandharipande, Pratik; Girard, Timothy D; Wang, Li; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Francis, Andrew; Nicolson, Stephen E; Dittus, Robert S; Heckers, Stephan; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-11-01

    Catatonia, a condition characterized by motor, behavioral, and emotional changes, can occur during critical illness and appear as clinically similar to delirium, yet its management differs from delirium. Traditional criteria for medical catatonia preclude its diagnosis in delirium. Our objective in this investigation was to understand the overlap and relationship between delirium and catatonia in ICU patients and determine diagnostic thresholds for catatonia. Convenience cohort, nested within two ongoing randomized trials. Single academic medical center in Nashville, TN. We enrolled 136 critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors, randomized to two usual care sedation regimens. Patients were assessed for delirium and catatonia by independent and masked personnel using Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale mapped to Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criterion A for catatonia. Of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had only delirium, four (3%) had only catatonia, 42 (31%) had both, and 32 (24%) had neither. In a logistic regression model, more catatonia signs were associated with greater odds of having delirium. For example, patient assessments with greater than or equal to three Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 symptoms (75th percentile) had, on average, 27.8 times the odds (interquartile range, 12.7-60.6) of having delirium compared with patient assessments with zero Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria (25th percentile) present (p delirium, these data prompt reconsideration of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria for "Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition" that preclude diagnosing catatonia in the presence of delirium.

  15. Tolerance and withdrawal from prolonged opioid use in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Willson, Douglas F; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Meert, Kathleen L; Zimmerman, Jerry; Carcillo, Joseph; Newth, Christopher J L; Prodhan, Parthak; Dean, J Michael; Nicholson, Carol

    2010-05-01

    After prolonged opioid exposure, children develop opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and withdrawal. Strategies for prevention and management should be based on the mechanisms of opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Relevant manuscripts published in the English language were searched in Medline by using search terms "opioid," "opiate," "sedation," "analgesia," "child," "infant-newborn," "tolerance," "dependency," "withdrawal," "analgesic," "receptor," and "individual opioid drugs." Clinical and preclinical studies were reviewed for data synthesis. Mechanisms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance suggest important drug- and patient-related risk factors that lead to tolerance and withdrawal. Opioid tolerance occurs earlier in the younger age groups, develops commonly during critical illness, and results more frequently from prolonged intravenous infusions of short-acting opioids. Treatment options include slowly tapering opioid doses, switching to longer-acting opioids, or specifically treating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Novel therapies may also include blocking the mechanisms of opioid tolerance, which would enhance the safety and effectiveness of opioid analgesia. Opioid tolerance and withdrawal occur frequently in critically ill children. Novel insights into opioid receptor physiology and cellular biochemical changes will inform scientific approaches for the use of opioid analgesia and the prevention of opioid tolerance and withdrawal.

  16. Diagnosing metabolic acidosis in the critically ill: bridging the anion gap, Stewart, and base excess methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidkowski, Christina; Helstrom, James

    2009-03-01

    Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple metabolic acid-base derangements are present in a single patient. Clinicians should be able to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base disorders since metabolic acidoses due to unmeasured anions are associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. This review presents the derivation of three commonly used methods of acid-base analysis, which include the anion gap, Stewart physiochemical, and modified base excess. Clinical examples are also provided to demonstrate the subtleties of the different methods and to demonstrate their application to real patient data. A comparison of these methods shows that each one is equally adept at identifying a metabolic acidosis due to unmeasured anions; however, the Stewart physiochemical and the modified base excess methods better evaluate complex metabolic acid-base disorders. While all three methods correctly identify metabolic acidosis due to unmeasured anions, which is a predictor of mortality, it remains unclear if further delineation of complex metabolic acid-base disorders using the Stewart physiochemical or the modified base excess methods is clinically beneficial.

  17. Long- and medium-chain triglycerides during parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafosse, B; Viale, J P; Pachiaudi, C; Normand, S; Goudable, J; Bouffard, Y; Annat, G; Bertrand, O

    1997-04-01

    Due to their special metabolic pathway, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have been claimed to be oxidized more extensively, compared with long-chain triglycerides (LCT), when administered as a parenteral nutritional support. This enhanced lipid oxidation rate of MCT emulsions could be particularly disclosed in hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions. In an attempt to further elucidate this question, we measured substrate oxidation rates in critically ill patients liable to experience such metabolic conditions, that is to say postoperative patients after esophageal resection receiving 1.5 times their measured energy expenditure (n = 12) or after liver transplantation (n = 8). These patients received either LCT or MCT-LCT emulsions. The metabolic measurements were performed simultaneously by two methods, namely indirect calorimetry and isotopic methods based on natural abundance of nutrients. Although both groups of patients were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, the measured carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were not different with whatever type of lipid was administered. The MCT-LCT emulsions did not offer clear-cut advantages over LCT emulsions in critically ill patients when lipid energetic fate was considered.

  18. [Experts consensus on the management of the right heart function in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Liu, D W; Zhang, H M; Long, Y; Guan, X D; Qiu, H B; Yu, K J; Yan, J; Zhao, H; Tang, Y Q; Ding, X; Ma, X C; Du, W; Kang, Y; Tang, B; Ai, Y H; He, H W; Chen, D C; Chen, H; Chai, W Z; Zhou, X; Cui, N; Wang, H; Rui, X; Hu, Z J; Li, J G; Xu, Y; Yang, Y; Ouyan, B; Lin, H Y; Li, Y M; Wan, X Y; Yang, R L; Qin, Y Z; Chao, Y G; Xie, Z Y; Sun, R H; He, Z Y; Wang, D F; Huang, Q Q; Jiang, D P; Cao, X Y; Yu, R G; Wang, X; Chen, X K; Wu, J F; Zhang, L N; Yin, M G; Liu, L X; Li, S W; Chen, Z J; Luo, Z

    2017-12-01

    To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle. (2) Right heart function management is a key step of the hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients. (3) Fluid resuscitation means the process of fluid therapy through rapid adjustment of intravascular volume aiming to improve tissue perfusion. Reversed fluid resuscitation means reducing volume. (4) The right ventricle afterload should be taken into consideration when using stroke volume variation (SVV) or pulse pressure variation (PPV) to assess fluid responsiveness.(5)Volume overload alone could lead to septal displacement and damage the diastolic function of the left ventricle. (6) The Starling curve of the right ventricle is not the same as the one applied to the left ventricle,the judgement of the different states for the right ventricle is the key of volume management. (7) The alteration of right heart function has its own characteristics, volume assessment and adjustment is an important part of the treatment of right ventricular dysfunction (8) Right ventricular enlargement is the prerequisite for increased cardiac output during reversed fluid resuscitation; Nonetheless, right heart enlargement does not mandate reversed fluid resuscitation.(9)Increased pulmonary vascular resistance induced by a variety of factors could affect right heart function by obstructing the blood flow. (10) When pulmonary hypertension was detected in clinical scenario, the differentiation of

  19. Septic and non-septic olecranon bursitis in the accident and emergency department--an approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, I M

    1996-01-01

    Olecranon bursitis is relatively common. One third of episodes are septic. Most of the remainder are non-septic, with occasional rheumatological causes. Trauma can cause both septic and non-septic olecranon bursitis. Clinical features are helpful in separating septic from non-septic olecranon bursitis, but there may be local erythema in both. Aspiration should be carried out in all cases, and if the presence of infection is still in doubt, microscopy, Gram staining, and culture of the aspirate will resolve the issue. Septic olecranon bursitis should be treated by aspiration, which may need to be repeated, and a long course of antibiotics. Some cases will need admission, and a few will need surgical treatment. Non-septic olecranon bursitis can be managed with aspiration alone. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs probably hasten symptomatic improvement. Intrabursal corticosteroids produce a rapid resolution but concern remains over their long term local effects. Recovery from septic olecranon bursitis can take months. PMID:8894865

  20. Patient-important outcomes in randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Stéphane; Messika, Jonathan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Guillo, Sylvie; Pasquet, Blandine; Dubief, Emeline; Boukertouta, Tanissia; Dreyfuss, Didier; Tubach, Florence

    2017-12-01

    Intensivists' clinical decision making pursues two main goals for patients: to decrease mortality and to improve quality of life and functional status in survivors. Patient-important outcomes are gaining wide acceptance in most fields of clinical research. We sought to systematically review how well patient-important outcomes are reported in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in critically ill patients. Literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials indexed from January to December 2013. Articles were eligible if they reported an RCT involving critically ill adult patients. We excluded phase II, pilot and physiological crossover studies. We assessed study characteristics. All primary and secondary outcomes were collected, described and classified using six categories of outcomes including patient-important outcomes (involving mortality at any time on the one hand and quality of life, functional/cognitive/neurological outcomes assessed after ICU discharge on the other). Of the 716 articles retrieved in 2013, 112 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most common topics were mechanical ventilation (27%), sepsis (19%) and nutrition (17%). Among the 112 primary outcomes, 27 (24%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 21/27) but only six (5%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (functional disability = 4; quality of life = 2). Among the 598 secondary outcomes, 133 (22%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 92/133) but only 41 (7%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (quality of life = 20, functional disability = 14; neurological/cognitive performance = 5; handicap = 1; post-traumatic stress = 1). Seventy-three RCTs (65%) reported at least one patient-important outcome but only 11 (10%) reported at least one patient-important outcome besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge. Patient-important outcomes are rarely primary

