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Sample records for nonselectable stable high

  1. A high-throughput, nonisotopic, competitive binding assay for kinases using nonselective inhibitor probes (ED-NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Inna; Silveria, Scott; Kaul, Poonam; Rouhani, Riaz; Eglen, Richard M; Wang, John

    2002-12-01

    A novel competitive binding assay for protein kinase inhibitors has been developed for high-throughput screening (HTS). Unlike functional kinase assays, which are based on detection of substrate phosphorylation by the enzyme, this novel method directly measures the binding potency of compounds to the kinase ATP binding site through competition with a conjugated binding probe. The binding interaction is coupled to a signal amplification system based on complementation of beta-galactosidase enzyme fragments, a homogeneous, nonisotopic assay technology platform developed by DiscoveRx Corp. In the present study, staurosporine, a potent, nonselective kinase inhibitor, was chemically conjugated to a small fragment of beta-galactosidase (termed ED-SS). This was used as the binding probe to the kinase ATP binding pocket. The binding potencies of several inhibitors with diverse structures were assessed by displacement of ED-SS from the kinase. The assay format was specifically evaluated with GSK3alpha, an enzyme previously screened in a radioactive kinase assay (i.e., measurement of [(33)P]-gamma-ATP incorporation into the kinase peptide substrate). Under optimized assay conditions, nonconjugated staurosporine inhibited ED-SS binding in a concentration-dependent manner with an apparent potency (IC(50)) of 11 nM, which was similar to the IC(50) value determined in a radioactive assay. Furthermore, 9 kinase inhibitors with diverse structures, previously identified from chemical compound library screening, were screened using the competitive binding assay. The potencies in the binding assay were in very good agreement with those obtained previously in the isotopic functional activity assay. The binding assay was adapted for automated HTS using selected compound libraries in a 384-well microtiter plate format. The HTS assay was observed to be highly robust and reproducible (Z' factors > 0.7) with high interassay precision (R(2) > 0.96). Interference of compounds with the beta

  2. Characteristic interactivity of landiolol, an ultra-short-acting highly selective β1-blocker, with biomimetic membranes: Comparisons with β1-selective esmolol and nonselective propranolol and alprenolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eTsuchiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although β1-blockers have been perioperatively used to reduce the cardiac disorders associated with general anesthesia, little is known about the mechanistic characteristics of ultra-short-acting highly selective β1-blocker landiolol. We studied its membrane-interacting property in comparison with other selective and nonselective β1-blockers. Biomimetic membranes prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol of varying compositions were treated with β1-selective landiolol and esmolol and nonselective propranolol and alprenolol at 0.5–200 µM. The membrane interactivity and the antioxidant activity were determined by measuring fluorescence polarization and by peroxidizing membrane lipids with peroxynitrite, respectively. Nonselective β1-blockers, but not selective ones, intensively acted on 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes and cardiomyocyte-mimetic membranes to increase the membrane fluidity. Landiolol and its inactive metabolite distinctively decreased the fluidity of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes, suggesting that a membrane-rigidifying effect is attributed to the morpholine moiety in landiolol structure but unlikely to clinically contribute to the β1-blocking effect of landiolol. Propranolol and alprenolol interacted with lipid raft model membranes, whereas neither landiolol nor esmolol. All drugs fluidized mitochondria-mimetic membranes and inhibited the membrane lipid peroxidation with the potency correlating to their membrane interactivity. Landiolol is characterized as a drug devoid of the interactivity with membrane lipid rafts relating to β2-adrenergic receptor blockade. The differentiation between β1-blocking selectivity and nonselectivity is compatible with that between membrane noninteractivity and interactivity. The mitochondrial membrane fluidization by landiolol independent of blocking β1-adrenergic receptors is responsible for the antioxidant cardioprotection common to

  3. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  4. Use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in high doses increases mortality and risk of reinfarction in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the risk of...

  5. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    A new third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme for scalar and vector linear hyperbolic equations with piecewise continuous initial conditions is developed. The new scheme is proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions. In contrast to the existing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes, no assumption that the reconstruction should be total variation bounded (TVB) is explicitly required to prove stability of the new scheme. A rigorous truncation error analysis is presented showing that the accuracy of the 3rd-order ESWENO scheme is drastically improved if the tuning parameters of the weight functions satisfy certain criteria. Numerical results show that the new ESWENO scheme is stable and significantly outperforms the conventional third-order WENO finite difference scheme of Jiang and Shu in terms of accuracy, while providing essentially nonoscillatory solutions near strong discontinuities.

  6. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Sergey S; Zhu, Qiang; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Oganov, Artem R; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2015-09-01

    Rocky planets are thought to comprise compounds of Mg and O as these are among the most abundant elements, but knowledge of their stable phases may be incomplete. MgO is known to be remarkably stable to very high pressure and chemically inert under reduced condition of the Earth's lower mantle. However, in exoplanets oxygen may be a more abundant constituent. Here, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we show that MgO and oxygen react at pressures above 96 GPa and T = 2150 K with the formation of I4/mcm MgO2. Raman spectroscopy detects the presence of a peroxide ion (O2(2-)) in the synthesized material as well as in the recovered specimen. Likewise, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the recovered sample has higher oxygen content than pure MgO. Our finding suggests that MgO2 may be present together or instead of MgO in rocky mantles and rocky planetary cores under highly oxidized conditions.

  7. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Zhu, Qiang; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2015-09-01

    Rocky planets are thought to comprise compounds of Mg and O as these are among the most abundant elements, but knowledge of their stable phases may be incomplete. MgO is known to be remarkably stable to very high pressure and chemically inert under reduced condition of the Earth’s lower mantle. However, in exoplanets oxygen may be a more abundant constituent. Here, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we show that MgO and oxygen react at pressures above 96 GPa and T = 2150 K with the formation of I4/mcm MgO2. Raman spectroscopy detects the presence of a peroxide ion (O22-) in the synthesized material as well as in the recovered specimen. Likewise, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the recovered sample has higher oxygen content than pure MgO. Our finding suggests that MgO2 may be present together or instead of MgO in rocky mantles and rocky planetary cores under highly oxidized conditions.

  8. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  9. Highly stable piezoelectrically tunable optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Möhle, Katharina; Döringshoff, Klaus; Nagel, Moritz; Peters, Achim

    2013-01-01

    We have implemented highly stable and tunable frequency references using optical high finesse cavities which incorporate a piezo actuator. As piezo material we used ceramic PZT, crystalline quartz, or PZN-PT single crystals. Lasers locked to these cavities show a relative frequency stability better than 1 x 10^{-14}, which is most likely not limited by the piezo actuators. The piezo cavities can be electrically tuned over more than one free spectral range (> 1.5 GHz) with only a minor decrease in frequency stability. Furthermore, we present a novel cavity design, where the piezo actuator is prestressed between the cavity spacer components. This design features a hermetically sealable intra cavity volume suitable for, e.g., cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  10. Establishment of Stable High Expression Cell Line with Green Fluorescent Protein and Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shengtao; LIU Wenli; HE Peigen; GONG Feili; YANG Dongliang

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish stable high expression cell lines, the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2EGFP and recombinant plasmid pIRES2EGFP-TIM-3 were transfected into mammalian cells CHO by Lipofectamine. The transfected cells were cultivated under selective growth medium including G418 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive cells were sorted by FACS. Simultaneously, growing transfectants were selected only by G418 in the medium. The GFP expression in stably transfected cells was detected by FACS. Under selective growth conditions with G418, the percentage of GFP positive cells was reduced rapidly and GFP induction was low. In contrast, the percentages of GFP positive cells were increased gradually after FACS. By 3 rounds of GFP selection, the stable high expression cell lines were established. Furthermore, using FACS analysis GFP and the target protein TIM-3 co-expression in the stable transfectants cultured in nonselective medium was detected. Theses results demonstrated that the stably transfected cell lines that express high titer of recombinant protein can be simply and fleetly obtained by using GFP and selective growth medium.

  11. Towards highly stable polymer electronics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolka, Mark; Nasrallah, Iyad; Broch, Katharina; Sadhanala, Aditya; Hurhangee, Michael; McCulloch, Iain; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-11-01

    Due to their ease of processing, organic semiconductors are promising candidates for applications in high performance flexible displays and fast organic electronic circuitry. Recently, a lot of advances have been made on organic semiconductors exhibiting surprisingly high performance and carrier mobilities exceeding those of amorphous silicon. However, there remain significant concerns about their operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. Here, we report a novel technique for dramatically improving the operational stress stability, performance and uniformity of high mobility polymer field-effect transistors by the addition of specific small molecule additives to the polymer semiconductor film. We demonstrate for the first time polymer FETs that exhibit stable threshold voltages with threshold voltage shifts of less than 1V when subjected to a constant current operational stress for 1 day under conditions that are representative for applications in OLED active matrix displays. The approach constitutes in our view a technological breakthrough; it also makes the device characteristics independent of the atmosphere in which it is operated, causes a significant reduction in contact resistance and significantly improves device uniformity. We will discuss in detail the microscopic mechanism by which the molecular additives lead to this significant improvement in device performance and stability.

  12. High order stiffly stable linear multistep methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    Stiffly stable linear k-step methods of order k for the initial-value problem are studied. Examples for k = 1, 2, and 3 were discovered by use of Adams-type methods. A large family of stiffly stable linear 7-step methods of order 7 was also found.

  13. Stable, inflatable life raft for high seas rescue operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F.; Marak, R.; Radnofsky, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Raft is easily deployed and highly maneuverable in water. It has false bottom of water ballast containers attached to underside, making it exceptionally stable platform from which swimmers can operate. Raft is attachable to external moorings.

  14. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  15. Highly thermal-stable ferromagnetism by a natural composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyu; Gou, Junming; Hu, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Chen; Ren, Shuai; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Andong; Jiang, Chengbao; Ren, Xiaobing; Yan, Mi

    2017-01-01

    All ferromagnetic materials show deterioration of magnetism-related properties such as magnetization and magnetostriction with increasing temperature, as the result of gradual loss of magnetic order with approaching Curie temperature TC. However, technologically, it is highly desired to find a magnetic material that can resist such magnetism deterioration and maintain stable magnetism up to its TC, but this seems against the conventional wisdom about ferromagnetism. Here we show that a Fe-Ga alloy exhibits highly thermal-stable magnetization up to the vicinity of its TC, 880 K. Also, the magnetostriction shows nearly no deterioration over a very wide temperature range. Such unusual behaviour stems from dual-magnetic-phase nature of this alloy, in which a gradual structural-magnetic transformation occurs between two magnetic phases so that the magnetism deterioration is compensated by the growth of the ferromagnetic phase with larger magnetization. Our finding may help to develop highly thermal-stable ferromagnetic and magnetostrictive materials.

  16. Non-Selective SiGe Graphic Epitaxial by MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhou; Chun Han; Jing-Chun Li

    2007-01-01

    To handle the thermal budget in SiGe BiCMOS process, a nonselective graphic epitaxial technology using molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) has been developed. SEM, AFM, XRD, and dislocation density measurements are carried out. The SiGe film's RMS roughness is 0.45nm, and dislocation density is 0.3×103cm2~1.2×103cm2. No dislocation accumulation exists on the boundary of the windows; this indicates the high quality of the SiGe film. The experiment results show that the technology presented in this paper meets the fabrication requirements of SiGe BiCMOS.

  17. Stable and unstable thermo -current states of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanovskii, V; Lavrov, N; Ozhogina, V [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vromanovskii@netscape.net

    2008-02-01

    Formation peculiarities of the stable and unstable states of high-T{sub c} superconductors are discussed. To understand the basic physical trends, which are characteristic for the current penetration mechanism in high temperature superconductors, the operating states of Bi2212 slab without stabilizing matrix placed in DC external magnetic fields at low coolant temperature are theoretically investigated. It is proved that the temperature of a high-T{sub c} superconductor is not equals to the coolant temperature before instability onset. Therefore, the voltage-current characteristic of a high-T{sub c} superconductor has only a positive slope during continuous current charging. As a result, it does not allow one to find the boundary between stable and unstable thermo - current states. This peculiarity has to be considered during experiments at which the critical current of high-T{sub c} superconductors is defined.

  18. Highly Stable Silver Nanoplates for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chuanbo [University of California, Riverside; Lu, Zhenda [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Liu, ying [University of California, Riverside; Cheng, Quan [University of California, Riverside; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside

    2012-01-01

    An SPR biosensor was developed by employing highly stable Au-protected Ag nanoplates (NP) as enhancers (see picture). Superior performance was achieved by depositing a thin and uniform coating of Au on the Ag surface while minimizing disruptive galvanic replacement and retaining the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoplates.

  19. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  20. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S.; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electro...

  1. High permeability-high frequency stable MnZn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalarus, J. [Ferroxcube Polska, 96-100 Skierniewice (Poland); Kogias, G., E-mail: kogias@cperi.certh.gr [Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas, Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Materials Technology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Holz, D. [Ferroxcube Polska, 96-100 Skierniewice (Poland); Zaspalis, V.T. [Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas, Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Materials Technology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Modern MnZn ferrite applications require high magnetic initial permeability and exceptional frequency stability; the former implies large grains, while the latter high grain boundary resistivity. In this article the optimization of the final firing process is described for achieving both. The optimization is based on the homogeneous dissolution of dopants under oxidative conditions and their subsequent precipitation along grain boundaries. This was accomplished by integrating isothermal plateaus at the upper stadia of the cooling stage of the final firing process. MnZn ferrites of the basic composition [Mn{sub 0.47}Zn{sub 0.47}Fe{sub 0.06}{sup 2+}]Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+}O{sub 4} were synthesized with initial permeability (measured at f=10 kHz, B<0.1 mT, T=25 Degree-Sign C) 12,600 and losses, expressed as tan({delta})/{mu}{sub i}, of 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} at 10 kHz and 20.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} at 100 kHz (B<0.1 mT, T=25 Degree-Sign C), that reflect good frequency stability. These results could be reproduced in pilot production scale. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of sintering is described for achieving high initial permeability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of sintering is described for receiving frequency stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For high permeability, high densities and large grain sizes are required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The achieved initial permeability is higher than 12,500. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The losses, tan({delta})/{mu}{sub i}, are 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} at 10 kHz and 20.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} at 100 kHz.

  2. Boron clusters as highly stable magnesium-battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-03-17

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Research on stable, high-efficiency, amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, A.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L.; D' Aiello, R.; Fieselmann, B.; Li, Y.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Yang, L. (Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.)

    1992-08-01

    This report describes work to demonstrate a multijunction module with a stabilized'' efficiency (600 h, 50{degrees}C, AM1.5) of 10.5%. Triple-junction devices and modules using a-Si:H alloys with carbon and germanium were developed to meet program goals. ZnO was used to provide a high optical transmission front contact. Proof of concept was obtained for several important advances deemed to be important for obtaining high (12.5%) stabilized efficiency. They were (1) stable, high-quality a-SiC:H devices and (2) high-transmission, textured ZnO. Although these developments were not scaled up and included in modules, triple-junction module efficiencies as high as 10.85% were demonstrated. NREL measured 9.62% and 9.00% indoors and outdoors, respectively. The modules are expected to lose no more than 20% of their initial performance. 28 refs.

  4. Highly stable organic fluorescent nanorods for living- cell imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minhuan Lan[1,3; Jinfeng Zhang[1,3; Xiaoyue Zhu[1; Pengfei Wang[2; Xianfeng Chen[1; Chun-Sing Lee[1; Wenjun Zhang[1

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free, organic-dye-based fluorescent nanorods were fabricated through a simple solvent-exchange procedure. The as-prepared nanorods exhibit low toxicity to living cells and excellent photostability. Furthermore, they are stable in solutions of various pHs and high ionic strength and in solutions with interfering metal ions. Compared with the free DPP-Br molecules in THF, these nanorods exhibit larger Stokes shift, broader absorption spectra, and greatly improved photostability. We successfully demonstrated the application of the nanorods, including their aforementioned beneficial characteristics, as a good fluorescence probe for bio-imaging.

  5. Stable highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes for oil water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjun; Cui, Zhe; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Qingmin

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a simple method for fabricating both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes by coating thin fluoro-containing films. The static contact angle of such meshes is greater than 150° for water, and close to 0° for kerosene, xylene and toluene. These meshes can separate water from oil effectively without resorting to any extra power or chemical agent. Moreover, they exhibited stable water resisting, anti-chemical erosion and anti-hot aging properties. It promises as a candidate for the separation of oil and water.

  6. Discovery of novel (4-piperidinyl)-piperazines as potent and orally active acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1/2 non-selective inhibitors: F-Boc and triF-Boc groups are acid-stable bioisosteres for the Boc group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Tomomichi; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Miyoko; Oi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ohoka-Sugita, Ayumi; Io, Fusayo; Koretsune, Hiroko; Hiratate, Akira

    2011-03-01

    Novel (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as ACC1/2 non-selective inhibitors. Optimization of the substituents on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring led to the identification of the fluorine substituted tert-butoxycarbonyl group. Advanced analog, 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl 4-{4-[(2-amino-6-methyl-1-benzothiophen-3-yl)carbonyl]piperazin-1-yl}piperidine-1-carboxylate (12c) showed potent inhibitory activities in enzyme-assay and cell-based assays. Compound 12c also exhibited reduction of hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis in rats after oral administration.

  7. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaček, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoníček, B.; Rosmus, J.; Čamra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Řež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  8. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  9. Highly stable thin film transistors using multilayer channel structure

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2015-03-09

    We report highly stable gate-bias stress performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) using zinc oxide (ZnO)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) multilayer structure as the channel layer. Positive and negative gate-bias stress stability of the TFTs was measured at room temperature and at 60°C. A tremendous improvement in gate-bias stress stability was obtained in case of the TFT with multiple layers of ZnO embedded between HfO2 layers compared to the TFT with a single layer of ZnO as the semiconductor. The ultra-thin HfO2 layers act as passivation layers, which prevent the adsorption of oxygen and water molecules in the ZnO layer and hence significantly improve the gate-bias stress stability of ZnO TFTs.

  10. Toward highly stable electrocatalysts via nanoparticle pore confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carolina; Meier, Josef C; Peinecke, Volker; Bongard, Hans; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Topalov, Angel A; Lu, Anhui; Mayrhofer, Karl J J; Schüth, Ferdi

    2012-12-19

    The durability of electrode materials is a limiting parameter for many electrochemical energy conversion systems. In particular, electrocatalysts for the essential oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) present some of the most challenging instability issues shortening their practical lifetime. Here, we report a mesostructured graphitic carbon support, Hollow Graphitic Spheres (HGS) with a specific surface area exceeding 1000 m(2) g(-1) and precisely controlled pore structure, that was specifically developed to overcome the long-term catalyst degradation, while still sustaining high activity. The synthetic pathway leads to platinum nanoparticles of approximately 3 to 4 nm size encapsulated in the HGS pore structure that are stable at 850 °C and, more importantly, during simulated accelerated electrochemical aging. Moreover, the high stability of the cathode electrocatalyst is also retained in a fully assembled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Identical location scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy (IL-SEM and IL-STEM) conclusively proved that during electrochemical cycling the encapsulation significantly suppresses detachment and agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles, two of the major degradation mechanisms in fuel cell catalysts of this particle size. Thus, beyond providing an improved electrocatalyst, this study describes the blueprint for targeted improvement of fuel cell catalysts by design of the carbon support.

