WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonselective energy measurements

  1. Broadband non-selective excitation of plutonium isotopes for isotope ratio measurements in resonance ionization mass spectrometry: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, M

    2012-10-15

    Making isotope ratio measurements with minimum isotope bias has always been a challenging task to mass spectrometrists, especially for the specific case of plutonium, owing to the strategic importance of the element. In order to use resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) as a tool for isotope ratio measurements, optimization of the various laser parameters and other atomic and system parameters is critical to minimize isotopic biases. Broadband simultaneous non-selective excitation of the isotopes of plutonium in the triple resonance excitation scheme with λ(1) = 420.77 nm, λ(2) = 847.28 nm, and λ(3) = 767.53 nm based on density matrix formalism has been theoretically computed for the determination of isotope ratios. The effects of the various laser parameters and other factors such as the atomization temperature and the dimensions of the atomic beam on the estimation of isotope ratios were studied. The effects of Doppler broadening, and time-dependent excitation parameters such as Rabi frequencies, ionization rate and the effect of non-Lorenztian lineshape have all been incorporated. The average laser powers and bandwidths for the three-excitation steps were evaluated for non-selective excitation. The laser intensity required to saturate the three-excitation steps were studied. The two-dimensional lineshape contour and its features were investigated, while the reversal of peak asymmetry of two-step and two-photon excitation peaks under these conditions is discussed. Optimized powers for the non-selective ionization of the three transitions were calculated as 545 mW, 150 mW and 545 mW and the laser bandwidth for all the three steps was ~20 GHz. The isotopic bias between the resonant and off-resonant isotope under the optimized conditions was no more than 9%, which is better than an earlier reported value. These optimized laser power and bandwidth conditions are better than in the earlier experimental work since these comprehensive calculations yield

  2. Effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on resting energy production rate and total body substrate utilization in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-12-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) beta-blockers reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve myocardial efficiency by shifting myocardial substrate utilization from increased free fatty acid oxidation to increased glucose oxidation. The effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on total body resting energy production rate (EPR) and substrate utilization is not known. Twenty-six noncachectic patients with moderately severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III, left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40) were treated with carvedilol (37.5 +/- 13.5 mg/12 h) or bisoprolol (5.4 +/- 3.0 mg/d) for 6 months. Indirect calorimetry was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. Resting EPR was decreased in carvedilol (5.021 +/- 0.803 to 4.552 +/- 0.615 kJ/min, P <.001) and bisoprolol group (5.230 +/- 0.828 to 4.978 +/- 0.640 kJ/min, P <.05; nonsignificant difference between groups). Lipid oxidation rate decreased in carvedilol and remained unchanged in bisoprolol group (2.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 mg m(2)/kg min versus 2.7 +/- 1.1 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05). Glucose oxidation rate was increased only in carvedilol (2.6 +/- 1.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.6 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05), but did not change in bisoprolol group. Both selective and nonselective beta-blockers reduce total body resting EPR in noncachectic CHF patients. Carvedilol compared to bisoprolol shifts total body substrate utilization from lipid to glucose oxidation.

  3. Detection limits of nuclear radiation and radioactivity measurements. Digital, non-selective measurements on untreated specimens. Draft. Nachweisgrenzen bei Kernstrahlungs- und Radioaktivitaetsmessungen. Digitale, nichtselektive Messungen ohne Probenbehandlung. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The standard applies to nuclear radiation measurements where the number of pulses is recorded directly, considering exclusively the statistical character of radioactive decay and pulse counting, with the measuring time being short with regard to the half-life of radionuclides, and instrument dead-times being neglectible. The standard is intended to define suitable characteristics allowing an evaluation of detection efficiency. Two criteria are explained for given error probabilities: the sensitivity limit which allows a decision to be made as to whether the pulses recorded include values contributed by the sample; the detection limit which permits an evaluation of the measuring method in terms of suitability to the measuring goals. (orig./HP).

  4. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  5. Non-Selective Evolution of Growing Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wienand

    Full Text Available Non-selective effects, like genetic drift, are an important factor in modern conceptions of evolution, and have been extensively studied for constant population sizes (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Here, we consider non-selective evolution in the case of growing populations that are of small size and have varying trait compositions (e.g. after a population bottleneck. We find that, in these conditions, populations never fixate to a trait, but tend to a random limit composition, and that the distribution of compositions "freezes" to a steady state. This final state is crucially influenced by the initial conditions. We obtain these findings from a combined theoretical and experimental approach, using multiple mixed subpopulations of two Pseudomonas putida strains in non-selective growth conditions (Matthijs et al, 2009 as model system. The experimental results for the population dynamics match the theoretical predictions based on the Pólya urn model (Eggenberger and Pólya, 1923 for all analyzed parameter regimes. In summary, we show that exponential growth stops genetic drift. This result contrasts with previous theoretical analyses of non-selective evolution (e.g. genetic drift, which investigated how traits spread and eventually take over populations (fixate (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Moreover, our work highlights how deeply growth influences non-selective evolution, and how it plays a key role in maintaining genetic variability. Consequently, it is of particular importance in life-cycles models (Melbinger et al, 2010; Cremer et al, 2011; Cremer et al, 2012 of periodically shrinking and expanding populations.

  6. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  7. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  8. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  9. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  10. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  11. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  12. Energy measurements from betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Thompson, K.

    1989-03-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the electron beam is accelerated from 1--50 GeV in a distance of 3 km. The energy is measured and corrected at the end with an energy feedback loop. There are no bends within the linear accelerator itself, so no intermediate energy measurements are made. Errors in the energy profile due to mis-phasing of the rf, or due to calibration errors in the klystrons' rf outputs are difficult to detect. As the total betatron phase advance down the accelerator is about 30 /times/ 2π, an energy error of a few percent can cause a large error in the total phase advance. This in turn degrades the performance of auto-steering programs. We have developed a diagnostic program which generates and measures several betatron oscillations in the accelerator. It then analyzes this oscillation, looking for frequency changes which indicate energy errors. One can then compensate for or correct these energy errors. 6 refs., 1 fig

  13. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  14. Forward energy measurement with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kheyn, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Energy flow is measured in the forward region of CMS at pseudorapidities up to 6.6 in pp interactions at 13 TeV with forward (HF) and very forward (CASTOR) calorimeters. The results are compared to model predictions. The CMS results at different center-of-mass energies are intercompared using pseudorapidity variable shifted by beam rapidity, thus studying applicability of hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.

  15. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  16. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  17. Non-selective photoionization of Rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Effusive atomic beam of Rubidium have been generated through an effusive source. An oriel uv-light source was focused to irradiate and interact with atomic beam of Rb. The energy of the uv-lamp was enough to raise the Rb atom by 4.17 eV to the ionization continuum level of Rb

  18. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  19. Renewable energy: Method and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Trond Hartvedt

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents various possibilities for renewable energy in Norway. The wind power would give a practical and economic alternative. The external costs for the wind power would be moderate. In chapter 3 the utility cost analysis for renewable alternatives are studied relative to the macroeconomic efficiency. Some methodical problems and how these analyses are used are reviewed. In the practical utility cost analyses wind power is studied relative to gas power which is the non-renewable alternative present in Norway today. A qualitative part is included. It is not possible to determine whether wind power is preferable to gas power in the macroeconomic perspective. Wind power would be the choice if high environmental and CO2 cleaning costs are expected. The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is difficult to decide whether wind power is the best solution based on cost benefit analysis. However, the alternative seems to be quite robust in the analysis. Due to the central position the energy supplies have in the society this business should be heavily regulated. The sector is also overtaxed as a reduction in consumption is desired. The analysis shows that the system does not function perfectly. The thesis surveys various measures for improving the renewable energy supply and focuses on the wind power. A model for and analysis of the measures are carried out and resulted in a second conclusion. The measures have various properties as to the influence on the market. A subsidy is a fine measure for stimulation production of green power while a tax reduces efficiently the production of black power. A system with green licenses in combination with a subsidy and a tax would be preferable as to increasing the part of renewable energy of the total production. It is therefore necessary to have clearly defined goals and use suitable measures for achieving them. The costs of wind power is falling and it would therefore soon be macroeconomic profitable. It is also

  20. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Groendahl

    Full Text Available The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production.

  1. Comparative Study Of Two Non-Selective Cyclooxygenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of the effects of two non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen and paracetamol on maternal and neonatal growth was conducted using 15 Sprague dawley rats, with mean body weight ranging between 165 and 179g. The rats were separated at random into three groups (A, B and C).

  2. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  3. Measure for Measure: Urban Water and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, C.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments in the United States account for a majority of the population and, as such, require large volumes of treated drinking water supply and wastewater removal, both of which need energy. Despite the large share of water that urban environments demand, there is limited accounting of these water resources outside of the city itself. In this study, we provide and analyze a database of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy that comprise anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment. We present statistical analyses of the database at an annual, spatial, and intra-annual scale. The average daily per person water flux is estimated as 563 liters of drinking water and 496 liters of wastewater, requiring 340 kWh/1000 m3 and 430 kWh/1000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. This energy demand accounts for 1% of the total annual electricity production of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water (estimated at 15.8% annually) accounts for 9.1 km3of water and 3600 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Through the analysis and benchmarking of the current state of urban water fluxes, we propose the term `blue city,' which promotes urban sustainability and conservation policy focusing on water resources. As the nation's water resources become scarcer and more unpredictable, it is essential to include water resources in urban sustainability planning and continue data collection of these vital resources.

  4. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  5. Measurement of Missing Tranverse Energy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This note discusses the overall ATLAS detector performance for the reconstruction of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss. Two reconstruction algorithms are discussed and their performance is evaluated for a variety of simulated physics processes which probe different topologies and different total transverse energy regimes. In addition, effects of fake ETmiss, resulting from instrumental effects and from false reconstructions are investigated. Finally, studies with first data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100 pb-1, are suggested which can be used to assess and calibrate the ETmiss performance at the startup of data taking.

  6. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in ... the experimental point of view, there are multiple ways to shed light among the different .... compared to the two metallicity expectations [16]. ..... from the Earth; solar neutrinos; indirect dark matter searches) and GeV physics (pro-.

  7. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND ...

  8. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  9. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  10. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  11. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  12. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ferrari, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:24131555

  13. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Vandborg, Kirsten; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgaard; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any baseline characteristics were associated with positive outcomes. All outpatients treated for schizophrenia at two Danish hospitals were included in this 1-year follow-up study. The patients were offered health interventions both individually and in groups. Weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline BMI and patients with duration of treated illness beyond 2 years had significantly better intervention outcomes. Our results show that it was difficult to improve physical health in a group of non-selected patients with schizophrenia as part of routine care. The patients were not easily motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  15. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  16. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  17. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  18. Adhesion of non-selective CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.W.; Wilson, R.H.; Sanchez-Martinez, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of non-selective, CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide is a critical issue in the development of tungsten as a metalization for VLSI circuitry. Without special adhesion promoters, tungsten deposited from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/ has typically failed a standard tape test over all types of silicon oxides and nitrides. The reasons for failure of thin films, and CVD tungsten in particular are explored along with standard techniques for improving adhesion of thin films. Experiments are reported which include a number of sputtered metals as adhesion promoters, as well as chemical and plasma treatment of the oxide surface. Sputtered molybdenum is clearly the superior adhesion promoting layer from these tests. Traditional adhesion layers such as chromium or titanium failed as adhesion layers for CVD tungsten possibly due to chemical reactions between the WF/sub 6/ and Cr or Ti

  19. Light and energy - daylight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Logadottir, A.; Traberg-Borup, S.; Barrie-Nielsen, K.

    2009-07-01

    All measurements where conducted in the spring of 2007, except the Interpane panel. The solar cell panels have been evaluated by three performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room and the systems ability to maintain view to the outside. In the study, we used two performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room: 1. the daylight factor (overcast sky) 2. the relative work plane illuminance (clear sky condition) Overcast sky: In general, all panels provided less daylight than the recommended requirement in the Danish Building Regulation of 2% on the work plane. This will most likely result in additional need for electric lighting. However, larger window areas and more parts of the facade with clear unobstructed glass may be one solution. Clear sky: In general, all panels provided less interior light levels than the two reference systems in the back of the room. Almost all systems aloud more or less direct sunlight in the window perimeter through the clear openings and additional needs for some kind of shading device is to be expected. Some systems blocked a large portion of the light in the majority of the room, and additional electric light in this part of the room may be needed. Only one performance indicator where used to describe the quality of the panels. View: In general, all panels, except two, obstruct the view significantly and cause figure/background confusion for a view position close to the window and the discrepancies of colour judgements. Only two systems provided a fairly clear view to the outside without to much distortion of the view. (au)

  20. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  1. Measuring and evaluating the soft energy efficiency measures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvilehto, H.-M.; Solid, D. [AaF-Industry Ltd, Solna (Sweden); Rouhiainen, V. [Adato Energia Ltd, Helsinki (Finland); Honkasalo, N.; Sarvaranta, A. [AaF-Consult Ltd, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    This study discusses how to quantify the energy savings related to the companies' aims to enhance their customers' energy efficiency which is one target in the Action Plan for Energy Services in the Energy Efficiency Agreement for the Industries. In Finland, a majority of the energy utilities have signed this action plan and are providing their customers services to improve their energy efficiency. Dissemination of information is the most widely used service to the customers and it is provided in a number of ways including printed material, annual energy report, and an internet tool to access and report hourly measurements. Some of the internet tools cover electricity, district heat and water. The focus of the study is in the evaluation of 'soft' measures; in other words, those measures given by energy utilities that principally rely on communication instruments. However, monitoring the impact of information and communication is far from easy. Carrying out a properly designed evaluation of programmes aiming on enhanced energy efficiency is difficult. Evaluation of the impact of a magazine article on energy efficiency is even more challenging, costly and therefore also rare. Distribution of information as measure to enhance energy efficiency is an important part of EU.s energy policy but what are the ways and even more so, are there ways to actually quantify these savings? There has been excessive work by the member states and research institutes to find a common and robust methodology within the EU to evaluate and quantify energy savings from technical measures. The ex-ante and ex-post results from these evaluations can however differ considerably, e.g. the expected energy savings from installing air to air heat pumps in Denmark did not deliver the expected energy savings. The problems with finding a common robust methodology become even more visible when the 'soft' measures are put under the evaluation loop. The &apos

  2. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  3. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  4. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  5. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  6. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  7. Fetal biometric parameters: Reference charts for a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Dulgheroff, Fernando Felix; Martins, Wellington P; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among 5656 non-selected risk singleton pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound exams were performed during routine visits of second and third trimesters. Biparietal diameter (BPD) was measured at the level of the thalami and cavum septi pellucidi. Head circumference (HC) was calculated by the following formula: HC = 1.62*(BPD + occipital frontal diameter, OFD). Abdominal circumference (AC) was measured using the following formula: AC = (anteroposterior diameter + transverse abdominal diameter) × 1.57. Femur diaphysis length (FDL) was obtained in the longest axis of femur without including the distal femoral epiphysis. The estimated fetal weight (EFW) was obtained by the Hadlock formula. Polynomial regressions were performed to obtain the best-fit model for each fetal biometric parameter as the function of gestational age (GA). The mean, standard deviations ( SD ), minimum and maximum of BPD (cm), HC (cm), AC (cm), FDL (cm) and EFW (g) were 6.9 ± 1.9 (2.3 - 10.5), 24.51 ± 6.61 (9.1 - 36.4), 22.8 ± 7.3 (7.5 - 41.1), 4.9 ± 1.6 (1.2 - 8.1) and 1365 ± 1019 (103 - 4777), respectively. Second-degree polynomial regressions between the evaluated parameters and GA resulted in the following formulas: BPD = -4.044 + 0.540 × GA - 0.0049 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.97); HC= -15.420 + 2.024 GA - 0.0199 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.98); AC = -9.579 + 1.329 × GA - 0.0055 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.97); FDL = -3.778 + 0.416 × GA - 0.0035 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.98) and EFW = 916 - 123 × GA + 4.70 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.96); respectively. Reference charts for the fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil, were established.

  8. Fetal biometric parameters: Reference charts for a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Borges Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among 5656 non-selected risk singleton pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound exams were performed during routine visits of second and third trimesters. Biparietal diameter (BPD was measured at the level of the thalami and cavum septi pellucidi. Head circumference (HC was calculated by the following formula: HC = 1.62*(BPD + occipital frontal diameter, OFD. Abdominal circumference (AC was measured using the following formula: AC = (anteroposterior diameter + transverse abdominal diameter × 1.57. Femur diaphysis length (FDL was obtained in the longest axis of femur without including the distal femoral epiphysis. The estimated fetal weight (EFW was obtained by the Hadlock formula. Polynomial regressions were performed to obtain the best-fit model for each fetal biometric parameter as the function of gestational age (GA. Results: The mean, standard deviations (SD, minimum and maximum of BPD (cm, HC (cm, AC (cm, FDL (cm and EFW (g were 6.9 ± 1.9 (2.3 – 10.5, 24.51 ± 6.61 (9.1 – 36.4, 22.8 ± 7.3 (7.5 – 41.1, 4.9 ± 1.6 (1.2 – 8.1 and 1365 ± 1019 (103 – 4777, respectively. Second-degree polynomial regressions between the evaluated parameters and GA resulted in the following formulas: BPD = –4.044 + 0.540 × GA – 0.0049 × GA² (R² = 0.97; HC= –15.420 + 2.024 GA – 0.0199 × GA² (R² = 0.98; AC = –9.579 + 1.329 × GA – 0.0055 × GA² (R² = 0.97; FDL = –3.778 + 0.416 × GA – 0.0035 × GA² (R² = 0.98 and EFW = 916 – 123 × GA + 4.70 × GA² (R² = 0.96; respectively. Conclusion: Reference charts for the fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil, were established.

  9. SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE β-BLOCKERS IN PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA THERAPY – RESULTS OF COLOR DOPPLER SONOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukoslava Maričić-Došen

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a syndrome of progressive optic neuropathy characterized by optic nerve head excavation and visual field defects. Poor correlation between IOP and progression of glaucoma disease sets vascular mechanism in the centre of attention. By Color Doppler sonography, quantification of blood flow changes in vessels, which supply optic nerve head, is possible. We wanted to find out whether there are changes in the circulation of central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries in patients with primary open angle glaucoma treated with selective or nonselective β -blockers.Methods. 44 patients (88 eyes were divided into two groups: group 1: 22 patients (44 eyes treated with selective β -blockers (Betaxolol 0.5% and group 2: 22 patients (44 eyes treated with nonselective β -blockers (Timolol 0.5%. Vascular indices (RI, PI were measured in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries.Results. We found decreased blood flow and increased vascular indices in both groups of patients, statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2: blood flow velocity was higher and vascular indices were lower in group 1 (Betaxolol 0.5% compared to group 2 (Timolol 0..5%.Conclusions. Selective β -blockers (calcium channel blockers act more vasoactively and neuroprotectively comparing to nonselective β -blockers.

  10. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  11. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  12. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  13. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC's fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  14. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  15. Primary repair of colon injuries: clinical study of nonselective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Ranko G; Barisic, Goran I; Krivokapic, Zoran V

    2010-12-02

    This study was designed to determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of colon injuries using nonselective approach. Two groups of patients were analyzed. Retrospective (RS) group included 30 patients managed by primary repair or two stage surgical procedure according to criteria published by Stone (S/F) and Flint (Fl). In this group 18 patients were managed by primary repair. Prospective (PR) group included 33 patients with primary repair as a first choice procedure. In this group, primary repair was performed in 30 cases. Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and indexes of trauma severity. Time between injury and surgery was shorter in PR group, (1.3 vs. 3.1 hours). Stab wounds were more frequent in PR group (9:2), and iatrogenic lesions in RS group (6:2). Associated injuries were similar, as well as segmental distribution of colon injuries. S/F criteria and Flint grading were similar.In RS group 15 primary repairs were successful, while in two cases relaparotomy and colostomy was performed due to anastomotic leakage. One patient died. In PR group, 25 primary repairs were successful, with 2 immediate and 3 postoperative (7-10 days) deaths, with no evidence of anastomotic leakage. Results of this study justify more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94682396.

  16. Primary repair of colon injuries: clinical study of nonselective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapic Zoran V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of colon injuries using nonselective approach. Methods Two groups of patients were analyzed. Retrospective (RS group included 30 patients managed by primary repair or two stage surgical procedure according to criteria published by Stone (S/F and Flint (Fl. In this group 18 patients were managed by primary repair. Prospective (PR group included 33 patients with primary repair as a first choice procedure. In this group, primary repair was performed in 30 cases. Results Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and indexes of trauma severity. Time between injury and surgery was shorter in PR group, (1.3 vs. 3.1 hours. Stab wounds were more frequent in PR group (9:2, and iatrogenic lesions in RS group (6:2. Associated injuries were similar, as well as segmental distribution of colon injuries. S/F criteria and Flint grading were similar. In RS group 15 primary repairs were successful, while in two cases relaparotomy and colostomy was performed due to anastomotic leakage. One patient died. In PR group, 25 primary repairs were successful, with 2 immediate and 3 postoperative (7-10 days deaths, with no evidence of anastomotic leakage. Conclusions Results of this study justify more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94682396

  17. Nonselective enrichment for yeast adenine mutants by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, C. V.; Chuba, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of certain adenine biosynthetic mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a red colony color. This phenomenon has historically provided an ideal genetic marker for the study of mutation, recombination, and aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes by classical genetic analysis. In this paper, it is reported that cells carrying ade1 and/or ade2 mutations exhibit primary fluorescence. Based on this observation, the nonselective enrichment of yeast cultures for viable adenine mutants by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter has been achieved. The advantages of this approach over conventional genetic analysis of mutation, recombination, and mitotic chromosomal stability include speed and accuracy in acquiring data for large numbers of clones. By using appropriate strains, the cell sorter has been used for the isolation of both forward mutations and chromosomal loss events in S. cerevisiae. The resolving power of this system and its noninvasiveness can easily be extended to more complex organisms, including mammalian cells, in which analogous metabolic mutants are available.

  18. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  19. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  20. CREAM for high energy composition measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, E S; Allison, P S; Beatty, J J; Choi, M J; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Min, K W; Mognet, S I; Nutter, S; Park, H; Schindhelm, E; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based indirect measurements have shown that the cosmic-ray allparticle spectrum extends many orders of magnitude beyond the energy thought possible for supernova acceleration. Our balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is capable of extending direct measurements of cosmic-rays to the supernova energy scale of 1015 eV in a series of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. Identification of Z = 1 - 26 particles will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector. Energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector and a tungsten/scintillating fiber calorimeter. The instrument has been tested with various particles in accelerated beams at the CERN SPS. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004.