  1. Patient outcomes after critical illness: a systematic review of qualitative studies following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed D; Nallagangula, Aparna; Nalamalapu, Swaroopa; Nunna, Krishidhar; Nausran, Utkarsh; Robinson, Karen A; Dinglas, Victor D; Needham, Dale M; Eakin, Michelle N

    2016-10-26

    There is growing interest in patient outcomes following critical illness, with an increasing number and different types of studies conducted, and a need for synthesis of existing findings to help inform the field. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies evaluating patient outcomes after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the study population was >50 % adults discharged from the ICU, with qualitative evaluation of patient outcomes. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific ICU patient populations or specialty ICUs. Citations were screened in duplicate, and two reviewers extracted data sequentially for each eligible article. Themes related to patient outcome domains were coded and categorized based on the main domains of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) framework. A total of 2735 citations were screened, and 22 full-text articles were eligible, with year of publication ranging from 1995 to 2015. All of the qualitative themes were extracted from eligible studies and then categorized using PROMIS descriptors: satisfaction with life (16 studies), including positive outlook, acceptance, gratitude, independence, boredom, loneliness, and wishing they had not lived; mental health (15 articles), including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and irritability/anger; physical health (14 articles), including mobility, activities of daily living, fatigue, appetite, sensory changes, muscle weakness, and sleep disturbances; social health (seven articles), including changes in friends/family relationships; and ability to participate in social roles and activities (six articles), including hobbies and disability. ICU survivors may experience positive emotions and life satisfaction; however, a wide range of mental

  2. Brain computer tomography in critically ill patients - a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purmer, Ilse M; Iperen, Erik P van; Beenen, Ludo F M; Kuiper, Michael J; Binnekade, Jan M; Vandertop, Peter W; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Brain computer tomography (brain CT) is an important imaging tool in patients with intracranial disorders. In ICU patients, a brain CT implies an intrahospital transport which has inherent risks. The proceeds and consequences of a brain CT in a critically ill patient should outweigh these risks. The aim of this study was to critically evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of brain CT in ICU patients. In a prospective observational study data were collected during one year on the reasons to request a brain CT, expected abnormalities, abnormalities found by the radiologist and consequences for treatment. An “expected abnormality” was any finding that had been predicted by the physician requesting the brain CT. A brain CT was “diagnostically positive”, if the abnormality found was new or if an already known abnormality was increased. It was “diagnostically negative” if an already known abnormality was unchanged or if an expected abnormality was not found. The treatment consequences of the brain CT, were registered as “treatment as planned”, “treatment changed, not as planned”, “treatment unchanged”. Data of 225 brain CT in 175 patients were analyzed. In 115 (51%) brain CT the abnormalities found were new or increased known abnormalities. 115 (51%) brain CT were found to be diagnostically positive. In the medical group 29 (39%) of brain CT were positive, in the surgical group 86 (57%), p 0.01. After a positive brain CT, in which the expected abnormalities were found, treatment was changed as planned in 33%, and in 19% treatment was changed otherwise than planned. The results of this study show that the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of brain CT in critically ill patients is moderate. The development of guidelines regarding the decision rules for performing a brain CT in ICU patients is needed

  3. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  4. Propylene glycol accumulation in critically ill patients receiving continuous intravenous lorazepam infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinek, Erica L; Kiser, Tyree H; Fish, Douglas N; MacLaren, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Lorazepam is recommended by the Society of Critical Care Medicine as the preferred agent for sedation of critically ill patients. Intravenous lorazepam contains propylene glycol, which has been associated with toxicity when high doses of lorazepam are administered. To evaluate the accumulation of propylene glycol in critically ill patients receiving lorazepam by continuous infusion and determine factors associated with propylene glycol concentration. A 6-month, retrospective, safety assessment was conducted of adults admitted to the medical intensive care unit who were receiving lorazepam by continuous infusion for 12 hours or more. Propylene glycol serum concentrations were obtained 24-48 hours after continuous-infusion lorazepam was initiated and every 3-5 days thereafter. Propylene glycol accumulation was defined as concentrations of 25 mg/dL or more. Groups with and without propylene glycol accumulation were compared and factors associated with propylene glycol concentration were determined using multivariate correlation regression analyses. Forty-eight propylene glycol serum samples were obtained from 33 patients. Fourteen (42%) patients had propylene glycol accumulation, representing 23 (48%) serum samples. Univariate analyses showed the following factors were related to propylene glycol accumulation: baseline renal dysfunction, presence of alcohol withdrawal, sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, rate of lorazepam continuous infusion, and 24-hour lorazepam dose. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that propylene glycol concentration was strongly associated with the continuous infusion rate and 24-hour dose (adjusted r(2) > or = 0.77; p propylene glycol concentration (r(2) > or = 0.71; p propylene glycol concentration. Seven (21%) patients developed renal dysfunction after continuous-infusion lorazepam was initiated, but associated causes were indeterminable. Other possible propylene glycol

  5. Agitation onset, frequency, and associated temporal factors in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-07-01

    Agitation is a frequent complication in critically ill adults, can result in life-threatening events for patients or care providers, and extends the hospital length of stay, thereby increasing hospital costs. To describe the incidence, onset, and temporal factors related to agitation in critically ill adults. Data were collected for the first 5 days of stay of all adult patients consecutively admitted to a medical respiratory intensive care unit and a surgical trauma intensive care unit during a 2-month period. Agitation was documented by using scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or notation of agitation in the medical record. The hour was used as the documentation epoch, and data were summarized by hour, 4-hour block, and day for each patient. Data were collected on 200 patients, 100 from each unit. Among the sample, 118 (59%) were agitated at some time during the 5 days. The overall agitation rate was 7.8% of the total hourly time. Mean onset of agitation was 11.6 hours from time of admission to the unit. Of the 118 patients who were agitated at some time, 102 (86%) had agitation on day 1. Compared with patients in the surgical trauma unit, patients in the medical respiratory unit had significantly more hours of agitation the first day and first hour of admission and significantly earlier onset of agitation. Agitation was present in more than one-half of the patients in the sample, typically developed on the first day, and involved consecutive days. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability: an evidence-based review and practical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuofei; Wu, Xingjiang; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Jieshou

    2014-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill patients is associated with significant benefit as well as elevated risk of complications. Concomitant use of EEN with vasopressors has been associated with nonocclusive bowel necrosis in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability. The decision when to initiate enteral nutrition in hemodynamically unstable patients that require vasoactive substances remains a clinical dilemma. This review summarizes the effect of EEN and vasoactive agents on gastrointestinal blood flow and perfusion in critically ill patients, based on current evidence. Animal and clinical data involving simultaneous administration of EEN and vasoactive agents for hemodynamic instability are reviewed, and the factors related to the safety and effectiveness of EEN support in this patient population are analyzed. Moreover, practical recommendations are provided. Additional randomized clinical trials are warranted to provide cutting-edge evidence-based guidance about this issue for practitioners of critical care.

  8. Early exposure to hyperoxia and mortality in critically ill patients with severe traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derek W; Janz, David R; Emerson, William L; May, Addison K; Bernard, Gordon R; Zhao, Zhiguo; Koyama, Tatsuki; Ware, Lorraine B

    2017-02-03

    Hyperoxia is common early in the course of resuscitation of critically ill patients. It has been associated with mortality in some, but not all, studies of cardiac arrest patients and other critically ill cohorts. Reasons for the inconsistency are unclear and may depend on unmeasured patient confounders, the timing and duration of hyperoxia, population characteristics, or the way that hyperoxia is defined and measured. We sought to determine whether, in a prospectively collected cohort of mechanically ventilated patients with traumatic injuries with and without head trauma, higher maximum partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) within 24 hours of admission would be associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Critically ill patients with traumatic injuries undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation enrolled in the Validating Acute Lung Injury biomarkers for Diagnosis (VALID) study were included in this study. All arterial blood gases (ABGs) from the first 24 hours of admission were recorded. Primary analysis was comparison of the highest PaO2 between hospital survivors and non-survivors. A total of 653 patients were evaluated for inclusion. Of these, 182 were not mechanically ventilated or did not have an ABG measured in the first 24 hours, leaving 471 patients in the primary analysis. In survivors, the maximum PaO2 was 141 mmHg (median, interquartile range 103 - 212) compared to 148 mmHg (IQR 105 - 209) in non-survivors (p = 0.82). In the subgroup with head trauma (n = 266), the maximum PaO2 was 133 mmHg (IQR 97 - 187) among survivors and 152 mmHg (108 - 229) among nonsurvivors (p = 0.19). After controlling for age, injury severity score, number of arterial blood gases, and fraction of inspired oxygen, maximum PaO2 was not associated with increased mortality (OR 1.27 for every fold increase of PaO2 (95% CI 0.72 - 2.25). In mechanically ventilated patients with severe traumatic injuries, hyperoxia in the first 24 hours of admission was not associated