  11. Catalytic combustion over high temperature stable metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    This thesis presents a study of the catalytic effects of two interesting high temperature stable metal oxides - magnesium oxide and manganese substituted barium hexa-aluminate (BMA) - both of which can be used in the development of new monolithic catalysts for such applications. In the first part of the thesis, the development of catalytic combustion for gas turbine applications is reviewed, with special attention to alternative fuels such as low-BTU gas, e.g. produced in an air blown gasifier. When catalytic combustion is applied for such a fuel, the primary advantage is the possibility of decreasing the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO{sub x}, and achieving flame stability. In the experimental work, MgO was shown to have a significant activity for the catalytic combustion of methane, lowering the temperature needed to achieve 10 percent conversion by 270 deg C compared with homogeneous combustion.The reaction kinetics for methane combustion over MgO was also studied. It was shown that the heterogeneous catalytic reactions were dominant but that the catalytically initiated homogeneous gas phase reactions were also important, specially at high temperatures. MgO and BMA were compared. The latter showed a higher catalytic activity, even when the differences in activity decreased with increasing calcination temperature. For BMA, CO{sub 2} was the only product detected, but for MgO significant amounts of CO and C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons were formed. BMA needed a much lower temperature to achieve total conversion of other fuels, e.g. CO and hydrogen, compared to the temperature for total conversion of methane. This shows that BMA-like catalysts are interesting for combustion of fuel mixtures with high CO and H{sub 2} content, e.g. gas produced from gasification of biomass. 74 refs

  12. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  13. Stable high conductivity ceria/bismuth oxide bilayered electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, E.D.; Jayaweera, P.; Jiang, N.; Lowe, D.M.; Pound, B.G. [SRI international, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Center

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a high conductivity bilayered ceria/bismuth oxide anolyte/electrolyte that uses the Po{sub 2} gradient to obtain stability at the anolyte-electrolyte interface and reduced electronic conduction due to the electrolyte region. Results in terms of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) performance and stability are presented. These results include a 90 to 160 mV increase in open-circuit potential, depending on temperature, with the bilayered structure as compared to SOFCs fabricated from a single ceria layer. An open-circuit potential of >1.0 V was obtained at 500 C with the bilayered structure. This increase in open-circuit potential is obtained without any measurable increase in cell resistance and is stable for over 1,400 h of testing, under both open-circuit and maximum power conditions. Moreover, SOFCs fabricated from the bilayered structure result in a 33% greater power density as compared to cells with a single ceria electrolyte layer.

  14. Highly conductive and thermally stable self-doping propylthiosulfonated polyanilines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Chien-Chung

    2004-01-01

    A new type of highly conductive self-doping polyaniline, MPS-Pan, containing a sulfonic acid moiety covalently bonded to the polymer backbone through an electron-donating propylthio linkage has been successfully prepared via a novel concurrent reduction and substitution route. At a similar self-doping level, the resultant MPS-Pans displayed much higher conductivity than the corresponding sulfonated-polyaniline (S-Pan). Furthermore, for fully doped samples, contrary to the trend of decreasing conductivity with the sulfonation degree in S-Pan, the conductivity of MPS-Pan was found to increase with its substitution degree. These results agreed with the expectation that electron-deficient charge carriers (e.g. semiquinone radical cations) on acid-doped polyaniline chains will be better stabilized by the electron-donating alkylthio-substituent. Surprisingly, TG and XPS studies showed that MPS-Pan was thermally much more stable than S-Pan, with S-Pan started to lose its sulfonic acid dopant at 185 ℃, while MPS-Pan remained intact up to ca. 260 ℃.

  15. Thermally-Stable High Strain Deployable Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is for the development of a thermally-stable composite made of carbon fibers and elastomeric resin. This combination of materials will allow...

  16. Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake

  17. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  18. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureabl...

  19. Selective and nonselective inhibition of competitors in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relation between nonselective inhibition and selective inhibition in picture naming performance. Nonselective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress any unwanted response, whereas selective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress specific competing responses. The degree of competition in picture naming was manipulated by presenting targets along with distractor words that could be semantically related (e.g., a picture of a dog combined with the word cat) or unrelated (tree) to the picture name. The mean naming response time (RT) was longer in the related than in the unrelated condition, reflecting semantic interference. Delta plot analyses showed that participants with small mean semantic interference effects employed selective inhibition more effectively than did participants with larger semantic interference effects. The participants were also tested on the stop-signal task, which taps nonselective inhibition. Their performance on this task was correlated with their mean naming RT but, importantly, not with the selective inhibition indexed by the delta plot analyses and the magnitude of the semantic interference effect. These results indicate that nonselective inhibition ability and selective inhibition of competitors in picture naming are separable to some extent.

  20. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Groendahl

    Full Text Available The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production.

  1. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  2. Stable passivations for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gan, J. Y.; King, R. R.; Swanson, R. M.

    Initial designs of single-crystal silicon point-contact solar cells have shown a degradation in their efficiency after being exposed to concentrated sunlight. The main mechanism appears to be an increase in recombination centers at the Si/SiO2 interface due to ultraviolet light photoinjecting electrons from the silicon conduction band into the silicon dioxide that passivates the cell's front surface. Trichloroethane, texturization, and aluminum during the forming gas anneal all contribute to the instability of the interface. A reasonably good resistance to UV light can be obtained by putting a phosphorus diffusion at the surface and can be improved further by stripping off the deposited oxide after the diffusion and regrowing a dry thermal oxide. A second technique, which utilizes ultrathin oxides and thin polysilicon films and can yield stable point-contact solar cells that are more efficient at higher concentrations, is also described.

  3. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  4. Dimensionally Stable Membrane for High Pressure Electrolyzers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing high strength polymers with controlled pore dimensions as a support, a customized membrane electrode assembly (MEA) can be generated for NASA's...

  5. Dimensionally Stable Membrane for High Pressure Electrolyzers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing high strength polymers with controlled pore dimensions as a support, a customized membrane electrode assembly (MEA) can be generated for NASA's...

  6. High Yield Preparation Method of Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of nanocellulose fibers (NFs is achieved through pretreating cellulose in a NaOH/urea/thiourea solution, and then defibrillating the fibers through ultrasonication, resulting in a high yield of 85.4%. Extensive work has been done to optimize the preparation parameters. The obtained NFs are about 30 nm in diameter with cellulose II crystal structure. They possess high thermal stability with an onset of thermal degradation at 270 °C and a maximum degradation temperature of 370 °C. Such NFs have potential applications in transistors and batteries with high thermal stability. NFs-H were obtained by homogenizing undefibrillated fibers separated from the preparation of NFs. NFs-H were also in cellulose II crystal form but with lower thermal stability due to low crystallinity. They can be applied to make highly transparent paper.

  7. Stable high-copy-number integration of Aspergillus oryzae alpha-AMYLASE cDNA in an industrial baker's yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, A; Prieto, J A; Sanz, P

    1999-01-01

    The Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase cDNA was placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into the ribosomal DNA locus of an industrial baker's yeast strain. To obtain a strain eligible for commercial use, we constructed an integrative cassette lacking bacterial DNA sequences but containing the alpha-amylase cDNA and ribosomal DNA sequences to target the integration to this locus. High-copy-number integrants were obtained including a defective TRP1d promoter in the integrative cassette. We selected one transformant, Rib-AMY (CECT10872), in which the multi-integrated sequences were stable even after 200 generations of growth in nonselective medium. This transformant also expressed and secreted high levels of alpha-amylase. Bread made with this strain had a higher volume, lower density, and softer crumbs than bread made with a control strain. The Rib-AMY transformant also was useful in retarding bread firming. This new strain fulfills all the requirements for commercial utilization and should reduce or eliminate the requirement for addition of exogenous alpha-amylase to the flour, reducing allergenic work-related symptoms due to this enzyme.

  8. High stable power control of a laser diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiu-ru; LI Cheng; YE Hong-an; L(U) Guo-hui; JIA Shi-lou

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,the low and the high frequency noises of a laser diode have been analyzed. Based on the analysis a novel scheme that adapts analog and digital hybrid techniques is proposed to stabilize the output power of a laser diode. With the hybrid controller,the low and the high frequency noises of a laser diode are conspicuously reduced.By accurate calculation,the short-term stability of the output power of laser diode reaches ±0.55‰, and the long-term stability is ±0.7‰.

  9. Highly Stable Sodium Batteries Enabled by Functional Ionic Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuya; Choudhury, Snehashis; Xu, Jun; Nath, Pooja; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2017-01-23

    A sodium metal anode protected by an ion-rich polymeric membrane exhibits enhanced stability and high-Columbic efficiency cycling. Formed in situ via electropolymerization of functional imidazolium-type ionic liquid monomers, the polymer membrane protects the metal against parasitic reactions with electrolyte and, for fundamental reasons, inhibits dendrite formation and growth. The effectiveness of the membrane is demonstrated using direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition.

  10. Highly thermal stable and highly crystalline anatase TiO2 for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Bai, Yang; Liu, Chang; Yang, Zhuhong; Feng, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; van der Laak, Nicole K; Chan, Kwong-Yu

    2009-07-15

    In the absence of any doping and modification, the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation was inhibited at high temperatures giving rise to highly thermal stable and highly crystalline anatase TiO2 fibers. The initial formation of the TiO2(B) phase is found to be key in inhibiting this transformation. The intermediate structure of the TiO2 fiber comprises an inner anatase core with an outer TiO2(B) shell, which has a specific crystallographic orientation with respect to the anatase structure. During the calcination process from 300 to 800 degrees C, both the TiO2(B) shell and the bulk anatase crystal structure was preserved. At temperatures of 800-900 degrees C the TiO2(B)-to-anatase transformation was finished and a near-pure and thermally stable anatase fiber was obtained. This final product shows the same activity as a standard commercial photocatalyst Degussa P-25 when measured against unit mass, and 5 times the activity when measured with respect to the unit surface area. The anatase TiO2 fibers presented here have considerable interest as practical photocatalysts for water purification, as they can be easily recycled without a decrease in their photocatalytic activity and can be prepared at large scale and at low cost.

  11. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C.; Elias, Joseph S.; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2016-10-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (Ni3(HITP)2), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  12. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C.; Elias, Joseph S.; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (Ni3(HITP)2), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  13. High spin states in stable nucleus 84Sr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    High spin states of 84Sr were populated through the reaction 70Zn(18O,4n)84Sr at 75 MeV beam energy.Measurement of excitation function,γ-γ coincidences,directional correlation from oriented state (DCO) ratios and γ-transition intensities were performed using eight anticompton HPGe detectors and one planar HPGe detector.Based on the measured results,a new level scheme of 84Sr was established in which 12 new states and nearly 30 new γ-transitions were identified in the present work.The positive-parity states of the new level scheme were compared with the results from calculations in the framework of the projected shell model (PSM).One negative-parity band was extended to spin Iπ=19-and it can be found that in the high spin states,the γ-transition energies show the nature of signature staggering.The negative-parity band levels are in good agreement with deformed configuration-mixing shell model (DCM) calculations.

  14. Development of highly stable nifedipine solid-lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Iwao, Yasunori; Funakoshi, Yuka; Ranneh, Abdul-Hackam; Noguchi, Shuji; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Itai, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To improve the solubility of the drug nifedipine (NI), highly stabilized solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of nifedipine (NI-SLNs) were prepared by high pressure homogenization using two phospholipids, followed by lyophilization with individual sugar moieties (four monosaccharides and four disaccharides). The mean particle diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, drug loading, and the encapsulation efficiency of the NI-SLN suspension were determined to be 68.5 nm, 0.3, -62.1 mV, 2.7%, and 97.5%, respectively. In comparison with the NI-SLNs, the NI-SLNs lyophilized with trehalose (NI-SLN-Tre) showed a slight increase in the particle size from 68.5 to 107.7 nm, but the PDI decreased from 0.38 to 0.33, and no significant change in zeta potential was observed. Aqueous re-dispersibility study demonstrated that NI-SLNs lyophilized with trehalose had the maximum concentration (14.7 µg/mL) at 5 min, compared with lyophilized SLNs using other sugars; the use of other sugars also resulted in significant changes in the particle size, PDI, and zeta potential. A trehalose concentration of 2.5% w/v and a two-fold dilution of the SLN suspension were found to be the best conditions for lyophilization. Data from lyophilized SLNs using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy indicated eventual transformation of NI-SLN-Tre from a crystalline to an amorphous state during the homogenization process. Finally, a stability study was performed with NI-SLN-Tre for up to 6 months at 30°C and 65% relative humidity, with no significant deterioration observed, suggesting that trehalose might be a useful cryoprotectant for NI-SLNs.

  15. Fractionation of Moderately and Highly Stable Organic Phosphorus in Acid Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANYEKUAN; LISHIJUN

    1998-01-01

    The fractionation of moderately and highly organic phosphorus(Po) in acid soil was studied by two methods .By the first method,after incubation for 40 d; the mineralization rates of eight constituents of stable Po in the soil were determined.By the second method ,five constituents of peecipitates of stable Po in the soil were separated,then the five precipiates were put back into the original soils and incubated for 40 d and 60 d .Then,mineralization rates of the five precipitates were determined.The same results were obtained by the two methods.When the pH of the alkali solution containing stable Po was adjusted from 3.00 to 3.10,the mineralization rate of moderately stable Po Was rapidly raised.Therefore,the pH 3.00 is the critical point between moderately and highly stable Po.

  16. Delta-doped CCDs as stable, high sensitivity, high resolution UV imaging arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikzad, S.; Hoenk, M.E.; Grunthaner, P.J.; Terhune, R.W.; Grunthaner, F.J. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Winzenread, R.; Fattahi, M.; Tseng, H.F. [EG and G Reticon, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Delta-doped CCDs have achieved stable quantum efficiency, at the theoretical limit imposed by reflection from the Si surface in the near UV and visible. In this approach, an epitaxial silicon layer is grown on a fully-processed commercial CCD using molecular beam epitaxy. During the silicon growth on the CCD, 30% of a monolayer of boron atoms are deposited nominally within a single atomic layer, resulting in the effective elimination of the backside potential well. These devices are highly uniform and have exhibited long-term stability. To achieve significantly higher total quantum efficiency, antireflection layers can be directly deposited on the device. This was demonstrated in the 250--400 nm region.

  17. Operation regimes, gain dynamics and highly stable operation points of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kroetz, Peter; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Chatterjee, Gourab; Cankaya, Huseyin; Murari, Krishna; Kaertner, Franz X; Hartl, Ingmar; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of laser pulse amplification with respect to operation regimes, gain dynamics, and highly stable operation points of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers (RAs). The findings are expected to be more generic than for this specific case. Operation regimes are distinguished with respect to pulse energy and the appearance of pulse instability as a function of the repetition rate, seed energy, and pump intensity. The corresponding gain dynamics are presented, identifying highly stable operation points related to high gain build -up during pumping and high gain depletion during pulse amplification. These operation points are studied numerically and experimentally as a function of several parameters, thereby achieving, for our Ho:YLF RA, highly stable output pulses with measured fluctuations of only 0.19% (standard deviation).

  18. Reaching hard-to-reach individuals: Nonselective versus targeted outbreak response vaccination for measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F; Ferrari, Matthew

    2014-01-15

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals.

  19. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Kun, E-mail: caikun1978@163.com [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Chen, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211-2200 (United States); Shi, Jiao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211-2200 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier.

  20. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning; Chen, Zhen; Shi, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier.

  1. Stable high conductivity functionally gradient compositionally layered solid state electrolytes and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, E.D.; Jayaweera, P.; Lowe, D.M.; Pound, B.C.

    1997-11-06

    Stable high conductivity functionally gradient compositionally layered solid bodies suitable for use as electrolytes and membranes and providing improved oxygen-ion conductivity for electrolytes and improved mixed oxygen-ion and electronic conductivity for membranes. The electrolytes provide solid oxide fuel cells with high efficiency operation at 300{sup o}C to 800{sup o}C. (author) figs.

  2. Stable overload conditions of high-temperature superconductors at alternating current injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of alternating current injected into a high-temperature superconductor or into a current-carrying element on its basis is studied under weak cooling. The stability conditions of the current varying with time by a sinusoidal law are studied versus its frequency. It is shown that before unstable states set in, the peak values of the electric field intensity, current, and temperature in the superconductor are higher than the values determining a thermal electrodynamic stability boundary of the current permanently flowing through the superconductor—the so-called thermal quench current. It is found that ultimate stable alternating currents cause high stable thermal losses in superconductors; these losses being not considered in the modern theory of losses. Such stable conditions can be referred to as overload conditions. Analysis shows that there are characteristic times determining the time intervals within which alternating current is stable under overload conditions. Main thermoelectrodynamic mechanisms behind the existence of these intervals are formulated. They explain why the superconductor stable overheating and induced electric field reach high values before the injected alternating current becomes unstable. The existence of overload conditions considerably extends the application area of high-temperature superconductors.

  3. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  4. The mouse defense test battery: evaluation of the effects of non-selective and BZ-1 (omega1) selective, benzodiazepine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, G.; Sanger, D.J.; Perrault, G.

    1996-11-01

    The behavioral effects of several benzodiazepine (BZ) (omega) receptor ligands were compared using the Mouse Defense Test Battery which has been designed to assess defensive reactions of Swiss mice confronted with a natural threat (a rat) and situations associated with this threat. Primary measures taken before, during and after rat confrontation were escape attempts, flight, risk assessment and defensive threat and attack. The drugs used included non-selective BZ (omega) full (clonazepam, clorazepate, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam) and partial (bretazenil and imidazenil) agonists, and BZ-1 (omega1) selective (abecarnil, CL 218,872 and zolpidem) receptor ligands. With the exception of clonazepam, non-selective BZ (omega) receptor compounds only partially affected flight behaviors. The drugs reduced some but not all flight measures in response to the approaching rat, whereas clonazepam attenuated all flight reactions. In contrast to their mild and inconsistent actions on flight, the non-selective BZ (omega) receptor agonists displayed clear effects on risk assessment when subjects were chased by the rat. When contact was forced between the subject and the rat, the non-selective BZ (omega) receptor full agonists reduced defensive threat and attack reactions, while the partial agonists imidazenil and bretazenil only weakly attenuated defensive attack behavior. Similarly, after the rat had been removed from the test area, the non-selective BZ (omega) receptor full agonists displayed greater efficacy than the partial agonists in reducing escape attempts. Overall, results obtained with the selective BZ-1 (omega1) receptor ligands demonstrated either no clear effects or no specific action on defensive reactions. Taken together, these data demonstrate that: (1) non-selective BZ (omega) agonists displaying high intrinsic activity affect a wider range of defensive behaviors than non-selective BZ (omega) receptor partial agonists; (2) the defense system does not involve

  5. Polarization insensitive graphene saturable absorbers using etched fiber for highly stable ultrafast fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyub; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kang, Daewon; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, we introduce a graphene-based saturable absorber (GSA) with high damage threshold employing symmetrical evanescent wave interaction for highly stable mode-locking of ultrafast fiber lasers. To enhance the evanescent wave interaction between the graphene layer and the propagating light, graphene flakes are mixed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and the graphene/PDMS composite is coated onto a chemically etched fiber. The GSA exhibits polarization insensitivity due to its symmetric cross-section, which enables stable operation against environmental disturbance such as stress, bending, and temperature variation. Finally, we demonstrate a fiber laser generating 216 fs pulses with an 80 dB signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Rapid high-throughput cloning and stable expression of antibodies in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidel, Jared L; Vaessen, Benjamin; Chan, Yin Yin; Grasso, Luigi; Kline, J Bradford

    2016-12-01

    Single-cell based amplification of immunoglobulin variable regions is a rapid and powerful technique for cloning antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs. From the initial screening process involving small quantities of hundreds or thousands of mAbs through in vitro characterization and subsequent in vivo experiments requiring large quantities of only a few, having a robust system for generating mAbs from cloning through stable cell line generation is essential. A protocol was developed to decrease the time, cost, and effort required by traditional cloning and expression methods by eliminating bottlenecks in these processes. Removing the clonal selection steps from the cloning process using a highly efficient ligation-independent protocol and from the stable cell line process by utilizing bicistronic plasmids to generate stable semi-clonal cell pools facilitated an increased throughput of the entire process from plasmid assembly through transient transfections and selection of stable semi-clonal cell pools. Furthermore, the time required by a single individual to clone, express, and select stable cell pools in a high-throughput format was reduced from 4 to 6months to only 4 to 6weeks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS...

  8. Noncovalent Self-Assembled Monolayers on Graphene as a Highly Stable Platform for Molecular Tunnel Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Thompson, Damien; Du, Wei; Loh, Kian Ping; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-01-27

    Monolayer graphene is used as the bottom electrode to fabricate stable and high-quality self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based tunnel junctions. The SAMs are formed on graphene via noncovalent bonds without altering the structure of the graphene. This work paves the way to new types of molecular electronic junctions based on 2D materials.

  9. Highly stable and efficient erbium-doped 2.8 microm all fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Martin; Faucher, Dominic; Caron, Nicolas; Vallée, Réal

    2009-09-14

    We demonstrate the efficient and stable CW laser operation at 2.824 microm of a diode-pumped erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser employing an intracore fiber Bragg grating high reflector. An output power of 5 W and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 32% are reported. The temporal and spectral stability of the laser represent a significant improvement over previous work. This report paves the way to the commercialization of compact and stable fiber lasers for spectroscopic and medical applications.