  1. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  2. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes ion measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 30 keV observed during the campaigns 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine'. For a clear survey of the physical processes during extraordinary events, sometimes ion measurements of higher energies are also taken into account. Generally, the pitch angle distributions were isotropic during all flights except some remarkable events. In general the ion and electron flux intensities correlated, but sometimes revealed a spectral anti-correlation. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field could be identified accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand deceleration of the ions was observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations pointed to energy dispersion and to the location of the source region at 9 Rsub(E). Furthermore, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons were measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. The integral down-going number and energy flux of the ions contributed to the total particle or energy influx between 65% and less than 7% and did not clearly characterize the geophysical launch conditions or auroral activities. (author)

  3. Enermet in the forefront of energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, R.; Suonperae, J.; Alatalo-Korpi, H. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The deregulation of energy markets presents increasing challenges to the traditional measurement business and at the same time puts special demands on system solutions. Power companies are placing emphasis on the remote accessibility of measurement data at customer sites and on a greater variety of rates. Enermet, a member of the IVO Group, is a frontrunner in this business area, investing 8 % of its turnover in product development

  4. Increase of internal energy due to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.

    1991-01-01

    We argue that the internal energy E=(H) of a macroscopic system in thermal equilibrium must increase, if we measure an observable A which does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. We derive an expression for calculating a lower bound for this increase in E. We then generalize the above result, and show that under certain conditions the expectation value (C) of an observable C should increase by the measurement of another observable A, if A and C do not commute. (author)

  5. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  6. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  7. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  8. Measuring Intermolecular Binding Energies by Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmuss, Richard; Maity, Surajit; Féraud, Géraldine; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2017-02-22

    The ground-state dissociation energy, D0(S0), of isolated intermolecular complexes in the gas phase is a fundamental measure of the interaction strength between the molecules. We have developed a three-laser, triply resonant pump-dump-probe technique to measure dissociation energies of jet-cooled M•S complexes, where M is an aromatic chromophore and S is a closed-shell 'solvent' molecule. Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) via the S0→S1 electronic transition is used to precisely 'warm' the complex by populating high vibrational levels v" of the S0 state. If the deposited energy E(v") is less than D0(S0), the complex remains intact, and is then mass- and isomer-selectively detected by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) with a third (probe) laser. If the pumped level is above D0(S0), the hot complex dissociates and the probe signal disappears. Combining the fluorescence or SEP spectrum of the cold complex with the SEP breakoff of the hot complex brackets D0(S0). The UV chromophores 1-naphthol and carbazole were employed; these bind either dispersively via the aromatic rings, or form a hydrogen bond via the -OH or -NH group. Dissociation energies have been measured for dispersively bound complexes with noble gases (Ne, Kr, Ar, Xe), diatomics (N2, CO), alkanes (methane to n-butane), cycloalkanes (cyclopropane to cycloheptane), and unsaturated compounds (ethene, benzene). Hydrogen-bond dissociation energies have been measured for H2O, D2O, methanol, ethanol, ethers (oxirane, oxetane), NH3 and ND3.

  9. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed. (paper)

  10. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  11. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  12. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  13. Risk Factors Related to Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Nonselective Removal in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with nonselective removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC in neonates. In this prospective cohort study, neonates who underwent PICC placement at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in China from October 2012 to November 2015 were included. The patient demographics, catheter characteristics, catheter duration, PICC insertion site, indication for PICC insertion, infuscate composition, PICC tip location, and catheter complications were recorded in a computerized database. Risk factors for nonselective removal were analyzed. A total of 497 PICCs were placed in 496 neonates. Nonselective removal occurred in 9.3% of PICCs during 10,540 catheter-days (4.6 nonselective removals per 1,000 catheter-days. These included occlusion (3%, infection (1.4%, leakage (2.0%, phlebitis (0.6%, displacement (1%, pleural effusion(0.6%, and breaks (0.6%. Noncentral tip position was independently associated with an increased risk of nonselective removal (odds ratio 2.621; 95% confidence interval, 1.258-5.461 after adjusting for gestational age, sex, birth weight, and PICC dwell time. No significant differences in the rate of complications occurred between silastic and polyurethane PICC or different insertion sites. Noncentral PICC tip position was the only independent risk factor for nonselective removal of PICC.

  14. Energy-loss measurements with heavy ions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.; Gaimard, J.J.; Geissel, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stelzer, H.; Suemmerer; Clerc, H.G.; Hanelt, E.; Steiner, M.; Voss, B.

    1990-03-01

    Using the magnetic spectrometer SPES I at SATURNE, energy-loss measurements have been performed for projectiles of 40 Ar (401 MeV/u), 36 P (362 MeV/u), 15 N (149 MeV/u), 11 Li (131 MeV/u) and 8 Li, 9 Li (130 MeV/u) in carbon, aluminum and lead targets. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on a modified relativistic Bethe formula and to a semi-empirical formula using a Z 2 scaling law for the stopping power and an effective charge parametrization for the heavy ions. (orig.)

  15. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncertainty Estimation Improves Energy Measurement and Verification Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Travis; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation measures in buildings can reduce energy costs and environmental impacts, but such measures cost money to implement so intelligent investment strategies require the ability to quantify the energy savings by comparing actual energy used to how much energy would have been used in absence of the conservation measures (known as the baseline energy use). Methods exist for predicting baseline energy use, but a limitation of most statistical methods reported in the li...

  17. Chemical analysis of multicomponent aqueous solutions using a system of nonselective sensor and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.G.; Legin, A.V.; Rudnitskaya, A.M.; Amiko, A.D.; Natale, K.D.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of creating a multisensor system for determining heavy-metal cations (Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) and inorganic anions (Cl - , F - , and SO 4 2- ), measurements in mixed solutions were carried out with the use of an array of sensors based on chalcogenide glass electrodes, and the possibility of using various methods of mathematical processing of the resulting intricate signals was studied. Three methods of data processing were used: multilinear regression, partial least squares, and artificial neural networks. It was found that the multisensor system proposed were suitable for determining all of the analytes with an accuracy of 1-10%. Because the responses of sensors in solutions of complex composition deviated from linearity, the lowest determination errors were obtained with the use of an artificial neural network. As to the method of data securing (nonselective response of a sensor array) and processing (artificial neural network), the multisensor system developed may be considered a prototype of a device of the electronic tongue type

  18. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  19. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  20. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  1. Time-resolved beam energy measurements at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgings, D.W.; Clark, D.A.; Bryant, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    A narrow atomic photodetachment resonance is used to measure the LAMPF beam energy. Energy and time resolution are adequate to permit the use of this method in studying transient changes in accelerated beam energy

  2. Diagnosis of common congenital heart anomalies in the dog using survey and nonselective contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Anderson, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    The most common canine congenital heart anomalies include patient ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, and aortic stenosis. Survey radiography and nonselective (venous) angiography can allow the practicing veterinarian to confirm the diagnosis in many of these patients. Typical radiographic findings using these diagnostic procedures are reviewed. Nonselective angiocardiography is a relatively easy, rapid, and noninvasive procedure which can be performed using conventional equipment. The major disadvantage of this special procedure is that the superimposition of opacified structures can make the identification of some left-to-right shunts difficult. Dilution of contrast medium can occur if a rapid bolus injection is not made

  3. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  4. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  5. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  6. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  7. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  8. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  9. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  10. Diversity of selective and non-selective fishing gear and their impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was conducted in Al-Kalakla Fishery (KF) and Jabel Awlia Dam Fishery (JADF) in the White Nile River, Khartoum state to identify the selective and non-selective fishing gear. The results showed the selective fishing gear represented by gill-nets and seine nets (beach nets) in both fisheries with clear variation in ...

  11. Memory Outcomes Following Selective versus Nonselective Temporal Lobe Removal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Fady

    2012-01-01

    The surgical removal of brain tissue for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy can be either nonselective, as with an anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), or selective, as with a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Although seizure outcomes are similar with both procedures, cognitive and memory outcomes remain a matter of debate. This study…

  12. Non-selective beta-blockers decrease thrombotic events in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Peuter, Olav R.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Lip, Gregory Y.; Buller, Harry R.; De Boer, Anthonius; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Beta-blockers are often prescribed to patients with heart failure (HF) without distinctions between types of beta-blockers. The 2002 COMET study showed superiority of carvedilol (a non-selective beta-blocker) over metoprolol (selective beta-blocker) on mortality and cardiovascular events

  13. Non-selective beta-blockers may reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Albillos, Agustín; Abazi, Rozeta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-selective beta-blockers (NSBB) are used in patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices. Experimental data suggest that NSBB inhibit angiogenesis and reduce bacterial translocation, which may prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We therefore assessed the effect of NSBB...

  14. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Late Arabic-English Bilinguals: Evidence from Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami

    2018-02-07

    Previous research suggests that late bilinguals who speak typologically distant languages are the least likely to show evidence of non-selective lexical access processes. This study puts this claim to test by using the gating task to determine whether words beginning with speech sounds that are phonetically similar in Arabic and English (e.g., [b,d,m,n]) give rise to selective or non-selective lexical access processes in late Arabic-English bilinguals. The results show that an acoustic-phonetic input (e.g., [bæ]) that is consistent with words in Arabic (e.g., [bædrun] "moon") and English (e.g., [bæd] "bad") activates lexical representations in both languages of the bilingual. This non-selective activation holds equally well for mixed lists with words from both Arabic and English and blocked lists consisting only of Arabic or English words. These results suggest that non-selective lexical access processes are the default mechanism even in late bilinguals of typologically distant languages.

  15. Caffeine inhibits nonselective cationic currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nan Ge; Koh, Sang Don; Sanders, Kenton M

    2009-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) discharge unitary potentials in gastrointestinal muscles that constitute the basis for pacemaker activity. Caffeine has been used to block unitary potentials, but the ionic conductance responsible for unitary potentials is controversial. We investigated currents in cultured ICC from murine jejunum that may underlie unitary potentials and studied the effects of caffeine. Networks of ICC generated slow wave events under current clamp, and these events were blocked by caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner. Single ICC generated spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp at -60 mV and noisy voltage fluctuations in current clamp. STICs were unaffected when the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl) was set to -60 mV (excluding Cl- currents) and reversed at 0 mV, demonstrating that a nonselective cationic conductance, and not a Cl- conductance, is responsible for STICs in ICC. Caffeine inhibited STICs in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduced intracellular Ca2+ and calmidazolium (CMZ; 1 microM) activated persistent inward, nonselective cation currents in ICC. Currents activated by CMZ and by dialysis of cells with 10 mM BAPTA were also inhibited by caffeine. Excised inside-out patches contained channels that exhibited spontaneous openings, and resulting currents reversed at 0 mV. Channel openings were increased by reducing Ca2+ concentration from 10(-6) M to 10(-8) M. CMZ (1 microM) also increased openings of nonselective cation channels. Spontaneous currents and channels activated by CMZ were inhibited by caffeine (5 mM). The findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-inhibited nonselective cation channels that generate STICs in ICC are blocked directly by caffeine. STICs are responsible for unitary potentials in intact muscles, and the block of these events by caffeine is consistent with the idea that a nonselective cation conductance underlies unitary potentials in ICC.

  16. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  17. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  18. Electron energy measurements in pulsating auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, D.J.; Yee, E.; Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electron spectra were obtained during two rocket flights into pulsating aurora from Southend, Saskatchewan. The first rocket launched at 1143:24 UT on February 15, 1980 flew into an aurora of background intensity 275 R of N 2 + 4278 A and showing regular pulsations with about a 17 s period. Electron spectra of Maxwellian energy distributions were observed with an average E 0 = 1.5 keV, rising to 1.8 keV during the pulsations. There was one-to-one correspondence between the electron energy modulation and the observed optical pulsations. The second rocket, launched at 1009:10 UT on February 23, flew into a diffuse auroral surface of intensity 800 R of N 2 + 4278 A and with somewhat irregular pulsations. The electron spectra were again of Maxwellian energy distribution with an average E 0 = 1.8 keV increasing to 2.1 keV during the pulsations. The results from these flights suggest that pulsating auroras occurring in the morning sector may be quite commonly excited by low energy electrons. The optical pulsations are due to periodic increases in the energy of the electrons with the source of modulation in the vicintiy of the geomagnetic equatorial plane. (auth)

  19. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  20. Effect of selective versus non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Seham A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Mohammed, Rehab K; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2015-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR-indomethacin-treated group; and IR-celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  2. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  4. Differences in game reading between selected and non-selected youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Der Steen, Steffie; Hakvoort, Bas; Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-02-01

    Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels. These results demonstrate how Skill Theory can be used to assess, and distinguish game-reading of youth players with different expertise, a skill important for soccer, but also for other sports.

  5. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  6. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  7. Celecoxib versus a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor: what are the considerations?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy T; Pucino, Frank; Resman-Targoff, Beth H

    2006-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are extensively used worldwide. However, associated adverse gastrointestinal effects (NSAID gastropathy) such as bleeding, perforation and obstruction result in considerable morbidity, mortality, and expense. Although it is essential to employ gastroprotective strategies to minimize these complications in patients at risk, controversy remains on whether celecoxib alone or a non-selective NSAID in conjunction with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) is a superior choice. Recent concerns regarding potential cardiovascular toxicities associated with cox-2 selective inhibitors may favor non-selective NSAID/PPI co-therapy as the preferred choice. Concomitant use of low-dose aspirin with any NSAID increases the risk of gastrointestinal complications and diminishes the improved gastrointestinal safety profile of celecoxib; whereas use of ibuprofen plus PPI regimens may negate aspirin's antiplatelet benefits. Evidence shows that concurrent use of a non-selective NSAID (such as naproxen) plus a PPI is as effective in preventing NSAID gastropathy as celecoxib, and may be more cost-effective. Patients failing or intolerant to this therapy would be candidates for celecoxib at the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Potential benefits from using low-dose celecoxib with a PPI in patients previously experiencing bleeding ulcers while taking NSAIDs remains to be proven. An evidence-based debate is presented to assist clinicians with the difficult decision-making process of preventing NSAID gastropathy while minimizing other complications.

  8. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  9. Measuring structure functions at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.; Owens, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include measuring Λ, tests of QCD using hard scattering processes, and measuring parton distributions. In each case, any opportunities and advantages afforded by the unique features of the SSC are emphasized. The working group on structure functions was charged with investigating two specific questions: (1) How well are the various parton distributions known in the kinematic region relevant to calculations for the SSC. (2) What new information can be learned about parton distributions at the SSC. Especially for this working group, the advantages of having a fixed-target facility at the SSC for the measurement of the parton distributions with multi-TeV leptons, were to be examined. 15 references

  10. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  11. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  12. Simultaneous integral measurement of electron energy and charge albedoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

    Results of a series of experiments in which backscattered energy has been determined from precise energy deposition measurements using an improved technique are presented. The fraction of the energy backscattered for electrons incident on Be, Ti, Mo, and Ta is determined as a function of energy and angle of incidence. The improved technique for the absolute measurement of energy deposition using calorimeters involves square-wave (on-off) modulation of the beam. Uncertainties in the measured backscattered energy are 1 to 6 percent, except for Be at normal incidence where they must agree by definition. Experiment and theory agree quite well for Mo and Be at 60 0 . The measured data for Ta and Ti are clearly higher than the calculated results, which is not completely understood. (U.S.)

  13. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-kΩ thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl

  14. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  15. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  16. Jet energy measurements with the ZEUS prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium scintillator calorimeter of the ZEUS detector is designed to achieve an excellent energy calibration and the best possible energy resolution for jets. Therefore the response of the prototype calorimeter to jets has been measured using an interaction trigger. The mean response and energy resolution was measured for jets of 50 GeV - 100 GeV and compared to the one for pions. Within the ZEUS detector dead material is placed in front of the calorimeter. The influence of 4 cm and 10 cm thick aluminium absorbers in front of the calorimeter was measured. The charged multiplicity was measured in front and behind the aluminium absorber. With these multiplicities the energy loss in the absorber is corrected. The correction has been done so that the mean response with absorber is equal to the mean response without absorber. The improvement of the energy resolution is investigated. The measured results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.) [de

  17. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  18. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  19. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  20. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  1. BSL-3 laboratory practices in the United States: comparison of select agent and non-select agent facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Pompei, Victoria C; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    New construction of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories in the United States has increased in the past decade to facilitate research on potential bioterrorism agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspect BSL-3 facilities and review commissioning documentation, but no single agency has oversight over all BSL-3 facilities. This article explores the extent to which standard operating procedures in US BSL-3 facilities vary between laboratories with select agent or non-select agent status. Comparisons are made for the following variables: personnel training, decontamination, personal protective equipment (PPE), medical surveillance, security access, laboratory structure and maintenance, funding, and pest management. Facilities working with select agents had more complex training programs and decontamination procedures than non-select agent facilities. Personnel working in select agent laboratories were likely to use powered air purifying respirators, while non-select agent laboratories primarily used N95 respirators. More rigorous medical surveillance was carried out in select agent workers (although not required by the select agent program) and a higher level of restrictive access to laboratories was found. Most select agent and non-select agent laboratories reported adequate structural integrity in facilities; however, differences were observed in personnel perception of funding for repairs. Pest management was carried out by select agent personnel more frequently than non-select agent personnel. Our findings support the need to promote high quality biosafety training and standard operating procedures in both select agent and non-select agent laboratories to improve occupational health and safety.

  2. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  3. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  4. Measurement of the energy stored in alkalihalogenids by radiation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrey, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy stored in alkali-halogen crystals after X-ray irradiation is studied at 11 K. Using a heat flux calorimeter designed especially for this experiment, single crystals are irradiated and the energy release is recorded as the temperature is increased proportional to time from 10 K to 50 K. The energy release spectra are compared with relevant optical measurements and thus a relation between energy release and tempering of point defects is established. The energy release peaks can be assigned definitly to tempering stages of the Frenkel pairs. For explanation a simple model is proposed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  5. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  6. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  7. RF Phase Scan for Beam Energy Measurement of KOMAC DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Seonggu; Lee, Seokgeun; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The energy gain through the drift tube linac is a function of the synchronous phase, therefore, the output beam energy from DTL can be affected by the RF phase setting in low-level RF (LLRF) system. The DTL at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) consists of 11 tanks and the RF phase setting in each tank should be matched for synchronous acceleration in successive tanks. That means a proper setting of RF phase in each DTL tank is critical for efficient and loss-free operation. The matching RF phase can be determined based on the output energy measurement from the DTL tank. The beam energy can be measured by several methods. For example, we can use a bending magnet to determine the beam energy because the higher momentum of beam means the less deflection angle in the fixed magnetic field. By measuring the range of proton beam through a material with known stopping power also can be utilized to determine the beam energy. We used a well-known time-of-flight method to determine the output beam energy from the DTL tank by measuring beam phase with a beam position monitor (BPM). Based on the energy measurement results, proper RF operating point could be obtained. We performed a RF phase scan to determine the output beam energy from KOMAC DTL by using a time-of-flight method and to set RF operating point precisely. The measured beam energy was compared with a beam dynamics simulation and showed a good agreement. RF phase setting is critical issue for the efficient operation of the proton accelerator, we have a plan to implement and integrate the RF phase measurement system into an accelerator control system for future need.

  8. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Albillos, Agustín; Krag, Aleksander

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma via a reduction of the inflammatory load from the gut to the liver and inhibition of angiogenesis. Due to their effect on the portal pressure, non-selective beta-blockers are used for prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding. Recently, non-hemodynamic effects of beta-blockers have received increasing attention. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors in the intestinal mucosa and gut lymphatic tissue together with changes in type and virulence of the intestinal microbiota lead to reduced bacterial translocation and a subsequent decrease in the portal load of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This may reduce hepatic inflammation. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors also decrease angiogenesis by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factors. Because gut-derived inflammation and neo-angiogenesis are important in hepatic carcinogenesis, non-selective beta-blockers can potentially reduce the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rodent and in vitro studies support the hypothesis, but clinical verification is needed. Different study designs may be considered. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial is limited due to the necessary large number of patients and long follow-up. Observational studies carry a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic approach may be used if the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma can be extracted from trials on variceal bleeding and if the combined sample size and follow up is sufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  10. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Negative vacuum energy densities and the causal diamond measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arguably a major success of the landscape picture is the prediction of a small, nonzero vacuum energy density. The details of this prediction depend in part on how the diverging spacetime volume of the multiverse is regulated, a question that remains unresolved. One proposal, the causal diamond measure, has demonstrated many phenomenological successes, including predicting a distribution of positive vacuum energy densities in good agreement with observation. In the string landscape, however, the vacuum energy density is expected to take positive and negative values. We find the causal diamond measure gives a poor fit to observation in such a landscape - in particular, 99.6% of observers in galaxies seemingly just like ours measure a vacuum energy density smaller than we do, most of them measuring it to be negative.