  9. Nutritional immunomodulation in critically ill children with acute lung injury: feasibility and impact on circulating biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Brian R; Nadkarni, Vinay; Goldstein, Brahm; Checchia, Paul; Ayad, Onsy; Bean, Judy; DeMichele, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory failure caused by acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with significant morbidity in children. Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants (eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid) can safely modulate plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles, reduce inflammation, and improve clinical outcomes in adults. There is little information regarding the use of enteral eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid to modulate plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in children. We sought to determine if continuous feeding of enteral nutrition containing eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants was feasible in critically ill children with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We further evaluated the impact of such an approach on the alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations. Prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. PICU. Twenty-six critically ill children (age 6.2 ± 0.9 yr, PaO2/FIO2 185 ± 15) with the diagnosis of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanically ventilated children received either eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid or a standard pediatric enteral formula. Clinical, biochemical, plasma fatty acid, and safety data were assessed at baseline, study days 4 and 7. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the two study groups. Both groups met enteral feeding goals within 30 hrs and had similar caloric delivery. There were no differences in formula tolerance as measured by serum chemistries, liver and renal function, and hematology studies after 7 days of feeding either eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid or pediatric enteral formula. On study day 4 and 7, plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in the eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid group showed a significant increase in anti-inflammatory circulating markers. Providing enteral nutrition

  10. Metabolomic association between venous thromboembolism in critically ill trauma patients and kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Stacy A; Shahin, Mohamed H; Garrett, Timothy J; Frye, Reginald F

    2018-03-08

    Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in critically ill patients remains unacceptably high despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis. A systems biology approach may be useful in understanding disease pathology and predicting response to treatment. Metabolite profile under specific environmental conditions provides the closest link to phenotype, but the relationship between metabolomics and risk of VTE in critically ill patients is unknown. In this study, metabolomics signatures are compared in patients with and without VTE. Multicenter case-control study using prospectively collected data from the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury program, with pathway and in silico gene expression analyses. Eight level 1 US trauma centers. Critically ill adults with blunt trauma who developed VTE within the first 28 days of hospitalization compared to patients without VTE (N-VTE). None. Patients included in the study (n = 20 VTE, n = 20 N-VTE) were mean age of 34 years, injury severity score of 35, and VTE diagnosed a median of 10.5 days after admission. Global metabolomics revealed two kynurenine metabolites, N-formylkynurenine (AUC = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.89) and 5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI:0.63-0.90) significantly discriminated VTE and N-VTE; ratio between N-formylkynurenine/5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine improved predictive power (AUC = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95). In the pathway analysis, tryptophan was the only significant metabolic pathway including N-formylkynurenine and 5-hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine (p < 0.001), and 8 proteins directly or indirectly interacted with these metabolites in the interaction network analysis. Of the 8 genes tested in the in silico gene expression analyses, KYNU (p < 0.001), CCBL1 (p < 0.001), and CCBL2 (p = 0.001) were significantly different between VTE and N-VTE, controlling for age and sex. Two novel kynurenine metabolites in the tryptophan pathway associated with

  11. The Predictors of Mortality among Critically Ill Patients in Emergency Department, dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lunaesti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIdentifying the severity of patient’s condition is very important to be done in emergency department. The severity can be predicted by assessing vital signs of patients. Factors and scoring system in predicting mortality of critically ill patients in Indonesia remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate vital signs as predictors of mortality and determine whether Modified Early Warning Score(MEWS can be used to predict mortality among Indonesian patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients admitted to the dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital’s emergency department (ED from January-December 2011. Physiological parameters including consciousness, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were obtained from medical records. MEWS were calculated from the data and non-parametric test was performed to identify predictors of 30-days mortality. Total of 579 patients were registered. The most common indication at admission was decrease in level of consciousness. Abnormal vital signs were associated with the increased odds of death. Patientswith bradypnea were the most likely to die compared to the other factors (OR 48.405; 95%CI 6.28373.12. The odds of death for in patient increased significantly as the MEWS increased >4 (OR 3.815; 95% CI 2.70-5.40. Decrease in level of consciousness, abnormal heart rate, abnormal respiratoryrate, and MEWS >4 increase the odds of death among critically ill patients in EDKeywords: predictors, death, critically ill patients, emergency department, MEWSAbstrakIdentifikasi severitas kondisi pasien sangat penting dilakukan di Instalasi Gawat Darurat (IGD. Tingkat severitas dapat diprediksi dengan menilai tanda vital pasien. Faktor dan sistem skoring prediktor mortalitas pasien kritis di Indonesia belum jelas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi tanda vital sebagai predictor mortalitas dan menentukan apakah skoring Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS dapat digunakan untuk memprediksi mortalitas pasien di

  12. Tracheal intubation in critically ill patients: a comprehensive systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Baiardo Radaelli, Martina; Saleh, Omar; Votta, Carmine D; Fominskiy, Evgeny; Putzu, Alessandro; Snak de Souza, Cézar Daniel; Antonelli, Massimo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pelosi, Paolo; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2018-01-20

    We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill. We searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. We identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation , while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials. The limited available

  13. Prediction of mortality with unmeasured anions in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acid-base disorders are common within critically ill patients. Physicochemical approach described by Stewart and modified by Figge gives precise quantification method of metabolic acidosis and insight into its main mechanisms, as well as influence of unmeasured anion on metabolic acidosis. The aims of this study were to determine whether the conventional acid-base variables are connected with survival rate of critically ill patients at Intensive care unit; whether strong ion difference/strong ion gap (SID/SIG is a better predictor of mortality rate comparing to conventional acid-base variables; to determine all significant predictable parameters for the 28-day mortality rate at intensive care units. Methods. This retrospective observational analytic study included 142 adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation, survivors (n = 68 and nonsurvivors (n = 74. Apparent strong ion difference (SIDapp, effective strong ion difference (SIDeff and SIG values were calculated with the Stewart-Figge’s quantitative biophysical method. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used in the study [t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2-test, binary logistic regression, Reciever operating characteristic (ROC curves, calibration]. Results. Age, Na+, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II, Cl-, albumin, SIG, SID app, SIDeff, and aninon gap (AG were statistically significant predictors. AG represented a model with imprecise calibration, i.e. a model with little predictive power. APACHE II had p-value more than 0.05 if it was near it, and therefore it could be considered potentially unreliable for outcome prediction. SIDeff and SIG represented models with well-defined calibration. ROC analysis results showed that APACHE II, Cl-, albumin, SIDeff, SIG i AG had the largest area bellow the curve. By creation of logistic models with calibration methods, we found that outcome depends on SIG and APACHE II score. Conclusion. Based

  14. Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in Early Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Critically Ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Lestari Paramastuty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI often associated with a high hospital morbi-mortality rate in the intensive care unit patients. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, has many characteristics of ideal biomarker for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to compared the temporal pattern of elevation urinary KIM-1 level following critically ill children with SCr as standart biomarker of AKI. Prospective analytic observational study was conducted during October to March 2014 in the Saiful Anwar General Hospital and Physiology Laboratory Brawijaya University. There were 13 critically ill as subjects. SCr and KIM-1 levels from all subjects were measured three times ( at admission, after 1st and 6th hour. Subjects were devided into AKI - non-AKI groups by SCr level and survivor - non survivor group at the and of the observations. Results showed that there were significantly increased levels of KIM-1 in the AKI and non-AKI and survivor-non survivor group at time point. However, we found that delta KIM-1 at time point increased significant in non AKI group and survivor group. KIM-1 at admission can diagnosed AKI in critically ill children. We conclude that urinary KIM-1 is a sensitive non-invasive biomarker to diagnosed acute kidney injury in critically ill children. Increase level of KIM-1 by time shows protective and good outcome in critically ill children.

  15. Factors affecting stress experienced by surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Kennedy, Carie R; Shehane, Erica; Eastman, Alexander; Warren, Victoria; Freeman, Bradley D

    2014-04-01

    This study explores surrogate decision-makers' (SDMs) challenges making decisions related to the care of patients in critical care, to (1) characterise the SDM stress, (2) identify personal, social, care-related factors influencing stress and (3) consider implications of findings to improving critical care practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with SDMs of critically ill patients receiving care in two tertiary care institutions. Transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Domains explored were: stress characteristics, stress mitigators, coping strategies, social networks, SDM decision-making role, decision-making concordance, knowledge of patient's preferences, experience with provider team, SDM-provider communication, patient outcome certainty. We interviewed 34 SDMs. Most were female and described long-term relationships with patients. SDMs described the strain of uncertain outcomes and decision-making without clear, consistent information from providers. Decision-making anxiety was buffered by SDMs' active engagement of social networks, faith and access to clear communication from providers. Stress is a very real factor influencing SDMs confidence and comfort making decisions. These findings suggest that stress can be minimised by improving communication between SDMs and medical providers. Nurses' central role in the ICU makes them uniquely poised to spearhead interventions to improve provider-SDM communication and reduce SDM decision-making anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Néstor; Vial, Macarena R; Calleja, José; Quintero, Agamenón; Cortés, Albán; Celis, Edgar; Pacheco, Clara; Ugarte, Sebastián; Añón, José M; Hernández, Gonzalo; Vidal, Erick; Chiappero, Guillermo; Ríos, Fernando; Castilleja, Fernando; Matos, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Enith; Antoniazzi, Paulo; Teles, José Mario; Dueñas, Carmelo; Sinclair, Jorge; Martínez, Lorenzo; von der Osten, Ingrid; Vergara, José; Jiménez, Edgar; Arroyo, Max; Rodríguez, Camilo; Torres, Javier; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastián; Nates, Joseph L