  10. The a(4) Scheme-A High Order Neutrally Stable CESE Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The CESE development is driven by a belief that a solver should (i) enforce conservation laws in both space and time, and (ii) be built from a nondissipative (i.e., neutrally stable) core scheme so that the numerical dissipation can be controlled effectively. To provide a solid foundation for a systematic CESE development of high order schemes, in this paper we describe a new high order (4-5th order) and neutrally stable CESE solver of a 1D advection equation with a constant advection speed a. The space-time stencil of this two-level explicit scheme is formed by one point at the upper time level and two points at the lower time level. Because it is associated with four independent mesh variables (the numerical analogues of the dependent variable and its first, second, and third-order spatial derivatives) and four equations per mesh point, the new scheme is referred to as the a(4) scheme. As in the case of other similar CESE neutrally stable solvers, the a(4) scheme enforces conservation laws in space-time locally and globally, and it has the basic, forward marching, and backward marching forms. Except for a singular case, these forms are equivalent and satisfy a space-time inversion (STI) invariant property which is shared by the advection equation. Based on the concept of STI invariance, a set of algebraic relations is developed and used to prove the a(4) scheme must be neutrally stable when it is stable. Numerically, it has been established that the scheme is stable if the value of the Courant number is less than 1/3

  11. Chemical Synthesis of Highly Magnetic, Air-Stable Silica-Coated iron Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪英; 钟伟; 汤怒江; 刘先松; 都有为

    2003-01-01

    Highly magnetic and air-stable silica-coated Fe particles have been prepared by a rapid and simple method. The specific magnetization of the sample can be as high as 201 Am2/kg even including silica, which is a non-magnetic material. The iron particle coated with silica is passivated and protected from oxidation. The influences of H2 reduction temperature on structure and magnetic properties are also studied.

  12. Primary repair of colon injuries: clinical study of nonselective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapic Zoran V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of colon injuries using nonselective approach. Methods Two groups of patients were analyzed. Retrospective (RS group included 30 patients managed by primary repair or two stage surgical procedure according to criteria published by Stone (S/F and Flint (Fl. In this group 18 patients were managed by primary repair. Prospective (PR group included 33 patients with primary repair as a first choice procedure. In this group, primary repair was performed in 30 cases. Results Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and indexes of trauma severity. Time between injury and surgery was shorter in PR group, (1.3 vs. 3.1 hours. Stab wounds were more frequent in PR group (9:2, and iatrogenic lesions in RS group (6:2. Associated injuries were similar, as well as segmental distribution of colon injuries. S/F criteria and Flint grading were similar. In RS group 15 primary repairs were successful, while in two cases relaparotomy and colostomy was performed due to anastomotic leakage. One patient died. In PR group, 25 primary repairs were successful, with 2 immediate and 3 postoperative (7-10 days deaths, with no evidence of anastomotic leakage. Conclusions Results of this study justify more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94682396

  13. Ibudilast: a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor in brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Schwenkgrub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibudilast (IBD is a non-selective (3, 4, 10, 11 phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitor, used mainly as a bronchodilator for the treatment of bronchial asthma. PDE play a central role in cellular function (e.g. differentiation, synaptic plasticity and inflammatory response by metabolizing cyclic nucleotides. The results from preclinical and clinical studies indicate that IBD has a broader range of action through suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, toll-like receptor 4 blockade (TLR-4, inhibition of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, up-regulation the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10, and promotion of neurotrophic factors (GDNF, NGF, NT-4. Recent data indicate that the efficacy of IBD appears to be independent from PDE inhibition activity and rather linked to glial activity attenuation. Additional advantages of IBD, such as crossing the blood–brain barrier, good tolerance and activity by oral administration, makes it a promising therapeutic candidate for treating neuroinflammatory conditions, where the currently available treatment remains unsatisfying due to poor tolerability and/or sub-optimal efficacy. IBD has no direct receptor affinity with exemption of some undefined effect on adenosine receptors that makes the drug devoid of its receptors-mediated adverse effects. Current article provides an overview of the pharmacology of IBD with a focus on preclinical and clinical data supporting its potential neuroprotective benefits for neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, medication overuse headache, stroke, opioid, alcohol and methamphetamine abuse.

  14. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  15. Highly stable graphene-assisted tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Harith; Latif, Amirah Abdul; Abdul Khudus, Muhammad Imran Mustafa; Zulkifli, Ahmad Zarif; Zulkifli, Mohd Zamani; Thambiratnam, Kavintheran; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

    2013-02-01

    A highly stable tunable dual-wavelength fiber laser (TDWFL) using graphene as a means to generate a highly stable output is proposed and generated. The TDWFL comprises a 1 m long, highly doped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) acting as the linear gain medium, with a 24-channel arrayed waveguide grating acting as a wavelength slicer as well as a tuning mechanism to generate different wavelength pairs. The tuned wavelength pairs can range from 0.8 to 18.2 nm. A few layers of graphene are incorporated into the laser cavity to induce the four-wave-mixing effect, which stabilizes the dual-wavelength output by suppressing the mode competition that arises as a result of homogenous broadening in the EDF.

  16. Highly stable, mesoporous mixed lanthanum-cerium oxides with tailored structure and reducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shuang; Broitman, Esteban; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Anmin; Veser, Goetz

    2011-05-01

    Pure and mixed lanthanum and cerium oxides were synthesized via a reverse microemulsion-templated route. This approach yields highly homogeneous and phase-stable mixed oxides with high surface areas across the entire range of La:Ce ratios from pure lanthana to pure ceria. Surprisingly, all mixed oxides show the fluorite crystal structure of ceria, even for lanthanum contents as high as 90%. Varying the La:Ce ratio not only allows tailoring of the oxide morphology (lattice parameter, pore structure, particle size, and surface area), but also results in a fine-tuning of the reducibility of the oxide which can be explained by the creation of oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice upon La addition. Such finely controlled syntheses, which enable the formation of stable, homogeneous mixed oxides across the entire composition range, open the path towards functional tailoring of oxide materials, such as rational catalyst design via fine-tuning of redox activity.

  17. Field emission of GaN-filled carbon nanotubes: high and stable emission current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L; Li, J C; Liu, C; Xu, Z; Wang, W L; Liu, S; Bai, X D; Wang, E G

    2007-03-01

    Field electron emission of GaN-filled carbon nanotubes, grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, was investigated. The detailed structural characterization shows that the filled nanotube has a GaN-core/C-shell structure, in which the GaN wire corresponds to a wurtzite structure. The field emission properties of the GaN-filled carbon nanotubes have been achieved with high and stable emission current. It is attributed to the unique cable-like structure, which makes the GaN-core/C-shell composite mechanically solid and chemically stable. This study suggests the GaN-filled carbon nanotube as an ideal candidate for future high-current and high-power field emitter applications.

  18. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner;

    2016-01-01

    glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. Results: On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline......Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any...... motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care....

  19. Experiment Research on a Highly Stable LD-pumped Solid State Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ping; HE Bin; WEI Guanghui

    2000-01-01

    In high power laser systems, the stability of the seed laser is vitally important. This paper presents the work on the design and manufacture of a highly stable LD pumped solid state seed laser which has the advantages of being all solid state, compact, easy to manufacture and low cost. The laser was composed of two parts. One was an LD pumped 0.5 mm thin Nd: YLF laser system in which the instability was around±6% (3σ). The other was a close-looped laser power control system using external cavity power feedback. Using an electro-optic modulator, a 1×2 optical fiber splitter and a signal processing circuit, we successfully realized the highly stable LD pumped Nd: YLF laser in which the instability of laser output power was lower than±0.2 %/hour (3σ). A digital PID (Proportion, Integration and Differentiation) control method was used with a control frequency of 40 kHz. The 3 mW of highly stable laser power through the optical fiber was obtained.

  20. Theoretical design and preparation of high thermal-stable jet fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU GuoZhu; QU HaiJie; SHEN HuiMing; ZHANG XiangWen; MI ZhenTao

    2008-01-01

    A high thermal-stable jet fuel design method was developed using composition-properties relations and basic specification properties of jet fuel.Tannery diagrams were provided to visualize relationships among three main components (n-paraffins,iso-paraffins, cycloparaffins, or aromatics) with four major specification properties (density, flash point, freezing point, net heat of combustion) and thermal sta-bility.An optimum chemical composition was established to meet performance requirements: n-paraffins 25%-45%, iso-paraffins 15%-30%, cycloparaffins 30%-50%, and aromatics 5%.The thermal stability test on four fuel samples with and without optimal composition indicated that the thermal stabilities of fuel samples with optimal composition are higher than RP-3 jet fuel, and that the theoretical design method is a reliable method to screen the basic oil for the high thermal-stable jet fuel.

  1. 18-Months Operation of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope: A Highly Stable Photometric Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Han, X H; Cai, H B; Cao, L; Deng, J S; Qiu, Y L; Wang, S; Wei, J Y; Hu, J Y

    2015-01-01

    We here report the photometric performance of Lunar-based Ultraviolet telescope (LUT), the first robotic telescope working on the Moon, for its 18-months operation. In total, 17 IUE standards have been observed in 51 runs until June 2015, which returns a highly stable photometric performance during the past 18 months (i.e., no evolution of photometric performance with time). The magnitude zero point is determined to be $17.53\\pm0.05$ mag, which is not only highly consistent with the results based on its first 6-months operation, but also independent on the spectral type of the standard from which the magnitude zero point is determined. The implications of this stable performance is discussed, and is useful for next generation lunar-based astronomical observations.

  2. Theoretical design and preparation of high thermal-stable jet fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A high thermal-stable jet fuel design method was developed using composition-properties relations and basic specification properties of jet fuel. Tannery diagrams were provided to visualize relationships among three main components (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, cycloparaffins, or aromatics) with four major specification properties (density, flash point, freezing point, net heat of combustion) and thermal sta- bility. An optimum chemical composition was established to meet performance requirements: n-paraffins 25%-45%, iso-paraffins 15%-30%, cycloparaffins 30%-50%, and aromatics 5%. The thermal stability test on four fuel samples with and without optimal composition indicated that the thermal stabilities of fuel samples with optimal composition are higher than RP-3 jet fuel, and that the theoretical design method is a reliable method to screen the basic oil for the high thermal-stable jet fuel.

  3. Demonstration of a stable high ionic conductivity solid oxide electrolyte. Final report, November 1993-January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, E.D.; Pound, B.G.; Jayaweera, P.; Jiang, N.; Lowe, D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a novel, low-cost, intermediate temperature, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using currently available highly conducting CeO2 electrolytes. The specific technical objective is to demonstrate that a ceria electrolyte can be modified to obtain stability against reduction by H2 at the anode, as evident by a stable open circuit potential that is higher than could be obtained with an unmodifed ceria electrolyte.

  4. Highly stable, efficient Tm-doped fiber laser—a potential scalpel for low invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, M.; Brojek, W.; Rybak, Z.; Sznelewski, P.; Mamajek, M.; Swiderski, J.

    2016-11-01

    We report an all-fiber, diode-pumped, continuous-wave Tm3+-doped fiber laser emitting 37.4 W of output power with a slope efficiency as high as 57% with respect to absorbed pump power at 790 nm. The laser operated at ~1.94 µm and the output beam quality factor M 2 was measured to be ~1.2. The output beam was very stable with power fluctuations  surgery.

  5. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Mir; Roberto Lugo; Islam Bogachan Tahirbegi; Josep Samitier

    2014-01-01

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), where the sulfur at...

  6. Structure-Guided Redesign Increases the Propensity of HIV Env To Generate Highly Stable Soluble Trimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenaga, Javier; Dubrovskaya, Viktoriya; de Val, Natalia; Sharma, Shailendra K.; Carrette, Barbara; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to high viral diversity, an effective HIV-1 vaccine will likely require Envs derived from multiple subtypes to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Soluble Env mimics, like the native flexibly linked (NFL) and SOSIP trimers, derived from the subtype A BG505 Env, form homogeneous, stable native-like trimers. However, other Env sequences, such as JRFL and 16055 from subtypes B and C, do so to a lesser degree. The high-resolution BG505 SOSIP crystal structures permit the identification and redesign of Env elements involved in trimer stability. Here, we identified structure trimer-derived (TD) residues that increased the propensity of the subtype B JRFL and subtype C 16055 Env sequences to form well-ordered, homogenous, and highly stable soluble trimers. The generation of these spike mimics no longer required antibody-based selection, positive or negative. Using the redesigned subtype B and C trimer representatives as respective foundations, we further stabilized the NFL TD trimers by engineering an intraprotomer disulfide linkage in the prebridging sheet, I201C-A433C (CC), that locks the gp120 in the receptor nontriggered state. We demonstrated that this disulfide pair prevented CD4 induced-conformational rearrangements in NFL trimers derived from the prototypic subtype A, B, and C representatives. Coupling the TD-based design with the engineered disulfide linkage, CC, increased the propensity of Env to form soluble highly stable spike mimics that are resistant to CD4-induced changes. These advances will allow testing of the hypothesis that such stabilized immunogens will more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies in small-animal models and primates. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 displays unprecedented global diversity circulating in the human population. Since the envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the target of neutralizing antibodies, Env-based vaccine candidates that address such diversity are needed. Soluble well-ordered Env mimics, typified by NFL

  7. Autosomal mutants of proton-exposed kidney cells display frequent loss of heterozygosity on nonselected chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoryev, Dmytro; Dan, Cristian; Gauny, Stacey; Eckelmann, Bradley; Ohlrich, Anna P; Connolly, Marissa; Lasarev, Michael; Grossi, Gianfranco; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2014-05-01

    High-energy protons found in the space environment can induce mutations and cancer, which are inextricably linked. We hypothesized that some mutants isolated from proton-exposed kidneys arose through a genome-wide incident that causes loss of heterozygosity (LOH)-generating mutations on multiple chromosomes (termed here genomic LOH). To test this hypothesis, we examined 11 pairs of nonselected chromosomes for LOH events in mutant cells isolated from the kidneys of mice exposed to 4 or 5 Gy of 1 GeV protons. The mutant kidney cells were selected for loss of expression of the chromosome 8-encoded Aprt gene. Genomic LOH events were also assessed in Aprt mutants isolated from isogenic cultured kidney epithelial cells exposed to 5 Gy of protons in vitro. Control groups were spontaneous Aprt mutants and clones isolated without selection from the proton-exposed kidneys or cultures. The in vivo results showed significant increases in genomic LOH events in the Aprt mutants from proton-exposed kidneys when compared with spontaneous Aprt mutants and when compared with nonmutant (i.e., nonselected) clones from the proton-exposed kidneys. A bias for LOH events affecting chromosome 14 was observed in the proton-induced Aprt mutants, though LOH for this chromosome did not confer increased radiation resistance. Genomic LOH events were observed in Aprt mutants isolated from proton-exposed cultured kidney cells; however the incidence was fivefold lower than in Aprt mutants isolated from exposed intact kidneys, suggesting a more permissive environment in the intact organ and/or the evolution of kidney clones prior to their isolation from the tissue. We conclude that proton exposure creates a subset of viable cells with LOH events on multiple chromosomes, that these cells form and persist in vivo, and that they can be isolated from an intact tissue by selection for a mutation on a single chromosome.

  8. Highly stable, protein capped gold nanoparticles as effective drug delivery vehicles for amino-glycosidic antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@gmail.com

    2012-08-01

    A method for the production of highly stable gold nanoparticles (Au NP) was optimized using sodium borohydride as reducing agent and bovine serum albumin as capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of pink colour and an absorption maximum at 532 nm. These protein capped nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape, nearly monodispersed and with an average particle size of 7.8 {+-} 1.7 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in face centered cubic structure is confirmed from the selected-area electron diffraction and XRD patterns. The nanoparticles were functionalized with various amino-glycosidic antibiotics for utilizing them as drug delivery vehicles. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the possible functional groups of antibiotics bound to the nanoparticle surface have been examined. These drug loaded nanoparticle solutions were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, by well diffusion assay. The antibiotic conjugated Au NP exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity, compared to pure antibiotic at the same concentration. Being protein capped and highly stable, these gold nanoparticles can act as effective carriers for drugs and might have considerable applications in the field of infection prevention and therapeutics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for NaBH{sub 4} reduced and BSA capped gold nanoparticle was standardized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were spherical and nearly monodispersed with a size of 7.8 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles are extremely stable towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. Black

  9. A Stable High-Energy Electron Source from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Baozhen; Liu, Cheng; Yan, Wenchao; Golovin, Grigory; Banerjee, Sudeep; Chen, Shouyuan; Haden, Daniel; Fruhling, Colton; Umstadter, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The stability of the electron source from laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) is essential for applications, such as novel x-ray sources and fundamental experiments in high field physics. To obtain such a stable source, we used an optimal laser pulse and a novel gas nozzle. The high-power laser pulse on target was focused to a diffraction-limited spot by the use of adaptive wavefront correction and the pulse duration was transform limited by the use of spectral feedback control. An innovative design for the nozzle led to a stable, flat-top profile with diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm with a high Mach-number ( 6). In experiments to generate high-energy electron beams by LWFA, we were able to obtain reproducible results with beam energy of 800 MeV and charge >10 pC. Higher charge but broader energy spectrum resulted when the plasma density was increased. These developments have resulted in a laser-driven wakefield accelerator that is stable and robust. With this device, we show that narrowband high-energy x-rays beams can be generated by the inverse-Compton scattering process. This accelerator has also been used in recent experiments to study nonlinear effects in the interaction of high-energy electron beams with ultraintense laser pulses. This material is based upon work supported by NSF No. PHY-153700; US DOE, Office of Science, BES, # DE-FG02-05ER15663; AFOSR # FA9550-11-1-0157; and DHS DNDO # HSHQDC-13-C-B0036.

  10. 3C 286: a bright, compact, stable, and highly polarized calibrator for millimeter-wavelength observations

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, Ivan; Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Molina, Sol N; Casadio, Carolina; Gomez, Jose L; Emmanoulopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Context. A number of millimeter and submillimeter facilities with linear polarization observing capabilities have started operating during last years. These facilities, as well as other previous millimeter telescopes and interferometers, require bright and stable linear polarization calibrators to calibrate new instruments and to monitor their instrumental polarization. The current limited number of adequate calibrators implies difficulties in the acquisition of these calibration observations. Aims. Looking for additional linear polarization calibrators in the millimeter spectral range, in mid-2006 we started monitoring 3C 286, a standard and highly stable polarization calibrator for radio observations. Methods. Here we present the 3 and 1mm monitoring observations obtained between September 2006 and October 2011 with the XPOL polarimeter on the IRAM 30m Millimeter Telescope. Results. Our observations show that 3C 286 is a bright source of constant total flux with 3mm flux density S_3mm = (0.90 \\pm 0.02) Jy. ...

  11. A Novel High-Order, Entropy Stable, 3D AMR MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code $\\texttt{FLASH}$ (http://flash.uchicago.edu). The accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a number of tests, including comparisons to available MHD implementations in $\\texttt{FLASH}$.

  12. A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)

  13. Novel Stable Compounds in the C-H-O Ternary System at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Gabriele; Oganov, Artem R.

    2016-09-01

    The chemistry of the elements is heavily altered by high pressure, with stabilization of many new and often unexpected compounds, the emergence of which can profoundly change models of planetary interiors, where high pressure reigns. The C-H-O system is one of the most important planet-forming systems, but its high-pressure chemistry is not well known. Here, using state-of-the-art variable-composition evolutionary searches combined with quantum-mechanical calculations, we explore the C-H-O system at pressures up to 400 GPa. Besides uncovering new stable polymorphs of high-pressure elements and known molecules, we predicted the formation of new compounds. A 2CH4:3H2 inclusion compound forms at low pressure and remains stable up to 215 GPa. Carbonic acid (H2CO3), highly unstable at ambient conditions, was predicted to form exothermically at mild pressure (about 1 GPa). As pressure rises, it polymerizes and, above 314 GPa, reacts with water to form orthocarbonic acid (H4CO4). This unexpected high-pressure chemistry is rationalized by analyzing charge density and electron localization function distributions, and implications for general chemistry and planetary science are also discussed.