  12. Could dark energy be measured in the lab?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The experimentally measured spectral density of current noise in Josephson junctions provides direct evidence for the existence of zero-point fluctuations. Assuming that the total vacuum energy associated with these fluctuations cannot exceed the presently measured dark energy of the universe, we predict an upper cutoff frequency of ν c =(1.69+/-0.05)x10 12 Hz for the measured frequency spectrum of zero-point fluctuations in the Josephson junction. The largest frequencies that have been reached in the experiments are of the same order of magnitude as ν c and provide a lower bound on the dark energy density of the universe. It is shown that suppressed zero-point fluctuations above a given cutoff frequency can lead to 1/f noise. We propose an experiment which may help to measure some of the properties of dark energy in the lab

  13. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  14. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  15. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  16. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a)≠-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c s ≠1), and early presence of dark energy [Ω de (a<<1)≠0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  17. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  18. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  19. 7 key measures for France to enter energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Vandaele, Diane; Richard, Marion; Fink, Meike; Quirion, Philippe; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berthier, Julien; Mossalgue, Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Lenoir, Didier; Vormus, Joel; Charru, Madeleine; Claustre, Raphael; Mathis, Paul; Gauthier, Raphaelle; Couturier, Christian; Mijeon, Charlotte; Gavand, Karine; Majnoni d'Intignano, Sophia; Delcroix, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this report propose, describe and discuss seven measures to be taken to promote and support energy transition in France: to introduce a climate-energy contribution, to adopt a law for a progressive and complete nuclear phasing out, to set local communities at the heart of energy transition, to introduce a mandatory thermal renewal of existing buildings, to develop a less greenhouse gas emitter agricultural model, to enter into a low-carbon and energy efficient transport infrastructure scheme, and to plan the struggle against urban sprawl at the scale of the living area

  20. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  1. The role of energy advisors on adoption of energy efficiency measures in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. Currently, all municipalities offer energy advisers' service. The success of such service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in 2008 summer. We found that majority of owners' of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had actually contacted energy advisers. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy adviser service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  2. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  3. Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat

    1996-12-01

    In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)

  4. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  5. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  6. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro /MWh up to over 100 Euro /MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro /MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro /MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved

  8. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  9. Measuring energy poverty in Japan, 2004–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okushima, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan from 2004 to 2013, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs various poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also employs a new decomposition technique and identifies the explanatory factors associated with the increase in energy poverty. These results suggest there were major changes in the forces driving the increase in energy poverty before and after the GEJE. After 2011, income alleviates energy poverty in Japan, with energy prices becoming the main driving factor. - Highlights: • This study is the first evaluation of energy poverty in Japan by unique microdata. • Focus on the period of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima accident. • Shows the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households. • Identifies factors accounting for the changes in energy poverty by decomposition. • Major changes in the explanatory factors before and after the Fukushima accident.

  10. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  11. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  12. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  13. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  14. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  15. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  16. The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K.; Babusci, D.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements

  17. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  18. Pion minus energy measurement by a multilayer semiconductor spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Lapushkin, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for determining π - meson energy by a laminated semiconductor spectrometer is described. Results of experimental test of the technique carried out using beams of meson track of the JINR synchrocyclotron and three Si(Li) detectors are given. A specific feature of the technique is that chi 2 criterium with a functional written through exact thicknesses of semiconductor detectors was used for separating events with disturbance of ionization dependence and determining particle energy. It is shown that the absolute resolution can be not worse than 0.5 MeV in a wide energy range. It is concluded that the technique suggested is suitable for measuring energy of any charged particles with indefinite energy release during stoppage [ru

  19. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France - Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory. ADEME presents you a synthesis of this survey in this document

  20. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  1. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  2. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  3. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Precision cosmological measurements: Independent evidence for dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, Greg; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Murray, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Using recent precision measurements of cosmological parameters, we re-examine whether these observations alone, independent of type Ia supernova surveys, are sufficient to imply the existence of dark energy. We find that best measurements of the age of the Universe t 0 , the Hubble parameter H 0 and the matter fraction Ω m strongly favor an equation of state defined by (w<-1/3). This result is consistent with the existence of a repulsive, acceleration-causing component of energy if the Universe is nearly flat

  5. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  6. Precision measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines and determination of neutron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braumandl, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper first discusses the energy accuracy of the BILL conversion electron spectrometer at the Grenoble high flux reactor. With an improved temperature stabilisation of the magnets, an energy accuracy of ΔE/E -5 can be reached. After this, highly exact measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines of the 200 Hg, 114 Cd, 165 Dy, 168 Er, 239 U nuclei and the 13 C, 28 Al 3 H and 92 Zr photoelectron lines were carried out. Energy calibration of the spectrometer was carried out in the 1.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV range with intensive high-energy transitions of the 200 Hg nucleus. Systematic calibration errors could be investigated by means of combinations between the calibration lines. A calibration for absolute energies was obtained by comparing low-energy gamma transitions of 200 Hg with the 411.8 keV gold standard. (orig.) [de

  7. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  8. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  9. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm 2 of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4√nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 2 2 /c 2 . We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter Λ/sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references

  10. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  11. submitter Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, J; Gallego, E; Gálvez, J; García Tabares, L; González, E; Jaren, J; López, C; Lorente, A; Martínez Val, J M; Oropesa, J; Rubbia, C; Rubio, J A; Saldana, F; Tamarit, J; Vieira, S

    1996-01-01

    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the First Energy Amplifier Test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade.

  12. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  13. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular...... and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rodent and in vitro studies support the hypothesis, but clinical verification is needed. Different study designs may be considered. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial is limited due to the necessary large number of patients and long follow......-up. Observational studies carry a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic approach may be used if the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma can be extracted from trials on variceal bleeding and if the combined sample size and follow up is sufficient....

  14. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  15. A Method to Measure the Bracelet Based on Feature Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang

    2017-12-01

    To measure the bracelet automatically, a novel method based on feature energy is proposed. Firstly, the morphological method is utilized to preprocess the image, and the contour consisting of a concentric circle is extracted. Then, a feature energy function, which is relevant to the distances from one pixel to the edge points, is defined taking into account the geometric properties of the concentric circle. The input image is subsequently transformed to the feature energy distribution map (FEDM) by computing the feature energy of each pixel. The center of the concentric circle is thus located by detecting the maximum on the FEDM; meanwhile, the radii of the concentric circle are determined according to the feature energy function of the center pixel. Finally, with the use of a calibration template, the internal diameter and thickness of the bracelet are measured. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the true sizes of the bracelet accurately with the simplicity, directness and robustness compared to the existing methods.

  16. Measurements of the energy spectrum of backscattered fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.

    1976-03-01

    Experimental measurements have been made of the energy spectra of neutrons transmitted through slabs of iron, lead and perspex for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 MeV. The neutron energy measurements were made using a He-3 spectrometer. The dependence of the neutrons energy spectrum as a function of scattering thickness was determined. The neutrons source used was a 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a tritium target using the H 3 (p,n) He 3 reaction. The results obtained by the investigator on energy dependence of transmitted neutrons as a function of thickness of scattering material were compared, where possible, with the results obtained by other workers. The comparisons indicated good agreement. The experiment's results are compared with MORSE Monte Carlo calculated values. It is worthwhile to note that direct comparison between measured cross section values and the recommended ones are very far from satisfactory. In almost all cases the calculated spectrum is harder than the experimental one, a situation common to the penetrating and the back-scattered flux

  17. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  18. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  19. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  20. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  1. Automating Energy Bandgap Measurements in Semiconductors Using LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Sharma, Reena; Dhingra, Vishal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of an automated system for energy bandgap and resistivity measurement of a semiconductor sample using Four-Probe method for use in the undergraduate laboratory of Physics and Electronics students. The automated data acquisition and analysis system has been developed using National Instruments USB-6008 DAQ…

  2. High energy spin waves in iron measured by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.T.; Paul, D.M.; Mook, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present new results for the spin were dispersion relation measured along the [ζζ0] direction in bcc iron (12% silicon) by time-of-flight, neutron inelastic scattering. The excitations were followed to the zone boundary, where they are spread over a range of energies around 300meV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Measurement of the pion form factor at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.J. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    One of the strongest arguments for increasing the nominal CEBAF beam energy to equal or exceed 6 GeV is that one would be able to make quality high Q{sup 2} measurements of the charged pion form factor.

  4. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  5. Measurement of energy deposition near high energy, heavy ion tracks. Progress report, December 1982-April 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.

    1986-08-01

    The microscopic spatial distribution of energy deposition in irradiated tissue plays a significant role in the final biological effect produced. Therefore, it is important to have accurate microdosimetric spectra of radiation fields used for radiobiology and radiotherapy. The experiments desribed here were designed to measure the distributions of energy deposition around high energy heavy ion tracks generated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. A small proportional counter mounted in a large (0.6 by 2.5 m) vacuum chamber was used to measure energy deposition distributions as a function of the distance between detector and primary ion track. The microdosimetric distributions for a homogeneous radiation field were then calculated by integrating over radial distance. This thesis discusses the rationale of the experimental design and the analysis of measurements on 600 MeV/amu iron tracks. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Measurement of energy deposition near high energy, heavy ion tracks. Progress report, December 1982-April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.

    1986-08-01

    The microscopic spatial distribution of energy deposition in irradiated tissue plays a significant role in the final biological effect produced. Therefore, it is important to have accurate microdosimetric spectra of radiation fields used for radiobiology and radiotherapy. The experiments desribed here were designed to measure the distributions of energy deposition around high energy heavy ion tracks generated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. A small proportional counter mounted in a large (0.6 by 2.5 m) vacuum chamber was used to measure energy deposition distributions as a function of the distance between detector and primary ion track. The microdosimetric distributions for a homogeneous radiation field were then calculated by integrating over radial distance. This thesis discusses the rationale of the experimental design and the analysis of measurements on 600 MeV/amu iron tracks. 53 refs., 19 figs

  7. Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: A synthesized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Mukherjee, Ishani

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synthesized, workable framework for analyzing national energy security policies and performance. Drawn from research interviews, survey results, a focused workshop, and an extensive literature review, this article proposes that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. We then break these five dimensions down into 20 components related to security of supply and production, dependency, and diversification for availability; price stability, access and equity, decentralization, and low prices for affordability; innovation and research, safety and reliability, resilience, energy efficiency, and investment for technology development; land use, water, climate change, and air pollution for sustainability; and governance, trade, competition, and knowledge for sound regulation. Further still, our synthesis lists 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators that policymakers and scholars can use to analyze, measure, track, and compare national performance on energy security. The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly. -- Highlights: → Energy security should consist of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. → The dimensions of energy security can be broken down into 20 components. → These components can be distilled into 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators.

  8. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  9. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  10. Distance measurements from supernovae and dark energy constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun

    2009-01-01

    Constraints on dark energy from current observational data are sensitive to how distances are measured from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data. We find that flux averaging of SNe Ia can be used to test the presence of unknown systematic uncertainties, and yield more robust distance measurements from SNe Ia. We have applied this approach to the nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST set of 288 SNe Ia, and the 'Constitution' set of 397 SNe Ia. Combining the SN Ia data with cosmic microwave background anisotropy data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5 yr observations, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, the data of 69 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) , and the Hubble constant measurement from the Hubble Space Telescope project SHOES, we measure the dark energy density function X(z)≡ρ X (z)/ρ X (0) as a free function of redshift (assumed to be a constant at z>1 or z>1.5). Without the flux averaging of SNe Ia, the combined data using the Constitution set of SNe Ia seem to indicate a deviation from a cosmological constant at ∼95% confidence level at 0 98% confidence level for z≤0.75 using the combined data with 288 SNe Ia from nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST, independent of the assumptions about X(z≥1). We quantify dark energy constraints without assuming a flat Universe using the dark energy figure of merit for both X(z) and a dark energy equation-of-state linear in the cosmic scale factor.

  11. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  12. Measurements for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Hoek, M.; Aronsson, D.

    1990-05-01

    The report describes measurements performed for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors (two arrays of 16 detectors each one). The calibration procedure determines four calibration parameters for each detector. Results of the calibration measurements are given and test measurements are presented. A relation of the neutron detector calibration parameters to producer's data for the photomulipliers is analysed. Also the tests necessary during normal operation of the TANSY neutron spectrometer are elaborated (passive and active tests). A method how to quickly get the calibration parameters for a spare detector in an array of the neutron detectors is included

  13. Chromaticity measurement during beam energy ramp in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Riyasat; Vats, D.K.; Ghodke, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Chromaticity is one of the important parameters of circular accelerators and plays crucial role in its operation. In Indus-2 storage ring the natural chromaticity is -19 and -12 in horizontal and vertical planes respectively. For the good injection at 550 MeV in Indus-2, chromaticity needs to be kept at (+1, +1). The corrected chromaticity does not remain constant during the energy ramp up to 2.5 GeV. We measured Indus-2 storage ring chromaticity by the conventional RF frequency change method. The measurement method and the result of the measurement are reported in this paper. (author)

  14. The location as an energy efficiency and renewable energy supply measure for data centres in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Victor; Oró, Eduard; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A data centre energy model was developed using TRNSYS. • The potential of direct air free cooling integration was evaluated around Europe. • A set of energy indicators describing the operation of data centres were defined. • The location of a data centre could significantly affect its operation and impact. • Smart management of the IT load can reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The massive data centre energy consumption has motivated significant efforts to use energy efficiency strategies and the implementation of renewable energy sources that reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. Considering that the potential of many of these measures is often closely linked to the climate conditions, the location of data centres can have a major impact on their energy demand. Moreover, from a holistic approach, differences among regions become even more important when accounting for the electricity attributes from the grid. To assess these differences this work compares by the use of energy indicators the behaviour of a data centre located at different representative emplacements in Europe. To do so, a dynamic energy model which incorporates free cooling strategy and photovoltaic energy is developed. The paper concludes by suggesting that future data centre developments could consider site selection as a new strategy to limit the environmental impact attributable to this sector

  15. Measuring and improving the public perceptions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the public's perception on risk and benefit of nuclear power and to find ways to improve the perceptions. Latent Class Analysis is adopted for the perception measures, which quantify people's perception and reveal the perception structure. The measures resulted from Latent Class Analysis show that women perceive risks to be more existent and benefits to be less than men do. Moreover there is a tendency that if education level is high, perceived risk is low and perceived benefit is high. The perception of risk and benefit also depends on different channels through which people get information about nuclear energy. Comparing seven different information channels, the most effective ways of communicating with people to improve the risk and benefit perception of nuclear energy are found to be the visit to nuclear plants and the education through the regular schooling. Information dissemination through mass media is only effective to the benefit perception

  16. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  17. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  18. Considering fluctuation energy as a measure of gyrokinetic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T; Dorland, W

    2012-01-01

    In gyrokinetic theory, there are two quadratic measures of fluctuation energy, left invariant under nonlinear interactions, that constrain turbulence. In a recent work (Plunk and Tatsuno 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003) we reported on the novel consequences that this constraint has for the direction and locality of spectral energy transfer. This paper builds on that previous work. We provide a detailed analysis in support of the results of Plunk and Tatsuno (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003), but significantly broaden the scope and use additional methods to address the problem of energy transfer. The perspective taken here is that the fluctuation energies are not merely formal invariants of an idealized model (two-dimensional gyrokinetics (Plunk et al 2010 J. Fluid Mech. 664 407–35)) but also general measures of gyrokinetic turbulence, i.e. quantities that can be used to predict the behavior of turbulence. Although many questions remain open, this paper collects evidence in favor of this perspective by demonstrating in several contexts that constrained spectral energy transfer governs the dynamics. (paper)

  19. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  20. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... to automatically extract the cyclic motion pattern, in walking and running represented as steps, and analyse the frequency. Experiments are performed with one subject in two different tests, each at 5, 8, 10, and 12 km/h. The results of our proposed video-based method is compared to concurrent measurements...

  1. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  2. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this...

  3. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.16 Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. For...

  4. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  5. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting...

  6. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or nonselective NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents: What to prescribe in daily clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.C. Masclee (Gwen); V.E. Valkhoff (Vera); E.M. van Soest; R. Schade (René); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); M. Molokhia (Mariam); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); J.L. Goldstein; S. Hernández-Díaz (Sonia); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Two strategies for prevention of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events for nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsNSAID) users are replacement of the nsNSAID by a cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor (coxib) or co-prescription of a gastroprotective agent (GPA). Aim

  7. Rule-Governed and Contingency-Shaped Behavior of Learning-Disabled, Hyperactive, and Nonselected Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mary Ann; Freund, Lisa

    The major purpose of this study was to describe the rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior of learning-disabled, hyperactive, and nonselected elementary school children working on a computer-managed task. Hypotheses tested were (1) that the children would differ in the degree to which either instructions or external contingencies controlled…

  8. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  9. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  10. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  11. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  12. Non-selective vs. selective beta-blocker treatment and the risk of thrombo-embolic events in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peuter, Olav R.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Büller, Harry R.; de Boer, Anthonius; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Heart failure (HF) is associated with a prothrombotic state, resulting in an increased risk for thrombo-embolic events. Studies suggest a reduced prothrombotic state when non-selective beta-blockers relative to selective beta-blockers are given. We studied the influence of non-selective

  13. Possible Measurable Effects of Dark Energy in Rotating Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss recent laboratory experiments with rotating superconductors and show that three so far unexplained experimentally observed effects (anomalous acceleration signals, anomalous gyroscope signals, Cooper pair mass excess can be physically explained in terms of a possible interaction of dark energy with Cooper pairs. Our approach is based on a Ginzburg-Landau-like model of electromagnetic dark energy, where gravitationally active photons obtain mass in the superconductor. We show that this model can account simultaneously for the anomalous acceleration and anomalous gravitomagnetic fields around rotating superconductors measured by Tajmar et al. and for the anomalous Cooper pair mass in superconductive Niobium, measured by Cabrera and Tate. It is argued that these three different physical effects are ultimately different experimental manifestations of the simultaneous spontaneous breaking of gauge invariance and of the principle of general covariance in superconductive materials.

  14. Emittance measurements in low energy ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Carli, C.; Resta-López, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2018-07-01

    The development of the next generation of ultra-low energy antiproton and ion facilities requires precise information about the beam emittance to guarantee optimum performance. In the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA) the transverse emittances will be measured by scraping. However, this diagnostic measurement faces several challenges: non-zero dispersion, non-Gaussian beam distributions due to effects of the electron cooler and various systematic errors such as closed orbit offsets and inaccurate rms momentum spread estimation. In addition, diffusion processes, such as intra-beam scattering might lead to emittance overestimates. Here, we present algorithms to efficiently address the emittance reconstruction in presence of the above effects, and present simulation results for the case of ELENA.

  15. Neutron dose and energy spectra measurements at Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Soldat, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.; Faust, L.G.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1987-08-01

    Because some workers have a high potential for significant neutron exposure, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to verify the accuracy of neutron dosimetry at the plant. Energy spectrum and neutron dose measurements were made at the SRP calibrations laboratory and at several other locations. The energy spectra measurements were made using multisphere or Bonner sphere spectrometers, 3 He spectrometers, and NE-213 liquid scintillator spectrometers. Neutron dose equivalent determinations were made using these instruments and others specifically designed to determine dose equivalent, such as the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Survey instruments, such as the Eberline PNR-4, and the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo and track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also used. The TEPC, subjectively judged to provide the most accurate estimation of true dose equivalent, was used as the reference for comparison with other devices. 29 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Measurement equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidthoeft Delff Andersen, P.; Rode, C.; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-08-15

    This paper documents the measurement equipment in a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Detailed measurements are being taken on energy consumption, indoor temperatures, floor heating, ventilation, open/closed state of doors and windows, and indoors climate. Equipped with a central control unit, experiments can be designed in order to study heat dynamics of the building. It is described how to plan and execute such experiments in one apartment in the building. The building also features both a solar thermal system and extra buffer tank facilitating testing of storage strategies on the power generated by the solar thermal system. A weather station equipped with thermometer, pyranometer and anemometer is installed on the building as well. Finally, it is described how to retrieve data from an SQL server which is configured to take monthly backups. R functions have been implemented to fetch and prepare the data for time series analysis. Examples are given on the use of these. (Author)

  17. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  18. Measurement of energy deposition near heavy ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Brady, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Rapkin, M.

    1985-01-01

    In November of 1982 work was begun in collaboration with Columbia University and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to use microdosimetric methods to measure energy deposition of heavy ions produced at LBL's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. Last year the authors reported preliminary results indicating that secondary charged particle equilibrium was probably obtained using this experimental setup, but that there seemed to be poor spatial resolution in the solid state position-sensitive detector. Further analysis of the measurements taken in August 1983 shows that because of this electronic noise in the position-sensitive detector, only the 56 Fe data yielded useful microdosimetric spectra

  19. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  20. [Problems of cardiovascular toxicity of coxibs and non-selective NSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejtová, S

    2006-01-01

    Non-steroidal antirheumatics (NSA) belong to the most often prescribed drugs. Certain observation studies indicate that they are used by 20 to 30% of population of developed countries. The most common NSA's adverse effects are gastrointestinal complications. Coxibs have been developed as an alternative to conventional non-selective NSA; with similar efficacy, they should reduce the risk of development of gastrointestinal complications. In the few last years, possible toxicity of coxibs and other non-steroidal antirheumatics has been widely discussed. The VIGOR study, which was performed 6 years ago, showed five times higher incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with rofecoxib therapy as compared with naproxen. Afterwards, there was much debate about rofecoxib, and coxibs in general, whose cardiotoxicity was supported and confuted at the same time. Possible cardioprotective effect of naproxen was discussed too. Later on, results of the APPROVE study (Adenoma Polyp Prevention on Vioxx) made Merck & Co., Inc. withdraw rofecoxib from all markets voluntarily. In the end of 2004, three controversial studies on celecoxib were published. Although the first study (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib study, APC) showed higher cardiovascular risk of celecoxib, the second study (Prevention of Adenomatosus Polyps, PreSAP) did not verify these results. Surprisingly, the third study (Alzheimer Disease and Prevention Trial, ADAPT) proved 50% increase of the risk of cardiovascular (CV) toxicity of naproxen. In the last year, researchers have tried to decide whether CV toxicity is a class effect of coxib group or a class effect of all NSA. Many observation studies proved higher CV risk both of coxibs (particularly rofecoxib) and non-selective NSA including naproxen. These new findings moved the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to publish guidance concerning higher CV risk of all coxibs and NSA. For the time being, the EMEA (European Agency for Evaluation

  1. Marginal costs for intensified energy-efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, J.; Jochem, E.; Christen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The costs and benefits of investments in measures designed to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings (in particular investments in heat insulation) were calculated as a function of increasing energy efficiency for new and renovated buildings and for single-family homes and apartment buildings. These investments in measures to improve efficiency mostly involve with the building envelope and ventilation systems and aim to successively reduce the space-heating needs of the buildings. The measures range from present-day building and renovation methods through to the 'Minergie' and 'Passive House' ('Minergie-P' in Switzerland) standards for low and very-low energy consumption buildings. Cost-benefit ratios were determined for individual building components, individual building concepts and for the whole of Switzerland, using both the average-cost as well as the pure marginal-cost methods (energy-economics level). The collection of empirical data (especially on costs) was an integral and important part of the project. The marginal costs were then compared with the benefits arising from the costs for space heating that were avoided, and, using a few typical cases as examples, with the so-called co-benefits, which are to be implemented in part by private persons and companies. For their quantification, methods were developed and used in case studies; in addition, avoided external costs are also considered. The marginal costs were also calculated for periods of time in the future, whereby they were made dynamic, according to their share of innovation, using the learning-curve method (learning and scaling effects). As far as the findings are concerned, there can be no doubt that the potential to be opened up for increasing energy efficiency using heat insulation measures is high, both for renovations and new construction work. A large portion of this potential is already economically viable and even more so when the possible risks of energy price increases

  2. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  3. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 μm precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  4. Multiloop atom interferometer measurements of chameleon dark energy in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Chameleon field is one of the promising candidates of dark energy scalar fields. As in all viable candidate field theories, a screening mechanism is implemented to be consistent with all existing tests of general relativity. The screening effect in the chameleon theory manifests its influence limited only to the thin outer layer of a bulk object, thus producing extra forces orders of magnitude weaker than that of the gravitational force of the bulk. For pointlike particles such as atoms, the depth of screening is larger than the size of the particle, such that the screening mechanism is ineffective and the chameleon force is fully expressed on the atomic test particles. Extra force measurements using atom interferometry are thus much more sensitive than bulk mass based measurements, and indeed have placed the most stringent constraints on the parameters characterizing chameleon field. In this paper, we present a conceptual measurement approach for chameleon force detection using atom interferometry in microgravity, in which multiloop atom interferometers exploit specially designed periodic modulation of chameleon fields. We show that major systematics of the dark energy force measurements, i.e., effects of gravitational forces and their gradients, can be suppressed below all hypothetical chameleon signals in the parameter space of interest.