    2017-04-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. A taskforce composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. The group identified 23 relevant questions among 87 issues that were initially identified. In the initial search, 333 relevant publications were identified, of which 226 publications were chosen. The taskforce generated a total of 19 recommendations, 10 positive (1B, 3; 2C, 3; 2D, 4) and 9 negative (1B, 8; 2C, 1). A recommendation was not possible in 6 questions. Percutaneous techniques are associated with a lower risk of infections compared with surgical tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy only seems to reduce the duration of ventilator use but not the incidence of pneumonia, the length of stay, or the long-term mortality rate. The evidence does not support the use of routine bronchoscopy guidance or laryngeal masks during the procedure. Finally, proper prior training is as important or even a more significant factor in reducing complications than the technique used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer of critically ill adults-assessing the need for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ruth-Aoibheann; Marsh, Brian; O'Connor, Paul

    2018-01-12

    Transfer of critically ill patients within the hospital is commonly associated with adverse incidents, but, despite this, no standardised training exists on how to carry out this task. Very little information is published in the literature on the learning needs of staff undertaking these transfers, and this limits our ability to provide a focused and appropriate educational intervention. This study aimed to explore the organisational, environmental and individual issues that increase risk to patients during intrahospital transport (IHT) and to explore the potential educational solutions to these issues as articulated by these practitioners. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in an Irish tertiary hospital critical care unit. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on critical care practitioners until data saturation was achieved. After manual transcription of the data, they were then analysed to identify themes. Two themes emerged: challenges related to intrahospital transport and plans to improve intrahospital transport. Organisational, communication and individual issues need to be considered when addressing problems associated with IHT. A multifaceted approach is needed, with a focus on organisational solutions in the form of checklists as well as educational interventions such as interprofessional education initiatives. Further studies on implementation of educational initiatives will add to the findings we report here.

  18. Relationship between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infections in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Mallika L; Zager, Sam; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2012-05-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness, but its contribution to bloodstream infections is not well-defined. We performed a multicenter observational study of 14,657 patients, aged 18 yrs or older, who received critical care and had blood cultures drawn between 1997 and 2007 in two hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 U.S. Census and hospital administrative data. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate categorized as 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents with income below the federal poverty line. The primary end point was bloodstream infection occurring 48 hrs before critical care initiation to 48 hrs after. Associations between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infection were estimated by logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Two thousand four-hundred thirty-five patients had bloodstream infections. Neighborhood poverty rate was a strong predictor of risk of bloodstream infection, with a significant risk gradient across neighborhood poverty rate quintiles. After multivariable analysis, neighborhood poverty rate in the highest quintiles (20%-40% and >40%) were associated with a 26% and 49% increase in bloodstream infection risk, respectively, relative to patients with neighborhood poverty rate of poverty rate, a proxy for decreased socioeconomic status, appears to be associated with risk of bloodstream infection among patients who receive critical care.

  19. Caring for critically ill patients with ebola virus disease. Perspectives from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert A; Fletcher, Thomas; Fischer, William A; Lamontagne, Francois; Jacob, Shevin; Brett-Major, David; Lawler, James V; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; Houlihan, Catherine; O'Dempsey, Tim; Ferri, Mauricio; Adachi, Takuya; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Mayet, Thierry; Schieffelin, John; McLellan, Susan L; Senga, Mikiko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Clement, Christophe; Mardel, Simon; Vallenas Bejar De Villar, Rosa Constanza; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The largest ever Ebola virus disease outbreak is ravaging West Africa. The constellation of little public health infrastructure, low levels of health literacy, limited acute care and infection prevention and control resources, densely populated areas, and a highly transmissible and lethal viral infection have led to thousands of confirmed, probable, or suspected cases thus far. Ebola virus disease is characterized by a febrile severe illness with profound gastrointestinal manifestations and is complicated by intravascular volume depletion, shock, profound electrolyte abnormalities, and organ dysfunction. Despite no proven Ebola virus-specific medical therapies, the potential effect of supportive care is great for a condition with high baseline mortality and one usually occurring in resource-constrained settings. With more personnel, basic monitoring, and supportive treatment, many of the sickest patients with Ebola virus disease do not need to die. Ebola virus disease represents an illness ready for a paradigm shift in care delivery and outcomes, and the profession of critical care medicine can and should be instrumental in helping this happen.

  20. Serum creatinine changes associated with critical illness and detection of persistent renal dysfunction after AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Kolic, Ivana; Purdell-Lewis, Jeremy; Taylor, Rachelle; Pearse, Rupert M; Kirwan, Christopher J

    2014-06-06

    AKI is a risk factor for development or worsening of CKD. However, diagnosis of renal dysfunction by serum creatinine could be confounded by loss of muscle mass and creatinine generation after critical illness. A retrospective, single center analysis of serum in patients surviving to hospital discharge with an intensive care unit admission of 5 or more days between 2009 and 2011 was performed. In total, 700 cases were identified, with a 66% incidence of AKI. In 241 patients without AKI, creatinine was significantly lower (Pcreatinine was significantly lower than baseline in all patients except those patients with severe AKI (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes category 3), who had no significant difference. In a multivariable regression model, median duration of hospitalization was associated with a predicted 30% decrease (95% confidence interval, 8% to 45%) in creatinine from baseline in the absence of AKI; after allowing for this effect, AKI was associated with a 29% (95% confidence interval, 10% to 51%) increase in predicted hospital discharge creatinine. Using a similar model to exclude the confounding effect of prolonged major illness on creatinine, 148 of 700 patients (95% confidence interval, 143 to 161) would have eGFRcreatinine (a 135% increase in potential CKD diagnoses; Pserum creatinine that persist to hospital discharge, potentially causing inaccurate assessment of renal function at discharge, particularly in survivors of AKI. Prospective measurements of GFR and creatinine generation are required to confirm the significance of these findings. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies for older mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy S; Boyd, Julia A; Watson, Douglas; Hope, David; Lewis, Steff; Krishan, Ashma; Forbes, John F; Ramsay, Pamela; Pearse, Rupert; Wallis, Charles; Cairns, Christopher; Cole, Stephen; Wyncoll, Duncan

    2013-10-01

    To compare hemoglobin concentration (Hb), RBC use, and patient outcomes when restrictive or liberal blood transfusion strategies are used to treat anemic (Hb≤90 g/L) critically ill patients of age≥55 years requiring≥4 days of mechanical ventilation in ICU. Parallel-group randomized multicenter pilot trial. Six ICUs in the United Kingdom participated between August 2009 and December 2010. One hundred patients (51 restrictive and 49 liberal groups). Patients were randomized to a restrictive (Hb trigger, 70 g/L; target, 71-90 g/L) or liberal (90 g/L; target, 91-110 g/L) transfusion strategy for 14 days or the remainder of ICU stay, whichever was longest. Baseline comorbidity rates and illness severity were high, notably for ischemic heart disease (32%). The Hb difference among groups was 13.8 g/L (95% CI, 11.5-16.0 g/L); pliberal group (55%) than in the restrictive group (37%); relative risk was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.44-1.05; p=0.073). This trend remained in a survival model adjusted for age, gender, ischemic heart disease, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and total non-neurologic Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at baseline (hazard ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.28-1.03]; p=0.061). A large trial of transfusion strategies in older mechanically ventilated patients is feasible. This pilot trial found a nonsignificant trend toward lower mortality with restrictive transfusion practice.

  2. Anxiety symptoms in survivors of critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikayin, Sina; Rabiee, Anahita; Hashem, Mohamed D; Huang, Minxuan; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Turnbull, Alison E; Needham, Dale M

    To evaluate the epidemiology of and postintensive care unit (ICU) interventions for anxiety symptoms after critical illness. We searched five databases (1970-2015) to identify studies assessing anxiety symptoms in adult ICU survivors. Data from studies using the most common assessment instrument were meta-analyzed. We identified 27 studies (2880 patients) among 27,334 citations. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A) subscale was the most common instrument (81% of studies). We pooled data at 2-3, 6 and 12-14month time-points, with anxiety symptom prevalences [HADS-A≥8, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of 32%(27-38%), 40%(33-46%) and 34%(25-42%), respectively. In a subset of studies with repeated assessments in the exact same patients, there was no significant change in anxiety score or prevalence over time. Age, gender, severity of illness, diagnosis and length of stay were not associated with anxiety symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms during admission and memories of in-ICU delusional experiences were potential risk factors. Physical rehabilitation and ICU diaries had potential benefit. One third of ICU survivors experience anxiety symptoms that are persistent during their first year of recovery. Psychiatric symptoms during admission and memories of in-ICU delusional experiences were associated with post-ICU anxiety. Physical rehabilitation and ICU diaries merit further investigation as possible interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma antioxidant status in septic critically ill patients: a decrease over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jean-Marc; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Zeller, Marianne; Vergely, Catherine; Aube, Herve; Blettery, Bernard; Rochette, Luc

    2008-04-01

    Severe septic states in humans are responsible for intense intravascular oxidative stress, which induces numerous adaptive mechanisms. We determined time sequence changes in total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and major plasma antioxidant concentrations, which have not been fully explained in septic conditions. A cohort of 56 consecutive septic patients (septic shock n = 37, severe sepsis n = 19) and six healthy volunteers. We compared TAC and antioxidant levels in patients with one of two degrees of septic states, at the onset of illness, to those of healthy volunteers. Thereafter, over a 10-day follow-up, we observed daily the time sequence changes of the two septic populations in terms of TAC and antioxidants. At the onset, there was no difference between the three groups in terms of TAC values (healthy subjects 2.18 +/- 0.04; severe sepsis 2.03 +/- 0.07; septic shock 2.09 +/- 0.09), then an equivalent time decline was observed in the two septic populations whatever the severity. TAC was statistically linked to uric acid, proteins in particular albumin and bilirubin (multivariate analysis), but no correlation was found with any vitamin (A, C and E). A sharp and persistent decrease in vitamin C concentrations was underlined. TAC, unaffected at first, deteriorated over time whatever the severity of the infection in these critically ill patients. TAC, unable to distinguish severe sepsis and septic shock, is unlikely to be a particularly useful outcome measure.