  14. Superior Thermally Stable and Nonflammable Porous Polybenzimidazole Membrane with High Wettability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Shi, Dingqin; Xia, Yonggao; Qiao, Lin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-02-28

    Separators with high security, reliability, and rate capacity are in urgent need for the advancement of high power lithium ion batteries. The currently used porous polyolefin membranes are critically hindered by their low thermal stability and poor electrolyte wettability, which further lead to low rate capacity. Here we present a novel promising porous polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane with super high thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. The rigid structure and functional groups in the PBI chain enable membranes to be stable at temperature as high as 400 °C, and the unique flame resistance of PBI could ensure the high security of a battery as well. In particular, the prepared membrane owns 328% electrolyte uptake, which is more than two times higher than commercial Celgard 2325 separator. The unique combination of high thermal stability, high flame resistance and super high electrolyte wettability enable the PBI porous membranes to be highly promising for high power lithium battery.

  15. Fabrication of High-Temperature-Stable Thermoelectric Generator Modules Based on Nanocrystalline Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, V.; Dehnen, M.; Chavez, R.; Engenhorst, M.; Stoetzel, J.; Petermann, N.; Hesse, K.; Huelser, T.; Spree, M.; Stiewe, C.; Ziolkowski, P.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2014-05-01

    High-temperature-stable thermoelectric generator modules (TGMs) based on nanocrystalline silicon have been fabricated, characterized by the Harman technique, and measured in a generator test facility at the German Aerospace Center. Starting with highly doped p- and n-type silicon nanoparticles from a scalable gas-phase process, nanocrystalline bulk silicon was obtained using a current-activated sintering technique. Electrochemical plating methods were employed to metalize the nanocrystalline silicon. The specific electrical contact resistance ρ c of the semiconductor-metal interface was characterized by a transfer length method. Values as low as ρ c cold-side temperature of 300°C.

  16. Stable Peptides Instead of Stapled Peptides: Highly Potent αvβ6-Selective Integrin Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Oleg V; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Kapp, Tobias G; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Di Maro, Salvatore; Nieberler, Markus; Reuning, Ute; Schwaiger, Markus; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana; Kessler, Horst

    2016-01-22

    The αvβ6 integrin binds the RGD-containing peptide of the foot and mouth disease virus with high selectivity. In this study, the long binding helix of this ligand was downsized to an enzymatically stable cyclic peptide endowed with sub-nanomolar binding affinity toward the αvβ6 receptor and remarkable selectivity against other integrins. Computational studies were performed to disclose the molecular bases underlying the high binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of this peptide. Finally, the utility of the ligand for use in biomedical studies was also demonstrated here.

  17. Serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T after exercise stress test in stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Ruwald, Martin Huth; Dalsgaard, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  18. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  19. Safety of the nonselective NSAID nabumetone : focus on gastrointestinal tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Although effective in the treatment of pain associated with rheumatic conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, long-term use of NSAIDs is primarily limited by their association with upper gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Adverse effects range from dyspepsia and abdominal pain to ulceration and bleeding. GI damage elicited by NSAIDs arises as the result of biochemically induced topical irritant effects and by topical and systemic pharmacological suppression of gastroprotective prostaglandins. Variation in the physicochemical properties and pharmacological profiles among the individual NSAIDs translate into inter-agent differences regarding propensity to cause adverse GI effects. Nabumetone is a nonselective NSAID that offers distinct advantages over other agents in this class with regard to GI tolerability. Its non-acidic nature and pro-drug formulation, together with the lack of biliary secretion of its active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid, are thought to contribute to the improved GI tolerability of this drug. In head-to-head trials with other NSAIDs, nabumetone has demonstrated significant benefits regarding the incidence of GI events and more serious perforations, ulcers and bleeds (PUBs). Pooled data from eight postmarketing, randomized, controlled trials demonstrated a lower cumulative frequency of PUBs with nabumetone (0.03%; 95% CI 0.0, 0.08) versus comparator NSAIDs (1.4%; 95% CI 0.5, 2.4). Large-scale database studies also indicate that risk of serious GI complications is lower with nabumetone than comparator NSAIDs. Limited comparative data suggest that nabumetone offers a GI tolerability profile similar to that of cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective NSAIDs (coxibs). Although adverse cardiovascular outcomes appear to be a class effect of the coxibs, conventional NSAIDs may also have the potential for causing atherothrombotic complications. However, based on available data, nabumetone does not appear to be associated with increased

  20. High-pressure phase of brucite stable at Earth's mantle transition zone and lower mantle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andreas; Mookherjee, Mainak

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the high-pressure phase diagram of the hydrous mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2, using structure search algorithms and ab initio simulations. We predict a high-pressure phase stable at pressure and temperature conditions found in cold subducting slabs in Earth’s mantle transition zone and lower mantle. This prediction implies that brucite can play a much more important role in water transport and storage in Earth’s interior than hitherto thought. The predicted high-pressure phase, stable in calculations between 20 and 35 GPa and up to 800 K, features MgO6 octahedral units arranged in the anatase–TiO2 structure. Our findings suggest that brucite will transform from a layered to a compact 3D network structure before eventual decomposition into periclase and ice. We show that the high-pressure phase has unique spectroscopic fingerprints that should allow for straightforward detection in experiments. The phase also has distinct elastic properties that might make its direct detection in the deep Earth possible with geophysical methods.

  1. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of highly stable dispersions of water-soluble copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Wu, Xue-dong; Xue, Qun-ji

    2013-01-15

    Water-soluble and highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles were obtained using a biomolecule-assisted synthetic method. Dopamine was utilized as both reducing and capping agent in aqueous medium. The successful formation of DA-stabilized copper particles was demonstrated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mechanism of dopamine on the effective reduction and excellent stability of copper nanoparticles was also discussed. This facile biomolecule-assisted technique may provide a useful tool to synthesize other nanoparticles that have potential application in biotechnology.

  2. Synthesis of Highly Stable Cobalt Nanomaterial Using Gallic Acid and Its Application in Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Naz; Abdul Rauf Khaskheli; Abdalaziz Aljabour; Huseyin Kara; Farah Naz Talpur; Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi; Abid Ali Khaskheli; Sana Jawaid

    2014-01-01

    We report the room temperature (25–30°C) green synthesis of cobalt nanomaterial (CoNM) in an aqueous medium using gallic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent. pH 9.5 was found to favour the formation of well dispersed flower shaped CoNM. The optimization of various parameters in preparation of nanoscale was studied. The AFM, SEM, EDX, and XRD characterization studies provide detailed information about synthesized CoNM which were of 4–9 nm in dimensions. The highly stable CoNM were used to...

  3. Pt5Gd as a Highly Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau

    2012-01-01

    The activity and stability of Pt5Gd for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied, using a combination of electrochemical measurements, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS), and density functional theory calculations. Sputter-cleaned, polycrystalline Pt5Gd shows a 5...... can be explained by means of compressive strain effects. Furthermore, these novel bimetallic electrocatalysts are highly stable, which, in combination with their enhanced activity, makes them very promising for the development of new cathode catalysts for fuel cells....

  4. HIGH-ORDER I-STABLE CENTERED DIFFERENCE SCHEMES FOR VISCOUS COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhu Bao; Shi Jin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present high-order I-stable centered difference schemes for the numer-ical simulation of viscous compressible flows. Here I-stability refers to time discretizationswhose linear stability regions contain part of the imaginary axis. This class of schemeshas a numerical stability independent of the cell-Reynolds number Rc, thus allows one tosimulate high Reynolds number flows with relatively larger Rc, or coarser grids for a fixedRc. On the other hand, Rc cannot be arbitrarily large if one tries to obtain adequatenumerical resolution of the viscous behavior. We investigate the behavior of high-orderI-stable schemes for Burgers' equation and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Wedemonstrate that, for the second order scheme, Rc ≤ 3 is an appropriate constraint for nu-merical resolution of the viscous profile, while for the fourth-order schemes the constraintcan be relaxed to Rc ≤ 6. Our study indicates that the fourth order scheme is preferable:better accuracy, higher resolution, and larger cell-Reynolds numbers.

  5. Highly Stable and Porous Cross-Linked Polymers for Efficient Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhigang; Wang, Cheng; deKrafft, Kathryn E.; Lin, Wenbin

    2011-02-23

    Porous cross-linked polymers (PCPs) with phosphorescent [Ru(bpy)₃]{sup 2+} and [Ir(ppy)₂(bpy)]{sup +} building blocks were obtained via octacarbonyldicobalt (Co₂(CO)₈)-catalyzed alkyne trimerization reactions. The resultant Ru- and Ir-PCPs exhibited high porosity with specific surface areas of 1348 and 1547 m²/g, respectively. They are thermally stable at up to 350 °C in air and do not dissolve or decompose in all solvents tested, including concentrated hydrochloric acid. The photoactive PCPs were shown to be highly effective, recyclable, and reusable heterogeneous photocatalysts for aza-Henry reactions, α-arylation of bromomalonate, and oxyamination of an aldehyde, with catalytic activities comparable to those of the homogeneous [Ru(bpy)₃]{sup 2+} and [Ir(ppy)₂(bpy)]{sup +} photocatalysts. This work highlights the potential of developing photoactive PCPs as highly stable, molecularly tunable, and recyclable and reusable heterogeneous photocatalysts for a variety of important organic transformations.

  6. Facile and green synthesis of highly stable L-cysteine functionalized copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nikhil, E-mail: nkumar.phd2011.bt@nitrr.ac.in; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan, E-mail: contactlataupadhyay@gmail.com

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A facile and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of L-cysteine functionalized copper nanoparticles is reported. • Synthesis of Highly stable L-cysteine functionalized copper nanoparticles (∼40 nm) was done in an aqueous medium. • FTIR analysis shows that L-cysteine bound to the nanoparticle surface via thiol group. - Abstract: A simple eco-friendly method for L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticles (CCNPs) synthesis in aqueous solution has been developed. Glucose and L-cysteine were used as reducing agent and capping/functionalizing agent, respectively. Different parameters such as capping agent concentration, pH, reaction temperature, and reducing agent concentration were optimized during the synthesis. The L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticle were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Particle size and zeta potential analyser, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Spherical shaped cysteine functionalized/capped copper nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were found to be highly stable at room temperature (RT) for a period of 1 month.

  7. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO₂ and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Diogo Vieira; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-10-23

    A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO₂) and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO₂ and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  8. Nuclear Structure at the Legnaro National Laboratories:. from High Intensity Stable to Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, G.

    2007-04-01

    To understand the properties of a nucleus, apart from establishing the interaction between its components, it is necessary to determine the arrangement of the nucleons, i.e. the structure of a nucleus. So far our knowledge about the structure of nuclei is mostly limited to nuclei close to the valley of stability, or nuclei with a deficiency of neutrons, which can be produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with stable beams and stable targets. Future perspectives in nuclear structure rely on radioactive ion beams (RIB) as well as on high intensity beams of stable ions (HISB). A world wide effort is presently going on in order to built the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities like the FAIR and the EURISOL projects. The LNL are contributing to such development through the design study of the EURISOL project as well as through the design and construction of the intermediate facility SPES. Concerning the instrumentation, particularly powerful is the combination of large acceptance spectrometers with highly segmented γ-detector arrays. An example is the CLARA γ-ray detector array coupled with the PRISMA spectrometer at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL). The physics aims achievable with such device complement studies performed with current radioactive beam (RIB) facilities. With this set-up we have recently investigated the stability of the N=50 shell closure. Here the comparison of the experimental data with shell model calculations seems to indicate a persistence of the N=50 shell gap down to Z=31. Also the study of proton rich nuclei can strongly benefit from the use of high intensity stable beams using fusion evaporation reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Future perspectives at LNL are based on an increase in intensity as well as on the availability of heavy ion species. Moreover a new ISOL facility (SPES) dedicated to the production and acceleration of radioactive neutron rich species is now under development at LNL. Among the new

  9. Very stable high molecular mass multiprotein complex with DNase and amylase activities in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Svetlana E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Verkhovod, Timofey D; Buneva, Valentina N; Sedykh, Sergey E; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-01-01

    For breastfed infants, human milk is more than a source of nutrients; it furnishes a wide array of proteins, peptides, antibodies, and other components promoting neonatal growth and protecting infants from viral and bacterial infection. It has been proposed that most biological processes are performed by protein complexes. Therefore, identification and characterization of human milk components including protein complexes is important for understanding the function of milk. Using gel filtration, we have purified a stable high molecular mass (~1000 kDa) multiprotein complex (SPC) from 15 preparations of human milk. Light scattering and gel filtration showed that the SPC was stable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl and MgCl2 but dissociated efficiently under the conditions that destroy immunocomplexes (2 M MgCl2 , 0.5 M NaCl, and 10 mM DTT). Such a stable complex is unlikely to be a casual associate of different proteins. The relative content of the individual SPCs varied from 6% to 25% of the total milk protein. According to electrophoretic and mass spectrometry analysis, all 15 SPCs contained lactoferrin (LF) and α-lactalbumin as major proteins, whereas human milk albumin and β-casein were present in moderate or minor amounts; a different content of IgGs and sIgAs was observed. All SPCs efficiently hydrolyzed Plasmid supercoiled DNA and maltoheptaose. Some freshly prepared SPC preparations contained not only intact LF but also small amounts of its fragments, which appeared in all SPCs during their prolonged storage; the fragments, similar to intact LF, possessed DNase and amylase activities. LF is found in human epithelial secretions, barrier body fluids, and in the secondary granules of leukocytes. LF is a protein of the acute phase response and nonspecific defense against different types of microbial and viral infections. Therefore, LF complexes with other proteins may be important for its functions not only in human milk.

  10. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  11. High-power electrochemical energy storage system employing stable radical pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Nakano, Hideyuki; Nakamoto, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2014-01-27

    The development of electrical energy storage devices that can operate at high charge and discharge rates is fundamentally important, however although electrochemical capacitors (ECs) can charge and discharge at high rates, their electrochemical storage capacity remains an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional lithium-ion batteries. Novel pseudocapasitors are developed, based on the stable persilyl-susbtituted free radicals of the heavy group 14 elements, (tBu2 MeSi)3 E(.) [E=Si (1), Ge (2), and Sn (3)], as anode materials for energy storage system. Such systems showed a remarkable cycle stability without significant loss of power density, in comparison with similar characteristics of the known organic radical batteries, the dual carbon cell, and the electrochemical capacitor. Particularly important is that these novel electrochemical energy storage systems employing stable heavy group 14 element radicals are lithium-free. The electrochemical properties and structures of the reduced and oxidized species were studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  12. [High-sensitivity troponin in patients with stable coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hof, Arnoud W J

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of more sensitive markers of myocardial necrosis, it was shown that the diagnosis of (acute) myocardial infarction could be improved. However, many patients without myocardial infarction have elevated troponin levels (low sensitivity), resulting in additional diagnostic testing and longer admission times to find the cause of the troponin rise. Elevated troponin levels in these patients were found to have limited diagnostic but strong prognostic value. This led to studies assessing the value of high-sensitivity troponin in patients with stable disease, e.g. coronary artery disease, or even in patients without apparent (clinical) disease. These studies consistently showed a strong association with long-term (cardiac) mortality. What is the value for the general physician in daily practice? Although troponin levels may help in finding (healthy?) patients at higher risk, it remains unclear whether interventions (medication, lifestyle) are more (cost-)effective in this high-risk subgroup. The role of troponin levels as a prognostic marker in stable patients therefore remains to be determined.

  13. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chunlong; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-09-05

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic interactions (EI) and hydrophobic interactions (HI), with HI playing the dominant role. While either strong EI or HI inhibit growth and suppress (104) face expression, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate EI allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate HI cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of (104) faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications.

  14. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Long; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Deyoreo, James J.

    2014-09-01

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, with hydrophobic interactions playing the dominant role. While either strong electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions inhibit growth and reduces expression of the {104} faces, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate electrostatic interactions allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate hydrophobic interactions cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of the {104} faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications.

  15. Stable High-T {sub c} rf SQUID NDE system operating in noisy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.F. [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: he.dongfeng@nims.go.jp; Yoshizawa, M. [Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    A high-T {sub c} rf SQUID NDE system was developed for stable, long time operation in a noisy environment. To reduce the influence of high frequency electromagnetic interference (EMI), a carefully designed metal shielding made of 0.1 mm thick metal foil was used. With the metal shielding, the SQUID could still operate well when a cellular phone was used nearby although the cellular phone could produce very strong EMI noises. To reduce the influence of the line interference or low frequency noises, a compensation method was used in the SQUID-based NDE system. With the compensation, the low frequency and the line interference could be reduced well. Using this SQUID-based NDE system, we successfully performed the NDE measurements in a noisy environment.

  16. Facile and green synthesis of highly stable L-cysteine functionalized copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan

    2016-11-01

    A simple eco-friendly method for L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticles (CCNPs) synthesis in aqueous solution has been developed. Glucose and L-cysteine were used as reducing agent and capping/functionalizing agent, respectively. Different parameters such as capping agent concentration, pH, reaction temperature, and reducing agent concentration were optimized during the synthesis. The L-cysteine capped copper nanoparticle were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Particle size and zeta potential analyser, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Spherical shaped cysteine functionalized/capped copper nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were found to be highly stable at room temperature (RT) for a period of 1 month

  17. Nanoparticle self-assembly by a highly stable recombinant spider wrapping silk protein subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Tremblay, Marie-Laurence; Orrell, Kathleen E; Leclerc, Jérémie; Meng, Qing; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2013-10-01

    Artificial spider silk proteins may form fibers with exceptional strength and elasticity. Wrapping silk, or aciniform silk, is the toughest of the spider silks, and has a very different protein composition than other spider silks. Here, we present the characterization of an aciniform protein (AcSp1) subunit named W1, consisting of one AcSp1 199 residue repeat unit from Argiope trifasciata. The structural integrity of recombinant W1 is demonstrated in a variety of buffer conditions and time points. Furthermore, we show that W1 has a high thermal stability with reversible denaturation at ∼71°C and forms self-assembled nanoparticle in near-physiological conditions. W1 therefore represents a highly stable and structurally robust module for protein-based nanoparticle formation. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A wearable, highly stable, strain and bending sensor based on high aspect ratio graphite nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaferdov, A. V.; Savu, R.; Rackauskas, T. A.; Rackauskas, S.; Canesqui, M. A.; de Lara, D. S.; Setti, G. O.; Joanni, E.; de Trindade, G. M.; Lima, U. B.; de Souza, A. S.; Moshkalev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple and scalable method was developed for the fabrication of wearable strain and bending sensors, based on high aspect ratio (length/thickness ˜103) graphite nanobelt thin films deposited by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto flexible polymer substrates. The sensing mechanism is based on the changes in contact resistance between individual nanobelts upon substrate deformation. Very high sensor response stability for more than 5000 strain-release cycles and a device power consumption as low as 1 nW were achieved. The device maximum stretchability is limited by the metal electrodes and the polymer substrate; the maximum strain that could be applied to the polymer used in this work was 40%. Bending tests carried out for various radii of curvature demonstrated distinct sensor responses for positive and negative curvatures. The graphite nanobelt thin flexible films were successfully tested for acoustic vibration and heartbeat sensing.

  19. Climatic signals in multiple highly resolved stable isotope records from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2010-01-01

    are found to correspond better with winter stable isotope data than with summer or annual average stable isotope data it is suggested that a strong local Greenland temperature signal can be extracted from the winter stable isotope data even on centennial to millennial time scales. Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  20. Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Philipp; Stulz, Mareike; Kapp, Dorothee; Abzieher, Tobias; Paetzold, Ulrich W.; Quintilla, Aina; Howard, Ian A.; Kalt, Heinz; Lemmer, Uli

    2016-10-01

    We report on the performance and stability of distributed feedback lasers based on the solution-processed methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3). The CH3NH3PbI3 layers are processed via solution-casting in ambient atmosphere onto nanoimprinted second order Bragg gratings. This way, we achieve highly polarized surface-emitted lasing at room temperature with a linewidth of less than 0.2 nm and a laser threshold of 120 kW/cm2. The lasing is stable; no change in the laser emission within 15 h of pulsed excitation with a repetition rate of 1 kHz (corresponding to >5 × 107 pulses) is observed, exceeding the stability achieved for solution processed organic semiconductor lasers. Furthermore, adjustment of the grating period allowed the lasing wavelength to be varied over the entire bandwidth of the amplified spontaneous emission (between 781 and 794 nm). The fabrication process of nanoimprinting followed by solution-casting of the gain material demonstrates that stable CH3NH3PbI3 lasers are compatible with scalable production technologies and offers a route towards electrically pumped diode architectures.