  5. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  6. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  7. A novel safety assessment strategy applied to non-selective extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Sander; Leeman, Winfried; Verheij, Elwin; Dutman, Ellen; van Stee, Leo; Nielsen, Lene Munch; Ronsmans, Stefan; Noteborn, Hub; Krul, Lisette

    2015-06-01

    A main challenge in food safety research is to demonstrate that processing of foodstuffs does not lead to the formation of substances for which the safety upon consumption might be questioned. This is especially so since food is a complex matrix in which the analytical detection of substances, and consequent risk assessment thereof, is difficult to determine. Here, a pragmatic novel safety assessment strategy is applied to the production of non-selective extracts (NSEs), used for different purposes in food such as for colouring purposes, which are complex food mixtures prepared from reference juices. The Complex Mixture Safety Assessment Strategy (CoMSAS) is an exposure driven approach enabling to efficiently assess the safety of the NSE by focussing on newly formed substances or substances that may increase in exposure during the processing of the NSE. CoMSAS enables to distinguish toxicologically relevant from toxicologically less relevant substances, when related to their respective levels of exposure. This will reduce the amount of work needed for identification, characterisation and safety assessment of unknown substances detected at low concentration, without the need for toxicity testing using animal studies. In this paper, the CoMSAS approach has been applied for elderberry and pumpkin NSEs used for food colouring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  9. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  10. A gateless charge integrator for Borexino energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomarsino, V.; Testera, G.

    1999-01-01

    A gateless charge integrator designed for the energy measurement in the Borexino experiment is described and the results of various tests performed on prototypes are shown. The circuit integrates always its input taking advantage of the AC coupling to the photomultipliers that equalizes to zero the charge associated with each event signal. A double sampling of the integrator output allows to perform a charge measurement in principle without dead time, avoiding the use of gate signals and baseline restoration networks and permitting a precise detection of the fast correlated events (delayed coincidences due to the decay of a nuclide producing a daughter having a lifetime in the tens of ns time range). The precision of the charge measurement is discussed together with the performances of the front end Borexino board where the integrator is mounted

  11. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  12. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  13. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  14. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  16. Measurement of Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Bairen; Cui, Xiaodong

    Excitonic effects are prominent in monolayer crystal of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) because of spatial confinement and reduced Coulomb screening. Here we use linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE) to measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2. Peaks for excitonic absorptions of the direct gap located at K valley of the Brillouin zone and transitions from multiple points near Γ point of the Brillouin zone, as well as trion side band are shown in the linear absorption spectra of WS2. But there is no gap between distinct excitons and the continuum of the interband transitions. Strong electron-phonon scattering, overlap of excitons around Γ point and the transfer of the oscillator strength from interband continuum to exciton states make it difficult to resolve the electronic interband transition edge even down to 10K. The gap between excited states of the band-edge exciton and the single-particle band is probed by TP-PLE measurements. And the energy difference between 1s exciton and the single-particle gap gives the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 to be about 0.71eV. The work is supported by Area of excellency (AoE/P-04/08), CRF of Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU9/CRF/13G) and SRT on New Materials of The University of Hong Kong.

  17. Response function measurement of plastic scintillator for high energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Takada, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The response function and detection efficiency of 2''φ x 2''L plastic (PilotU) and NE213 liquid (2''NE213) scintillators, which were used for the measurement of secondary neutrons from high energy electron induced reactions, were measured at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). High energy neutrons were produced via 400 MeV/n C beam bombardment on a thick graphite target. The detectors were placed at 15 deg with respect to C beam axis, 5 m away from the target. As standard, a 5''φ x 5''L NE213 liquid scintillator (5''NE213) was also placed at same position. Neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with the beam pickup scintillator in front of the target. In front of the detectors, veto scintillators were placed to remove charged particle events. All detector signals were corrected with list mode event by event. We deduce neutron spectrum for each detectors. The efficiency curves for pilotU and 2''NE213 were determined on the bases of 5 N E213 neutron spectrum and its efficiency calculated by CECIL code. (author)

  18. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.

    2008-10-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10 -4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  19. Measuring and Controlling the Energy Spread in CEBAF

    CERN Document Server

    Krafft, G A; Dickson, R W; Kazimi, R; Lebedev, V A; Tiefenback, M G

    2000-01-01

    As compared to electron storage rings, one advantage of recirculating linear accelerators is that the beam properties at target are no longer dominated by the equilibrium between quantum radiative diffusion and radiation damping because new beam is continually injected into the accelerator. This allows the energy spread from a CEBAF-type machine to be relatively small; the measured energy spread from CEBAF at 4 GeV is less than 100 parts per million accumulated over times of order several days. In this paper, the various subsystems contributing to the energy spread of a CEBAF-type accelerator are reviewed, as well as the machine diagnostics and controls that are used in CEBAF to ensure that a small energy spread is provided during routine running. Examples of relevant developments are (1) stable short bunches emerging from the injector, (2) precision timing and phasing of the linacs with respect to the centroid of the beam bunches on all passes, (3) implementing 2 kHz sampling rate feedback systems for final ...

  20. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  1. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  2. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  3. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  4. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  5. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  6. Polarization Measurements in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam Sarty; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Brendan Fox; Chang, C.; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Crovelli, D.; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Elaine Schulte; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Jordan Hovdebo; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Kevin Fissum; Konrad Aniol; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Moskov Amarian; Nilanga Liyanage; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Olivier Gayou; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; Holt, R.; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Salvatore Frullani; Scott Dumalski; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Stephen Becher; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Xiaodong Jiang; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai; Wang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We present measurements of the recoil proton polarization for the d(polarized y, polarized p)n reaction at thetac.m. = 90 degrees for photon energies up to 2.4 GeV. These are the first data in this reaction for polarization transfer with circularly polarized photons. The induced polarization py vanishes above 1 GeV, contrary to meson-baryon model expectations, in which resonances lead to large polarizations. However, the polarization transfer Cx does not vanish above 1 GeV, inconsistent with hadron helicity conservation. Thus, we show that the scaling behavior observed in the d(y,p)n cross sections is not a result of perturbative QCD. These data should provide important tests of new nonperturbative calculations in the intermediate energy regime

  7. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  8. Predissociation measurements of bond dissociation energies: VC, VN, and VS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Davis, Quincy C.; Morse, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The abrupt onset of predissociation in the congested electronic spectra of jet-cooled VC, VN, and VS has been observed using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. It is argued that because of the high density of electronic states in these molecules, the predissociation threshold occurs at the thermochemical threshold for the production of separated atoms in their ground electronic states. As a result, the measured threshold represents the bond dissociation energy. Using this method, bond dissociation energies of D{sub 0}(V C) = 4.1086(25) eV, D{sub 0}(V N) = 4.9968(20) eV, and D{sub 0}(V S) = 4.5353(25) eV are obtained. From these values, enthalpies of formation are derived as Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V C(g)) = 827.0 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V N(g)) = 500.9 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, and Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V S(g)) = 349.3 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}. Using a thermochemical cycle and the well-known ionization energies of V, VC, and VN, our results also provide D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–C) = 3.7242(25) eV and D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–N) = 4.6871(20) eV. These values are compared to previous measurements and to computational results. The precision of these bond dissociation energies makes them good candidates for testing computational chemistry methods, particularly those that employ density functional theory.

  9. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  10. Energy saving measures in the Netherlands. Options to save 2% energy per year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.W.; Van Dril, A.W.N.; Boerakker, Y.H.A.; Godfroij, P.; Van der Hilst, F.; Kroon, P.; Menkveld, M.; Seebregts, A.J.; Tigchelaar, C.; De Wilde, H.P.J.

    2006-12-01

    This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in order to address the will of the parliament to investigate policies and measures in order to improve energy efficiency. The analysis is targeted at increasing the annual energy efficiency improvement in the Netherlands from 1% to 2%. It shows that the following policies and measures are necessary to achieve 2%. Regulation has been defined for improving energy efficiency in dwellings and commercial buildings, to be implemented when ownership changes. EU regulation is required for appliances, office equipment and cars, delivery vans and efficient tires. Financial incentives are added for the purchase of efficient cars, the reduction of mileage and for intra-European air transport. Taxation is suggested for industry, the energy sector and horticulture, where less efficient plants have to pay and efficient ones benefit. Total costs for the Dutch economy amount to 3.5 billion euros annually. Implementing the proposed policy packages will require a considerable effort of governments, citizens and companies to overcome societal barriers. In many cases, introduction of the necessary policies and measures depends on European legislation [nl

  11. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  12. Charge, mass and energy measured in the Plastic Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.

    1984-01-01

    In relativistic nuclear collisions the multiplicity of charged particles reflects the violence of the reaction and, presumably, the impact parameter. Furthermore, the total transverse energy in a collision might be a signature of compression. Both quantities are global features that can be measured in the Plastic Ball. The total mass in an event in light charge fragments can be detected (with assumptions made in certain kinematic regions) through particle identification. In addition, the neutron detection efficiency is quite high because of the large thickness of the plastic scintillator in the Plastic Ball. Here the authors present several global quantities for the reaction of 400 MeV/nucleon Nb + Nb

  13. Energy transfer efficiency measurements in a theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, G.H.; Luna, F.R.T.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    An increase in energy transfer efficiency of the capacitor bank to the plasma was obtained when the electrical system of a theta-pinch was changed so that the ratio of total inductance to coil inductance was switched of 1/6 to 1/2. A further increase about 20% was obtained for 16/1 ratio. The measurements were made through the current discharge decay, and the spectral analysis of the emitted light from theta-pinch shows a correspondent efficiency increase. (author)

  14. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  15. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  16. Energy Approach to Measure the Region’s Assimilative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Stepanovna Belik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of the environmental economics is the development of methodology for quantifying the assimilative capacity (AC of a territory. The article analyzes the existing approaches to determining and assessing the AC of a territory. We justify the advantages of using the energy approach. The authors’ method consists in using the maximum permissible energy load (MPEL for quantitative assessment of the AC of a territory. MPEL is a value that the ecological and economic system can withstand for a long time without changing its properties. We determine MPEL on the basis of data on the ability of various categories of land to absorb greenhouse gases (GHG, as well as the specific GHG emissions per ton of conventional fuel. Further, we compare the calculated value of MPEL in fuel equivalents with the actual consumption of fuel resources for the needs of the national economy. These values ratio can serve as a standard for measuring and balancing the environmental and economic system. The authors have validated the described method on the example of the Sverdlovsk region, which is characterized by a high level of man’s impact. Calculations show that the actual consumption of fossil fuels in the region exceeds MPEL. That indicates an imbalance in the ecological and economic system and may lead to further deterioration of the environmental quality in the region. The proposed methodological approach and calculations can be used when developing strategic planning documents for a territory, including its energy strategy

  17. Calculation and Measurement of Low-Energy Radiative Moller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Charles; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A number of current nuclear physics experiments have come to rely on precise knowledge of electron-electron (Moller) and positron-electron (Bhabha) scattering. Some of these experiments, having lepton beams on targets containing atomic electrons, use these purely-QED processes as normalization. In other scenarios, with electron beams at low energy and very high intensity, Moller scattering and radiative Moller scattering have such enormous cross-sections that the backgrounds they produce must be understood. In this low-energy regime, the electron mass is also not negligible in the calculation of the cross section. This is important, for example, in the DarkLight experiment (100 MeV). As a result, we have developed a new event generator for the radiative Moller and Bhabha processes, with new calculations that keep all terms of the electron mass. The MIT High Voltage Research Laboratory provides us a unique opportunity to study this process experimentally and compare it with our work, at a low beam energy of 2.5 MeV where the effects of the electron mass are significant. We are preparing a dedicated apparatus consisting of a magnetic spectrometer in order to directly measure this process. An overview of the calculation and the status of the experiment will be presented.

  18. Resting Energy Expenditure in Anorexia Nervosa: Measured versus Estimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE measured by the Douglas bag method with the REE estimated with the FitMate method, the Harris-Benedict equation, and the Müller et al. equation for individuals with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 in a severe group of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. Methods. 15 subjects with AN participated in the study. The Douglas bag method and the FitMate method were used to measure REE and the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition after one day of refeeding. Results. FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation gave an accurate REE estimation, while the Harris-Benedict equation overestimated the REE when compared with the Douglas bag method. Conclusion. The data support the use of the FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation, but not the Harris-Benedict equation, to estimate REE in AN patients after short-term refeeding.

  19. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  20. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  1. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  2. Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Woolley, Emily; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Selzam, Saskia; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; von Stumm, Sophie; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S.; Young, Toby; Allen, Rebecca; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2018-03-01

    On average, students attending selective schools outperform their non-selective counterparts in national exams. These differences are often attributed to value added by the school, as well as factors schools use to select pupils, including ability, achievement and, in cases where schools charge tuition fees or are located in affluent areas, socioeconomic status. However, the possible role of DNA differences between students of different schools types has not yet been considered. We used a UK-representative sample of 4814 genotyped students to investigate exam performance at age 16 and genetic differences between students in three school types: state-funded, non-selective schools (`non-selective'), state-funded, selective schools (`grammar') and private schools, which are selective (`private'). We created a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) derived from a genome-wide association study of years of education (EduYears). We found substantial mean genetic differences between students of different school types: students in non-selective schools had lower EduYears GPS compared to those in grammar (d = 0.41) and private schools (d = 0.37). Three times as many students in the top EduYears GPS decile went to a selective school compared to the bottom decile. These results were mirrored in the exam differences between school types. However, once we controlled for factors involved in pupil selection, there were no significant genetic differences between school types, and the variance in exam scores at age 16 explained by school type dropped from 7% to <1%. These results show that genetic and exam differences between school types are primarily due to the heritable characteristics involved in pupil admission.

  3. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  4. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S, medium (M, and large (L RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses. Here, we evaluated, by single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the intracellular spatio-temporal distribution and replication kinetics of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV genome and determined the segment composition of mature virions. The results reveal that the RVFV genome segments start to replicate near the site of infection before spreading and replicating throughout the cytoplasm followed by translocation to the virion assembly site at the Golgi network. Despite the average intracellular S, M and L genome segments approached a 1:1:1 ratio, major differences in genome segment ratios were observed among cells. We also observed a significant amount of cells lacking evidence of M-segment replication. Analysis of two-segmented replicons and four-segmented viruses subsequently confirmed the previous notion that Golgi recruitment is mediated by the Gn glycoprotein. The absence of colocalization of the different segments in the cytoplasm and the successful rescue of a tri-segmented variant with a codon shuffled M-segment suggested that inter-segment interactions are unlikely to drive the copackaging of the different segments into a single virion. The latter was confirmed by direct visualization of RNPs inside mature virions which showed that the majority of virions lack one or more genome segments. Altogether, this study suggests that RVFV genome packaging is a non-selective process.

  5. Prospective study of awake craniotomy used routinely and nonselectively for supratentorial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Demitre; Bernstein, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The authors prospectively assessed the value of awake craniotomy used nonselectively in patients undergoing resection of supratentorial tumors. The demographic features, presenting symptoms, tumor location, histological diagnosis, outcomes, and complications were documented for 610 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection. Intraoperative brain mapping was used in 511 cases (83.8%). Mapping identified eloquent cortex in 115 patients (22.5%) and no eloquent cortex in 396 patients (77.5%). Neurological deficits occurred in 89 patients (14.6%). In the subset of 511 patients in whom brain mapping was performed, 78 (15.3%) experienced postoperative neurological worsening. This phenomenon was more common in patients with preoperative neurological deficits or in those individuals in whom mapping successfully identified eloquent tissue. Twenty-five (4.9%) of the 511 patients suffered intraoperative seizures, and two of these individuals required intubation and induction of general anesthesia after generalized seizures occurred. Four (0.7%) of the 610 patients developed wound complications. Postoperative hematomas developed in seven patients (1.1%), four of whom urgently required a repeated craniotomy to allow evacuation of the clot. Two patients (0.3%) required readmission to the hospital soon after being discharged. There were three deaths (0.5%). Awake craniotomy is safe, practical, and effective during resection of supratentorial lesions of diverse pathological range and location. It allows for intraoperative brain mapping that helps identify and protect functional cortex. It also avoids the complications inherent in the induction of general anesthesia. Awake craniotomy provides an excellent alternative to surgery of supratentorial brain lesions in patients in whom general anesthesia has been induced.

  6. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F.; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J.; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gornik, Heather L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. Methods From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%–59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%–100% stenosis). Results A total of 1069 (86%) had

  7. Cosmic shear measurements with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper

  8. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  9. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  10. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  11. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  12. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  13. Exploring the range of energy savings likely from energy efficiency retrofit measures in Ireland's residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential energy savings in the Irish residential sector by 2020 due to the introduction of an ambitious retrofit programme. We estimate the technical energy savings potential of retrofit measures targeting energy efficiency of the space and water heating end uses of the 2011 stock of residential dwellings between 2012 and 2020. We build eight separate scenarios, varying the number of dwellings retrofitted and the depth of retrofit carried out in order to investigate the range of energy savings possible. In 2020 the estimated technical savings potential lies in the range from 1713 GWh to 10,817 GWh, but is more likely to fall within the lower end of this range, i.e. between 1700 and 4360 GWh. When rebound effects are taken into account this reduces further to 1100 GWh and 2800 GWh per annum. The purpose of this paper was to test the robustness of the NEEAP target savings for residential retrofit, i.e. 3000 GWh by 2020. We conclude that this target is technically feasible but very challenging and unlikely to be achieved based on progress to date. It will require a significant shift towards deeper retrofit measures compared to what has been achieved by previous schemes. - Highlights: • Paper estimates range of energy savings likely from Irish residential retrofit. • Achieving NEEAP target savings of 3000 GWh by 2020 is feasible but very challenging. • Likely savings of 1100–2800 GWh per annum in 2020, including rebound. • NEEAP target unlikely to be achieved based on current trends.

  14. Defining energy vulnerability in mobility. Measuring energy vulnerability in mobility. Acting against energy vulnerability in mobility. Discussing energy vulnerability in mobility. Task no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffe, Yves; Massot, Marie-Helene; Noble, Cyprien

    2015-01-01

    Extensive expansion of urban areas generates transportation needs and energy expenses for mobility. Households already impacted by fuel poverty also suffer from energy vulnerability in their mobility. This report was prepared in the framework of the study of fuel poverty in France in the light of several indicators from existing inquiries, databases and modeling tools. The report is organised in 4 parts dealing with: the definition of energy vulnerability in mobility, its measurement, the possible remedial actions, and the discussions about energy vulnerability in mobility through working group meetings, respectively

  15. Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.

  16. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  17. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lease, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials

  18. Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49

  19. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  20. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  1. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  3. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, W.K.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay π + → π 0 e + vε is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.3999±0.0005 s -1 . The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.394 ± 0.015 s -1 . A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required

  4. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be...

  5. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  6. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.; Todyshev, K.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2×10 -5 . The relative uncertainty of the beam's energy spread is about 6%.

  7. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e + e - collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e + e - →ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb -1 and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The jet energy resolution

  8. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-15

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e{sup +}e{sup -} collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e{sup +}e{sup -}→ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb{sup -1} and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The

  9. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  10. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs—An empirical analysis based on energy audit data from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schleich, Joachim; Ravivanpong, Ployplearn

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates factors driving the adoption of energy-efficiency measures by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Our analyses are based on cross-sectional data from SMEs which participated in a German energy audit program between 2008 and 2010. In general, our findings appear robust to alternative model specifications and are consistent with the theoretical and still scarce empirical literature on barriers to energy-efficiency in SMEs. More specifically, high investment costs, which are captured by subjective and objective proxies, appear to impede the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, even if these measures are deemed profitable. Similarly, we find that lack of capital slows the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, primarily for larger investments. Hence, investment subsidies or soft loans (for larger investments) may help accelerating the diffusion of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. Other barriers were not found to be statistically significant. Finally, our findings provide evidence that the quality of energy audits affects the adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Hence, effective regulation should involve quality standards for energy audits, templates for audit reports or mandatory monitoring of energy audits. - Highlights: ► We empirically analyze barriers to the adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. ► We focus on firms participating in the German energy audit program for SMEs. ► The program overcomes information related barriers. ► High investment costs still impede the adoption even for profitable measures. ► Low audit quality also impedes the adoption of profitable measures.

  11. Support compass energy. BINE database. Support programs for energy saving measures and renewable energies; Foerderkompass Energie. Eine BINE-Datenbank. Foerderprogramme fuer Energie sparende Massnahmen und erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    With respect to energy saving measures and renewable energies, BINE Informationsdienst (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a database with a comprehensive description of supply information. These information are fast in access, available at any time and up to date by an internet actualization service. The database contains: (a) actual support programs for private, commercial and institutional investors; (b) support conditions and references to the filling of an application; (c) filling of an application, sheets of instruction, original texts of the regulations, addresses, internet links; (d) information with respect to the ability of accumulation of different support programs. The functions of the database under consideration are: (a) comfortable search according to projects and target group; (b) daily actualization service via internet; (c) assumption and processing of the results in usual office applications; (d) printout of all results of search, individually or completely; (e) fast overview of all changes of the last four weeks. The advantages are: time-saving fast search; actual and carefully inquired knowledge as well as adhoc availability on your personal computer.