  4. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Eliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n=5 were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4 versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p<=0.10, and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p<=0.10. Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  5. Economic impact of Candida colonization and Candida infection in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, P M; Palomar, M; León-Gil, C; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Jordá, R; Nolla-Salas, J; León-Regidor, M A

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to assess the economic impact of Candida colonization and Candida infection in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). For this purpose, a prospective, cohort, observational, and multicenter study was designed. A total of 1,765 patients over the age of 18 years who were admitted for at least 7 days to 73 medical-surgical ICUs in 70 Spanish hospitals between May 1998 and January 1999 were studied. From day 7 of ICU admission to ICU discharge, samples of tracheal aspirates, pharyngeal exudates, gastric aspirates and urine were collected every week for culture. Prolonged length of stay was associated with severity of illness, Candida colonization or infection, infection by other fungi, antifungal therapy, treatment with more than one antifungal agent, and toxicity associated with this therapy. Compared to non-colonized, non-infected patients (n=720), patients with Candida colonization (n=880) had an extended ICU stay of 6.2 days (OR, 1.69; 95%CI, 1.53-1.87; Pcolonization resulted in an additional 8,000 EUR in direct costs and Candida infection almost 16,000 EUR. Both Candida colonization and Candida infection had an important economic impact in terms of cost increases due to longer stays in both the ICU and in the hospital.

  6. Music therapy, a review of the potential therapeutic benefits for the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofredj, A; Alaya, S; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A

    2016-10-01

    Intensive care units are a stressful milieu for patients, particularly when under mechanical ventilation which they refer to as inhumane and anxiety producing. Anxiety can impose harmful effects on the course of recovery and overall well-being of the patient. Resulting adverse effects may prolong weaning and recovery time. Music listening, widely used for stress release in all areas of medicine, tends to be a reliable and efficacious treatment for those critically ill patients. It can abate the stress response, decrease anxiety during mechanical ventilation, and induce an overall relaxation response without the use of medication. This relaxation response can lower cardiac workload and oxygen consumption resulting in more effective ventilation. Music may also improve sleep quality and reduce patient's pain with a subsequent decrease in sedative exposure leading to an accelerated ventilator weaning process and a speedier recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency team calls for critically ill non-trauma patients in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Marker; Do, Hien Quoc; Rasmussen, Søren W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Handling critically ill patients is a complex task for Emergency Department (ED) personnel. Initial treatment is of major importance and requires adequately experienced ED doctors to initiate and decide for the right medical or surgical treatment. Our aim was, with regard to clinical...... presentation, management and mortality to describe adult non-trauma patients that upon ED arrival elicited emergency team calls. METHODS: An observational study of adult patients (≥ 18 years) admitted to a regional ED with conditions that elicited acute team activation and additional emergency team...... consultation calls for non-ED specialist physicians. Emergency team calls were two-tiered with 'orange' and 'red' calls. Additionally, intensive care unit (ICU) admission charts were reviewed to identify the total number of adult non-trauma and non-cardiac arrest patients admitted to the ICU from the ED during...

  8. Bypassing non-adherence via PEG in a critically ill HIV-1-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, J; Hueber, A J; Rech, J; Harrer, T

    2008-08-01

    This case study describes a 44-year-old, chronically non-adherent, HIV-infected male with relapsing, life threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) and other recurring opportunistic infections. Non-adherence resulted in critical illness, suppressed CD4 lymphocyte count and elevated viral load. In order to bypass the patient's complete psychological aversion to taking medication, and after exhausting various psychological interventions, a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) tube was inserted for delivery of indispensable medication. During the 15-month follow-up the patient was adherent, exhibiting a consistently undetectable viral load, high CD4 count and a remission of the opportunistic infections. This is an interesting case study demonstrating life-saving and long-term benefit of PEG in an exceptional setting, which has implications for future research and treatment of non-adherent HIV-infected patients.

  9. Management of infections in critically ill returning travellers in the intensive care unit-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rello, Jordi; Manuel, Oriol; Eggimann, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This position paper is the second ESCMID Consensus Document on this subject and aims to provide intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians with a standardized approach to the management of serious travel-related infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) or the emerge......This position paper is the second ESCMID Consensus Document on this subject and aims to provide intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians with a standardized approach to the management of serious travel-related infections in the intensive care unit (ICU......) and ESGCIP (ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Critically Ill Patients), respectively. A relevant expert on the subject of each section prepared the first draft which was then edited and approved by additional members from both ESCMID study groups. This article summarises considerations regarding clinical...

  10. Update on metabolism and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, E; Burghi, G; Manzanares, W

    2017-09-23

    Major burn injury triggers severe oxidative stress, a systemic inflammatory response, and a persistent hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state with secondary sarcopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, sepsis and an increased mortality risk. Calorie deficit, negative protein balance and antioxidant micronutrient deficiency after thermal injury have been associated to poor clinical outcomes. In this context, personalized nutrition therapy with early enteral feeding from the start of resuscitation are indicated. Over the last four decades, different nutritional and pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating the immune and metabolic responses have been evaluated. These strategies have been shown to be able to minimize acute malnutrition, as well as modulate the immunoinflammatory response, and improve relevant clinical outcomes in this patient population. The purpose of this updating review is to summarize the most current evidence on metabolic response and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Long term psychological effects of a no sedation protocol in critically ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroem, Thomas; Stylsvig, Mette; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    . This study was done as a single-blinded cohort study. After discharge patients were interviewed by a neuropsychologist assessing quality of life, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. RESULTS: 2 years after randomization a total of 38 patients was eligible for interview. 26 patients were...... by the Impact of Events Scale both groups had low stress scores (1 in intervention group vs. 2 in the control group had scores above 32, P=0.50). State anxiety scores were also low (28 in the control group vs. 30 the intervention group, P=0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a protocol of no sedation...... applied to critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation does not increase the risk of long term psychological sequelae after intensive care compared to standard treatment with sedation....

  12. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, L; Jensen, TH

    2006-01-01

    procalcitonin measurements were carried out during the study period as well as measurements of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein and registration of comorbidity. The primary end point was all-cause mortality in a 90-day follow-up period. Secondary end points were mortality during the stay...... in the intensive care unit and in a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 3,642 procalcitonin measurements were evaluated in 472 critically ill patients. We found that a high maximum procalcitonin level and a procalcitonin increase for 1 day were independent predictors of 90-day all-cause mortality...... for 1 day are early independent predictors of all-cause mortality in a 90-day follow-up period after intensive care unit admission. Mortality risk increases for every day that procalcitonin increases. Levels or increases of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count do not seem to predict mortality...

  13. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent hosts: A decade of progress and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles H.; Trgovcich, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an undisputed pathogen in humans with severe immunocompromise that has historically been thought to carry little consequence in immunecompetent hosts. During the past decade, however, accumulating data suggest that significant numbers of immunocompetent humans reactivate HCMV during critical illness, and that these reactivation episodes are associated with worsened outcomes. Because most people are infected with this ubiquitous virus by adulthood, confirming pathogenicity has now become a clinical priority. In this article, we will review the incidence and implications of reactivation, the relevant immune responses and reactivation triggers relevant to the immunocompetent host. We will summarize the progress made during the past ten years, outline work ongoing in this field, and identify the major gaps remaining in our emerging understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:21439328

  14. Performance of an oxygen delivery device for weaning potentially infectious critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, C Y; Gomersall, C D; Chui, P T; Chan, M T V

    2004-07-01

    Oxygen delivery via a heat and moisture exchange filter with an attached T-shaped reservoir satisfies infection control requirements of high efficiency bacterial and viral filtration and low gas flows. In order to assess the performance of such a device in critically ill patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation, we simulated 16 patients using a human patient simulator, measuring fractional inspired oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations and work of breathing at three oxygen flow rates. Oxygen concentration was dependent on peak inspiratory flow rate, tidal volume and oxygen flow rate. Rebreathing, as indicated by inspired carbon dioxide concentration, was greatest at high respiratory rates and low tidal volumes. Imposed inspiratory work of breathing was relatively high (mean 0.88 J.l(-1)[SD 0.30]). We conclude that this method of oxygen delivery is only suitable for patients in whom rapid extubation is anticipated.