  1. Palladium nanosheets as highly stable and effective contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Chen, Mei; Sun, Xiaolian; Rong, Pengfei; Zheng, Nanfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    A stable and efficient contrast agent is highly desirable for photoacoustic (PA) imaging applications. Recently gold nanostructures have been widely reported and studied for PA imaging and photothermal therapy. However, the structures of the nonspherical gold nanoparticles are easily destroyed after laser irradiation and thus may fail to complete the intended tasks. In this study, we propose to apply palladium nanosheets (PNSs), with strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, as a new class of exogenous PA contrast agents. PA and ultrasound (US) images were acquired sequentially by a portable and fast photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with a hand-held transducer. Significant and long-lasting imaging enhancement in SCC7 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was successfully observed in mice by PAT over time after tail vein administration of PNSs. The morphology and functional perfusion of the tumors were delineated in PA images due to the nanoparticle accumulation. PAT of the main organs was also conducted ex vivo to trace the fate of PNSs, which was further validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). No obvious toxic effect was observed by in vitro MTT assay and ex vivo histological examination 7 days after PNS administration. With the combination of a portable imaging instrument and signal specificity, PNSs might be applied as stable and effective agents for photoacoustic cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment guidance.

  2. A Very Stable High Throughput Taylor Cone-jet in Electrohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M. R.; Rajabi, A.; Razavi, M.; Sereshkeh, S. R. Pejman

    2016-12-01

    A stable capillary liquid jet formed by an electric field is an important physical phenomenon for formation of controllable small droplets, power generation and chemical reactions, printing and patterning, and chemical-biological investigations. In electrohydrodynamics, the well-known Taylor cone-jet has a stability margin within a certain range of the liquid flow rate (Q) and the applied voltage (V). Here, we introduce a simple mechanism to greatly extend the Taylor cone-jet stability margin and produce a very high throughput. For an ethanol cone-jet emitting from a simple nozzle, the stability margin is obtained within 1 kV for low flow rates, decaying with flow rate up to 2 ml/h. By installing a hemispherical cap above the nozzle, we demonstrate that the stability margin could increase to 5 kV for low flow rates, decaying to zero for a maximum flow rate of 65 ml/h. The governing borders of stability margins are discussed and obtained for three other liquids: methanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol. For a gravity-directed nozzle, the produced cone-jet is more stable against perturbations and the axis of the spray remains in the same direction through the whole stability margin, unlike the cone-jet of conventional simple nozzles.

  3. Immobilization of actinides in stable mineral type and ceramic materials (high temperature synthesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, O.; Konovalov, E.

    1996-05-01

    Alternative vitrification technologies are being developed in the world for the immobilization of high radioactive waste in materials with improved thermodynamic stability, as well as improved chemical and thermal stability and stability to radiation. Oxides, synthesized in the form of analogs to rock-forming minerals and ceramics, are among those materials that have highly stable properties and are compatible with the environment. In choosing the appropriate material, we need to be guided by its geometric stability, the minimal number of cations in the structure of the material and the presence of structural elements in the mineral that are isomorphs of uranium and thorium, actinoids found in nature. Rare earth elements, yttrium, zirconium and calcium are therefore suitable. The minerals listed in the table (with the exception of the zircon) are pegatites by origin, i.e. they are formed towards the end of the magma crystallization of silicates form the residual melt, enriched with Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Ce, Y, U and Th. Uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures form part of the lattice of the mineral. These minerals, which are rather simple in composition and structure and are formed under high temperatures, may be viewed as natural physio-chemical systems that are stable and long-lived in natural environments. The similarity of the properties of actinoids and lanthanoids plays an important role in the geochemistry of uranium and thorium; however, uranium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} group of lanthanoids (the yttrium group) while thorium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}light{close_quotes} group (the cerium group). That is why rare earth minerals contain uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures.

  4. Thermally Stable Nanocatalyst for High Temperature Reactions: Pt-Mesoporous Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, J.Y.; Tsung, C.-K.; Yamada, Y.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-10-25

    Recent advances in colloidal synthesis enabled the precise control of size, shape and composition of catalytic metal nanoparticles, allowing their use as model catalysts for systematic investigations of the atomic-scale properties affecting catalytic activity and selectivity. The organic capping agents stabilizing colloidal nanoparticles, however, often limit their application in high-temperature catalytic reactions. Here we report the design of a high-temperature stable model catalytic system that consists of Pt metal core coated with a mesoporous silica shell (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}). While inorganic silica shells encaged the Pt cores up to 750 C in air, the mesopores directly accessible to Pt cores made the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as catalytically active as bare Pt metal for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation. The high thermal stability of Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles permitted high-temperature CO oxidation studies, including ignition behavior, which was not possible for bare Pt nanoparticles because of their deformation or aggregation. The results suggest that the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are excellent nanocatalytic systems for high-temperature catalytic reactions or surface chemical processes, and the design concept employed in the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} core-shell catalyst can be extended to other metal-metal oxide compositions.

  5. Minimized thermal conductivity in highly stable thermal barrier W/ZrO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Florian; Major, Anna; Eberl, Christian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Nanoscale thin-film multilayer materials are of great research interest since their large number of interfaces can strongly hinder phonon propagation and lead to a minimized thermal conductivity. When such materials provide a sufficiently small thermal conductivity and feature in addition also a high thermal stability, they would be possible candidates for high-temperature applications such as thermal barrier coatings. For this article, we have used pulsed laser deposition in order to fabricate thin multilayers out of the thermal barrier material ZrO2 in combination with W, which has both a high melting point and high density. Layer thicknesses were designed such that bulk thermal conductivity is governed by the low value of ZrO2, while ultrathin W blocking layers provide a high number of interfaces. By this phonon scattering, reflection and shortening of mean free path lead to a significant reduction in overall thermal conductivity even below the already low value of ZrO2. In addition to this, X-ray reflectivity measurements were taken showing strong Bragg peaks even after annealing such multilayers at 1300 K. Those results identify W/ZrO2 multilayers as desired thermally stable, low-conductivity materials.

  6. Minimized thermal conductivity in highly stable thermal barrier W/ZrO{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Florian; Major, Anna; Eberl, Christian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich [University of Goettingen, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Nanoscale thin-film multilayer materials are of great research interest since their large number of interfaces can strongly hinder phonon propagation and lead to a minimized thermal conductivity. When such materials provide a sufficiently small thermal conductivity and feature in addition also a high thermal stability, they would be possible candidates for high-temperature applications such as thermal barrier coatings. For this article, we have used pulsed laser deposition in order to fabricate thin multilayers out of the thermal barrier material ZrO{sub 2} in combination with W, which has both a high melting point and high density. Layer thicknesses were designed such that bulk thermal conductivity is governed by the low value of ZrO{sub 2}, while ultrathin W blocking layers provide a high number of interfaces. By this phonon scattering, reflection and shortening of mean free path lead to a significant reduction in overall thermal conductivity even below the already low value of ZrO{sub 2}. In addition to this, X-ray reflectivity measurements were taken showing strong Bragg peaks even after annealing such multilayers at 1300 K. Those results identify W/ZrO{sub 2} multilayers as desired thermally stable, low-conductivity materials. (orig.)

  7. Supplementary Material for: High-Order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of points is a very challenging problem and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.

  8. High-order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2015-09-29

    In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of locations is a very challenging problem in computational statistics, and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely-used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.

  9. Pt Monolayer Shell on Nitrided Alloy Core—A Path to Highly Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of the PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.

  10. Stable and high-power few cycle supercontinuum for 2D ultrabroadband electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokoyny, Boris; Koh, Christine J; Harel, Elad

    2015-03-15

    Broadband supercontinuum (SC) pulses in the few cycle regime are a promising source for spectroscopic and imaging applications. However, SC sources are plagued by poor stability, greatly limiting their utility in phase-resolved nonlinear experiments such as 2D photon echo spectroscopy (2D PES). Here, we generated SC by two-stage filamentation in argon and air starting from 100 fs input pulses, which are sufficiently high-power and stable to record time-resolved 2D PE spectra in a single laser shot. We obtain a total power of 400 μJ/pulse in the visible spectral range of 500-850 nm and, after compression, yield pulses with duration of 6 fs according to transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG-FROG) measurements. We demonstrate the method on the laser dye, Cresyl Violet, and observe coherent oscillations indicative of nuclear wavepacket dynamics.

  11. High voltage threshold for stable operation in a dc electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nishimori, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    We report clear observation of a high voltage (HV) threshold for stable operation in a dc electron gun. The HV hold-off time without any discharge is longer than many hours for operation below the threshold, while it is roughly 10 min above the threshold. The HV threshold corresponds to the minimum voltage where discharge ceases. The threshold increases with the number of discharges during HV conditioning of the gun. Above the threshold, the amount of gas desorption per discharge increases linearly with the voltage difference from the threshold. The present experimental observations can be explained by an avalanche discharge model based on the interplay between electron stimulated desorption (ESD) from the anode surface and subsequent secondary electron emission from the cathode by the impact of ionic components of the ESD molecules or atoms.

  12. Highly stable water-soluble platinum nanoparticles stabilized by hydrophilic N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Edwin A; Tricard, Simon; Flores, Juan Carlos; de Jesús, Ernesto; Chaudret, Bruno

    2014-11-24

    Controlling the synthesis of stable metal nanoparticles in water is a current challenge in nanochemistry. The strategy presented herein uses sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to stabilize platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in water, under air, for an indefinite time period. The particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of a preformed molecular Pt complex containing the NHC ligand and were then purified by dialysis and characterized by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and spectroscopic techniques. Solid-state NMR studies showed coordination of the carbene ligands to the nanoparticle surface and allowed the determination of a (13)C-(195)Pt coupling constant for the first time in a nanosystem (940 Hz). Additionally, in one case a novel structure was formed in which platinum(II) NHC complexes form a second coordination sphere around the nanoparticle.

  13. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application.

  14. The study of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate for desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.; Zhou, J.; Ma, Y. (and others) [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). National Key Lab. of MOE Clean Energy and Environment Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Sulphoaluminate (3CaO{center_dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) {center_dot}CaSO{sub 4} is produced when coal is calcined to about 1200{sup o}C. This article studies the forming mechanisms of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate systematically. The influence laws of such factors as the combustion temperature, retention period, the mixed proportion of compound and additives to desulfurization have been obtained, and the forming mechanism was analyzed later. The result of experiment indicates that the most sulphoaluminate is produced at 1300{sup o}C when the molar ratio of the compounds calcium oxide, aluminium oxide and calcium sulfate is 3:3:1. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Monolithic Highly Stable Yb-Doped Femtosecond Fiber Lasers for Applications in Practical Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Operational and environmental stability of ultrafast laser systems is critical for their applications in practical biophotonics. Mode-locked fiber lasers show great promise in applications such as supercontinuum sources or multiphoton microscopy systems. Recently, substantial progress has been made...... in the development of all-fiber nonlinear-optical laser control schemes, which resulted in the demonstration of highly stable monolithic, i.e., not containing any free-space elements, lasers with direct fiber-end delivery of femtosecond pulses. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development...... of such all-fiber mode-locked lasers based on Yb-fiber as gain medium, operating at the wavelength around 1 $\\mu$m, and delivering femtosecond pulses reaching tens of nanojoules of energy....

  16. High-Temperature Stable Operation of Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We experimentally demonstrated that nanoribbon field-effect transistors can be used for stable high-temperature applications. The on-current level of the nanoribbon FETs decreases at elevated temperatures due to the degradation of the electron mobility. We propose two methods of compensating for the variation of the current level with the temperature in the range of 25–150°C, involving the application of a suitable (1 positive or (2 negative substrate bias. These two methods were compared by two-dimensional numerical simulations. Although both approaches show constant on-state current saturation characteristics over the proposed temperature range, the latter shows an improvement in the off-state control of up to five orders of magnitude (−5.2 × 10−6.

  17. Highly-stable monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser system based on photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    of around 297 fs duration. Our laser shows exceptional stability. No Q-switched modelocking events were detected during 4-days long observation. An average fluctuation of only 7.85 · 10−4 over the mean output power was determined as a result of more than 6-hours long measurement. The laser is stable towards......A self-starting, passively stabilized, monolithic all polarizationmaintaining femtosecond Yb-fiber master oscillator / power amplifier with very high operational and environmental stability is demonstrated. The system is based on the use of two different photonic crystal fibers. One is used...... in the oscillator cavity for dispersion balancing and nonlinear optical limiting, and another one is used for low nonlinearity final pulse recompression. The chirped-pulse amplification and recompression of the 232-fs, 45-pJ/pulse oscillator output yields a final direct fiber-end delivery of 7.3-nJ energy pulses...

  18. Entropy stable high order discontinuous Galerkin methods with suitable quadrature rules for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianheng; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that semi-discrete high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods satisfy cell entropy inequalities for the square entropy for both scalar conservation laws (Jiang and Shu (1994) [39]) and symmetric hyperbolic systems (Hou and Liu (2007) [36]), in any space dimension and for any triangulations. However, this property holds only for the square entropy and the integrations in the DG methods must be exact. It is significantly more difficult to design DG methods to satisfy entropy inequalities for a non-square convex entropy, and/or when the integration is approximated by a numerical quadrature. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for designing high order DG methods which will satisfy entropy inequalities for any given single convex entropy, through suitable numerical quadrature which is specific to this given entropy. Our framework applies from one-dimensional scalar cases all the way to multi-dimensional systems of conservation laws. For the one-dimensional case, our numerical quadrature is based on the methodology established in Carpenter et al. (2014) [5] and Gassner (2013) [19]. The main ingredients are summation-by-parts (SBP) operators derived from Legendre Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, the entropy conservative flux within elements, and the entropy stable flux at element interfaces. We then generalize the scheme to two-dimensional triangular meshes by constructing SBP operators on triangles based on a special quadrature rule. A local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) type treatment is also incorporated to achieve the generalization to convection-diffusion equations. Extensive numerical experiments are performed to validate the accuracy and shock capturing efficacy of these entropy stable DG methods.

  19. How Stable Is Stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Provides a problem where students are asked to find the point at which a soda can floating in some liquid changes its equilibrium between stable and unstable as the soda is removed from the can. Requires use of Newton's first law, center of mass, Archimedes' principle, stable and unstable equilibrium, and buoyant force position. (MVL)

  20. Synthesis of highly stable, water-dispersible copper nanoparticles as catalysts for nitrobenzene reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Giordano, Cristina; Gradzielski, Michael; Mehta, Surinder K

    2014-01-01

    We report an aqueous-phase synthetic route to copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a copper-surfactant complex and tests of their catalytic efficiency for a simple nitrophenol reduction reaction under atmospheric conditions. Highly stable, water-dispersed CuNPs were obtained with the aid of polyacrylic acid (PAA), but not with other dispersants like surfactants or polymethacrylic acid (PMAA). The diameter of the CuNPs could be controlled in the range of approximately 30-85 nm by modifying the ratio of the metal precursor to PAA. The catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol takes place at the surface of CuNPs at room temperature and was accurately monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The catalytic efficiency was found to be remarkably high for these PAA-capped CuNPs, given the fact that at the same time PAA is efficiently preventing their oxidation as well. The activity was found to increase as the size of the CuNPs decreased. It can therefore be concluded that the synthesized CuNPs are catalytically highly efficient in spite of the presence of a protective PAA coating, which provides them with a long shelf life and thereby enhances the application potential of these CuNPs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A simple and highly stable free-flow electrophoresis device with thermoelectric cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Guo, Cheng-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Shen, Qiao-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Zhang; Li, Jun; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Jin, Xin-Qiao

    2013-12-20

    Complex assembly, inconvenient operations, poor control of Joule heating and leakage of solution are still fundamental issues greatly hindering application of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) for preparative purpose in bio-separation. To address these issues, a novel FFE device was developed based on our previous work. Firstly, a new mechanical structure was designed for compact assembly of separation chamber, fast removal of air bubble, and good anti-leakage performance. Secondly, a highly efficient thermoelectric cooling system was used for dispersing Joule heating for the first time. The systemic experiments revealed the three merits: (i) 3min assembly without any liquid leakage, 80 times faster than pervious FFE device designed by us or commercial device (4h); (ii) 5s removing of air bubble in chamber, 1000-fold faster than a normal one (2h or more) and (iii) good control of Joule heating by the cooling system. These merits endowed the device high stable thermo- and hydro-dynamic flow for long-term separation even under high electric field of 63V/cm. Finally, the developed device was used for up to 8h continuous separation of 5mg/mL fuchsin acid and purification of three model proteins of phycocyanin, myoglobin and cytochrome C, demonstrating the applicability of FFE. The developed FFE device has evident significance to the studies on stem cell, cell or organelle proteomics, and protein complex as well as micro- or nano-particles.

  2. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  3. High-Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Eom, Wonsik; Park, Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-08-02

    Control of the crystal structure of electrochemically active materials is an important approach to fabricating high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we report a methodology for controlling the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers by adding aluminum isopropoxide to a common sol-gel precursor solution utilized to create TiO2 nanofibers. The introduction of aluminum cations impedes the phase transformation of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers from the anatase to the rutile phase, which inevitably occurs in the typical annealing process utilized for the formation of TiO2 crystals. As a result, high-temperature stable anatase TiO2 nanofibers were created in which the crystal structure was well-maintained even at high annealing temperatures of up to 700 °C. Finally, the resulting anatase TiO2 nanofibers were utilized to prepare LIB anodes, and their electrochemical performance was compared to pristine TiO2 nanofibers that contain both anatase and rutile phases. Compared to the electrode prepared with pristine TiO2 nanofibers, the electrode prepared with anatase TiO2 nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performances such as an initial Coulombic efficiency of 83.9%, a capacity retention of 89.5% after 100 cycles, and a rate capability of 48.5% at a current density of 10 C (1 C = 200 mA g(-1)).

  4. High temperature stable Li-ion battery separators based on polyetherimides with improved electrolyte compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    l'Abee, Roy; DaRosa, Fabien; Armstrong, Mark J.; Hantel, Moritz M.; Mourzagh, Djamel

    2017-03-01

    We report (electro-)chemically stable, high temperature resistant and fast wetting Li-ion battery separators produced through a phase inversion process using novel polyetherimides (PEI) based on bisphenol-aceton diphthalic anhydride (BPADA) and para-phenylenediamine (pPD). In contrast to previous studies using PEI based on BPADA and meta-phenylenediamine (mPD), the separators reported herein show limited swelling in electrolytes and do not require fillers to render sufficient mechanical strength and ionic conductivity. In this work, the produced 15-25 μm thick PEI-pPD separators show excellent electrolyte compatibility, proven by low degrees of swelling in electrolyte solvents, low contact angles, fast electrolyte wicking and high electrolyte uptake. The separators cover a tunable range of morphologies and properties, leading to a wide range of ionic conductivities as studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) demonstrated dimensional stability up to 220 °C. Finally, single layer graphite/lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) pouch cells were assembled using this novel PEI-pPD separator, showing an excellent capacity retention of 89.3% after 1000 1C/2C cycles, with a mean Coulombic efficiency of 99.77% and limited resistance build-up. We conclude that PEI-pPD is a promising new material candidate for high performance separators.