  12. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  13. Grenelle Environnement: passing the energy transition with success; 50 measures for developing renewable energies with a high environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Grenelle Environnement Forum conclusions is to double the contribution of renewable energies in France by 2020, and reach the level of 20 percent of the final energy consumption. 50 measures have been decided by the French government in order to meet this objective while ensuring a high environmental quality. The 50 measures are detailed: heat production (biomass, geothermal and solar energy, wastes, biogas) and electric power generation (hydroelectricity, terrestrial and marine wind turbines, biomass, photovoltaic solar energy, geothermal and marine energies) are concerned

  14. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  15. Three blind men and elephant: The Case of energy indices to measure energy security and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Narula; B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    An 'Energy Index', which is aggregated from energy indicators is a rich source of information and is helpful in providing an assessment of a country's performance. This has, however, resulted in mushrooming of a plethora of indices, which claim to quantify the performance of a country in attaining the goal of energy security and energy sustainability. The paper attempts to compare three different indices, viz., 'Energy Sustainability Index', 'International Index of Energy Security Risk', 'Ene...

  16. Measuring the benefits from an innovation: an application to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, G

    1979-01-01

    Market imperfections mean that the public has to finance research related to improving technologies of energy usage and the finding of new energy sources. The decision to invest in research has to be based on economic criteria and one such criterion is cost--benefit analysis. Four types of innovation are presented and a way outlined in which to evaluate their social benefits. Specific characteristics, such as exhaustibility of energy resources, are explicitly included in the evaluation framework. 15 references.

  17. Measurement of the energy balance in ATC Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Ellis, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Gross properties of the energy balance in the ATC tokamak have been investigated. During the quasi-steady state phase of a normal discharge, the major part of the energy loss was found to be the limiters. Radiation and charge-exchange play minor roles during this quasi-steady state phase, but are nevertheless the dominant loss mechanisms at the termination of a discharge; and account for a substantial portion of the stored poloidal magnetic energy associated with the plasma current. (auth)

  18. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  19. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  20. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report here progress made during the three year period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, for the Department of Energy Three-Year Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER40446, third year. A major part of the work has been associated with nucleon-nucleon (N-N) research carried out at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). During this period they also completed data acquisition and analyses of a TRIUMF experiment, but they have no further plans for experimental work at TRIUMF. Other research has been and will be continued to be carried out at BNL, and involves two rare kaon decay experiments, BNL E791, now completed, and a second generation rare kaon decay experiment, E871, which has just this summer completed an engineering test run. The authors are now also members of a proposed experiment, STAR, (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) to be carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility, RHIC, at BNL. The past three years have been a time of rapid change in the focus of the experimental program. A LAMPF experiment, E1097, in which they spent a large amount of effort during the past three years, was terminated due to funding shortages after they had fabricated the detector, but before data acquisition, and consequently they increased their participation in the rare kaon experiment at BNL, E871. It now appears that there will be no LAMPF N-N program after 1993, so that the research efforts will concentrate on the BNL rare kaon decay measurement, E871, and on STAR. The authors expect that STAR, which requires the fabrication of a large colliding beam detector facility, will use an increasing amount of their research efforts during the next few years. In what follows they describe recent progress on the LAMPF and TRIUMF N-N measurements, on the BNL rare kaon decay work, and on the initial work with the STAR group

  1. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  2. An Energy based Method to Measure the Crowd Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Li, D.; Zheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    How to evaluate crowd safety in crowded areas is a tough, but important, problem. According to accident-causing theory, uncontrolled release of hazardous energy among overcrowded pedestrians is the basic cause of crowd disaster. Therefore, crowd energy is modeled in this paper, which takes both

  3. Energy poverty: have we got the measure of it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Mohlakoana, Nthabiseng; Matinga, Margaret Njirambo

    2013-01-01

    At the macro-level it has long been accepted that there is a strong relationship between energy and economic growth (IDS, 2003). In the 1990s, the development discourse began to focus on the effects that economic growth has had on poverty. However, an interest in the links between energy and poverty

  4. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  5. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  6. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  7. Towards measurement and verification of energy performance under the framework of the European directive for energy performance of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Esfand; Mumovic, Dejan; Kimpian, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the Energy Performance of Buildings has led to major developments in energy policies followed by the EU Member States. The national energy performance targets for the built environment are mostly rooted in the Building Regulations that are shaped by this Directive. Article 3 of this Directive requires a methodology to calculate energy performance of buildings under standardised operating conditions. Overwhelming evidence suggests that actual energy performance is often significantly higher than this standardised and theoretical performance. The risk is national energy saving targets may not be achieved in practice. The UK evidence for the education and office sectors is presented in this paper. A measurement and verification plan is proposed to compare actual energy performance of a building with its theoretical performance using calibrated thermal modelling. Consequently, the intended vs. actual energy performance can be established under identical operating conditions. This can help identify the shortcomings of construction process and building procurement. Once energy performance gap is determined with reasonable accuracy and root causes identified, effective measures could be adopted to remedy or offset this gap. - Highlights: • Building energy performance gap is a negative externality that must be addressed. • A method is proposed to link actual performance to building compliance calculation. • Energy performance gap is divided into procurement and operational gaps. • This framework enables policy makers to measure and address procurement gap. • Building fine-tuning by construction teams could also narrow operational gap

  8. Flurbiprofen : A non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor for treatment of non-infectious, non-necrotising anterior scleritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Lee, Cecilia; Gonzalez-Lopez, Julio J.; Khan, Sharmina; Rodrigues, Valeria; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the safety and efficacy of a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor in the management of non-infectious, non-necrotising anterior scleritis. Methods Retrospective chart review of 126 patients with non-necrotising anterior scleritis treated with oral flurbiprofen (Froben®(Abbott Healthcare)) with ( group B, n=61) or without topical steroids (group A, n=65) was performed and time to remission was plotted. Results The observed incidence rate was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.57–1.99) per 1000 person-years with failure rate of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.22–2.12) per 1000 person-years in group A and 1.41 (95% CI: 0.67–2.96) per 1000 person-years in group B. The failure rate was 3.97(1.89–9.34) per 1000 person-years with hazard ratio of 10.01 ( 95% CI: 2.52–39.65; p<0.001) for patients with associated systemic disease. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first and largest case series on the safety and efficacy of a non-selective COX inhibitor in the management of anterior scleritis. PMID:26308394

  9. [Non-selective and selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, administration in pregnancy and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Laurence; Nizard, Jacky; Généreau, Thierry

    2002-09-28

    THE FACTS: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI), except aspirin, are classically contraindicated during pregnancy. Nevertheless, they are widely used, in particular by the obstetricians. During pregnancy, the potential toxicity of these drugs is double, maternal and fetal. The maternal toxicity is comparable to that, already known in adults, with however, some particularities at the time of labor and delivery. The fetal toxicity is mainly renal and cardiovascular, with the NSAI responsible for oligoamniosis and premature closure of the arterial canal of the fetus. On the other hand, the use of these molecules during breast-feeding does not seem source of adverse events, notably in the newborn. THE VARIOUS MOLECULES: Among the family of non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, indications and adverse events of the various molecules differ considerably. Moreover, whereas the majority of these molecules are non-selective, i.e. inhibiting the two isoforms of cyclooxygenase, new therapeutics, specifically inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2, are now available. Few studies have been published concerning their prescription during pregnancy and breast-feeding and their maternal and fetal side effects remain ignored by most of the practitioners.

  10. Measurements of actinometry and ions energy in a microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril, F.; Camps, E.; Villagran, M.; Muhl, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work it is showed the implementation of the plasma diagnostic technique through actinometry which allows to determine the absolute density of excited species. It is showed the range of the technique application, for the case of N 2 -H 2 mixtures plasmas used for the metals nitridation. The effects of magnetic field and the work pressure over ions energy were determined, using a Faraday cup type energy analyser. The results showed that in our device it is possible to vary such energy in a range between 10-45 eV, which amplify the range of applications perceptibly in comparison with another type of discharges. (Author)

  11. Enhancing China’s energy security: Determining influential factors and effective strategic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most influential factors affecting China’s energy security are identified. • Fuzzy AHP is used to quantify the importance of influential factors. • Strategic measures for enhancing China’s energy security are prioritized. • Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures. - Abstract: This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies and improving energy efficiency is the most salient, positive, and necessary strategic measure

  12. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O.; Lehnen, M.; Xu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  13. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  14. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2⋅10 -5 .

  15. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  16. An approach for holistic energy retrofitting based on assessment of economic viability and durability of energy saving measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    saving measures and forget to consider, whether it is more prudent to demolished the building and erect a new building. An evaluation approach is presented to assess whether to retrofit an existing building or to demolish and replace it. The primary concept of the method is to develop a retrofitting...... as constraint to determine the amount of building retrofitting for implementation. The approach includes also durability assessments of the energy saving measures. An example is carried out to illustrate the application of the approach. The example highlights the importance of including risk assessment...... and durability evaluation of the energy saving measures when performing holistic energy retrofitting of buildings....

  17. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  19. Measuring excess free energies of self-assembled membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizoe, Yuki; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Müller, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Using computer simulation of a solvent-free, coarse-grained model for amphiphilic membranes, we study the excess free energy of hourglass-shaped connections (i.e., stalks) between two apposed bilayer membranes. In order to calculate the free energy by simulation in the canonical ensemble, we reversibly transfer two apposed bilayers into a configuration with a stalk in three steps. First, we gradually replace the intermolecular interactions by an external, ordering field. The latter is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system in this field closely resembles the structure of the original, interacting system in the absence of the external field. The absence of structural changes along this path suggests that it is reversible; a fact which is confirmed by expanded-ensemble simulations. Second, the external, ordering field is changed as to transform the non-interacting system from the apposed bilayer structure to two-bilayers connected by a stalk. The final external field is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system resembles the structure of the stalk in the interacting system without a field. On the third branch of the transformation path, we reversibly replace the external, ordering field by non-bonded interactions. Using expanded-ensemble techniques, the free energy change along this reversible path can be obtained with an accuracy of 10(-3)k(B)T per molecule in the n VT-ensemble. Calculating the chemical potential, we obtain the free energy of a stalk in the grandcanonical ensemble, and employing semi-grandcanonical techniques, we calculate the change of the excess free energy upon altering the molecular architecture. This computational strategy can be applied to compute the free energy of self-assembled phases in lipid and copolymer systems, and the excess free energy of defects or interfaces.

  20. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  1. Optimizing the energy measurement of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampl, W.

    2005-12-01

    This PhD-thesis addresses the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. ATLAS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is currently under construction at CERN in Geneva. LHC and ATLAS are foreseen to start up in 2007. In summer 2004, an extensive beam-test was carried out. This means that individual detector modules are exposed to a particle beam of known energy in order to verify the detector performance. At this occasion, all ATLAS subdetectors where operated together for the first time. The thesis contains a comprehensive description of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, the reconstruction software and the test-beam experiment that was carried out at CERN in 2004. Furthermore, the physics of the electromagnetic shower is discussed in detail. Data from the test beam as well as a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation are used to develop a novel energy-reconstruction method for the ATLAS EM calorimeter that achieves an excellent energy resolution (sampling term ∼ 11 %) as well as a very good linearity (< 0.4 %). Data taken during the beam test is also used to verify the accuracy of the simulation and to test the new energy-reconstruction method. (author)

  2. Exploring energy saving policy measures by renewable energy supplying cooperatives (REScoops)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Hoppe, Thomas; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Akasiadis, Charilaos

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives for renewable energy supply (REScoops) provide their members renewably generated energy within a cooperative model that enables members to co-decide on the cooperative’s future. REScoops do not only collectively own renewable energy production facilities and supply this to their

  3. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  4. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dayan, I; Gasperini, M; Marozzi, G; Nugier, F; Veneziano, G

    2013-01-11

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux being minimally affected by perturbations at large z is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on Ω(Λ)(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  5. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Marozzi, Giovanni; Nugier, Fabien; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux, being minimally affected by perturbations at large z, is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on \\Omega_{\\Lambda}(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  6. Numerical simulation of energy efficiency measures: control and operational strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardehali, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The inherent limitation in performance of building envelop components and heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment necessitates the examination of operational strategies for improvement in energy-efficient operation of buildings. Due to the ease of installation and increasing availability of electronic controllers, operational strategies that could be programmed are of particular interest. The Iowa Energy Center in the US has taken the initiative to conduct the necessary assessment of current HVAC technology and the commonly-used operational strategies for commercial and industrial buildings, as applied to the midwestern part of the country, with weather and energy cost data for Des Moines, Iowa. The first part of this study focused on the energy consumption and cost effectiveness of HVAC systems. The objectives of the second part is concerned with examination of various operational strategies, namely, night purge (NP), fan optimum start and stop (OSS), condenser water reset (CWR), and chilled water reset (CHWR) applied to order and newer-type commercial office buildings. The indoor air quality requirement are met and the latest applicable energy rates from local utility companies are used. The results show that, in general, NP is not an effective strategy in buildings with low thermal mass storage, OSS reduced fan energy, and CWR and CHWR could be effective and require chillers with multi-stage unloading characteristics. The most operationally efficient strategies are the combination of OSS, CWR, and CHWR for the older-type building, and OSS for the newer-type building. Economically, the most effective is the OSS strategy for the older-type building and the CHWR strategy for the newer-type building.(Author)

  7. Screening of Energy Renovation Measures for Schools – Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Paulsen, Anton; Stiger, Simone

    2013-01-01

    ‘School of the Future’ is a collaborative project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union in the energy sector. It started in February 2011 and will run for 5 years. The aim of the “School of the Future” project is to design, demonstrate, evaluate and communicate shining examples...... of how to reach the future high performance building level. School buildings and their primary users: pupils – the next generations – are in the focus of the project. Both, the energy and indoor environment performance of 4 demo buildings in 4 European countries and climates will be greatly improved due...

  8. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  9. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  10. Measures for sustainable energy in the livestock farming industry; Maatregelen duurzame energie veehouderijsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellekens, J. [DLV Bouw Milieu en Techniek, Uden (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    The sectors of pig farming, poultry farming and veal farming have been examined for sustainable energy deployment options in agricultural businesses. These are systems are ready for practice and to be used by individual businesses. Background information is provided on energy saving, deployment of photovoltaic energy, solar collectors, biomass incineration, heat pumps, air conditioning with ground water, and practical experiences in the deployment of sustainable energy systems. Moreover, an overview is given of subsidies and fiscal opportunities for sustainable energy deployment by agricultural businesses [Dutch] Voor de sectoren varkenshouderij, pluimveehouderij en vleeskalverhouderij is onderzocht wat de toepassingsmogelijkheden zijn van duurzame energie (DE) op agrarische bedrijven. Het betreft systemen welke praktijkrijp zijn en te gebruiken op individuele bedrijven. Er wordt achtergrondinformatie gegeven over energiebesparing, toepassen van photovoltaische energie, zonnecollectoren, verbranden van biomassa, warmtepompen, luchtconditionering met grondwater, praktijkervaringen in de toepassing van duurzame energiesystemen. Ook wordt een overzicht geven van subsidies en fiscale mogelijkheden voor toepassen van DE-systemen op agrarische bedrijven.

  11. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurement of surface energy balance over a land surface in an open area in Bangalore is reported. Measurements of all variables needed to calculate the surface energy balance on time scales longer than a week are made. Components of radiative fluxes are measured while sensible and latent heat fluxes are ...

  12. Measuring energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies using a latent class stochastic frontier approach: An application to Chinese energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2014-01-01

    The importance of technology heterogeneity in estimating economy-wide energy efficiency has been emphasized by recent literature. Some studies use the metafrontier analysis approach to estimate energy efficiency. However, for such studies, some reliable priori information is needed to divide the sample observations properly, which causes a difficulty in unbiased estimation of energy efficiency. Moreover, separately estimating group-specific frontiers might lose some common information across different groups. In order to overcome these weaknesses, this paper introduces a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies. An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. Results show that the overall energy efficiency of China's provinces is not high, with an average score of 0.632 during the period from 1997 to 2010. - Highlights: • We introduce a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency. • Ignoring technological heterogeneity would cause biased estimates of energy efficiency. • An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. • There is still a long way for China to develop an energy efficient regime

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway 2006. Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU15 and Norway (Odyssee-Mure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2006-12-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU-15 and Norway - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 192 TWh in 1990 to a present maximum of 219 TWh in 1999. From then it has been a slight decrease and in 2005 the final energy consumption was 215 TWh. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 11 percent from 1990 to 2004, and in the period 1998-2004 it seems to be steadying at approximately 78 TWh. Final energy use in households has increased from 41 TWh in 1990 to a maximum of 46.6 TWh in 1996 and 2002. In 2005 44.1 TWh was used, which is almost the same as the consumption in 1994. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 10 percent, or 0.7 percent per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 10 percent higher in 2004 (or approximately 19 TWh) (author) (ml)

  14. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements

  15. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  16. Measuring and controlling unfairness in decentralized planning of energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Vasirani, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Aberer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side energy management improves robustness and efficiency in Smart Grids. Load-adjustment and load-shifting are performed to match demand to available supply. These operations come at a discomfort cost for consumers as their lifestyle is influenced when they adjust or shift in time their

  17. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  18. White House science council ponders measures to improve energy funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "The business strategy of the Energy Department's Office of Science is largely based on its 20-year plan for constructing or upgrading 28 facilities, most of them at department laboratories, DOE science chief Raymond Orbach told members of a White House advisory panel last week" (1 page).

  19. Measuring scientific research in emerging nano-energy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively explore scientific research profiles in the field of emerging nano-energy during 1991-2012 based on bibliometrics and social network analysis. We investigate the growth pattern of research output, and then carry out across countries/regions comparisons on research performances. Furthermore, we examine scientific collaboration across countries/regions by analyzing collaborative intensity and networks in 3- to 4-year intervals. Results indicate with an impressively exponential growth pattern of nano-energy articles, the world share of scientific "giants," such as the USA, Germany, England, France and Japan, display decreasing research trends, especially in the USA. Emerging economies, including China, South Korea and India, exhibit a rise in terms of the world share, illustrating strong development momentum of these countries in nano-energy research. Strikingly, China displays a remarkable rise in scientific influence rivaling Germany, Japan, France, and England in the last few years. Finally, the scientific collaborative network in nano-energy research has expanded steadily. Although the USA and several major European countries play significantly roles on scientific collaboration, China and South Korea exert great influence on scientific collaboration in recent years. The findings imply that emerging economies can earn competitive advantages in some emerging fields by properly engaging a catch-up strategy.

  20. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  1. Measurement of acoustic emission signal energy. Calibration and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, N.; Bernard, P.; Fayolle, J.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using an Audimat W device for analyzing the electric energy of signals delivered by a piezo-electric sensor for acoustic emission was investigated. The characteristics of the prototype device could be improved. The tests performed revealed that the 7075-T651 aluminium alloy can be used as a reference material [fr

  2. Direct measurement of superdiffusive energy transport in disordered granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Martínez, Alejandro J; Phenisee, Sean E; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Yang, Jinkyu

    2018-02-13

    Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals. In line with prior theoretical studies, we observe in our experiments that disorder and nonlinearity-which individually favor energy localization-can effectively cancel each other out, resulting in the destruction of wave localization. We also show that the combined effect of disorder and nonlinearity can enable manipulation of energy transport speed in granular crystals. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate superdiffusive transport. Furthermore, our numerical computations suggest that subdiffusive transport should be attainable by controlling the strength of the system's external precompression force.

  3. Measurements of VBS (and other diboson processes at high energy)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bing; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The talk gives a broad overview of the progress in the VBS analyses and the projected improvements for both ATLAS and CMS for the HL-LHC program, with luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at center-of-mass energy at 14 TeV.

  4. Measuring sustainability by Energy Efficiency Analysis for Korean Power Companies: A Sequential Slacks-Based Efficiency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency has been widely regarded as one of the most cost-effective ways to improve sustainability and mitigate climate change. This paper presents a sequential slack-based efficiency measure (SSBM application to model total-factor energy efficiency with undesirable outputs. This approach simultaneously takes into account the sequential environmental technology, total input slacks, and undesirable outputs for energy efficiency analysis. We conduct an empirical analysis of energy efficiency incorporating greenhouse gas emissions of Korean power companies during 2007–2011. The results indicate that most of the power companies are not performing at high energy efficiency. Sequential technology has a significant effect on the energy efficiency measurements. Some policy suggestions based on the empirical results are also presented.

  5. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  6. Fast and Precise Beam Energy Measurement using Compton Backscattering at e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminskiy, V V; Muchnoi, N Yu; Zhilich, V N

    2017-01-01

    The report describes a method for a fast and precise beam energy measurement in the beam energy range 0.5-2 GeV and its application at various e+e- colliders. Low-energy laser photons interact head-on with the electron or positron beam and produce Compton backscattered photons whose energy is precisely measured by HPGe detector. The method allows measuring the beam energy with relative accuracy of ∼2-5.10-5. The method was successfully applied at VEPP-4M, VEPP-3, VEPP-2000 (BINP, Russia) and BEPC-II (IHEP, China).

  7. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  8. Medium Energy measurements on N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1992-12-01

    Research is reported on the following topics: Spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; pp elastic differential cross section measurements; single pion production in np scattering; and a new search for rare kaon decays (K L →μμ and K L →ee). 68 refs., 33 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: pp elastic absolute cross section measurement; spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; single pion production in np scattering; photoproduction of high P t jets in the wide band beam of the tevatron; and search for K L 0 → μe, K L 0 → ee

  10. Tools and measures for stimulation the efficient energy consumption. Integrated resource planning in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripcariu, Daniela; Scripcariu, Mircea; Leca, Aureliu

    1996-01-01

    The integrated resource planning is based on analyses of the energy generation and energy consumption as a whole. Thus, increasing the energy efficiency appears to be the cheapest, the most available and the most cost-effective energy resource. In order to stimulate the increase of efficiency of energy consumption, besides economic efficiency criteria for selecting technical solutions, additional tools and measures are necessary. The paper presents the main tools and measures needed to foster an efficient energy consumption. Actions meant to stimulate DSM (Demand-Side Management) implementation in Romania are proposed. The paper contains 5 sections. In the introduction, the main aspects of the DSM are considered, namely, where the programs are implemented, who is the responsible, which are the objectives and finally, how the DSM programs are implemented. The following tools in management of energy use are examined: the energy prices, the regulation in the field of energy efficiency, standards and norms, energy labelling of the products and energy education. Among the measures for managing the energy use, the paper takes into consideration the institutions responsible for DSM, for instance, the Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation (ARCE), decentralization of decision making, the program approaches and financing the actions aiming at improving the energy efficiency. Finally, the paper analyses the criteria in choosing adequate solutions of improving the energy efficiency

  11. Measurement of adhesion properties between topcoat paint and metallized/galvanized steel with surface energy measurement equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) Compare the adhesion properties of NEPCOAT-approved topcoat paint over : metallized or galvanized steel. Use surface-energy measuring technique to characterize the wetting properties of the liqui...