  15. Metabolic acidosis and the role of unmeasured anions in critical illness and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Tobias; Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Maerz, Linda L

    2018-04-01

    Acid-base disorders are frequently present in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear whether as a marker of the severity of the disease process or as a direct effector. The understanding of the metabolic component of acid-base derangements has evolved over time, and several theories and models for precise quantification and interpretation have been postulated during the last century. Unmeasured anions are the footprints of dissociated fixed acids and may be responsible for a significant component of metabolic acidosis. Their nature, origin, and prognostic value are incompletely understood. This review provides a historical overview of how the understanding of the metabolic component of acid-base disorders has evolved over time and describes the theoretical models and their corresponding tools applicable to clinical practice, with an emphasis on the role of unmeasured anions in general and several specific settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a continuous lipid infusion on glucose metabolism in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, S; Normand, S; Khalfallah, Y; Delafosse, B; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Motin, J; Riou, J P

    1995-10-01

    The effects of lipid administration on carbohydrate oxidation rate remain controversial, particularly in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of these patients of a continuous lipid infusion on glucose metabolism using indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. We studied seven patients, mechanically ventilated, during two consecutive 24-h periods. Throughout the first period they received a continuous infusion of glucose (2 mg.kg-1.min-1) and amino acids. During the second period, in addition to the glucose, they received a continuous infusion of 1 mg.kg-1.min-1 of long-chain triglycerides emulsion. Substrate oxidation rates were calculated from pulmonary gas exchange and nitrogen excretion measurements. Glucose kinetic parameters were measured using primed constant infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose and [1-13C]glucose. The lipid infusion did not modify the glucose metabolism parameters; 45% of the lipid supply was stored.

  17. Surviving critical illness: what is next? An expert consensus statement on physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, M E; Kwakman, R; Kho, M E; Connolly, B; McWilliams, D; Denehy, L; Hanekom, S; Patman, S; Gosselink, R; Jones, C; Nollet, F; Needham, D M; Engelbert, R H H; van der Schaaf, M

    2016-10-29

    The study objective was to obtain consensus on physical therapy (PT) in the rehabilitation of critical illness survivors after hospital discharge. Research questions were: what are PT goals, what are recommended measurement tools, and what constitutes an optimal PT intervention for survivors of critical illness? A Delphi consensus study was conducted. Panelists were included based on relevant fields of expertise, years of clinical experience, and publication record. A literature review determined five themes, forming the basis for Delphi round one, which was aimed at generating ideas. Statements were drafted and ranked on a 5-point Likert scale in two additional rounds with the objective to reach consensus. Results were expressed as median and semi-interquartile range, with the consensus threshold set at ≤0.5. Ten internationally established researchers and clinicians participated in this Delphi panel, with a response rate of 80 %, 100 %, and 100 % across three rounds. Consensus was reached on 88.5 % of the statements, resulting in a framework for PT after hospital discharge. Essential handover information should include information on 15 parameters. A core set of outcomes should test exercise capacity, skeletal muscle strength, function in activities of daily living, mobility, quality of life, and pain. PT interventions should include functional exercises, circuit and endurance training, strengthening exercises for limb and respiratory muscles, education on recovery, and a nutritional component. Screening tools to identify impairments in other health domains and referral to specialists are proposed. A consensus-based framework for optimal PT after hospital discharge is proposed. Future research should focus on feasibility testing of this framework, developing risk stratification tools and validating core outcome measures for ICU survivors.

  18. Surrogate decision makers' attitudes towards research decision making for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kali A; Ferguson, Niall D; Athaide, Valerie; Cook, Deborah J; Friedrich, Jan O; McDonald, Ellen; Pinto, Ruxandra; Smith, Orla M; Stevenson, James; Scales, Damon C

    2012-10-01

    To examine the attitudes and preferences of surrogate decision makers (SDMs) regarding their involvement in the consent to research process for ICU patients. We presented 136 SDMs of critically ill patients in five ICUs with four hypothetical research scenarios: baseline interventional study of a placebo controlled RCT; study with higher risk of treatment complication; study comparing two accepted treatments; study with shorter enrolment window. For each we asked SDMs if they would want to be involved in the consent to research decision, and to rate the acceptability of their comfort with, and their sense of burden with their involvement. Participants were screened for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For the baseline scenario, most SDMs wished to be involved in research decision making (90 %; 95 % CI 84-95 %); responses varied little across study permutations. The majority considered their involvement to be acceptable (85 %; 95 % CI 77-90 %), whereas, a small minority rated it as being unacceptable (2 %; 95 % CI 1-6 %). Many were comfortable with being involved (50 %; 95 % CI 41-59 %), but the number decreased when risk of harm was higher (34 %; 95 % CI 26-43 %) or enrolment window was shorter (41 %; 95 % CI 33-50 %). A majority (62 %) reported symptoms of anxiety and many (38 %) had symptoms of depression. Most of the interviewed SDMs wished to be involved in research decision making for critically ill and incapable loved ones. Variability existed, however, in their desire to be involved when decisions were time-sensitive or perceived risk was greater.

  19. Functional status after critical illness: agreement between patient and proxy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasic, Amy M; Van Ness, Peter H; Murphy, Terrence E; Araujo, Katy L B; Pisani, Margaret A

    2015-05-01

    assessment of baseline functional status of older patients during and after intensive care unit (ICU) admission is often hampered by challenges related to the critical illness such as cognitive dysfunction, neuropsychological morbidity and pain. To explore the reliability of assessments by carefully chosen proxies, we designed a discriminating selection of proxies and evaluated agreement between patient and proxy responses by assessing activities of daily living (ADLs) at 1 month post-ICU discharge. patients ≥60 years old admitted to the medical ICU were enrolled in a prospective parent cohort studying delirium. Proxies were carefully screened at ICU admission to choose the best available respondent. Follow-up interviews, including instruments for ADLs, were conducted 1 month after ICU discharge. We examined 179 paired patient-proxy follow-up interviews. Kappa statistics assessed inter-observer agreement, and McNemar's exact test assessed response differences. patients averaged 73.3 ± 8.1 years old with 29% having evidence of cognitive impairment. Proxies were most commonly spouses (38%) or children (39%). Overall, there was substantial (κ ≥ 0.6) to excellent agreement (κ ≥ 0.8) between patients and proxies on assessment of all but one basic and one instrumental ADL. proxies carefully chosen at ICU admission show high levels of inter-observer agreement with older patients when assessing current functional status at 1 month post-ICU discharge. This motivates further study of proxy assessments that could be used earlier in critical illness to assess premorbid functional status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PTEN expression and its association with glucose control and calorie supplementation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Alessandri, Francesco; Mosillo, Paola; Dell'Utri, Donatella; Farcomeni, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Laviano, Alessandro

    2017-11-04

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) reduces insulin sensitivity. Since critically ill patients present insulin resistance, we aimed at assessing the role of PTEN expression on glucose homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving artificial nutrition. Observational, single-center study conducted in one ICU in Rome, Italy on adult patients hospitalized for trauma. Plasma glucose levels and its variability were recorded in patients receiving artificial nutrition. PTEN expression was measured by western blotting analysis and the associations between PTEN, plasma glucose levels and variability, and calories administered were investigated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used, as appropriate. Twenty consecutive patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age of 37.3 ± 12.7 years) were studied. No correlation between plasma glucose and PTEN was documented (r = -0.15, P = 0.55), neither between glycemic variability and PTEN expression (r = -0.00, P = 0.99). However, total kcal/day administered and PTEN expression significantly correlated (r = 0.56, P = 0.01). Also, patients with PTEN levels below the median received less kcal/day than those with PTEN above the median (P = 0.048). This association was more pronounced when normalized per body weight (P = 0.03) and after adjusting for the average of insulin daily administered (P = 0.02). PTEN expression might significantly contribute to glucose homeostasis and disposal in critically ill patients receiving artificial nutrition. Larger samples are necessary to confirm our observation. NCT01796847 (www.clinicaltrials.gov) submitted on February 11, 2013. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomic derangements are associated with mortality in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Angela J; McGeachie, Michael; Baron, Rebecca M; Gazourian, Lee; Haspel, Jeffrey A; Nakahira, Kiichi; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Hunninghake, Gary M; Raby, Benjamin A; Matthay, Michael A; Otero, Ronny M; Fowler, Vance G; Rivers, Emanuel P; Woods, Christopher W; Kingsmore, Stephen; Langley, Ray J; Choi, Augustine M K

    2014-01-01

    To identify metabolomic biomarkers predictive of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality in adults. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling of plasma at ICU admission to identify biomarkers associated with mortality has recently become feasible. We performed metabolomic profiling of plasma from 90 ICU subjects enrolled in the BWH Registry of Critical Illness (RoCI). We tested individual metabolites and a Bayesian Network of metabolites for association with 28-day mortality, using logistic regression in R, and the CGBayesNets Package in MATLAB. Both individual metabolites and the network were tested for replication in an independent cohort of 149 adults enrolled in the Community Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis Outcome Diagnostics (CAPSOD) study. We tested variable metabolites for association with 28-day mortality. In RoCI, nearly one third of metabolites differed among ICU survivors versus those who died by day 28 (N = 57 metabolites, p<.05). Associations with 28-day mortality replicated for 31 of these metabolites (with p<.05) in the CAPSOD population. Replicating metabolites included lipids (N = 14), amino acids or amino acid breakdown products (N = 12), carbohydrates (N = 1), nucleotides (N = 3), and 1 peptide. Among 31 replicated metabolites, 25 were higher in subjects who progressed to die; all 6 metabolites that are lower in those who die are lipids. We used Bayesian modeling to form a metabolomic network of 7 metabolites associated with death (gamma-glutamylphenylalanine, gamma-glutamyltyrosine, 1-arachidonoylGPC(20:4), taurochenodeoxycholate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) lactate, sucrose, kynurenine). This network achieved a 91% AUC predicting 28-day mortality in RoCI, and 74% of the AUC in CAPSOD (p<.001 in both populations). Both individual metabolites and a metabolomic network were associated with 28-day mortality in two independent cohorts. Metabolomic profiling represents a valuable new approach for identifying novel biomarkers in critically ill