  5. A scalable synthesis of highly stable and water dispersible Ag 44(SR)30 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of atomically monodisperse thiol-protected silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30] m, (SR = 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid) in which the product nanocluster is highly stable in contrast to previous preparation methods. The method is one-pot, scalable, and produces nanoclusters that are stable in aqueous solution for at least 9 months at room temperature under ambient conditions, with very little degradation to their unique UV-Vis optical absorption spectrum. The composition, size, and monodispersity were determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation. The produced nanoclusters are likely to be in a superatom charge-state of m = 4-, due to the fact that their optical absorption spectrum shares most of the unique features of the intense and broadly absorbing nanoparticles identified as [Ag44(SR) 30]4- by Harkness et al. (Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 4269). A protocol to transfer the nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Using the disperse nanoclusters in organic media, we fabricated solid-state films of [Ag44(SR)30]m that retained all the distinct features of the optical absorption spectrum of the nanoclusters in solution. The films were studied by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy in order to investigate their crystallinity, atomic composition and valence band structure. The stability, scalability, and the film fabrication method demonstrated in this work pave the way towards the crystallization of [Ag44(SR)30]m and its full structural determination by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover, due to their unique and attractive optical properties with multiple optical transitions, we anticipate these clusters to find practical applications in light-harvesting, such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis, which have been hindered so far by the instability of previous generations of the cluster. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. An effective method for the preparation of high temperature stable anatase TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Rachel; Synnott, Damian W.; McCormack, Declan E.; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-05-01

    An efficient, rapid and straightforward method for the preparation of nitrogen and fluorine (N, F) codoped high temperature stable anatase using a microwave pre-treatment is reported. Using a single source, ammonium fluoride (NH4F) for both nitrogen and fluorine, effective doping of the precursor titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) was possible. These samples were characterised for their structural and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform IR (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. In terms of the anatase to rutile transition enhancement using a novel microwave assisted technique, the sample prepared in a composition of 1:8 TiO2: NH4F at 1200 °C was seen to be most effective, having stable anatase present at 57.1% compared to undoped TiO2 being 100% rutile from 900 °C. This method involves the production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH4TiOF3) at low temperatures. The inclusion of these intermediates greatly reduces the particle size growth and delays the anatase to rutile transition. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was studied by analysing the degradation of an organic dye, rhodamine 6G as a model system and the rate constant was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetics. These results showed that the doped sample (0.0225 min-1) was three times more active than the undoped sample (0.0076 min-1) and over seven times faster than the commercial TiO2 photocatalyst standard Degussa P-25 calcined at 1200 °C (0.0030 min-1). The formation of intermediate compounds, oxofluorotitanates, was identified as the major reason for a delay in the anatase to rutile transition.

  7. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular...... carcinoma via a reduction of the inflammatory load from the gut to the liver and inhibition of angiogenesis. Due to their effect on the portal pressure, non-selective beta-blockers are used for prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding. Recently, non-hemodynamic effects of beta-blockers have received...... reduce hepatic inflammation. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors also decrease angiogenesis by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factors. Because gut-derived inflammation and neo-angiogenesis are important in hepatic carcinogenesis, non-selective beta-blockers can potentially reduce the development...

  8. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based

  9. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based

  10. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable palladium-based composite membranes for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Hawa, Hani W.

    In this thesis, the inert gas leak evolution problem in electroless-plated palladium-based composite membranes has been revisited. Palladium was doped with a higher melting point element such as ruthenium or platinum and the rate of increase of the nitrogen leak in the temperature range of 500-600 ºC was determined. The results showed that doping Pd with Pt or Ru significantly reduces the leak growth rate compared to a pure Pd membrane by almost one order of magnitude. The addition of Ru to Pd was sufficient to lower the leak growth rate, though the hydrogen permeance stability was not improved. The Pd-Pt alloy membrane, despite having a lower hydrogen permeance, had a stable hydrogen flux at higher temperatures. The influence of high temperature annealing (> 640 ºC) on the thermal stability of pure Pd composite membranes was also investigated in order to correlate between thermal stability and microstructural evolution. Pure Pd composite membranes were subjected to different high temperature annealing processes. It was found that employing such heat treatments improved the thermal stability of the membranes when operated at lower temperatures; evidenced by a suppression of the rate at which hydrogen selectivity towards nitrogen declined over time. SEM images of the microstructural evolution as a function of temperature revealed that porosity, which is typically present in as-deposited electroless plated films, is significantly reduced after heat treatment. Thermal stability was also evaluated in actual steam methane reforming (SMR) environments. Thin film (˜5.0 microm thick) Pd-Ru and Pd-Au composite membranes were fabricated and used to carry out SMR over commercial Ni or Ru based catalysts at temperatures > 480 °C and pressures up to 2.9 MPa. The conversions obtained (≥ 80%) were significantly higher than the thermodynamic equilibrium predicted (process conditions. The long term operation (> 500 hours) revealed the potential suitability of these Pd

  11. Thermally highly stable amorphous zinc phosphate intermediates during the formation of zinc phosphate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Sven; Celinski, Vinicius R; Dietzsch, Michael; Panthöfer, Martin; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-18

    The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are still poorly understood. Here we attempt to illuminate the formation of an amorphous precursor by investigating the crystallization process of zinc phosphate hydrate. This work shows that amorphous zinc phosphate (AZP) nanoparticles precipitate from aqueous solutions prior to the crystalline hopeite phase at low concentrations and in the absence of additives at room temperature. AZP nanoparticles are thermally stable against crystallization even at 400 °C (resulting in a high temperature AZP), but they crystallize rapidly in the presence of water if the reaction is not interrupted. X-ray powder diffraction with high-energy synchrotron radiation, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering showed the particle size (≈20 nm) and confirmed the noncrystallinity of the nanoparticle intermediates. Energy dispersive X-ray, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectrometry as well as thermal analysis were used for further compositional characterization of the as synthesized nanomaterial. (1)H solid-state NMR allowed the quantification of the hydrogen content, while an analysis of (31)P{(1)H} C rotational echo double resonance spectra permitted a dynamic and structural analysis of the crystallization pathway to hopeite.

  12. Characterization of a silica-PVA hybrid for high density and stable silver dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorin, Bryce, E-mail: bryce.dorin@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhu, Guangyu, E-mail: g.zhu@liverpool.ac.uk [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Parkinson, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.parkinson@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Perrie, Walter, E-mail: wpfemto1@liverpool.ac.uk [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Benyezzar, Med, E-mail: med.benyezzar@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Scully, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.scully@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    A silica and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid material mixed with a high density of silver ions is synthesised and characterized in this work. The hybrid material can be cast into thick films, which we determined to be homogeneous using Raman spectroscopy. We observed that the silver ions remain stable in the material over time and at temperatures of 100 °C, which represents a marked improvement over previous solid solutions of silver. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicate the rapid activation of silver at 173 °C, resulting in a dense formation of silver nanoparticles within the hybrid. The activation of silver was also demonstrated in 3-dimensional geometries using femtosecond duration laser pulses. These results illustrate the silica-PVA hybrid is an attractive material for developing silver-insulator composites. - Highlights: • A novel PVA-silica hybrid is developed for silver ion dissolution. • The hybrid exhibits a high silver saturation point and good silver stability. • Heating and laser irradiation are capable of converting the silver ions to metal. • The hybrid material enables the fabrication of 3D metal-insulator composites.

  13. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mònica; Lugo, Roberto; Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Samitier, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG), thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors. PMID:24999717

  14. Differential host use in two highly specialized ant-plant associations: evidence from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S T; Sagers, C L

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to examine variation in ant use of plant resources in the Cecropia obtusifolia / Azteca spp. association in Costa Rica. Tissue of ants, host plants and symbiotic pseudococcids were collected along three elevation transects on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica's Cordillera Central, and were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. Worker carbon and nitrogen signatures were found to vary with elevation and ant colony size, and between Azteca species groups. Ants in the A. constructor species group appear to be opportunistic foragers at low elevations, but rely more heavily on their host plants at high elevations, whereas ants in the A. alfari species group consume a more consistent diet across their distribution. Further, isotope values indicate that both ant species groups acquire more nitrogen from higher trophic levels at low elevation and when ant colonies are small. Provisioning by the host is a substantial ecological cost to the interaction, and it may vary, even in a highly specialized association. Nonetheless, not all specialized interactions are equivalent; where interaction with one ant species group appears conditional upon the environment, the other is not. Differential host use within the Cecropia-Azteca association suggests that the ecological and evolutionary benefits and costs of association may vary among species pairs.

  15. Polyethyleneimine High-Energy Hydrophilic Surface Interfacial Treatment toward Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengwei; Liang, Chao; Zhang, Yiqiang; Li, Fengyu; Song, Yanlin; Shao, Guosheng

    2016-11-30

    The interfacial contact is critical for the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), leading to dense perovskite thin films and efficient charge transport. In this contribution, an effective interfacial treatment solution using polyethyleneimine (PEI) was developed to improve the performance and stability of PSCs. Inserting PEI between the s-VOx and perovskite layers can produce a high-energy hydrophilic surface to facilitate the formation of a high-quality perovskite layer by the solution method. Accordingly, the surface coverage of perovskite film on the s-VOx layer increased from 80% to 95%, and the PCE of the device improved from 12.06% (with an average of 10.16%) to 14.4% (with an average value of 12.8%) under an irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5G sunlight. More importantly, the stability of PSCs was further improved after adding another PEI layer between the electron transport layer and LiF/Al layer, less than 10% decay in efficiency during a 10-days observation. Since all layers of the PSCs were fabricated at low temperature (<150 °C), these PEI-treated PSCs based on the amorphous VOx layer have the potential to contribute significantly toward the development of efficient and stable solar cells on flexible substrates.

  16. Hyper-stable organo-Eu(III) luminophore under high temperature for photo-industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2016-04-14

    Novel organo-Eu(III) luminophores, Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, CPO: 4-carboxyphenyl diphenyl phosphine oxide, TCPO: 4,4',4″-tricarboxyphenyl phosphine oxide), were synthesized by the complexation of Eu(III) ions with hfa moieties and CPO or TCPO ligands. The thermal and luminescent stabilities of the luminophores are extremely high. The decomposition temperature of Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y were determined as 200 and 450 °C, respectively. The luminescence of Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y under UV light irradiation was observed even at a high temperature, 400 °C. The luminescent properties of Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y were estimated from emission spectra, quantum yields and lifetime measurements. The energy transfer efficiency from hfa moieties to Eu(III) ions in Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y was 59%. The photosensitized luminescence of hyper-stable Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y at 400 °C is demonstrated for future photonic applications.

  17. Highly active and stable oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na⁺ pump complex for structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Michio; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-11-01

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase primary Na(+) pump (Oad) produces energy for the surviving of some pathogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Oad composes of three subunits: Oad-α, a biotinylated soluble subunit and catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate; Oad-β, a transmembrane subunit and functions as a Na(+) pump; and Oad-γ, a single transmembrane α-helical anchor subunit and assembles Oad-α/β/γ complex. The molecular mechanism of Oad complex coupling the exothermic decarboxylation to generate the Na(+) electrochemical gradient remains unsolved. Our biophysical and biochemical studies suggested that the stoichiometry of Oad complex from Vibrio cholerae composed of α, β, γ in 4:2:2 stoichiometry not that of 4:4:4. The high-resolution structure determination of the Oad complex would reveal the energetic transformation mechanism from the catalytical soluble α subunit to membrane β subunit. Sufficient amount stable, conformational homogenous and active Oad complex with the right stoichiometry is the prerequisite for structural analysis. Here we report an easy and reproducible protocol to obtain high quantity and quality Oad complex protein for structural analysis.

  18. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.

  19. Does viviparity evolve in cold climate reptiles because pregnant females maintain stable (not high) body temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2004-08-01

    Viviparity (live bearing) has evolved from egg laying (oviparity) in many lineages of lizards and snakes, apparently in response to occupancy of cold climates. Explanations for this pattern have focused on the idea that behaviorally thermoregulating (sun-basking) pregnant female reptiles can maintain higher incubation temperatures for their embryos than would be available in nests under the soil surface. This is certainly true at very high elevations, where only viviparous species occur. However, comparisons of nest and lizard temperatures at sites close to the upper elevational limit for oviparous reptiles (presumably, the selective environment where the transition from oviparity to viviparity actually occurs) suggest that reproductive mode has less effect on mean incubation temperatures than on the diel distribution of those temperatures. Nests of the oviparous scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi showed smooth diel cycles of heating and cooling. In contrast, body temperatures of the viviparous scincid Eulamprus heatwolei rose abruptly in the morning, were high and stable during daylight hours, and fell abruptly at night. Laboratory incubation experiments mimicking these patterns showed that developmental rates of eggs and phenotypic traits of hatchling B. duperreyi were sensitive to this type of thermal variance as well as to mean temperature. Hence, diel distributions as well as mean incubation temperatures may have played an important role in the selective forces for viviparity. More generally, variances as well as mean values of abiotic factors may constitute significant selective forces on life-history evolution.

  20. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylchloride (PVC is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs. However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEG, thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors.

  1. Improvement Design of Biochip Towards High Stable Bioparticle Detection Utilizing Dielectrophoresis Impedance Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Haibo; Qian Cheng; Li Xiangpeng; Chen Liguo; Xu Wenkui; Zheng Liang; Sun Lining

    2015-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis impedance measurement (DEPIM ) is a powerful tool for bioparticle detection due to its advantages of high efficiency ,label-free and low costs .However ,the strong electric field may decrease the viabili-ty of the bioparticle ,thus leading to instability of impedance measurement .A new design of biochip is presented with high stable bioparticle detection capabilities by using both negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and traveling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) .In the biochip ,a spiral electrode is arranged on the top of channel ,while a detec-tor is arranged on the bottom of the channel .The influence factors on the DEP force and twDEP force are investi-gated by using the basic principle of DEP ,based on which ,the relationship between Clausius-Mossotti (CM) fac-tor and the frequency of electric field is obtained .The two-dimensional model of the biochip is built by using Com-sol Multiphysics .Electric potential distribution ,force distribution and particle trajectory in the channel are then obtained by using the simulation model .Finally ,both the simulations and experiments are performed to demon-strate that the new biochip can enhance the detection efficiency and reduce the negative effects of electric field on the bioparticles .

  2. Atomic layer deposition encapsulated activated carbon electrodes for high voltage stable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kijoo; Cho, Moonkyu; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-01-28

    Operating voltage enhancement is an effective route for high energy density supercapacitors. Unfortunately, widely used activated carbon electrode generally suffers from poor electrochemical stability over 2.5 V. Here we present atomic layer deposition (ALD) encapsulation of activated carbons for high voltage stable supercapacitors. Two-nanometer-thick Al2O3 dielectric layers are conformally coated at activated carbon surface by ALD, well-maintaining microporous morphology. Resultant electrodes exhibit excellent stability at 3 V operation with 39% energy density enhancement from 2.5 V operation. Because of the protection of surface functional groups and reduction of electrolyte degradation, 74% of initial voltage was maintained 50 h after full charge, and 88% of capacitance was retained after 5000 cycles at 70 °C accelerated test, which correspond to 31 and 17% improvements from bare activated carbon, respectively. This ALD-based surface modification offers a general method to enhance electrochemical stability of carbon materials for diverse energy and environmental applications.

  3. Highly stable organic field-effect transistors with engineered gate dielectrics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Yun, Minseong; Singh, Ankit K.; Dindar, Amir; Choi, Sangmoo; Graham, Samuel

    2016-11-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have the potential to lead to low-cost flexible displays, wearable electronics, and sensors. While recent efforts have focused greatly on improving the maximum charge mobility that can be achieved in such devices, studies about the stability and reliability of such high performance devices are relatively scarce. In this talk, we will discuss the results of recent studies aimed at improving the stability of OFETs under operation and their shelf lifetime. In particular, we will focus on device architectures where the gate dielectric is engineered to act simultaneously as an environmental barrier layer. In the past, our group had demonstrated solution-processed top-gate OFETs using TIPS-pentacene and PTAA blends as a semiconductor layer with a bilayer gate dielectric layer of CYTOP/Al2O3, where the oxide layer was fabricated by atomic layer deposition, ALD. Such devices displayed high operational stability with little degradation after 20,000 on/off scan cycles or continuous operation (24 h), and high environmental stability when kept in air for more than 2 years, with unchanged carrier mobility. Using this stable device geometry, simple circuits and sensors operating in aqueous conditions were demonstrated. However, the Al2O3 layer was found to degrade due to corrosion under prolonged exposure in aqueous solutions. In this talk, we will report on the use of a nanolaminate (NL) composed of Al2O3 and HfO2 by ALD to replace the Al2O3 single layer in the bilayer gate dielectric use in top-gate OFETs. Such OFETs were found to operate under harsh condition such as immersion in water at 95 °C. This work was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Bay Area Photovoltaics Consortium (BAPVC) under Award Number DE-EE0004946.

  4. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  5. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material.

  6. Synthesis of Highly Stable Cobalt Nanomaterial Using Gallic Acid and Its Application in Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the room temperature (25–30°C green synthesis of cobalt nanomaterial (CoNM in an aqueous medium using gallic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent. pH 9.5 was found to favour the formation of well dispersed flower shaped CoNM. The optimization of various parameters in preparation of nanoscale was studied. The AFM, SEM, EDX, and XRD characterization studies provide detailed information about synthesized CoNM which were of 4–9 nm in dimensions. The highly stable CoNM were used to study their catalytic activity for removal of azo dyes by selecting methyl orange as a model compound. The results revealed that 0.4 mg of CoNM has shown 100% removal of dye from 50 μM aqueous solution of methyl orange. The synthesized CoNM can be easily recovered and recycled several times without decrease in their efficiency.

  7. Phase Restructuring in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Highly Stable Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Kai; Chen, Zhongxin; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Tang, Wei; Tian, Bingbing; Nai, Chang Tai; Zhou, Wu; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-09-28

    Achieving homogeneous phase transition and uniform charge distribution is essential for good cycle stability and high capacity when phase conversion materials are used as electrodes. Herein, we show that chemical lithiation of bulk 2H-MoS2 distorts its crystalline domains in three primary directions to produce mosaic-like 1T' nanocrystalline domains, which improve phase and charge uniformity during subsequent electrochemical phase conversion. 1T'-LixMoS2, a macroscopic dense material with interconnected nanoscale grains, shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability in a lithium rechargeable battery compared to bulk or exfoliated-restacked MoS2. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the interconnected MoS2 nanocrystals created during the phase change process are reformable even after multiple cycles of galvanostatic charging/discharging, which allows them to play important roles in the long term cycling performance of the chemically intercalated TMD materials. These studies shed light on how bulk TMDs can be processed into quasi-2D nanophase material for stable energy storage.

  8. Fluorine Functionalized Graphene Nano Platelets for Highly Stable Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jang, Hyungsu; Yoon, Yung Jin; Jeong, Jaeki; Park, Song Yi; Walker, Bright; Jeon, In-Yup; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Minjin; Baek, Jong-Beom; Kim, Dong Suk; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-09-14

    Edged-selectively fluorine (F) functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs-F) with a p-i-n structure of perovskite solar cells achieved 82% stability relative to initial performance over 30 days of air exposure without encapsulation. The enhanced stability stems from F-substitution on EFGnPs; fluorocarbons such as polytetrafluoroethylene are well-known for their superhydrophobic properties and being impervious to chemical degradation. These hydrophobic moieties tightly protect perovskite layers from air degradation. To directly compare the effect of similar hydrophilic graphene layers, edge-selectively hydrogen functionalized graphene nanoplatelet (EFGnPs-H) treated devices were tested under the same conditions. Like the pristine MAPbI3 perovskite devices, EFGnPs-H treated devices were completely degraded after 10 days. The hydrophobic properties of EFGnPs-F were characterized by contact angle measurement. The test results showed great water repellency compared to pristine perovskite films or EFGnPs-H coated films. This resulted in highly air-stable p-i-n perovskite solar cells.

  9. A highly stable nonbiofouling surface with well-packed grafted zwitterionic polysulfobetaine for plasma protein repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Higuchi, Akon; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Wen-Yih

    2008-05-20

    An ideal nonbiofouling surface for biomedical applications requires both high-efficient antifouling characteristics in relation to biological components and long-term material stability from biological systems. In this study we demonstrate the performance and stability of an antifouling surface with grafted zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA). The SBMA was grafted from a bromide-covered gold surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization to form well-packed polymer brushes. Plasma protein adsorption on poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) grafted surfaces was measured with a surface plasmon resonance sensor. It is revealed that an excellent stable nonbiofouling surface with grafted polySBMA can be performed with a cycling test of the adsorption of three model proteins in a wide range of various salt types, buffer compositions, solution pH levels, and temperatures. This work also demonstrates the adsorption of plasma proteins and the adhesion of platelets from human blood plasma on the polySBMA grafted surface. It was found that the polySBMA grafted surface effectively reduces the plasma protein adsorption from platelet-poor plasma solution to a level superior to that of adsorption on a surface terminated with tetra(ethylene glycol). The adhesion and activation of platelets from platelet-rich plasma solution were not observed on the polySBMA grafted surface. This work further concludes that a surface with good hemocompatibility can be achieved by the well-packed surface-grafted polySBMA brushes.