  12. Evaluating airline energy efficiency: An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Cui, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating airline energy efficiency, which is firstly divided into four stages: Operations Stage, Fleet Maintenance Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage. The new four-stage network structure of airline energy efficiency is a modification of existing models. A new approach, integrated with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure, is applied to assess the overall energy efficiency and divisional efficiency of 19 international airlines from 2008 to 2014. The influencing factors of airline energy efficiency are analyzed through the regression analysis. The results indicate the followings: 1. The integrated model can identify the benchmarking airlines in the overall system and stages. 2. Most airlines' energy efficiencies keep steady during the period, except for some sharply fluctuations. The efficiency decreases mainly centralized in the year 2008–2011, affected by the financial crisis in the USA. 3. The average age of fleet is positively correlated with the overall energy efficiency, and each divisional efficiency has different significant influencing factors. - Highlights: • An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure is developed. • 19 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Garuda Indonesia has the highest overall energy efficiency.

  13. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  14. What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.

    2006-05-01

    We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of ∝ 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of ∝ 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)

  15. Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockade prevents reduction of the cerebral metabolic ratio during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Intense exercise decreases the cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen to carbohydrates [O(2)/(glucose + (1/2)lactate)], but whether this ratio is influenced by adrenergic stimulation is not known. In eight males, incremental cycle ergometry increased arterial lactate to 15.3 +/- 4.2 mm (mean +/- s.......d.) and the arterial-jugular venous (a-v) difference from -0.02 +/- 0.03 mm at rest to 1.0 +/- 0.5 mm (P cerebral metabolic ratio decreased from 5.5 +/- 1.4 to 3.0 +/- 0.3 (P ... of a non-selective beta-adrenergic (beta(1) + beta(2)) receptor antagonist (propranolol) reduced heart rate (69 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 6 beats min(-1)) and exercise capacity (239 +/- 42 to 209 +/- 31 W; P

  16. Factors which influence Nova Scotia farmers in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy use can reduce farm operating costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Responses (n=224, representing a 32% response rate) from a mail survey were used to assess use and interest in energy efficient and renewable energy options on farms in Nova Scotia, Canada. Energy efficiency options used the most were behavior, insulation, and lighting. Few farms used renewable energy options. Approximately 78% of farmers indicated an interest in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. Interest varied by farm type and size. Interest increased with farm size. The two main efficiency options of interest were lighting (60.8%) and insulation (43.7%), while wind power development (55.5%) and solar water heating (24.5%) were the main renewable options of interest. Farmers concerned about power and equipment reliability were less likely to be interested in implementing options. Farmers concerned about the environment were more likely to be interested in implementing options. Current use of certain energy efficiency technologies, such as efficient lighting, influenced implementation interest

  17. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  18. Relativistic Calculations and Measurements of Energies, Auger Rates, and Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Research and Industry, Denton, Texas, 8-10 November 1982. 7. B. Crasemann: "Efectos Relativ’sticos y de QED Sobre las Transiciones Rayos - X y Auger Entre...INNER-SHELL IONIZATION BY PROTONS X -RAY EMISSION BREIT INTERACTION AUGER TRANSITIONS DIRAC-HARTREE-SLATER COMPUTATIONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESONANT...computations, including relativistic and quantum- electrodynamic effects, of atomic energy levels and of x -ray and Auger transitions in atoms with one or

  19. Do the Czech Production Plants Measure the Performance of Energy Processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tučková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused to the actual situation in Performance Measurement of the energy processes in Czech production plants. The results are back – upped by the previous researches which were aimed to performance measurement methods usage in the whole organizational structure of the plants. Although the most of big industrial companies declared using of modern Performance Measurements methods, the previous researches shown that it is not purely true. The bigger differences were found in the energy area – energy processes. The authors compared the Energy concepts of European Union (EU and Czech Republic (CZ which are very different and do not create any possibilities for manager’s clear decision in the process management strategy of energy processes in their companies. Next step included the Energy department’s analysis. The significant part of energy processes in the production plants is still not mapped, described and summarized to one methodical manual for managing and performance measurement.

  20. Application of economic principles in energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A

    1976-01-01

    The point of departure for the selection of any energy-conserving policy is the availability of (at least) two practical options or alternatives for policy maker at enterprise level. In real life, in the same point of time, or in the same geographical location, there could be several energy conservation options for the same industrial process. One need only set up a pairwise comparison of two options at a time and answer the question: which option is the most desirable from the energy conservation standpoint. Which option is the most desirable from the purchaser's point of view. If one takes both these factors into account, which option is socially the most desirable. We have explained two economic techniques (Life Cycle Cost (LCC), Market Acceptance) and their integration to compare two systems at a time. To begin with, a policy maker at enterprise level can carry out LCC. As technology progresses over time, Market Acceptance estimation may be warranted. Finally, Cost-Benefit Analysis may be applied to overall evaluation of competing projects which have involvement of large social groups, and wider foreign exchange implications.

  1. Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM2) activates non-selective cation current in human endothelial cells independently of carbon monoxide releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, De-Li; Chen, Chang; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhe; Li, Yue; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2008-08-20

    Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM2) has been developed as carbon monoxide (CO) donor. We found that CORM2 activated a type of specific current which was distinct from the big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current activated by CO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). So the aim of the present study was to characterize the CORM2-induced current and to access the relation with CO releasing. CORM2 (100 microM) activated a kind of bi-directional current in HUVECs when the ramp protocol (holding potential 0 mV, from -120 mV to +120 mV) was applied. The current was not blocked by apamin, TRAM-34 and iberiotoxin, the small, intermediate and big-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channel blockers, and it was not sensitive to the pipette solution chelated with EGTA. CORM2 still activated the current when the chloride in the pipette solution was substituted by equal mol gluconic acid. Substitution of the sodium in the bath with choline significantly reduced the current activated by CORM2. The current was regarded as the non-selective cation current. The current showed slightly inward rectifier property and was not sensitive to Gd(3+) (100 microM), La(3+) (10 microM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 microM). CO (10 microM), CORM3 (100, 200 microM) and RuCl(3) (100 microM) were used as controls and showed no effect of the current activation. In conclusion, CORM2 activated the non-selective cation current in HUVECs independently of its CO releasing.

  2. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  3. Earth formation porosity log using measurement of neutron energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are described for measuring the porosity of subsurface earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole by means of neutron well logging techniques. All the commercial techniques for measuring porosity currently available are not as accurate as desirable due to variations in the borehole wall diameter, in the borehole fluids (e.g. with chlorine content) in the casings of the borehole etc. This invention seeks to improve accuracy by using a measurement of the epithermal neutron population at one detector and the fast neutron population at a second detector, spaced approximately the same distance from a neutron source. The latter can be detected either by a fast neutron detector or indirectly by an inelastic gamma ray detector. Background correction can be made, and special detectors used, to discriminate against the detection of thermal neutrons or their resultant capture gamma rays. These fluctuations affect the measurement of thermal neutron populations. (U.K.)

  4. Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author)

  5. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero.

  6. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero. (paper)

  7. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  8. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  9. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, Kok Heong; Nguyen, Chau; Riley, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the effort was devoted to the study of nucleon-nucleon interactions, specifically, spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering at LAMPF, pp elastic differential cross section measurements at LAMPF, and single-pion production in np scattering. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers are shown for np→ppπ - interactions. A new search for rare K L 0 decays to μe, μμ, and ee is being undertaken. Collaborative work has been begun on a very large, complex collider detector STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC). STAR is envisioned as a combination of a silicon vertex tracker, a time projection chamber, a set of trigger scintillators, and time-of-flight counters. It would allow measurements of spin dependence at p T above 10 GeV/c

  10. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  11. A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, Christian; Buzzi, Adeline

    2010-11-25

    Observations indicate that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, which is attributed to a ‘dark energy’ component that opposes gravity. There is a purely geometric test of the expansion of the Universe (the Alcock–Paczynski test), which would provide an independent way of investigating the abundance (Ω(X)) and equation of state (W(X)) of dark energy. It is based on an analysis of the geometrical distortions expected from comparing the real-space and redshift-space shape of distant cosmic structures, but it has proved difficult to implement. Here we report an analysis of the symmetry properties of distant pairs of galaxies from archival data. This allows us to determine that the Universe is flat. By alternately fixing its spatial geometry at Ω(k)≡0 and the dark energy equation-of-state parameter at W(X)≡-1, and using the results of baryon acoustic oscillations, we can establish at the 68.3% confidence level that and -0.85>W(X)>-1.12 and 0.60<Ω(X)<0.80.

  12. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  13. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  14. Penumbral measurements in water for high-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.J.; Schroeder, N.J.; Hoya, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ionization chambers of varying inside diameter have been used to investigate the penumbral region of 60 Co, 6-MV, and 31-MV x-ray beams. Measurements were made in water at varying depths up to 25 cm for a square field of side length 10 cm. The dependence of the penumbral widths on both the inside diameter of the ionization chamber and the depth in water is established along with the asymmetry of the penumbral distributions about the 50% level. A standard correction is indicated to eliminate the dependence of the measured penumbral widths on the inside diameter of the ionization chamber

  15. Tailoring cross-sectional energy-efficiency measures to target groups in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, Katharina; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Schlomann, Barbara; Worrell, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The improvement of energy efficiency in industrial companies plays a crucial role for the energy transition. Although significant economic potentials have been identified, the concerned actors are still struggling to realize them fully. To support the implementation of energy efficiency measures by

  16. Assessing energy techniques and measures in residential buildings: a multidisciplinary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    Many Energy Techniques and Measures (ETMs) are available to reduce the fossil energy use of residential buildings. However, the rate at which these ETMs are implemented is relatively low. Bram Entrop (1980) addresses, in this design-oriented research, the influence that ETMs have on the energy

  17. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  18. Measurements of energy losses, distributions of energy loss and additivity of energy losses for 50 to 150 keV protons in hydrogen and nine hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    Measurements of energy-loss distributions were made for 51, 102, and 153 keV protons traversing hydrogen, methane, ethyne (acetylene), ethene (ethylene), ethane, propyne (methyl acetylene), propadiene (allene), propene (propylene), cyclopropane and propane. The objectives were to test the theories of energy-loss distribution in this energy range and to see if the type of carbon bonding in a hydrocarbon molecule affects the shape of the distribution. Stopping powers and stopping cross sections were also measured at these energies and at 76.5 and 127.5 keV to determine effects of chemical binding. All of the measurements were made at the gas density required to give a 4 percent energy loss. The mean energy, second central moment (a measure of the width of the distribution), and the third central moment (a measure of the skew) were calculated from the measured energy-loss distributions. Stopping power values, calculated using the mean energy, compared reasonably well with those calculated from the Bethe stopping power theory. For the second and third central moments, the best agreement between measurement and theory was when the classical scattering probability was used for the calculations, but even these did not agree well. In all cases, variations were found in the data that could be correlated to the type of carbon binding in the molecule. The differences were statistically significant at a 99 percent confidence interval for the stopping powers and second central moments measured with 51 keV protons. Similar trends were noted at other energies and for the third central moment, but the differences were not statistically significant at the 99 percent confidence interval

  19. Measuring improvement in energy efficiency of the US cement industry with the ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Zhang, G. [Department of Economics, Duke University, Box 90097, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The lack of a system for benchmarking industrial plant energy efficiency represents a major obstacle to improving efficiency. While estimates are sometimes available for specific technologies, the efficiency of one plant versus another could only be captured by benchmarking the energy efficiency of the whole plant and not by looking at its components. This paper presents an approach used by ENERGY STAR to implement manufacturing plant energy benchmarking for the cement industry. Using plant-level data and statistical analysis, we control for factors that influence energy use that are not efficiency, per se. What remains is an estimate of the distribution of energy use that is not accounted for by these factors, i.e., intra-plant energy efficiency. By comparing two separate analyses conducted at different points in time, we can see how this distribution has changed. While aggregate data can be used to estimate an average rate of improvement in terms of total industry energy use and production, such an estimate would be misleading as it may give the impression that all plants have made the same improvements. The picture that emerges from our plant-level statistical analysis is more subtle; the most energy-intensive plants have closed or been completely replaced and poor performing plants have made efficiency gains, reducing the gap between themselves and the top performers, whom have changed only slightly. Our estimate is a 13 % change in total source energy, equivalent to an annual reduction of 5.4 billion/kg of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

  20. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...... to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies...

  1. An apparatus to measure stopping powers for low-energy antiprotons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, H H; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, U

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments to be performed under the ASACUSA collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator is a measurement of the energy loss of low energy antiprotons in thin foils. An electrostatic spectrometer has been developed for this task. We describe the design and initial tests of the apparatus with protons. By changing a high-voltage applied on the target the energy of the projectile ions at impact on the target can easily be varied. In this way we have measured the stopping-power and the energy-loss straggling for protons over a wide energy range to below one keV.

  2. Measuring economy-wide energy efficiency performance: A parametric frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric frontier approach to estimating economy-wide energy efficiency performance from a production efficiency point of view. It uses the Shephard energy distance function to define an energy efficiency index and adopts the stochastic frontier analysis technique to estimate the index. A case study of measuring the economy-wide energy efficiency performance of a sample of OECD countries using the proposed approach is presented. It is found that the proposed parametric frontier approach has higher discriminating power in energy efficiency performance measurement compared to its nonparametric frontier counterparts.

  3. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  4. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  5. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  6. Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimei; Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu

    2017-10-01

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

  7. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of...

  9. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs...

  10. The selective and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors valdecoxib and piroxicam induce the same postoperative analgesia and control of trismus and swelling after lower third molar removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benetello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared the clinical efficacy of orally administered valdecoxib and piroxicam for the prevention of pain, trismus and swelling after removal of horizontally and totally intrabony impacted lower third molars. Twenty-five patients were scheduled to undergo removal of symmetrically positioned lower third molars in two separate appointments. Valdecoxib (40 mg or piroxicam (20 mg was administered in a double-blind, randomized and crossed manner for 4 days after the surgical procedures. Objective and subjective parameters were recorded for comparison of postoperative courses. Both agents were effective for postoperative pain relief (N = 19. There was a similar mouth opening at suture removal compared with the preoperative values (86.14 ± 4.36 and 93.12 ± 3.70% of the initial measure for valdecoxib and piroxicam, respectively; ANOVA. There was no significant difference regarding the total amount of rescue medication taken by the patients treated with valdecoxib or piroxicam (173.08 ± 91.21 and 461.54 ± 199.85 mg, respectively; Wilcoxon test. There were no significant differences concerning the swelling observed on the second postoperative day compared to baseline measures (6.15 ± 1.84 and 8.46 ± 2.04 mm for valdecoxib and piroxicam, respectively; ANOVA or on the seventh postoperative day (1.69 ± 1.61 and 2.23 ± 2.09 mm for valdecoxib and piroxicam, respectively; ANOVA. The cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor valdecoxib is as effective as the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam for pain, trismus and swelling control after removal of horizontally and totally intrabony impacted lower third molars.

  11. Measurement of the stored energy in the NRX reactor reflector graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, H. B.; Larson, E. A.G.

    1959-07-15

    With the co-operation of workers at Windscale and Harwell, whose assistance is hereby gratefully acknowledged, the stored energy content of the inner reflector graphite of NRX has been measured. Measurements made at three different elevations and at different positions through the reflector show that there is, at present, no danger to NRX from an accidental release of the energy. The energy stored in the reflector in 1958 is less by a factor five to ten than the stored energy as measured in 1953. It appears that there has been a continual release of stored energy since 1954 when, after the rehabilitation, the maximum power was raised to 40 MW. Additional thermocouples have been installed in the inner reflector, and future stored energy measurements are being scheduled. (author)

  12. Secondary electrons monitor for continuous electron energy measurements in UHF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Bulka, Sylwester; Mirkowski, Jacek; Roman, Karol

    2001-01-01

    Continuous energy measurements have now became obligatory in accelerator facilities devoted to radiation sterilization process. This is one of several accelerator parameters like dose rate, beam current, bean scan parameters, conveyer speed which must be recorded as it is a required condition of accelerator validation procedure. Electron energy measurements are rather simple in direct DC accelerator, where the applied DC voltage is directly related to electron energy. High frequency linacs are not offering such opportunity in electron energy measurements. The analyzing electromagnet is applied in some accelerators but that method can be used only in off line mode before or after irradiation process. The typical solution is to apply the non direct method related to control and measurements certain accelerator parameters like beam current and microwave energy pulse power. The continuous evaluation of electron energy can be performed on the base of calculation and result comparison with calibration curve

  13. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  14. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  15. Examining Student Ideas about Energy Measurements on Quantum States across Undergraduate and Graduate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function…

  16. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Lawrance, Warren D, E-mail: m.buntine@curtin.edu.a [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  17. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A; Lawrance, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  18. Photoemission measurements for low energy x-ray detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photoemission has been studied for nearly 100 years as both a means of investigating quantum physics, and as a practical technique for transducing optical/x-ray photons into electrical currents. Numerous x-ray detection schemes, such as streak cameras and x-ray sensitive diodes, exploit this process because of its simplicity, adaptability, and speed. Recent emphasis on diagnostics for low temperature, high density, and short-lived, plasmas for inertial confinement fusion has stimulated interest in x-ray photoemission in the sub-kilovolt regime. In this paper, a review of x-ray photoemission measurements in the 50 eV to 10 keV x-ray region is given and the experimental techniques are reviewed. A semiempirical model of x-ray photoemission is discussed and compared to experimental measurements. Finally, examples of absolutely calibrated instruments are shown

  19. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  20. The measure system of thermion energy switch over in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing

    1999-01-01

    The system is the application of VI in the field of reactor, to use LabWINDOW/CVI and currency PC collection card, the system can measure and analyse the speciality of V-I and temperature. It is perfectly and high rate performance system, it can be expand to 128 channels for get dissimilitude signal. It can be used in M and C of all kinds field

  1. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  2. Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses - perception of homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The results of a questionnaire surveying of 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Hence, economic incentives could be used to increase the adoption of such measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt energy efficiency measures

  3. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  4. Use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in high doses increases mortality and risk of reinfarction in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the risk of...

  5. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  6. Alpha Beam Energy Determination Using a Range Measuring Device for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Byeon Gil; Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The threshold energy of the {sup 209}Bi(α,3n){sup 210} At reaction is at about 30MeV. Our laboratory suggested an energy measurement method to confirm the proton-beam's energy by using a range measurement device. The experiment was performed energy measurement of alpha beam. The alpha beam of energy 29 MeV has been extracted from the cyclotron for the production of {sup 211}At. This device was composed of four parts: an absorber, a drive shaft, and a servo motor and a Faraday cup. The drive shaft was mounted on the absorber and connects with the axis of the servo motor and rotates linearly and circularly by this servo motor. A Faraday cup is for measuring the beam flux. As this drive shaft rotates, the thickness of the absorber varies depending on the rotation angle of the absorber. The energy of the alpha particle accelerated and extracted from MC-50 cyclotron was calculated with the measurement of the particle range in Al foil and using ASTAR, SRIM, MCNPX software. There were a little discrepancy between the expected energy and the calculated energy within the 0.5MeV error range. We have a plan to make an experiment with various alpha particle energies and another methodology, for example, the cross section measurement of the nuclear reaction.

  7. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  8. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  9. Implications of low and high energy measurements on SUSY models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2012-04-15

    New Physics searches at the LHC have increased significantly lower bounds on unknown particle masses. This increases quite dramatically the tension in the interpretation of the data: low energy precision data which are predicted accurately by the SM (LEP observables like M{sub W} or loop induced rare processes like B {yields}X{sub s}{gamma} or B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and quantities exhibiting an observed discrepancy between SM theory and experiment, most significantly found for the muon g-2 seem to be in conflict now. (g-2){sub {mu}} appears to be the most precisely understood observable which at the same time reveals a 3-4 {sigma} deviation between theory and experiment and thus requires a significant new physics contribution. The hints for a Higgs of mass about 125 GeV, which is precisely what SUSY extensions of the SM predict, seem to provide a strong indication for SUSY. At the same time it brings into serious trouble the interpretation of the (g-2){sub {mu}} deviation as a SUSY contribution.

  10. Energy corrections in pulsed neutron measurements for cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Woznicka, U.

    1982-01-01

    A solution of the thermal neutron diffusion equation for a two-region concentric cylindrical system, with a constant neutron flux in the inner medium assumed, is given. The velocity-averaged dynamic parameters for thermal neutrons are used in the method. The corrections due to the diffusion cooling are introduced into the dynamic material buckling and into the velocity distribution of the thermal neutron flux. Detailed relations obtained for a hydrogenous moderator are given. Results of the measurements of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-sections for the samples in the two-region cylindrical systems are presented. (author)

  11. Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.

  12. Review of policies and measures for energy efficiency in industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kanako

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industry plays key roles in improving energy security, environmental sustainability and economic performance. It is particularly important in strategies to mitigate climate change. The evidence of great potential for cost-effective efficiency-derived reductions in industrial energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have prompted governments to implement numerous policies and measures aimed at improving their manufacturing industries' energy efficiency. What can be learned from these many and varied initiatives? This paper provides foundation for policy analysis for enhancing energy efficiency and conservation in industry, by surveying more than 300 policies, encompassing about 570 measures, implemented by governments in IEA countries, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. It outlines the measures' main features, their incidence of use, and their connections with specific technical actions and key stakeholders (i.e., how and where measures affect the energy efficiency of industry). It also examines the key features underlying the measures' success: (1) potential to reduce energy use and CO 2 emissions cost-efficiently; (2) ease of policy development, execution and assessment and (3) ancillary societal effects. - Highlights: → Provides foundation for policy analysis for energy efficiency in industry. → Surveys more than 300 policies and their trends, of mainly IEA countries. → Outlines measures' features, incidence of use, technical actions and stakeholders. → Examines the key features underlying the measures' success.