  2. Metabolomic derangements are associated with mortality in critically ill adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Rogers

    Full Text Available To identify metabolomic biomarkers predictive of Intensive Care Unit (ICU mortality in adults.Comprehensive metabolomic profiling of plasma at ICU admission to identify biomarkers associated with mortality has recently become feasible.We performed metabolomic profiling of plasma from 90 ICU subjects enrolled in the BWH Registry of Critical Illness (RoCI. We tested individual metabolites and a Bayesian Network of metabolites for association with 28-day mortality, using logistic regression in R, and the CGBayesNets Package in MATLAB. Both individual metabolites and the network were tested for replication in an independent cohort of 149 adults enrolled in the Community Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis Outcome Diagnostics (CAPSOD study.We tested variable metabolites for association with 28-day mortality. In RoCI, nearly one third of metabolites differed among ICU survivors versus those who died by day 28 (N = 57 metabolites, p<.05. Associations with 28-day mortality replicated for 31 of these metabolites (with p<.05 in the CAPSOD population. Replicating metabolites included lipids (N = 14, amino acids or amino acid breakdown products (N = 12, carbohydrates (N = 1, nucleotides (N = 3, and 1 peptide. Among 31 replicated metabolites, 25 were higher in subjects who progressed to die; all 6 metabolites that are lower in those who die are lipids. We used Bayesian modeling to form a metabolomic network of 7 metabolites associated with death (gamma-glutamylphenylalanine, gamma-glutamyltyrosine, 1-arachidonoylGPC(20:4, taurochenodeoxycholate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl lactate, sucrose, kynurenine. This network achieved a 91% AUC predicting 28-day mortality in RoCI, and 74% of the AUC in CAPSOD (p<.001 in both populations.Both individual metabolites and a metabolomic network were associated with 28-day mortality in two independent cohorts. Metabolomic profiling represents a valuable new approach for identifying novel biomarkers in critically ill

  3. Race, Ethnicity, Health Insurance, and Mortality in Older Survivors of Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Matthew R; Sell, Jessica L; Heyden, Nina; Javaid, Azka; Berlin, David A; Gonzalez, Wendy C; Bach, Peter B; Maurer, Mathew S; Lovasi, Gina S; Lederer, David J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether minority race or ethnicity is associated with mortality and mediated by health insurance coverage among older (≥ 65 yr old) survivors of critical illness. A retrospective cohort study. Two New York City academic medical centers. A total of 1,947 consecutive white (1,107), black (361), and Hispanic (479) older adults who had their first medical-ICU admission from 2006 through 2009 and survived to hospital discharge. None. We obtained demographic, insurance, and clinical data from electronic health records, determined each patient's neighborhood-level socioeconomic data from 2010 U.S. Census tract data, and determined death dates using the Social Security Death Index. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 79 years (8.6 yr) and median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 1.6 years (0.4-3.0 yr). Blacks and Hispanics had similar mortality rates compared with whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.11 and adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.12, respectively). Compared to those with commercial insurance and Medicare, higher mortality rates were observed for those with Medicare only (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98) and Medicaid (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52). Medicaid recipients who were the oldest ICU survivors (> 82 yr), survivors of mechanical ventilation, and discharged to skilled-care facilities had the highest mortality rates (p-for-interaction: 0.08, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively). Mortality after critical illness among older adults varies by insurance coverage but not by race or ethnicity. Those with federal or state insurance coverage only had higher mortality rates than those with additional commercial insurance.

  4. Initiation of nutritional support is delayed in critically ill obese patients: a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Schwebel, Carole; Planquette, Benjamin; Vésin, Aurélien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Adrie, Christophe; Clec'h, Christophe; Azoulay, Elie; Souweine, Bertrand; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Jamali, Samir; Darmon, Michael; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-09-01

    A high catabolic rate characterizes the acute phase of critical illness. Guidelines recommend an early nutritional support, regardless of the previous nutritional status. We aimed to assess whether the nutritional status of patients, which was defined by the body mass index (BMI) at admission in an intensive care unit (ICU), affected the time of nutritional support initiation. We conducted a cohort study that reported a retrospective analysis of a multicenter ICU database (OUTCOMEREA) by using data prospectively entered from January 1997 to October 2012. Patients who needed orotracheal intubation within the first 72 h and >3 d were included. Data from 3257 ICU stays were analyzed. The delay before feeding was different according to BMI groups (P = 0.035). The delay was longer in obese patients [BMI (in kg/m²) ≥30; n = 663] than in other patients with either low weight (BMI nutritional status and a delay in nutrition initiation was independent of potential confounding factors such as age, sex, and diabetes or other chronic diseases. In comparison with normal weight, the adjusted RR (95% CI) associated with a delayed nutrition initiation was 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) for patients with low weight, 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) for overweight patients, and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) for obese patients (P = 0.004). The initiation of nutritional support was delayed in obese ICU patients. Randomized controlled trials that address consequences of early compared with delayed beginnings of nutritional support in critically ill obese patients are needed. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Conflicts in Learning to Care for Critically Ill Newborns: "It Makes Me Question My Own Morals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D; Geller, Gail; Donohue, Pamela K

    2015-09-01

    Caring for critically ill and dying patients often triggers both professional and personal growth for physician trainees. In pediatrics, the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is among the most distressing settings for trainees. We used longitudinal narrative writing to gain insight into how physician trainees are challenged by and make sense of repetitive, ongoing conflicts experienced as part of caring for very sick and dying babies. The study took place in a 45-bed, university-based NICU in an urban setting in the United States. From November 2009 to June 2010 we enrolled pediatric residents and neonatology fellows at the beginning of their NICU rotations. Participants were asked to engage in individual, longitudinal narrative writing about their "experience in the NICU." Thematic narrative analysis was performed. Thirty-seven physician trainees participated in the study. The mean number of narratives per trainee was 12; a total of 441 narratives were available for analysis. Conflict was the most pervasive theme in the narratives. Trainees experienced conflicts with families and conflicts with other clinicians. Trainees also described multiple conflicts of identity as members of the neonatology team, as members of the medical profession, as members of their own families, and as members of society. Physician trainees experience significant conflict and distress while learning to care for critically ill and dying infants. These conflicts often led them to question their own morals and their role in the medical profession. Physician trainees should be educated to expect various types of distress during intensive care rotations, encouraged to identify their own sources of distress, and supported in mitigating their effects.

  6. Secular trends in mortality associated with new therapeutic strategies in surgical critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-10-01

    Since 1999 randomized controlled trials have shown that new therapeutic strategies, such as strict glycemic control, increased use of noninvasive ventilation and of lung-protective ventilation, and early goal-oriented shock therapy, may reduce mortality in selected groups of critically ill patients. Whether these benefits can be translated to a surgical clinical setting is unclear. We wanted to evaluate longitudinally the successive routine implementation of new therapeutic measures and its effect on postsurgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We performed a retrospective analysis on data collected prospectively from March 1, 1993 through February 28, 2005. A cohort of 1,802 consecutive cases requiring intensive care therapy for more than 4 days was analyzed. A significant decrease in mortality was observed in the last years of the study. With adjustment for relevant covariates, treatment after the implementation of new therapeutic strategies was identified as an independent factor linked with a reduced risk of death (odds ratio [OR] .518; 95% confidence interval [CI] .337-.796), whereas older age (OR 1.030; 95% CI 1.015-1.045), a high severity score on admission (OR 1.155; 95% CI 1.113-1.198) or during intensive care unit stay (OR 1.187; 95% CI 1.145-1.231), a high number of failing organs (OR 1.918; 95% CI 1.635-2.250), and peritonitis (OR 3.277; 95% CI 2.046-5.246) were independently associated with death. Implementing of a variety of new therapeutic measures into routine care of critically ill surgical patients was associated with improved survival after 2001.

  7. Noninvasive Measurement of Hemoglobin Using Spectrophotometry: Is it Useful for the Critically Ill Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Basak

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of noninvasively measuring hemoglobin using spectrophotometry (SpHb) with a pulse CO-oximeter and laboratory hemoglobin (Hb) measurements. A total of 345 critically ill children were included prospectively. Age, sex, and factors influencing the reliabilityof SpHb such as SpO2, heart rate, perfusion index (PI), and vasoactive inotropic score were recorded. SpHb measurements were recorded during the blood draw and compared with the Hb measurement. Thirteen patients (low PI in 9 patients and no available Hb in 4 patients) were excluded and 332 children were eligible for final analysis. The mean Hb was 8.71±1.49 g/dL (range, 5.9 to 12 g/dL) and the mean SpHb level was 9.55±1.53 g/dL (range, 6 to 14.2 g/dL). The SpHb bias was 0.84±0.86,with the limits of agreement ranging from -2.5 to 0.9 g/dL. The difference between Hb and SpHb was >1.5 g/dL for only 47 patients. Of these, 24 patients had laboratory Hb levels <7 g/dL. There was a weak positive correlation between differences and PI (r=0.349; P= 0.032). The pulse CO-oximeter is a promising tool for measuring SpHb and monitoring critically ill children. However, PI may affect these results. Additional studies investigating the reliability of the trend of continuous SpHb values compared with simultaneously measured laboratory Hb values in the same patient are warranted.