  10. (Un)folding of a high-temperature stable polyalanine helix from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Volker; Rossi, Mariana; Tkatchenko, Alex; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    Peptides in vacuo offer a unique, well-defined testbed to match experiments directly against first-principles approaches that predict the intramolecular interactions that govern peptide and protein folding. In this respect, the polyalanine-based peptide Ac-Ala15-LysH^+ is particularly interesting, as it is experimentally known to form helices in vacuo, with stable secondary structure up to 750 K [1]. Room-temperature folding and unfolding timescales are usually not accessible by direct first-principles simulations, but this high T scale allows a rare direct first-principles view. We here use van der Waals corrected [2] density functional theory in the PBE generalized gradient approximation as implemented in the all-electron code FHI-aims [3] to show by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics that Ac-Ala15-LysH^+ indeed unfolds rapidly (within a few ps) at T=800 K and 1000 K, but not at 500 K. We show that the structural stability of the α helix at 500 K is critically linked to a correct van der Waals treatment, and that the designed LysH^+ ionic termination is essential for the observed helical secondary structure. [1] M. Kohtani et al., JACS 126, 7420 (2004). [2] A. Tkatchenko, M. Scheffler, PRL 102, 073005 (2009). [3] V. Blum et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 2175 (2009).

  11. Highly enhanced and temporally stable field emission from MWCNTs grown on aluminum coated silicon substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreekanth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a detailed field emission study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs grown on Si and Al coated Si substrates is reported. Morphological and microstructural studies of the films show higher entanglement of CNTs in the case of CNT/Si film as compared to CNT/Al/Si film. Raman studies show that the defect mediated peak (D is substantially suppressed as compared to graphitic peak (G resulting in significant reduction in ID/IG value in CNT/Al/Si film. Field emission (FE current density of CNT/Al/Si film (∼25 mA/cm2 is significantly higher as compared to that of CNT/Si film (∼1.6 mA/cm2. A substantial improvement in temporal stability is also observed in CNT/Al/Si film. This enhancement in field emission current is attributed to strong adhesion between substrate and CNTs, low work function, high local field enhancement factor at the CNT tips and less entanglement of CNTs grown on Al/Si. The temporally stable CNT/Al/Si cold cathode can be a potential candidate to replace conventional electron sources in prototype devices.

  12. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  13. High-resolution quantitative imaging of mammalian and bacterial cells using stable isotope mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kwon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS is an important tool for investigating isotopic composition in the chemical and materials sciences, but its use in biology has been limited by technical considerations. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS, which combines a new generation of SIMS instrument with sophisticated ion optics, labeling with stable isotopes, and quantitative image-analysis software, was developed to study biological materials. Results The new instrument allows the production of mass images of high lateral resolution (down to 33 nm, as well as the counting or imaging of several isotopes simultaneously. As MIMS can distinguish between ions of very similar mass, such as 12C15N- and 13C14N-, it enables the precise and reproducible measurement of isotope ratios, and thus of the levels of enrichment in specific isotopic labels, within volumes of less than a cubic micrometer. The sensitivity of MIMS is at least 1,000 times that of 14C autoradiography. The depth resolution can be smaller than 1 nm because only a few atomic layers are needed to create an atomic mass image. We illustrate the use of MIMS to image unlabeled mammalian cultured cells and tissue sections; to analyze fatty-acid transport in adipocyte lipid droplets using 13C-oleic acid; to examine nitrogen fixation in bacteria using 15N gaseous nitrogen; to measure levels of protein renewal in the cochlea and in post-ischemic kidney cells using 15N-leucine; to study DNA and RNA co-distribution and uridine incorporation in the nucleolus using 15N-uridine and 81Br of bromodeoxyuridine or 14C-thymidine; to reveal domains in cultured endothelial cells using the native isotopes 12C, 16O, 14N and 31P; and to track a few 15N-labeled donor spleen cells in the lymph nodes of the host mouse. Conclusion MIMS makes it possible for the first time to both image and quantify molecules labeled with stable or radioactive isotopes within subcellular compartments.

  14. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  15. Novel Approach for High-Throughput Metabolic Screening of Whole Plants by Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Lisa Maria; Beckers, Veronique; Rasch, Detlev; Melzer, Guido; Bolten, Christoph; Kiep, Katina; Becker, Horst; Bläsing, Oliver Ernst; Fuchs, Regine; Ehrhardt, Thomas; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate whole-plant metabolic profiling by stable isotope labeling and combustion isotope-ratio mass spectrometry for precise quantification of assimilation, translocation, and molecular reallocation of (13)CO2 and (15)NH4NO3 The technology was applied to rice (Oryza sativa) plants at different growth stages. For adult plants, (13)CO2 labeling revealed enhanced carbon assimilation of the flag leaf from flowering to late grain-filling stage, linked to efficient translocation into the panicle. Simultaneous (13)CO2 and (15)NH4NO3 labeling with hydroponically grown seedlings was used to quantify the relative distribution of carbon and nitrogen. Two hours after labeling, assimilated carbon was mainly retained in the shoot (69%), whereas 7% entered the root and 24% was respired. Nitrogen, taken up via the root, was largely translocated into the shoot (85%). Salt-stressed seedlings showed decreased uptake and translocation of nitrogen (69%), whereas carbon metabolism was unaffected. Coupled to a gas chromatograph, labeling analysis provided enrichment of proteinogenic amino acids. This revealed significant protein synthesis in the panicle of adult plants, whereas protein biosynthesis in adult leaves was 8-fold lower than that in seedling shoots. Generally, amino acid enrichment was similar among biosynthetic families and allowed us to infer labeling dynamics of their precursors. On this basis, early and strong (13)C enrichment of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates indicated high activity of these routes. Applied to mode-of-action analysis of herbicides, the approach showed severe disturbance in the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids upon treatment with imazapyr. The established technology displays a breakthrough for quantitative high-throughput plant metabolic phenotyping.

  16. Highly Stable, Functional Hairy Nanoparticles and Biopolymers from Wood Fibers: Towards Sustainable Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Yang, Han; Alam, Md Nur; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2016-07-20

    Nanoparticles, as one of the key materials in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, have gained significant importance during the past decade. While metal-based nanoparticles are associated with synthetic and environmental hassles, cellulose introduces a green, sustainable alternative for nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we present the chemical synthesis and separation procedures to produce new classes of hairy nanoparticles (bearing both amorphous and crystalline regions) and biopolymers based on wood fibers. Through periodate oxidation of soft wood pulp, the glucose ring of cellulose is opened at the C2-C3 bond to form 2,3-dialdehyde groups. Further heating of the partially oxidized fibers (e.g., T = 80 °C) results in three products, namely fibrous oxidized cellulose, sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (SNCC), and dissolved dialdehyde modified cellulose (DAMC), which are well separated by intermittent centrifugation and co-solvent addition. The partially oxidized fibers (without heating) were used as a highly reactive intermediate to react with chlorite for converting almost all aldehyde to carboxyl groups. Co-solvent precipitation and centrifugation resulted in electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) and dicarboxylated cellulose (DCC). The aldehyde content of SNCC and consequently surface charge of ENCC (carboxyl content) were precisely controlled by controlling the periodate oxidation reaction time, resulting in highly stable nanoparticles bearing more than 7 mmol functional groups per gram of nanoparticles (e.g., as compared to conventional NCC bearing < 1 mmol functional group/g). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attested to the rod-like morphology. Conductometric titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrokinetic-sonic-amplitude (ESA) and acoustic attenuation

  17. Highly stable layered double hydroxide colloids: a direct aqueous synthesis route from hybrid polyion complex micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrac, Géraldine; Destarac, Mathias; Gérardin, Corine; Tichit, Didier

    2014-08-19

    Aqueous suspensions of highly stable Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles were obtained via a direct and fully colloidal route using asymmetric poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(acrylamide) (PAA-b-PAM) double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) as growth and stabilizing agents. We showed that hybrid polyion complex (HPIC) micelles constituted of almost only Al(3+) were first formed when mixing solutions of Mg(2+) and Al(3+) cations and PAA3000-b-PAM10000 due to the preferential complexation of the trivalent cations. Then mineralization performed by progressive hydroxylation with NaOH transformed the simple DHBC/Al(3+) HPIC micelles into DHBC/aluminum hydroxide colloids, in which Mg(2+) ions were progressively introduced upon further hydroxylation leading to the Mg-Al LDH phase. The whole process of LDH formation occurred then within the confined environment of the aqueous complex colloids. The hydrodynamic diameter of the DHBC/LDH colloids could be controlled: it decreased from 530 nm down to 60 nm when the metal complexing ratio R (R = AA/(Mg + Al)) increased from 0.27 to 1. This was accompanied by a decrease of the average size of individual LDH particles as R increased (for example from 35 nm at R = 0.27 down to 17 nm at R = 0.33), together with a progressive favored intercalation of polyacrylate rather than chloride ions in the interlayer space of the LDH phase. The DHBC/LDH colloids have interesting properties for biomedical applications, that is, high colloidal stability as a function of time, stability in phosphate buffered saline solution, as well as the required size distribution for sterilization by filtration. Therefore, they could be used as colloidal drug delivery systems, especially for hydrosoluble negatively charged drugs.

  18. The research of the high precision universal stable reconnaissance platform in near space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-tao; Cao, Jian-zhong; Fan, Zhe-yuan; Chen, Wei-ning

    2011-08-01

    The appliance of military was recognized more and more ,It is important that pod can bear the weight of the availability payload achieve the observation to the earth in 20km-100km area and work in the all-weather. The stable platform can load high imaging spectrometer, the thermal infrared imager, the infrared radiometer, the millimeter waves radar, the laser weapon and so on,in order to realize reconnaissance and attacking integrative and warning the long-distant missile. The stabilization accuracy of platform is prior to 20μrad and burden heavy load to the best of one's abilities. It used high precision velocity and acceleration gyroscope to fulfill the stabilization of the platform. Light-weight design by using new composite material and optimizing design. It was adapt to the near space environment better by structure design and simulation analysis.Enhance its basic frequency and sure the rigid of the frame platform .In addition, the structure of platform apply the two-axis and four-frame and use the method of FEA to fulfill the optimum design in order to attain the object of light-weight.In consider to the precision of the platform I establish the math model and make use of the monte carlo method to appraise and analysis the error that affect the precision of the platform. After emulating by the software of the Matlab to verify the results. It is apply the method that link the platform and aerocraft by mounting the no angular displacement shock absorbers on the elevator mechanism. This kind of design insulate the angular vibration and minish the linear vibration to ensure the image quality.

  19. A family of compact high order coupled time-space unconditionally stable vertical advection schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Florian; Debreu, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Recent papers by Shchepetkin (2015) and Lemarié et al. (2015) have emphasized that the time-step of an oceanic model with an Eulerian vertical coordinate and an explicit time-stepping scheme is very often restricted by vertical advection in a few hot spots (i.e. most of the grid points are integrated with small Courant numbers, compared to the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, except just few spots where numerical instability of the explicit scheme occurs first). The consequence is that the numerics for vertical advection must have good stability properties while being robust to changes in Courant number in terms of accuracy. An other constraint for oceanic models is the strict control of numerical mixing imposed by the highly adiabatic nature of the oceanic interior (i.e. mixing must be very small in the vertical direction below the boundary layer). We examine in this talk the possibility of mitigating vertical Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction, while avoiding numerical inaccuracies associated with standard implicit advection schemes (i.e. large sensitivity of the solution on Courant number, large phase delay, and possibly excess of numerical damping with unphysical orientation). Most regional oceanic models have been successfully using fourth order compact schemes for vertical advection. In this talk we present a new general framework to derive generic expressions for (one-step) coupled time and space high order compact schemes (see Daru & Tenaud (2004) for a thorough description of coupled time and space schemes). Among other properties, we show that those schemes are unconditionally stable and have very good accuracy properties even for large Courant numbers while having a very reasonable computational cost.

  20. Non-selective β-blockers do not affect mortality in cirrhosis patients with ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Lars; Krag, Aleksander; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The safety of non-selective β-blockers (NSBBs) in advanced cirrhosis has been questioned. We used data from three satavaptan trials to examine whether NSBBs increase mortality in cirrhosis patients with ascites. The trials were conducted in 2006-2008 and included 1198 cirrhosis patients with asci...

  1. Non-selective beta-blockers decrease thrombotic events in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Peuter, Olav R.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Lip, Gregory Y.; Buller, Harry R.; De Boer, Anthonius; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Beta-blockers are often prescribed to patients with heart failure (HF) without distinctions between types of beta-blockers. The 2002 COMET study showed superiority of carvedilol (a non-selective beta-blocker) over metoprolol (selective beta-blocker) on mortality and cardiovascular events

  2. Memory Outcomes Following Selective versus Nonselective Temporal Lobe Removal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Fady

    2012-01-01

    The surgical removal of brain tissue for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy can be either nonselective, as with an anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), or selective, as with a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Although seizure outcomes are similar with both procedures, cognitive and memory outcomes remain a matter of debate. This study…

  3. Nonselective Harvesting of a Prey-Predator Fishery with Gompertz Law of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, D.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a mathematical model for the nonselective harvesting of a prey-predator system in which both the prey and the predator obey the Gompertz law of growth and some prey avoid predation by hiding. The steady states of the system are determined, and the dynamical behaviour of both species is examined. The possibility of existence of…

  4. Ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of mammalian P-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Noël, François

    2010-02-01

    Ivermectin is a large spectrum antiparasitic drug that is very safe at the doses actually used. However, as it is being studied for new applications that would require higher doses, we should pay attention to its effects at high concentrations. As micromolar concentrations of ivermectin have been reported to inhibit the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), we decided to investigate its putative inhibitory effect on other two important P-type ATPases, namely the Na(+) , K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We first extended the data on SERCA, using preparations from rat enriched in SERCA1a (extensor digitorum longus) and 1b (heart) isoforms. Secondly, we tested the effect of ivermectin in two preparations of rat Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in order to appreciate its putative selectivity towards the alpha(1) isoform (kidney) and the alpha(2)/alpha(3) isoforms (brain), and in an H(+)/K(+)-ATPase preparation from rat stomach. Ivermectin inhibited all these ATPases with similar IC(50) values (6-17 microM). With respect to the inhibition of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, ivermectin acts by a mechanism different from the classical cardiac glycosides, based on selectivity towards the isoforms, sensibility to the antagonistic effect of K(+) and to ionic conditions favoring different conformations of the enzyme. We conclude that ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of three important mammalian P-type ATPases, which is indicative of putative important adverse effects if this drug were used at high doses. As a consequence, we propose that novel analogs of ivermectin should be developed and tested both for their parasitic activity and in vitro effects on P-type ATPases.

  5. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2001-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate1 temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid start-up is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research are to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower

  6. Stable carbon isotopic signature of methane from high-emitting wetland sites in discontinuous permafrost landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, Maija; Liimatainen, Maarit; Lind, Saara; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2017-04-01

    The rising methane concentration in the atmosphere during the past years has been associated with a concurrent change in the carbon isotopic signature: The atmospheric methane is getting more and more depleted in the heavy carbon isotope. The decreasing 13C/12C ratio indicates an increasing contribution of methane from biogenic sources, most importantly wetlands and inland waters, whose global emissions are still poorly constrained. From the climate change perspective, arctic and subarctic wetlands are particularly interesting due to the strong warming and permafrost thaw predicted for these regions that will cause changes in the methane dynamics. Coupling methane flux inventories with determination of the stable isotopic signature can provide useful information about the pathways of methane production, consumption and transport in these ecosystems. Here, we present data on the emissions and carbon isotopic composition of methane from subarctic tundra wetlands at the Seida study site, Northeast European Russia. In this landscape, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, waterlogged fens represent sites of high carbon turnover and high methane release. Despite they cover less than 15% of the region, their methane emissions comprise 98% of the regional mean (± SD) release of 6.7 (± 1.8) g CH4 m-2 y-1 (Marushchak et al. 2016). The methane emission from the studied fens was clearly depleted in 13C compared to the pore water methane. The bulk mean δ13CH4 (± SD) over the growing season was -68.2 (± 2.0) ‰ which is similar to the relatively few values previously reported from tundra wetlands. We explain the depleted methane emissions by the high importance of passive transport via aerenchymous plants, a process that discriminates against the heavier isotopes. This idea is supported by the strong positive correlation observed between the methane emission and the vascular leaf area index (LAI), and the inverse relationship between the δ13CH4 of emitted methane and LAI

  7. Topology-guided design and syntheses of highly stable mesoporous porphyrinic zirconium metal-organic frameworks with high surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Fu; Feng, Dawei; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zou, Lanfang; Bosch, Mathieu; Yuan, Shuai; Wei, Zhangwen; Fordham, Stephen; Wang, Kecheng; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-01-14

    Through a topology-guided strategy, a series of Zr6-containing isoreticular porphyrinic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), PCN-228, PCN-229, and PCN-230, with ftw-a topology were synthesized using the extended porphyrinic linkers. The bulky porphyrin ring ligand effectively prevents the network interpenetration which often appears in MOFs with increased linker length. The pore apertures of the structures range from 2.5 to 3.8 nm, and PCN-229 demonstrates the highest porosity and BET surface area among the previously reported Zr-MOFs. Additionally, by changing the relative direction of the terminal phenyl rings, this series replaces a Zr8 cluster with a smaller Zr6 cluster in a topologically identical framework. The high connectivity of the Zr6 cluster yields frameworks with enhanced stability despite high porosity and ultralarge linker. As a representative example, PCN-230, constructed with the most extended porphyrinic linker, shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 0 to 12 and demonstrates one of the highest pH tolerances among all porphyrinic MOFs. This work not only presents a successful example of rational design of MOFs with desired topology, but also provides a strategy for construction of stable mesoporous MOFs.

  8. Highly Active and Stable Large Catalase Isolated from a Hydrocarbon Degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preety Vatsyayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (CAT during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. A 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 105 U mg−1 protein was achieved. The native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kDa with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kDa, which indicates that the native CAT protein is a homotetramer. The isoelectric pH (pI of the purified CAT was 4.2. BLAST aligned peptide mass fragments of CAT protein showed its highest similarity with the catalase B protein from other fungal sources. CAT was active in a broad range of pH 4 to 12 and temperature 25°C to 90°C. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km of 4.7 × 108 M−1 s−1 within the studied substrate range and alkaline pH stability (half-life, t1/2 at pH 12~15 months of CAT are considerably higher than most of the extensively studied catalases from different sources. The storage stability (t1/2 of CAT at physiological pH 7.5 and 4°C was nearly 30 months. The haem was identified as haem b by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS.

  9. A highly sensitive and stable glucose biosensor using thymine-based polycations into laponite hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Zanini, Veronica I; Gavilán, Maximiliano; López de Mishima, Beatriz A; Martino, Débora M; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2016-04-01

    A series of glucose bioelectrodes were prepared by glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization into laponite hydrogel films containing DNA bioinspired polycations made of vinylbenzyl thymine (VBT) and vinylbenzyl triethylammonium chloride (VBA) with general formulae (VBT)m(VBA)n](n+)≈25 with m=0, 1 and n=2, 4, 8, deposited onto glassy carbon electrode. The bioelectrodes were characterized by chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results indicated that the electrochemical properties of the laponite hydrogel films were largely improved by the incorporation of thymine-based polycations, being proportional to the positive charge density of the polycation molecule. After incorporation of glucose oxidase, the sensitivity of the bioelectrode to glucose increased with the positive charge density of the polycation. Additionally, the presence of the vinylbenzyl thymine moiety played a role in the long-term stability and reproducibility of the bioelectrode signal. As a consequence, the [(VBT)(VBA)8](8+)≈25 was the most appropriate polycation for bioelectrode preparation and glucose sensing, with a specific sensitivity of se=176 mA mmol(-1)Lcm(-2)U(-1), almost two-order of magnitude larger than other laponite immobilized GOx bioelectrodes reported elsewhere. These features were confirmed by testing the bioelectrode for a selective determination of glucose in powder milk and blood serum samples without interference of either ascorbic or uric acids under the experimental conditions. The present study demonstrates the suitability of DNA bioinspired water-soluble polycations [(VBT)m(VBA)n](n+)≈25 for enzyme immobilization like GOx into laponite hydrogels, and the preparation of highly sensitive and stable bioelectrodes on glassy carbon surface.