  13. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, Chloe [SITE, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, Stockholm 11383 (Sweden); Paltseva, Elena [Department of Economics, Copenhagen University, Oester Farimagsgade 5, Building 26, 1353 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  14. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  15. Radiotherapy high energy surface dose measurements: effects of chamber polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effects of chamber polarity have been investigated for the measurement of 6MV and 18MV x-ray surface dose using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Results have shown that a significant difference in measured ionization is recorded between to polarities at 6MV and 18MV at the phantom surface. A polarity ratio ranging from 1 062 to 1 005 is seen for 6MV x-rays at the phantom surface for field sizes 5cm x 5cm to 40cm x 40cm when comparing positive to negative polarity. These ratios range from 1.024 to 1.004 for 18MV x-rays with the same field sizes. When these charge reading are compared to the D max readings of the same polarity it is found that these polarity effects are minimal for the calculation of percentage dose results with variations being less than 1% of maximum. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  16. Measured operational neutron energies of compound refractive lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States)]. E-mail: hpark@adelphitech.com; Cremer, J.T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Piestrup, M.A. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Gary, C.K. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, CA 94070 (United States); Hjelm, Rex P. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sellyey, W.C.L.J. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pantell, R.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The characteristics of two compound refractive lenses (CRLs) have been measured using a broadband spallation neutron source. One CRL consists of a stack of 98 biconcave, spherical lenses made of MgF{sub 2}, and another consists of 198 biconcave, spherical lenses made of Al. The bandwidth of the spallation source included wavelengths from 1.5 A to 15.7 A that we could use to test the CRLs. The MgF{sub 2} CRL was found to be useful from 9 to 15 A with the maximum transmission around 13 A, whereas the Al CRL was found to give good transmission around 5-15 A, with the maximum transmission around 8 A. Spectra with Al lens and MgF{sub 2} CRLs show multiple transmission dips due to Bragg diffraction of the microcrystal structure of the lens materials (Al or MgF{sub 2}). These measurements helped characterize the CRLs for possible applications at shorter wavelengths than previously used.

  17. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  18. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  20. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of 14 C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14 C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14 C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14 C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10 4 . Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3 H, and 10 Be, and 26 Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  1. Measurement of low energy neutrino absorption probability in thallium 205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A major aspect of the P-P neutrino flux determination using thallium 205 is the very difficult problem of experimentally demonstrating the neutrino reaction cross section with about 10% accuracy. One will soon be able to completely strip the electrons from atomic thallium 205 and to maintain the bare nucleus in this state in the heavy storage ring to be built at GSI Darmstadt. This nucleus can decay by emitting a beta-minus particle into the bound K-level of the daughter lead 205 ion as the only energetically open decay channel, (plus, of course, an antineutrino). This single channel beta decay explores the same nuclear wave functions of initial and final states as does the neutrino capture in atomic thallium 205, and thus its probability or rate is governed by the same nuclear matrix elements that affect both weak interactions. Measuring the rate of accumulation of lead 205 ions in the circulating beam of thallium 205 ions gives directly the cross section of the neutrino capture reaction. The calculations of the expected rates under realistic experimental conditions will be shown to be very favorable for the measurement. A special calibration experiment to verify this method and check the theoretical calculations will be suggested. Finally, the neutrino cross section calculation based on the observed rate of the single channel beta-minus decay reaction will be shown. Demonstrating bound state beta decay may be the first verification of the theory of this very important process that influences beta decay rates of several isotopes in stellar interiors, e.g., Re-187, that play important roles in geologic and cosmologic dating and nucleosynthesis. 21 refs., 2 figs

  2. Data on energy saving measures on the basis of real consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkveld, M.; Vethman, P.; Leidelmeijer, K.; Cozijnsen, E.

    2012-05-01

    On assignment of NLAgency, RIGO and ECN have established the indicative savings of energy saving measures in existing dwellings based on actual (measured) energy use data. This is done with statistical analysis on a database with energy uses and data on energy saving measures in dwellings. This database is made by combination of data on dwellings from the energy label database of NLAgency and registrations of actual electricity and gas use from the customer files of Statistics Netherlands. The energy label database contains the data used for the label calculation of the dwellings that have received a label. The information consists of the heating system, the type of boiler, insulation, the type of glass, the type of ventilation system, but also the type of dwelling, the size of the dwelling and the year of construction. Linkage of these databases by Statistics Netherlands leads to a file containing data on over 600.000 dwellings. The relations between energy saving measures and energy cannot simply be calculated by comparing average uses of dwellings with a high-efficiency boiler and dwellings with an improved-efficiency boiler. After all, these dwellings will most likely have more differences with regard to other features (for example the extent to which double glazing has been installed). Comparison of these averages would lead to an overestimation of the effect of implementing a high-efficiency boiler. The energy use in dwellings that have a high-efficiency boiler is expected to be lower because of a combination of (other) measures. To arrive at useful statements about savings and effects, certain features of the dwellings and other measures were verified in the analyses. A statistical check of variables examines whether the variable has any influence on a (possible) relation, and if this is true, the influence is subsequently 'corrected' mathematically. The statistical analysis has not only been conducted for the actual energy use data from the customer files

  3. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  4. Very low energy homes in the United States: Perspectives on performance from measured data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We present measured annual performance data from a dozen recent-vintage very low energy homes in North America. Many of the designs combine greater energy efficiency with solar electric photovoltaic power in an attempt to create Zero Energy Homes (ZEH). We also provide measured data from the first home constructed to the German Passivhaus standard in the United States. Several projects either exceeded or come very close to true net zero energy when evaluated over a year. The data indicate that very low energy use buildings can very readily be achieved in North America. Annual energy use half that or less than standard housing can be achieved for an equivalent cost of $0.10/kWh from the efficiency investment. In general, the better cost effectiveness seen from energy efficiency measures indicates that greater investment in conservation should be a prerequisite to installation of solar water heating and solar electricity in Zero Energy Homes. However, over emphasis in efficiency is also possible. This suggests that optimization tools such as BEopt and EGUSA, which characterize both renewable resource performance and that also of specific combinations of energy efficiency measures, will best guide designers to locate the most economically favorable mix to reach an energy neutral level. (author)

  5. Purchasing-power-parity (PPP) approach to energy-efficiency measurement: implications for energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Fatih; Okogu, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The weaknesses of the traditional measure of national output are well known and, in recent years, efforts to find more appropriate alternatives have intensified. One such methodology is the PPP approach which may capture the real value of the GDP. In general, this approach raises the incomes of developing countries by a substantial amount, and this has serious implications for energy indicators on which policies are usually based. A further problem is that non-commercial energy is usually left out of energy-intensity calculations. We analyze the issue of energy-efficiency and carry out calculations based on three approaches: the traditional approach, the PPP-based income approach and an approach which includes non-commercial energy. The results confirm the limitations of using the PPP approach, as its results in a spuriously high energy-efficiency level suggesting high technological sophistication for developing countries. The inclusion of non-commercial energy gives more complete picture. The main conclusion is that applying the PPP method in energy-intensity calculations may be misleading. (Author)

  6. Current situation of energy consumption and measures taken for energy saving in the iron and steel industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.C.; Fu, Z.X.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the key issues associated with the development in the Chinese iron and steel industry and current situations of energy consumption are described in this paper. The apparent production of crude steel in China expanded to 418.78 million tonnes in 2006, which was about 34% share of the world steel production. The iron and steel industry in China is still one of the major high energy consumption and high pollution industries, which accounts for the consumption of about 15.2% of the national total energy, and generation of 14% of the national total wastewater and waste gas and 6% of the total solid waste materials. The average energy consumption per unit of steel is about 20% higher than that of other advanced countries due to its low energy utilization efficiency. However, the energy efficiency of the iron and steel industry in China has made significant improvement in the past few years and significant energy savings will be achieved in the future by optimizing end-use energy utilization. Finally, some measures for the industry in terms of the economic policy of China's 11th five-year plan are also presented.

  7. An apparatus for measuring the energy and angular distribution of electrons in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.; Petersen, M.C.E.

    1978-07-01

    There is a need for further data on the energy and angular distribution of electrons ejected from atoms and molecules by ion impact. An apparatus in which simultaneous measurements can be made of the energy and angular distributions of such electrons is described. The advantages of the apparatus are the possibility of fast data collection and the ability to make measurements over the whole range of scattering angle. Preliminary tests and a trial measurement with the apparatus are described

  8. New layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement for dragon-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui

    2010-01-01

    A new layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement is proposed for Dragon-I by a new method named RBS (rotating beams in solenoids). The basic theory of RBS and the new layout are presented and the measuring error is also discussed. The derived time resolved beam energy spectrum is discrete and is determined by measuring the beam's rotating angle and expanding width through a group of solenoids at the export of Dragon-I. (authors)

  9. Resource Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Hangzhou Bay Based on Long Term Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Dai, Chun-Ni; Xu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chuan-Kun; Ye, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Compared with other marine renewable energy, tidal current energy benefits a lot in high energy density and good predictability. Based on the measured tidal current data in Hangzhou Bay from Nov 2012 to Oct 2012, this paper analysed temporal and spatial changes of tidal current energy in the site. It is the first time measured data of such long time been taken in tidal current energy analysis. Occurrence frequency and duration of the current of different speed are given out in the paper. According to the analysis results, monthly average power density changed a lot in different month, and installation orientation of tidal current turbine significantly affected energy acquisition. Finally, the annual average power density of tidal current energy with coefficient Cp in the site was calculated, and final output of a tidal current plant was also estimated.

  10. Periodic position dependence of the energy measured in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Julien

    2006-01-01

    A uniform energy measurement response of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL is essential for precision physics at the LHC. The ECAL barrel calorimeter consists of 61200 lead tungstate crystals arranged in a quasi-projective geometry. The energy of photons reaching the ECAL will be reconstructed by summing the channels corresponding to matrices of 3x3 or 5x5 crystals centred on the crystal with the largest energy deposit. The energy measured using such matrices of fixed size has been studied using electron test beam data taken in 2004. The variation of the energy containment with the incident electron impact position on the central crystal leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A method using only the calorimeter information is presented to correct for the position dependent response. After correction, the energy resolution performance for uniform impact distributions of the electrons on the front face of a crystal approaches that obtained for maximal containment with a central impact. The univ...

  11. Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Chae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs for the building envelope, HVAC system operational methods, and system replacement. It also evaluated each ECM from the perspective of both energy and utility cost saving potentials to help retrofitting plan decision making. The study shows that the energy consumption of the building was highly dominated by the thermal requirements of laboratory spaces. Among other ECMs the demand management option of overriding the setpoint temperature is the most cost effective measure.

  12. Hypocalcemic stimulation and nonselective venous sampling for localizing parathyroid adenomas: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppman, J L; Skarulis, M C; Chang, R; Alexander, H R; Bartlett, D; Libutti, S K; Marx, S J; Spiegel, A M

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate whether the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from parathyroid tumors during selective parathyroid arteriography can help localize the tumors. In 20 patients (six men, 14 women; age range, 24-72 years) with parathyroid tumors undergoing parathyroid arteriography after failed surgery, serial measurements of PTH were obtained during selective arteriography with nonionic contrast material. PTH levels were measured in the superior vena cava (SVC) before and at varying times from 20 to 120 seconds after arteriography. A 1.4-fold increase in the PTH level of the postarteriographic SVC samples enabled correct prediction of the site of adenoma in 13 of the 20 patients (65%). Of nine patients with positive arteriograms, eight had positive results of postarteriographic sampling. Of 11 patients with negative arteriograms, five had positive results of postarteriographic sampling. Sampling the SVC for PTH gradients after selective parathyroid arteriography correctly indicated the site of the adenoma in 13 of 20 patients (65%).

  13. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Yiannis; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Chletsis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  14. Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV

  15. Energy use in low-energy and passive buildings: A comparison of predicted and measured energy; Energibruk i lavenergi- og passivbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langseth, Benedicte; Everett, Emilie Naerum; Havskjold, Monica

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to get a better view of the real energy use in low-energy and passive buildings in relation to what is intended in the design phase.There is obtained 64 observations of expected and measured energy use in low-energy and passive buildings. Some of these observations are the average of several homes in the same field. There have been some difficulties to obtain information on energy use in Norwegian buildings. This is partly because there are few such buildings in Norway so far, it has not been a focus on energy monitoring, and partly that some building owners have not wanted to give up information.The data show that the measured energy use in buildings, on average, is higher than expected energy consumption. There are some very large differences between expected and measured energy use, both in terms of energy for heating and total energy consumption. In addition, there is big variation in the differences - some observations have almost no difference, others have large positive deviations while others have large negative deviation.There are five main reasons for discrepancies that go on in our findings, these are: errors in building body, faulty technical equipment, improper design of the building, higher indoor temperatures than expected, and improper use of the building. The first three reasons should be relatively easy to reduce the impact of, through increased training and knowledge of the developer, better monitoring of energy use, and especially the communication between the developer and the residents / operator. Many of them Xrgia have been in contact with think they could build 'correct' at the next opportunity. For the last two reasons, indoor temperature and the use of the building, this will be largely dependent on the individual. Data show that more than one building with the same expected energy consumption can have significant variations in measured energy use. Our conclusion is that the use of the building is

  16. All-optical time-resolved measurement of laser energy modulation in a relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an all-optical method to measure laser energy modulation in a relativistic electron beam. In this scheme the time-dependent energy modulation generated from the electron-laser interaction in an undulator is converted into time-dependent density modulation with a chicane, which is measured to infer the laser energy modulation. The method, in principle, is capable of simultaneously providing information on femtosecond time scale and 10^{-5} energy scale not accessible with conventional methods. We anticipate that this method may have wide applications in many laser-based advanced beam manipulation techniques.

  17. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies; Grenelle Environnement: 50 mesures pour un developpement des energies renouvelables a haute qualite environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Numerical simulations on efficiency and measurement of capabilities of BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The energy resolution and time resolution of two phi 75 x 100 BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray newly made were measured with sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co resources. The two characteristic gamma rays of high energy emitted from the thermal neutron capture of germanium in BGO crystal were used for the energy calibration of gamma spectra. The intrinsic photopeak efficiency, single escape probability and double escape probabilities of BGO detectors in photon energy range of 4-30 MeV are numerically calculated with GEANT code. The real count response and count ratio of the uniformly distributed incident photons in energy range of 0-30 MeV are also calculated. The distortion of gamma spectra caused by the photon energy loss extension to lower energy in detection medium is discussed

  19. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  20. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  1. Cloud computing platform for real-time measurement and verification of energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Ming-Tsun; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Su, Cheng-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of PSO algorithm can improve the accuracy of the baseline model. • M&V cloud platform automatically calculates energy performance. • M&V cloud platform can be applied in all energy conservation measures. • Real-time operational performance can be monitored through the proposed platform. • M&V cloud platform facilitates the development of EE programs and ESCO industries. - Abstract: Nations worldwide are vigorously promoting policies to improve energy efficiency. The use of measurement and verification (M&V) procedures to quantify energy performance is an essential topic in this field. Currently, energy performance M&V is accomplished via a combination of short-term on-site measurements and engineering calculations. This requires extensive amounts of time and labor and can result in a discrepancy between actual energy savings and calculated results. In addition, the M&V period typically lasts for periods as long as several months or up to a year, the failure to immediately detect abnormal energy performance not only decreases energy performance, results in the inability to make timely correction, and misses the best opportunity to adjust or repair equipment and systems. In this study, a cloud computing platform for the real-time M&V of energy performance is developed. On this platform, particle swarm optimization and multivariate regression analysis are used to construct accurate baseline models. Instantaneous and automatic calculations of the energy performance and access to long-term, cumulative information about the energy performance are provided via a feature that allows direct uploads of the energy consumption data. Finally, the feasibility of this real-time M&V cloud platform is tested for a case study involving improvements to a cold storage system in a hypermarket. Cloud computing platform for real-time energy performance M&V is applicable to any industry and energy conservation measure. With the M&V cloud platform, real

  2. Methodological possibilities for using the electron and ion energy balance in thermospheric complex measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimov, K.B.; Serafimova, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Combination of ground based measurements for determination of basic thermospheric characteristics is proposed . An expression for the energy transport between components of space plasma is also derived and discussed within the framework of the presented methodology which could be devided into the folowing major sections: 1) application of ionosonde, absorption measurements, TEC-measurements using Faradey radiation or the differential Doppler effect; 2) ground-based airglow measurements; 3) airglow and palsma satelite measurements. 9 refs

  3. Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate Measurements in New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Andersen, Karen Holmegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    The CLASS1 project commenced in 2007 and involves 5 countries: Denmark, Estonia, France, Italy and Romania. Originally, 442 dwellings, a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people were to be designed and constructed as "low-energy class 1" houses according to requirements set by the M......The CLASS1 project commenced in 2007 and involves 5 countries: Denmark, Estonia, France, Italy and Romania. Originally, 442 dwellings, a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people were to be designed and constructed as "low-energy class 1" houses according to requirements set...... dwellings and a CO2-neutral district heating network will not be constructed within the timeframe of the project Therefore, a contingency plan was developed introducing the renovation of public buildings and large-scale implementation of solar cells on public buildings of the municipality. The CLASS 1...... project used the requirements to low-energy buildings as a driving force for the technological development of 6 different key building components/technologies: windows, slab and foundation insulation systems, bio-mass gasification, local district heating distribution networks, ventilation heat recovery...

  4. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin L. [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85248 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  5. Assessing drivers and barriers of energy-saving measures in Oklahoma’s public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, Becca; Gliedt, Travis; Greene, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation initiatives within public schools, including both behavioral changes as well as building retrofits, can generate cost saving and educational benefits. However, the level of energy efficiency improvements that can be achieved may depend on the socio-economic characteristics of the school or the underlying district. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that have a role in influencing the adoption of energy-saving practices and/or building retrofits within Oklahoma’s public schools. In order to investigate these factors, a survey was administered to public school administrators across the state. The results illustrate different factors that drive schools to make decisions associated with energy conservation and retrofitting efforts. A comparative analysis between different types of schools (e.g., rural vs. urban, low- vs. high-income) was also conducted to discover the combination of characteristics that are associated with energy-saving measures. The findings could help school administrators and teachers understand how they might adopt new behaviors or technologies. - Highlights: • Energy performance improvements depend on characteristics of a school district. • Districts with environmental science classes more likely to take energy measures. • Cost savings motivated energy measures in high-income/large-population districts. • A cluster analysis revealed geographic patterns of energy saving measures.

  6. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Maarten; King, Sean W.; French, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  7. Energy and Power Measurements for Network Coding in the Context of Green Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    results for inter-session network coding in Open-Mesh routers underline that the energy invested in performing network coding pays off by dramatically reducing the total energy for the transmission of data over wireless links. We also show measurements for intra-session network coding in three different......This paper presents an in-depth power and energy measurement campaign for inter- and intra-session network coding enabled communication in mobile clouds. The measurements are carried out on different commercial platforms with focus on routers and mobile phones with different CPU capabilities. Our...

  8. Photon detector for high energy measurements in the SELEX spectrometer (Fermilab experiment E781)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, Yu.M.; Grachov, O.A.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.; Nurushev, S.B.; Vasil'ev, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    A possibility to use one- or two-photon lead glass detectors for high energy measurements in the SELEX spectrometer with E γ up to 500 GeV is studied. It is shown that a single photon detector equipped with radiation-resistant lead glass counters is applicable for the experiment discussed. It is concluded that for the best energy resolution in the case of Primakoff effect like π - = γ * → π - + γ the combined method would be used with weighted combination of direct E γ measurement in the Photon-3 detector and the π - beam energy precise measurement. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs

  9. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  10. Rethinking the measurement of energy poverty in Europe: A critical analysis of indicators and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Snell, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape. They carry great political weight, and are often used to guide the targeting of energy poverty measures - due to their perceived objectivity - with important consequences for both the indoor and built environment of housing. Focussing on the European Union specifically, this paper critically assesses the available statistical options for monitoring energy poverty, whilst also presenting options for improving existing data. This is examined through the lens of vulnerability thinking, by considering the ways in which policies and institutions, the built fabric and everyday practices shape energy use, alongside the manner in which energy poor households experience and address the issue on a day-to-day basis.

  11. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  12. How can whole house fiscal measures encourage consumers to improve the energy efficiency of their homes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Over recent years energy efficiency markets in the UK have shown significant growth in the sale of energy efficient white goods and, more recently, efficient boilers. However, despite significant incentives available through energy supplier EEC programmes (a market mechanism), insulation markets have shown limited growth. In particular, cavity wall insulation - the largest single household energy efficiency opportunity in the UK - is difficult to sell. It is a discretionary purchase and not a priority for most consumers. To date UK fiscal measures for energy efficiency have been designed specifically to tackle barriers to the purchase of defined products, including insulation, rather than to tackle the energy efficiency of the house as a whole. For example contractor installed insulation already benefits from 5% VAT, but this is of little or no benefit where insulation is installed for free or is highly subsidised. This paper considers how a more holistic fiscal approach could stimulate consumer action on measures that have, to date, been difficult to sell. Specifically a fiscal approach that focuses on the energy efficiency of the house as a whole. In the context of introduction of the energy report in 2006, under the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, this paper i) identifies a number of promising new fiscal measures, ii) discusses the prospects for their future success and iii) sets out the contribution that their introduction could make to the UK government's climate change targets and its sustainable energy agenda

  13. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities (Annex 63) Volume 2: Development of strategic measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellenberger, Daniel; Schmid, Christian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    This report describes the further development of the analysed measures from Volume 1 into strategic measures. As with the term measure, a strategic measure refers to an essential measure in concept that can be used to develop individual implementation strategies on a local level for part...... or the whole life cycle of a project (from the first vision to monitoring of the implemented solution). The developed strategic measures deal with the following topics: Setting Vision and Targets Developing Renewable Energy Strategies Making Full use of Legal Frameworks Designing an Urban Competition Processes...... a summary of each strategic measure supported by nine appendices, each a detailed description of each strategic measure....