  8. Liberal Versus Conventional Glucose Targets in Critically Ill Diabetic Patients: An Exploratory Safety Cohort Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, Francesca; Presello, Barbara; Glassford, Neil J; Tsuji, Isabela Y; Eastwood, Glenn M; Deane, Adam M; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan

    2016-09-01

    To assess the feasibility, safety, and impact on relative hypoglycemia of liberal versus conventional blood glucose concentration targets in critically ill diabetic patients. Prospective, open-label, sequential-period exploratory study. A 22-bed multidisciplinary ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Australia. Eighty adult diabetic patients, 40 from the conventional before period and 40 from the liberal after period. Blood glucose concentration targets were 6-10 mmol/L during the before period and 10-14 mmol/L during the after period. We used admission glycated hemoglobin to estimate premorbid baseline blood glucose concentration. We defined glycemic distance as the difference between blood glucose concentration in ICU and baseline blood glucose concentration. During the first 48 ICU hours, we recorded absolute (blood glucose concentration, 30% below baseline) hypoglycemia rates, insulin administration, and outcomes. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. We observed a negative glycemic distance in 248 of 488 blood glucose concentrations (50.8%) during the before period and 164 of 485 (33.8%) during the after period (p < 0.001). We detected relative hypoglycemia in 20 (50.0%) and nine (22.5%) patients in the before and after periods, respectively (p = 0.01). On day 1, 50.0% and 16.7% received insulin in the before and after periods (p = 0.007). ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality were similar between groups. In a safety cohort of critically ill diabetic patients, a blood glucose concentration target of 10-14 mmol/L resulted in fewer episodes of negative glycemic distance or relative hypoglycemia and reduced insulin administration compared with a target of 6-10 mmol/L.

  9. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.

  10. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Levi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64. The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02 for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4% the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%.

  11. Myocardial injury in critically ill patients: relation to increased cardiac troponin I and hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Quantin, Catherine; Doise, Jean-Marc; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Masson, David; Blettery, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    To examine the relationship between myocardial injury, assessed by cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, and outcome in selected critically ill patients without acute coronary syndromes or cardiac dysfunction. Prospective, observational study in the emergency ICU of a university teaching hospital. Over a 6-month period, 217 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU were studied. cTnI assays were performed in all patients on admission to the ICU. The incidence of myocardial injury, defined by cTnI level > 0.1 ng/mL, was 32% (69 of 217 patients). Overall mortality was 27% (58 of 217 patients). Patients with myocardial injury had a mortality rate of 51%, compared with only 16% mortality for those without myocardial injury (p < 0.001). The hospital mortality rate was highest among older patients (71 +/- 14% vs 58.5 +/- 20%, p < 0.0001) and patients with higher simplified acute physiology scale (SAPS) II score (62 +/- 25% vs 37 +/- 17%, p < 0.0001). Mechanical ventilation was associated with higher in-hospital death (50% vs 31%, for patients who died in the hospital vs those who were discharged alive; p = 0.03). Elevated blood levels of cTnI were found to be independently associated with hospital mortality, regardless of the presence of SAPS II score and mechanical ventilation, in the logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.11; p = 0.01). This study demonstrates the high frequency of myocardial injury (32%) in critically ill patients without acute coronary syndromes or cardiac dysfunction on admission to ICU. Myocardial injury is an independent determinant of hospital mortality. Assessment of myocardial injury on admission to ICU would make it possible to identify patients at increased risk of death.

  12. A regional cohort study of the treatment of critically ill children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher L; Faustino, Edward Vincent S; Pinto, Matthew G; Sala, Kathleen A; Canarie, Michael F; Li, Simon; Giuliano, John S; The Northeast Pediatric Critical Care Research Consortium

    2016-12-01

    To describe the treatment practices in critically ill children with RSV bronchiolitis across four regional PICUs in the northeastern United States, and to determine the factors associated with increased ICU length of stay in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who were admitted with RSV bronchiolitis between July 2009 and July 2011 to the PICUs of Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital, and Baystate Children's Hospital. Data were collected regarding clinical characteristics and intensive care course among these hospitals. During the study period, 323 children were admitted to one of the four ICUs with RSV bronchiolitis. Despite similar mortality risk scores among ICUs, there was considerable variation in the use of therapies, particularly intubation and mechanical ventilation, in which there was greater than a 3.5-fold increased risk of intubation between sites with the highest and lowest frequency of intubation (odds ratio: 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-6.4). Albuterol was the most commonly used respiratory treatment, followed by chest physiotherapy, high-flow nasal cannula, and hypertonic saline. Longer stays in the ICU were associated with more frequent use of therapies, specifically invasive mechanical ventilation, inhaled corticosteroids, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and chest physiotherapy. Even within a close geographic region, there is significant variation in the treatment provided to critically ill children with RSV bronchiolitis. None of these treatments were associated with shorter durations of hospitalization in this population and some, such as mechanical ventilation, were associated with longer ICU lengths of stay.

  13. The conceptualization of family care during critical illness in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    J. de Beer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a movement to promote patients as partners in their care; however this may not always be possible as in the case of critically ill patients, who are often sedated and mechanically ventilated. This results in family members being involved in the care of the patient. To date, this type of care has been represented by three dominant theoretical conceptualizations and frameworks one of which is family centered care; however there is a lack of consensus on the definition of family centered care. Hence the objective of this study was to explore the meaning of family care within a South African context. Methodology: This study adopted a qualitative approach and a grounded theory research design by Strauss and Corbin (1990. Participants from two hospitals: one private and one public were selected to participate in the study. There was a total of 31 participants (family members, intensive care nurses and doctors who volunteered to participate in the study.Data collection included in-depth individual interviews. Open, axial and selective coding was conducted to analyse data. Nvivo data analysis software was used to assist with the data analysis. Findings: The findings of this study revealed that family care is conceptualized as togetherness, partnership, respect and dignity. Conclusion: During a critical illness, patients' families fulfil an additional essential role for patients who may be unconscious or unable to communicate or make decisions. FMs not only provide vital support to their loved one, but also become the “voice” of the patient.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Delirium and Coma during Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D

    2017-06-15

    Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.

  15. Prospective analysis of skin findings in surgical critically Ill patients intensive care unit

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    Suzan Demir Pektas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Units (ICUs are places where critically ill patients are managed. Aim: We aimed to investigate skin disorders that developed in critically ill surgical patients during their stay in the ICU. Methods: The prevalence of dermatological disorders and factors affecting their clinical features was prospectively analyzed in surgical ICU patients. We recorded age, sex, type of ICU, comorbidities, skin disorders, time to consultation, duration of ICU stay, and mortality rate. Results: Our study included 605 patients (mean age of 60.1 ± 20.2 years; 56.4% males. Seventy-three (12.1% patients were consulted with the Dermatology Department, among which 28.8% had infectious dermatological lesions, 26% dermatoses, and 45.2% drug reactions. The most common infectious dermatological disorder was wound infection (55.6%, the most common drug reaction was maculopapular drug eruption (75.8%, and the most common dermatosis was frictional blisters (47.4%. Multiple comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Parkinson disease, and stroke increased dermatological disorders (P < 0.05. The consulted patients had a median ICU stay of 7 days (range 2–53 days; consultation was significantly more common when it exceeded 10 days (74% vs. 26%, P < 0.05. The consulted patients died more commonly (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders and dermatoses were more common in patients older and younger than 50 years, respectively (P < 0.05. Dermatoses were more common among women (P < 0.05. The median time to consultation was 6 (2–30 days; it was longest for dermatological infections and shortest for dermatoses (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders were significantly more common among the deceased patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Multiple factors including multiple comorbidities, duration of ICU stay, time to consultation, and mortality increase dermatological disorders among surgical ICU patients.

  16. Magnesium supplementation and the potential association with mortality rates among critically ill non-cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, Ousama C.; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Lone, Nazir A.; Brits, R.; Pillay, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature showed that development of hypomagnesaemia is associated with higher mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of magnesium supplementation on mortality rates of critically ill patients. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abadole-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia since September 2003 were included. We recorded the demographics data, APACHE score, daily magnesium levels and magnesium supplementation. We collected the data for 30 days or until discharge from ICU. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test for continuous data and the Fischers exact test for categorical data. Nothing was carried out to influence the behavior of intensivists in replacing magnesium. During the study period, 71 patients (45 males and 26 females) were admitted to the ICU, the mean age was 54 +/- 18 years for males and 56 +/- 19.2 years for females. The mean magnesium level on admission was 0.78 +/- 0.2 mmol/L and the majority of the patients were medical admissions. Approximately 39.4% had hypomagnesaemia on admission and the overall mortality rate was 31%. In able to standardize the supplementation of magnesium among groups, the daily magnesium supplementation index (DMSI = total magnesium supplement in grams/length of stay in days) was calculated. The mortality rates for DMSI with 1 grm/day (high group) (43.5% versus 17%, p=0.035). There was no statistically significant differences between magnesium levels of both groups of DMSI except at admission where DMSI group had higher magnesium levels (<1 grm/day). Daily magnesium supplementation index higher than 1 grm/day is associated with lower mortality rates for critically ill patients. This effect was not found to be independent and may be related to severity of illness. Given that magnesium levels were similar between the 2 groups of DMSI at almost all points of the study, magnesium supplementation per se may be beneficial in lowering mortality

  17. Can we protect the gut in critical illness? The role of growth factors and other novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-07-01

    The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. This review examines the involvement of growth factors and other peptides in intestinal epithelial repair during critical illness and their potential use as therapeutic targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Theref