  14. A method for measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Stout, David B; Thompson, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) system energy response is typically characterized in singles detection mode, yet there are situations in which the energy spectrum of coincidence events might be different than the spectrum measured in singles mode. Examples include imaging with isotopes that emit a prompt gamma in coincidence with a positron emission, imaging with low activity in a LSO/LYSO-based cameras, in which the intrinsic activity is significant, and in high scatter situations where the two 511 keV photons have different scattering probabilities (i.e. off-center line source). The ability to accurately measure the energy spectrum of coincidence events could be used for validating simulation models, optimizing energy discriminator levels and examining scatter models and corrections. For many PET systems operating in coincidence mode, the only method available for estimating the energy spectrum is to step the lower and upper level discriminators (LLD and ULD). Simple measurement techniques such as using a narrow sliding energy window or stepping only the LLD will not yield a spectrum of coincidence events that is accurate for cases where there are different energy components contributing to the spectrum. In this work we propose a new method of measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in PET based on a linear combination of two sets of coincident count measurements: one made by stepping the LLD and one made by stepping the ULD. The method was tested using both Monte Carlo simulations of a Siemens microPET R4 camera and measured data acquired on a Siemens Inveon PET camera. The results show that our energy spectrum calculation method accurately measures the coincident energy spectra for cases including the beta/gamma spectrum of the (176)Lu intrinsic activity present in the LSO scintillator crystals, a (68)Ge source and an (124)I source (in which there are prompt gamma-rays emitted together with the positron).

  15. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  16. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  17. Reducing the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Nonselected Outpatients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Espensen, Caroline H; Madsen, Nikolaj J

    2018-01-01

    maintaining such a lifestyle because of factors related to their illness, such as cognitive disturbances, negative and positive symptoms, and side effects of psychotropic medications. OBJECTIVE: To measure and reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in patients with schizophrenia and examine characteristics...... and reduction in their risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The clinical intervention incorporated individual guidance, group sessions, and treatment as usual. RESULTS: Patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia were found to have high consumption of soft drinks and low physical activity at their index evaluation......: The study found that positive outcomes were associated with female sex and a longer duration of illness. Negative outcomes with worsening of risk factors were associated with being newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and male sex. It was possible to produce improvements in some risk factors through...

  18. Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, M B; Levine, M M; Daya, V; Angle, P; Young, C

    1980-09-01

    The occurrence of human cholera along the Gulf of Mexico and the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Gulf and Chesapeake Bay make it imperative that microbiology laboratories along estuaries develop the capabilities to culture for these pathogens. In attempts to devise a simplified but efficient culture procedure, a selective medium, thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar, was compared with a nonselective medium, gelatin agar (GA), and the utility of enrichment was examined. TCBS agar detected 99% of the stools found to be positive by all techniques combined, whereas GA identified only 80%. Of acute diarrheal stools, 96% were positive on direct plating, whereas only 66% of formed stools containing V. cholerae were detected by direct plating. Stools from patients with acute diarrhea can be plated directly into TCBS agar alone; stools from persons shedding low numbers of organisms (such as contacts, carriers, or patients receiving antibiotics) should be incubated first in an enrichment broth and then on TCBS agar.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Etoricoxib versus Celecoxib and Nonselective NSAIDs in the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen P. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of etoricoxib (90 mg relative to celecoxib (200/400 mg, and the nonselective NSAIDs naproxen (1000 mg and diclofenac (150 mg in the initial treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway. Methods. A previously developed Markov state-transition model was used to estimate costs and benefits associated with initiating treatment with the different competing NSAIDs. Efficacy, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety, and resource use data were obtained from the literature. Data from different studies were synthesized and translated into direct costs and quality adjusted life years by means of a Bayesian comprehensive decision modeling approach. Results. Over a 30-year time horizon, etoricoxib is associated with about 0.4 more quality adjusted life years than the other interventions. At 1 year, naproxen is the most cost-saving strategy. However, etoricoxib is cost and quality adjusted life year saving relative to celecoxib, as well as diclofenac and naproxen after 5 years of follow-up. For a willingness-to-pay ceiling ratio of 200,000 Norwegian krones per quality adjusted life year, there is a >95% probability that etoricoxib is the most-cost-effective treatment when a time horizon of 5 or more years is considered. Conclusions. Etoricoxib is the most cost-effective NSAID for initiating treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway.

  20. Forward selection for multiple resistance across the non-selective glyphosate, glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides in Lolium weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo; Alcántara, Ricardo; Osuna, María D; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Prado, Rafael De

    2017-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area, Lolium species have evolved resistance to glyphosate after decades of continual use without other alternative chemicals in perennial crops (olive, citrus and vineyards). In recent years, oxyfluorfen alone or mixed with glyphosate and glufosinate has been introduced as a chemical option to control dicot and grass weeds. Dose-response studies confirmed that three glyphosate-resistant Lolium weed species (L. rigidum, L. perenne, L. multiflorum) collected from perennial crops in the Iberian Peninsula have also evolved resistance to glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides, despite their recent introduction. Based on the LD 50 resistance parameter, the resistance factor was similar among Lolium species and ranged from 14- to 21-fold and from ten- to 12-fold for oxyfluorfen and glufosinate respectively. Similarly, about 14-fold resistance to both oxyfluorfen and glufosinate was estimated on average for the three Lolium species when growth reduction (GR 50 ) was assessed. This study identified oxyfluorfen resistance in a grass species for the first time. A major threat to sustainability of perennial crops in the Iberian Peninsula is evident, as multiple resistance to non-selective glyphosate, glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides has evolved in L. rigidum, L. perenne and L. multiflorum weeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Cardiac protein expression patterns are associated with distinct inborn exercise capacity in non-selectively bred rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP and high running performance (HRP rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified. We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase, whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2. In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters 1. Test... 2.9 of ANSI Z21.56-1994. The measurement of energy consumption for oil-fired pool heaters in Btu is...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... reference; see § 430.3). The test for measuring standby mode energy consumption of fluorescent lamp ballasts...

  4. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  5. A preliminary improved measurement of the B hadron energy distribution in Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLD Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The authors have measured the B hadron energy distribution in Z{sup 0} decays using a new technique applied to a sample of inclusive B decays recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The upgraded CCD vertex detector is used to reconstruct B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. For each reconstructed B-decay vertex, the part of the B energy missing from the vertex is derived from the kinematic quantities. B vertices with low missing mass are selected to provide a very high purity sample and to obtain good energy resolution. The authors compare the scaled B hadron energy distribution with the predictions of several QCD and phenomenological models of heavy quark fragmentation. The average scaled energy < x{sub B} > is measured to be 0.719{+-}0.005 (stat.){+-}0.001 (unfolding) (preliminary).

  6. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, M.; Vasilenko, E.; Semenov, M.; Xanthos, S.; Takoudis, G.; Clouvas, A.; Silva, J.; Potiriadis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. (authors)

  7. Modification of a whole room indirect calorimeter for measurement of rapid changes in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Reed, G W; Hill, J O

    1994-06-01

    Whole room indirect calorimeters are among the most accurate devices for measurement of human energy expenditure and have provided useful data about determinants of total daily energy expenditure. However, a limitation of whole room indirect calorimeters has been the inability to detect acute (usually calorimeter (respiratory chamber) to allow accurate measurement of energy expenditure over time periods as short as 1 min. The modifications involve changes in the system design and use of signal processing techniques. With these modifications, we can measure energy expenditure in 1-min intervals throughout the day. This allows accurate study of the acute effects of food, exercise, or drugs on energy expenditure in subjects moving freely inside the respiratory chamber. The ability to use respiratory chambers for these types of studies should improve our understanding of how body weight is regulated.

  8. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  9. Assembly for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a setup for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation up to 50 MeV. The known energy-range relationship with regard to the absorption of electron radiation in matter is utilized by an absorber with two groups of interconnected radiation detectors embedded in it. The most probable electron beam energy is derived from the quotient of both groups' signals

  10. Iron liquid-argon and uranium liquid-argon calorimeters for hadron energy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lankford, A J; Rehak, P; Struczinski, W; Willis, W J

    1977-01-01

    The authors studied, with a specially designed hadron calorimeter, the contributions of different mechanisms affecting the energy resolution of such instruments. It is shown that in ordinary materials the resolution is dominated by 'nuclear fluctuations'. Measurements with a uranium calorimeter show that these fluctuations can be effectively compensated by the amplifying effect of nuclear fission in uranium. The resolution at low energies is good ( sigma =9.6% for 10 GeV/c pions) and improving with energy. (12 refs).

  11. Measurement of αs from energy-energy correlations at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Du, Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Kwon, Y.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R.H.; Schneekloth, U.; Schumm, B.A.; Seiden, A.; Sen, S.

    1994-01-01

    We determine the strong coupling α s from a comprehensive study of energy-energy correlations (EEC's) and their asymmetry (AEEC's) in hadronic decays of Z 0 bosons collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC. The data are compared with all four available predictions of QCD calculated up to O(α s 2 ) in perturbation theory, and also with a resummed calculation matched to all four of these calculations. We find large discrepancies between α s values extracted from the different O(α s 2 ) calculations. We also find a large renormalization scale ambiguity in α s determined from the EEC's using the O(α s 2 ) calculations; this ambiguity is reduced in the case of the AEEC's and is very small when the matched calculations are used. Averaging over all calculations, and over the EEC and AEEC results, we obtain α s (M Z 2 )=0.124 -0.004 +0.003 (expt.) ±0.009 (theory)

  12. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Daniela; Bienert, Sven; Schuetzenhofer, Christian; Boazu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Market driven reasons can strengthen implementation of energy policies in buildings. → Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance are developed. → Recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis are presented. → Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed. → The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures is also in the focus. -- Abstract: A main objective of energy policies is to make all levels of the society, from governments to citizen, interested in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the most important barriers in implementation of energy policies is that the cost of potential energy savings, typically considered being the only financial benefit, does not sufficiently motivate investments. The target is therefore to identify further possible drivers pushing positive reaction according to energy saving action. The paper discusses whether a market-based instrument, capturing the increase of the economic value of energy efficient buildings, can be also used. Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance, including recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis of investments in weatherization, are developed. By applying the proposed methods, the payback period of investments in energy efficiency measures depends on two factors: potential energy savings and the added value to the property. Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed and provide evidence to the research question. The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures, the possibility of an intangible added value as well as the impact to financial investment decisions is subsequently in the focus.

  13. The proapoptotic influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 forms a nonselective ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Henkel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PB1-F2 is a proapoptotic influenza A virus protein of approximately 90 amino acids in length that is located in the nucleus, cytosol and in the mitochondria membrane of infected cells. Previous studies indicated that the molecule destabilizes planar lipid bilayers and has a strong inherent tendency for multimerization. This may be correlate with its capacity to induce mitochondrial membrane depolarization.Here, we investigated whether PB1-F2 is able to form ion channels within planar lipid bilayers and microsomes. For that purpose, a set of biologically active synthetic versions of PB1-F2 (sPB1-F2 derived from the IAV isolates A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1 (IAV(PR8, from A/Brevig Mission/1/1918(H1N1 (IAV(SF2 or the H5N1 consensus sequence (IAV(BF2 were used. Electrical and fluorimetric measurements show that all three peptides generate in planar lipid bilayers or in liposomes, respectively, a barely selective conductance that is associated with stochastic channel type fluctuations between a closed state and at least two defined open states. Unitary channel fluctuations were also generated when a truncated protein comprising only the 37 c-terminal amino acids of sPB1-F2 was reconstituted in bilayers. Experiments were complemented by extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the truncated fragment in a lipid bilayer. The results indicate that the c-terminal region exhibits a slightly bent helical fold, which is stable and remains embedded in the bilayer for over 180 ns.The data support the idea that PB1-F2 is able to form protein channel pores with no appreciable selectivity in membranes and that the c-terminus is important for this function. This information could be important for drug development.

  14. Local differences in mineral content in vertebral trabecular bone measured by dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, J.; Mosekilde, L.; Aarhus Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve lumbar vertebral bodies from cadavers were examined with dual-energy CT, to measure the calcium content in a big central region of interest (ROI). In each of five vertebrae the calcium content was also measured in six small ROI. After completed scanning, six small cylinders were drilled out from each vertebra, and the ash-density of each cylinder was measured. The dual-energy CT measurements correlated well with the ash-density. Both ash-density and dual-energy CT showed a significantly higher mineral content in the posterior part of the vertebrae than in the anterior part, and this difference might be responsible for problems encountered with the reproducibility of dual-energy CT. (orig.)

  15. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  16. Energy savings Measures in Agriculture - Overview on the Basis of National Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonjé, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany,

  17. A system for measuring the energy spread of an accelerated beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.; Ludwig, E.J.; Clegg, T.B.; Anderson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A system has been implemented to monitor directly the energy spread of analyzed beams from a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The dispersion of a deflection magnet in the beam handling system is used to transform the energy distribution into a spatial distribution, which then is measured by electrostatically sweeping the spatially extended beam across a narrow slit. (orig.)

  18. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy-ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming ...

  19. Conceptual proposals for measuring the impact of international regimes on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes two concepts to assess the effect of international regimes on energy security. Existing indicators focus mainly on state-level factors, excluding international influences. International relation scholars on the other hand see a clear connection between international regimes and stable energy relations. International regimes stabilise energy relations by providing frameworks for negotiations, defining, controlling and sanctioning compliance and allowing the actors to engage in package deals. The researcher needs to include these factors in a complete assessment of political energy security risks. As first step, the paper uses the effectiveness of control mechanisms as basis for such consideration. It refers specifically to international arbitration as the most important control mechanism in international energy relations. The simplest measurement option is the share of a county's energy imports covered by a certain regime. The paper applies the Oslo-Potsdam-Solution to account for outcome effectiveness. It applies a variant of the International Regimes Data Base protocol to account for effective regime structures. In a last section, the paper proposes some possible paths for future research. - Highlights: • International regimes mitigate political risks for energy supply and must be considered. • The paper proposes two concepts to measure energy regime effectiveness. • The OPS-variant measures output, the IRDB-variant measures structure effectiveness. • The paper offers a preliminary feasibility test for the concepts. • Finally, it suggests further roads for research

  20. Quantifying, Measuring, and Strategizing Energy Security: Determining the Most Meaningful Dimensions and Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    subjective concepts of energy security into more objective criteria, to investigate the cause-effect relationships among these different metrics, and to provide some recommendations for the stakeholders to draft efficacious measures for enhancing energy security. To accomplish this feat, the study utilizes...

  1. Surface characterization by energy distribution measurements of secondary electrons and of ion-induced electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.E.; Seiler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instruments for surface microanalysis (e.g. scanning electron or ion microprobes, emission electron or ion microscopes) use the current of emitted secondary electrons or of emitted ion-induced electrons for imaging of the analysed surface. These currents, integrating over all energies of the emitted low energy electrons, are however, not well suited to surface analytical purposes. On the contrary, the energy distribution of these electrons is extremely surface-sensitive with respect to shape, size, width, most probable energy, and cut-off energy. The energy distribution measurements were performed with a cylindrical mirror analyser and converted into N(E), if necessary. Presented are energy spectra of electrons released by electrons and argon ions of some contaminated and sputter cleaned metals, the change of the secondary electron energy distribution from oxidized aluminium to clean aluminium, and the change of the cut-off energy due to work function change of oxidized aluminium, and of a silver layer on a platinum sample. The energy distribution of the secondary electrons often shows detailed structures, probably due to low-energy Auger electrons, and is broader than the energy distribution of ion-induced electrons of the same object point. (author)

  2. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10 10 cm −2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region

  3. Constraining dark energy with Hubble parameter measurements: an analysis including future redshift-drift observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy affects the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z) by an integral over w(z). However, the usual observables are the luminosity distances or the angular diameter distances, which measure the distance.redshift relation. Actually, the property of dark energy affects the distances (and the growth factor) by a further integration over functions of H(z). Thus, the direct measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) at different redshifts are of great importance for constraining the properties of dark energy. In this paper, we show how the typical dark energy models, for example, the ΛCDM, wCDM, CPL, and holographic dark energy models, can be constrained by the current direct measurements of H(z) (31 data used in total in this paper, covering the redshift range of z @ element of [0.07, 2.34]). In fact, the future redshift-drift observations (also referred to as the Sandage-Loeb test) can also directly measure H(z) at higher redshifts, covering the range of z @ element of [2, 5]. We thus discuss what role the redshift-drift observations can play in constraining dark energy with the Hubble parameter measurements. We show that the constraints on dark energy can be improved greatly with the H(z) data from only a 10-year observation of redshift drift. (orig.)

  4. Systematic measurements of the gain and the energy resolution of single and double mask GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Schmidt, D.J.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.

  5. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  6. High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, E. C.; A. Afanasev; M. Amarian; K. Aniol; S. Becher; K. Benslama; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; E. Brash; J. Calarco; Z. Chai; C. Chang; T. Chang; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; D. Crovelli; S. Dieterich; S. Dumalski; D. Dutta; M. Epstein; K. Fissum; B. Fox; S. Frullani; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; R. J. Holt; J. Hovdebo; G. M. Huber; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; C. Jones; M. K. Jones; J. Kelly; E. Kinney; E. Kooijman; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; S. Malov; D. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; D. Meekins; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; L. Morand; C. Perdrisat; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Punjabi; A. Radyushkin; R. Ransome; R. Roche; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; A. Sarty; D. Simon; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; L. Todor; P. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; W. Xu

    2002-01-01

    The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Egamma = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results

  7. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  8. Measuring and monitoring energy access: Decision-support tools for policymakers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailu, Yohannes G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of African States have adapted energy access targets. In evaluating progress towards these goals, measuring and monitoring energy access becomes relevant. This paper reviews energy access indicators and identifies their utility and challenges in their application. By focusing on Africa, a broader framework for energy access measurement and monitoring is discussed, along with implementation barriers and potential solutions. To demonstrate the utility of energy access decision-support tool in Africa, a scenario analysis in five regional energy pools is conducted using the Energy Spending Model tool. Institutionalizing monitoring and decision-support tools can provide valuable feedback to policymakers aiming to design and implement effective energy access programs serving a growing population in Africa. - Highlights: ► Most African countries have adapted energy access targets. ► To monitor and evaluate performance, monitoring and decision-support tools are required. ► Framework for tool development should consider data, cost, political and other factors. ► Implementation constraints include technical, data, resource and urban/rural issues. ► Electricity Spending Needs model is one decision support tool that ties access targets to investment needs. ► Monitoring tools provide crucial feedback on Africa's energy access progress.

  9. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Wang, Mei; Lu, Li; Chen, Bo; Jin, Lixin; Wang, Jiandong; Larson, Andrew C.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  10. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden); Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden); Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  11. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  12. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed. (author)

  13. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  14. Radiation monitoring and measuring instrument developed by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuekarslan, N.; Gueven, A.

    2001-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Nuclear Electronics Department is working on research, development and production of radiation monitoring and measuring instruments in the aims of TAEA to serve our Country. Advanced micro controller technology is used to cover problems of radiation measurement. Control by micro controller enables reliable, stable measurement and display of low level dose rate fields. It makes possible the simultaneous measurement of both dose and dose rate values

  15. Measuring energy metabolism in the mouse – theoretical, practical and analytical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Speakman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is one of the most important model organisms for understanding human genetic function and disease. This includes characterisation of the factors that influence energy expenditure and dysregulation of energy balance leading to obesity and its sequalae. Measuring energy metabolism in the mouse presents a challenge because the animals are small, and in this respect it presents similar challenges to measuring energy demands in many other species of small mammal. This paper considers some theoretical, practical and analytical considerations to be considered when measuring energy expenditure in mice. Theoretically total daily energy expenditure is comprised of several different components: basal or resting expenditure, physical activity, thermoregulation and the thermic effect of food. Energy expenditure in mice is normally measured using open flow indirect calorimetry apparatus. Two types of system are available – one of which involves a single small Spartan chamber linked to a single analyser, which is ideal for measuring the individual components of energy demand. The other type of system involves a large chamber which mimics the home cage environment and is generally configured with several chambers per analyser. These latter systems are ideal for measuring total daily energy expenditure but at present do not allow accurate decomposition of the total expenditure into its components. The greatest analytical challenge for mouse expenditure data is how to account for body size differences between individuals. This has been a matter of some discussion for at least 120 years. The statistically most appropriate approach is to use ANCOVA with individual aspects of body composition as independent predictors.

  16. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A.; Rose, Mark; Simon, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to ±15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F DN ), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 × 3 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F DN was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F DN was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  17. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  18. A compact low energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for pipe-flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjugum, Stein-Arild; Frieling, Joop; Johansen, Geir Anton

    2002-01-01

    A compact low-energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for oil/water/gas pipe-flow measurement has been built at the University of Bergen. The instrument consists of one Am-241 source and three detectors, all collimated and embedded in the pipe wall. Only the 59.5 keV radiation energy of the source is utilized. Two of the detectors measure transmitted radiation across the pipe flow, and one measure scattered radiation at a 90 degree sign angle. The purpose of the multibeam measurement geometry is to acquire flow regime information and to reduce the flow regime dependency of the gas volume fraction (GVF) measurements. The measurement of scattered radiation enables the dual modality densitometry (DMD) measurement principle to be exploited. Its basic principle is to combine the measurement of scattered and transmitted radiation in order to obtain salinity independent GVF measurements. The salinity dependency is otherwise strongly significant when using low-energy radiation. It is also possible to measure the salinity by using this principle. The instrument is a laboratory prototype, and it has been used for characterising the measurement principle and to test different detector alternatives. The testing of the instrument includes static tests on plastic phantoms, tests on simulated water/gas flow and three phase flow loop tests. Both the multibeam measurement principle and the DMD principle have been verified to provide valuable information. This paper presents the physics behind, experimental results and an evaluation of the system

  19. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  20. Measurement of p({gamma}, p){pi}{sup 0} at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Rutt, P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)]|[Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The applicability of QCD inspired reaction models vs. nuclear reaction models for exclusive reactions at high beam energy is a topic of current interest. Polarization measurements provide a sensitive test of the reaction dynamics, but no polarization measurements exist for photoreactions in the scaling regime, where pQCD might be applicable. With higher energy beam at CEBAF, it will become possible to extend the range of measurements in pion photoproduction well into the scaling regime and to better determine the underlying reaction mechanism. A set of measurements for existing equipment at CEBAF with 6-8 GeV beam is described, as well as desirable equipment modifications for improving these measurements at the higher energies.