  10. Design of a highly stable and uniform thermal test facility for MGRS development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; Sun, Ke-Xun; DeBra, Daniel B.; Buchman, Saps; Byer, Robert L.

    2009-03-01

    We have designed combined passive and active thermal control system to achieve sub microkelvin temperature stability and uniformity over an optics bench size enclosure, which has an analogous structure to the LISA spacecraft. For the passive control, we have constructed a new thermal enclosure that has a multilayer structure with alternative conducting and insulating layers, which enables the temperature uniformity and ease the burden of the active control. The thermal enclosure becomes an important test facility for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) development. For the active control, we have developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm, which will regulate temperature variations of the proof-mass (PM) down to sub-microkelvin over the LISA science band. The LISA mission requires extremely tight temperature control, which is as low as 30 μK/ over 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. Both temporal stability and spatial uniformity in temperature must be achieved. Optical path length variations on optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/ over 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. Temperature gradient across the proof mass housing also must be controlled to reduce differential thermal pressure. Thermal disturbances due to, for example, solar radiation and heat generation from electronics, are expected to be significant disturbance source to the LISA sensitivity requirements. The MGRS will alleviate the thermal requirement due to its wider gap between the proof-mass and the housing wall. However, a thermally stable and uniform environment is highly desirable to achieve more precise science measurement for future space science missions.

  11. Design of a highly stable and uniform thermal test facility for MGRS development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Sei; Sun Kexun; DeBra, Daniel B; Buchman, Saps; Byer, Robert L, E-mail: seihiguchi@stanford.ed [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We have designed combined passive and active thermal control system to achieve sub microkelvin temperature stability and uniformity over an optics bench size enclosure, which has an analogous structure to the LISA spacecraft. For the passive control, we have constructed a new thermal enclosure that has a multilayer structure with alternative conducting and insulating layers, which enables the temperature uniformity and ease the burden of the active control. The thermal enclosure becomes an important test facility for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) development. For the active control, we have developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm, which will regulate temperature variations of the proof-mass (PM) down to sub-microkelvin over the LISA science band. The LISA mission requires extremely tight temperature control, which is as low as 30 muK/sq rootHz over 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. Both temporal stability and spatial uniformity in temperature must be achieved. Optical path length variations on optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/sq rootHz over 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. Temperature gradient across the proof mass housing also must be controlled to reduce differential thermal pressure. Thermal disturbances due to, for example, solar radiation and heat generation from electronics, are expected to be significant disturbance source to the LISA sensitivity requirements. The MGRS will alleviate the thermal requirement due to its wider gap between the proof-mass and the housing wall. However, a thermally stable and uniform environment is highly desirable to achieve more precise science measurement for future space science missions.

  12. Future Perspectives in Nuclear Structure: From high intensity stable to radioactive nuclear beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Giacomo

    2005-04-01

    Future perspectives in nuclear structure rely on radioactive nuclear beams as well as on high intensity beams of stable ions. Especially for neutron rich nuclei, deep-inelastic and multi-nucleon transfer reactions can be used to populate yrast and non yrast states. Particularly powerful is here the combination of large acceptance spectrometers with highly segmented γ-detector arrays. Such devices, eventually complemented by large cov- erage particle detectors, can provide the necessary channel selectivity to identify very rare signals. An example is the CLARA γ-ray detector array coupled with the PRISMA spectrometer at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL). The physics aims achievable with this setup will complement studies performed with current radioactive beam (RIB) facilities. With such set-up we have recently investigated the stability of the N=50 shell closure when moving towards more exotic systems. Here the comparison of the experi- mental data with shell model calculations seems to indicate a persistence of the N=50 shell gap down to Z=32. Future perspectives at LNL are based on an increase in in- tensity as well as on the availability of heavy ion species. Beams like 136Xe or 208Pb, which will be provided by the new PIAVE injector, can be used to drive the multinucleon flux toward the more exotic regions. Moreover a new ISOL facility (SPES) dedicated to the production and acceleration of radioactive neutron rich species is now under develop- ment at LNL. It will be based on an high intensity proton and deuteron LINAC. Induced fission fragments will be ionized and then accelerated using the presently existing super- conductive LINAC (ALPI). Among the new instrumentation the concept of γ-ray tracking has been recently introduced in nuclear spectroscopy. Detectors based on γ-ray tracking have position resolution capabilities with excellent performances both in efficiency and in achievable Doppler correction. A new γ-ray detector array (AGATA) based on

  13. Nitrogen stable isotopes of ammonium and nitrate in high mountain lakes of the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N are increasingly used to trace food web relationships and the flow of matter in lakes. However, there is high variability in δ15N among primary producers and other primary energy resources that can eventually propagate throughout the lake food web. To increase our understanding of the origin of this variability, we measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N in atmospheric deposition (AD, epilimnetic water (EW, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW, and sediment porewater (SPW in eight mountain lakes. A general δ15N (−3.4‰ for AD was estimated as the signature for AD ammonium and nitrate did not differ. All lakes showed similar high δ15N-NH4+ values for SPW (ca. 2.2‰. In contrast, the variability among lakes in water column values was high, although differences between EW and DCMW within a lake were low. δ15N-NO3- correlated with the altitude of the lakes, and its variability was interpreted as the influence of catchment nitrification, which is higher in talus landscapes. δ15N-NH4+ distribution had two modes, positive values (ca. 3‰ were associated to DCMW of shallow lakes, and probably reflect the SPW influence. Lower values (ca. −3‰ occur in EW and DCMW of deep lakes, and its variability was related to the degree that NO3- was up taken by primary producers and recycled within the food-web when NH4+ availability was low compared to demand. Overall, altitude, lake depth and seasonal cumulative primary production largely explain the patterns of δ15N variability observed in nitrogen dissolved compounds.

  14. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngjoon; Nicholls, David P.

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  15. HIGH ORDER ONE-STEP A-STABLE EXPONENTIALLY FITTED METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangFengiian; ChenXinming; LuoYiping

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,the necessary and sutlicient conditions for general one-step methoos to be exponentially fitted at q0∈C are given, A class of multtderivative hybrid one-step methods of order at least s+1 is constructed with s+1 parameters,where s is the order of derivative. The necessary and sufficient conditions for these methods to be A-stable and exponentially fitted is proved, Furthermore,a class of A-stable 2 parameters hybrid one-step methods of order at least 8 are constructed,which use 4th order derivative,These methods are exponentially fitted at q0 if and only its fitted function f(q) satisfies f(q0)= 0, Finally,an A-stable exponentlally fitted method of order 8 is obtained.

  16. Potassium Stable Isotopic Compositions Measured by High-Resolution MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Robert M.; Simon, Justin I.

    2012-01-01

    Potassium isotopic (K-41/K-39) compositions are notoriously difficult to measure. TIMS measurements are hindered by variable fractionation patterns throughout individual runs and too few isotopes to apply an internal spike method for instrumental mass fractionation corrections. Internal fractionation corrections via the K-40/K-39 ratio can provide precise values but assume identical K-40/K-39 ratios (e.g. 0.05% (1sigma) in [1]); this is appropriate in some cases (e.g. identifying excess K-41) but not others (e.g., determining mass fractionation effects and metrologically traceable isotopic abundances). SIMS analyses have yielded measurements with 0.25% precisions (1sigma) [2]. ICP-MS analyses are significantly affected by interferences from molecular species such as Ar-38H(+) and Ar-40H(+) and instrument mass bias. Single collector ICP-MS instruments in "cold plasma" mode have yielded uncertainties as low as 2% (1sigma, e.g. [3]). Although these precisions may be acceptable for some concentration determinations, they do not resolve isotopic variation in terrestrial materials. Here we present data from a series of measurements made on the Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus multi-collector ICP-MS that demonstrate the ability to make K-41/K-39 ratio measurements with 0.07% precisions (1sigma). These data, collected on NIST K standards, indicate the potential for MC-ICP-MS measurements to look for K isotopic variations at the sub-permil level. The NEPTUNE Plus can sufficiently resolve 39K and 41K from the interfering 38ArH+ and 40ArH+ peaks in wet cold plasma and high-resolution mode. Measurements were made on small but flat, interference-free, plateaus (ca. 50 ppm by mass width for K-41). Although ICP-MS does not yield accurate K-41/K-39 values due to significant instrumental mass fractionation (ca. 6%), this bias can be sufficiently stable over the time required for several measurements so that relative K-41/K-39 values can be precisely determined via sample

  17. Stable isotopes and Digital Elevation Models to study nutrient inputs in high-Arctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, David; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, Loreto

    2016-04-01

    Ice cover, run-off from the watershed, aquatic and terrestrial primary productivity, guano deposition from birds are key factors controlling nutrient and organic matter inputs in high-Arctic lakes. All these factors are expected to be significantly affected by climate change. Quantifying these controls is a key baseline step to understand what combination of factors subtends the biological productivity in Arctic lakes and will drive their ecological response to environmental change. Basing on Digital Elevation Models, drainage maps, and C and N elemental content and stable isotope analysis in sediments, aquatic vegetation and a dominant macroinvertebrate species (Lepidurus arcticus Pallas 1973) belonging to Tvillingvatnet, Storvatnet and Kolhamna, three lakes located in North Spitsbergen (Svalbard), we propose an integrated approach for the analysis of (i) nutrient and organic matter inputs in lakes; (ii) the role of catchment hydro-geomorphology in determining inter-lake differences in the isotopic composition of sediments; (iii) effects of diverse nutrient inputs on the isotopic niche of Lepidurus arcticus. Given its high run-off and large catchment, organic deposits in Tvillingvatnet where dominated by terrestrial inputs, whereas inputs were mainly of aquatic origin in Storvatnet, a lowland lake with low potential run-off. In Kolhamna, organic deposits seem to be dominated by inputs from birds, which actually colonise the area. Isotopic signatures were similar between samples within each lake, representing precise tracers for studies on the effect of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in lakes. The isotopic niche of L. aricticus reflected differences in sediments between lakes, suggesting a bottom-up effect of hydro-geomorphology characterizing each lake on nutrients assimilated by this species. The presented approach proven to be an effective research pathway for the identification of factors subtending to nutrient and organic matter inputs and transfer

  18. High-resolution nitrogen stable isotope sclerochronology of bivalve shell carbonate-bound organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, David P.; Lorrain, Anne; Jolivet, Aurélie; Kelemen, Zita; Chauvaud, Laurent; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N) of organic material have successfully been used to track food-web dynamics, nitrogen baselines, pollution, and nitrogen cycling. Extending the δ15N record back in time has not been straightforward due to a lack of suitable substrates in which δ15N records are faithfully preserved, thus sparking interest in utilizing skeletal carbonate-bound organic matter (CBOM) in mollusks, corals, and foraminifera. Here we test if calcite Pecten maximus shells from the Bay of Brest and the French continental shelf can be used as an archive of δ15N values over a large environmental gradient and at a high temporal resolution (approximately weekly). Bulk CBOM δ15N values from the growing tip of shells collected over a large nitrogen isotope gradient were strongly correlated with adductor muscle tissue δ15N values (R2 = 0.99, n = 6, p tissue δ15N values, but soft-tissues integrate more time, hence soft-tissue data are more time-averaged and smoothed. Museum-archived shells from the 1950s, 1965, and 1970s do not show a large difference in δ15N values through time despite expected increasing N loading to the Bay over this time, which could be due to anthropogenic N sources with contrasting values. Compiling shell CBOM δ15N data from several studies suggests that the offset between soft-tissue and shell δ15N values (Δtissue-shell) differs between calcite and aragonite shells. We hypothesize that this difference is caused by differences in amino acids used in constructing the different minerals, which should be specific to the CaCO3 polymorph being constructed. Future work should use compound specific isotope analyses (CSIA) to test this hypothesis, and to determine whether certain amino acids could specifically track N sources or possibly identify amino acids that are more resistant to diagenesis in fossil shells. In conclusion, bivalve shell CBOM δ15N values can be used in a similar manner to soft-tissue δ15N values, and can track

  19. Stable Amplification and High Current Drop Bistable Switching in Supercritical GaAs Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadpanah, S.H; Jeppsson, B; Jeppesen, Palle

    1974-01-01

    Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance.......Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance....

  20. High efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with an external stable resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Fardad, Shima; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2010-06-21

    An amplified cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser performance is demonstrated by utilizing a binary-dye mixture (with 62 wt% DCM and 38 wt% PM597) as the active medium and an external stable resonator. The measured results show that the laser efficiency is enhanced as compared to the highest efficiency of each individual dye. Furthermore, using such an active CLC in an external stable resonator leads to a approximately 92X improved efficiency over the single CLC laser. In this instance, the binary-dye doped CLC simultaneously functions as laser oscillator and amplifier.

  1. Effects of the non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline on regional cerebral blood flow and large arteries in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Jacobsen, T B; Thomsen, Lars Lykke

    2000-01-01

    -inhalation SPECT. High-frequency ultrasound was used for measurements of temporal and radial artery diameter. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations were assessed in plasma. Except for increased heart rate (P blood pressure (P ... or to other mechanisms is not clear. In the present double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy subjects received pentoxifylline 300 mg or placebo intravenously on separate days. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(mca)) was recorded by transcranial Doppler and rCBF was measured using (133)Xenon......The vasodilating properties of the non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor pentoxifylline were evaluated. Pentoxifylline has been reported to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and improve recovery rate of stroke patients. Whether these results are due to a dilating effect on arteries...

  2. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower

  3. 40-$\\mu$J passively CEP-stable seed source for ytterbium-based high-energy optical waveform synthesizers

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Huseyin; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Chun; Chia, Shih-Hsuan; Muecke, Oliver D.; Cirmi, Giovanni; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally for the first time a ~40-µJ two-octave-wide passively carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-stable parametric front-end for seeding an ytterbium (Yb)-pump-based, few-optical-cycle, high-energy optical parametric waveform synthesizer. The system includes a CEP-stable white-light continuum and two-channel optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers (OPCPAs) in the near- and mid-infrared spectral regions spanning altogether a two-octave-wide spectrum driven by a regenerative...

  4. Combining UHPLC-High Resolution MS and Feeding of Stable Isotope Labeled Polyketide Intermediates for Linking Precursors to End Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Andreas; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from stable isotope labeled precursor feeding studies combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the identification of labeled polyketide (PK) end-products. Feeding experiments were performed with 13C8-6-methylsalicylic...... spp., YWA1 was shown to be incorporated into aurofusarin, rubrofusarin, and antibiotic Y. In A. niger, benzoic acid was shown to be incorporated into asperrubrol. Incorporation levels of 0.7–20% into the end-products were detected in wild-type strains. Thus, stable isotope labeling is a promising...

  5. H4octapa: highly stable complexation of lanthanide(III) ions and copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, Ferenc Krisztián; Végh, Andrea; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Tóth, Éva; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tircsó, Gyula

    2015-03-02

    The acyclic ligand octapa(4-) (H4octapa = 6,6'-((ethane-1,2-diylbis((carboxymethyl)azanediyl))bis(methylene))dipicolinic acid) forms stable complexes with the Ln(3+) ions in aqueous solution. The stability constants determined for the complexes with La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) using relaxometric methods are log KLaL = 20.13(7), log KGdL = 20.23(4), and log KLuL = 20.49(5) (I = 0.15 M NaCl). High stability constants were also determined for the complexes formed with divalent metal ions such as Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) (log KZnL = 18.91(3) and log KCuL = 22.08(2)). UV-visible and NMR spectroscopic studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations point to hexadentate binding of the ligand to Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), the donor atoms of the acetate groups of the ligand remaining uncoordinated. The complexes formed with the Ln(3+) ions are nine-coordinated thanks to the octadentate binding of the ligand and the presence of a coordinated water molecule. The stability constants of the complexes formed with the Ln(3+) ions do not change significantly across the lanthanide series. A DFT investigation shows that this is the result of a subtle balance between the increased binding energies across the 4f period, which contribute to an increasing complex stability, and the parallel increase of the absolute values of the hydration free energies of the Ln(3+) ions. In the case of the [Ln(octapa)(H2O)](-) complexes the interaction between the amine nitrogen atoms of the ligand and the Ln(3+) ions is weakened along the lanthanide series, and therefore the increased electrostatic interaction does not overcome the increasing hydration energies. A detailed kinetic study of the dissociation of the [Gd(octapa)(H2O)](-) complex in the presence of Cu(2+) shows that the metal-assisted pathway is the main responsible for complex dissociation at pH 7.4 and physiological [Cu(2+)] concentration (1 μM).

  6. Generation of a stable packaging cell line producing high-titer PPT-deleted integration-deficient lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insertional mutagenesis inherent to all integrating exogenous expression cassettes was the impetus for the development of various integration-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV systems. These systems were successfully employed in a plethora of preclinical applications, underscoring their clinical potential. However, current production of IDLVs by transient plasmid transfection is not optimal for large-scale production of clinical grade vectors. Here, we describe the development of the first tetracycline-inducible stable IDLV packaging cell line comprising the D64E integrase mutant and the VSV-G envelope protein. A conditional self-inactivating (cSIN vector and a novel polypurine tract (PPT-deleted vector were incorporated into the newly developed stable packaging cell line by transduction and stable transfection, respectively. High-titer (∼107 infectious units (IU/ml cSIN vectors were routinely generated. Furthermore, screening of single-cell clones stably transfected with PPT-deleted vector DNA resulted in the identification of highly efficient producer cell lines generating IDLV titers higher than 108 IU/mL, which upon concentration increased to 1010 IU/ml. IDLVs generated by stable producer lines efficiently transduce CNS tissues of rodents. Overall, the availability of high-titer IDLV lentivirus packaging cell line described here will significantly facilitate IDLV-based basic science research, as well as preclinical and clinical applications.

  7. Generation of a stable packaging cell line producing high-titer PPT-deleted integration-deficient lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peirong; Li, Yedda; Sands, Mark S; McCown, Thomas; Kafri, Tal

    2015-01-01

    The risk of insertional mutagenesis inherent to all integrating exogenous expression cassettes was the impetus for the development of various integration-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) systems. These systems were successfully employed in a plethora of preclinical applications, underscoring their clinical potential. However, current production of IDLVs by transient plasmid transfection is not optimal for large-scale production of clinical grade vectors. Here, we describe the development of the first tetracycline-inducible stable IDLV packaging cell line comprising the D64E integrase mutant and the VSV-G envelope protein. A conditional self-inactivating (cSIN) vector and a novel polypurine tract (PPT)-deleted vector were incorporated into the newly developed stable packaging cell line by transduction and stable transfection, respectively. High-titer (~10(7) infectious units (IU)/ml) cSIN vectors were routinely generated. Furthermore, screening of single-cell clones stably transfected with PPT-deleted vector DNA resulted in the identification of highly efficient producer cell lines generating IDLV titers higher than 10(8) IU/mL, which upon concentration increased to 10(10) IU/ml. IDLVs generated by stable producer lines efficiently transduce CNS tissues of rodents. Overall, the availability of high-titer IDLV lentivirus packaging cell line described here will significantly facilitate IDLV-based basic science research, as well as preclinical and clinical applications.

  8. Study on laser characteristics of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers: Operation regimes, gain dynamics, and highly stable operation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroetz, P.; Ruehl, A.; Calendron, A.-L.; Chatterjee, G.; Cankaya, H.; Murari, K.; Kärtner, F. X.; Hartl, I.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of laser pulse amplification of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers (RAs) with respect to operation regimes, gain dynamics, and output pulse stability. The findings are expected to be more generic than for this specific gain material. Operation regimes are distinguished with respect to pulse energy and the appearance of pulse instability, and are studied as a function of the repetition rate, seed energy, and pump intensity. The corresponding gain dynamics are presented, identifying highly stable operation points related to high-gain build-up during pumping and high-gain depletion during pulse amplification. Such operation points are studied numerically and experimentally as a function of several parameters, thereby achieving, for our Ho:YLF RA, highly stable output pulses with measured fluctuations of only 0.19% (standard deviation).

  9. Stable and high-performance multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber delay interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang LIU; Junqiang SUN; Ping SHUM

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme to realize the multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers. By adding a length of dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) in the ring cavity, we can suppress the cavity mode competition resulting from homogeneous line broadening (HLB) effect. In addition, a comb filter based on fiber delay inter-ferometer (DI) is used for frequency selecting. To enhance the extinction ratio while maintaining the free space range (FSR), the proposed isolator-assisted double-pass DI is utilized into the laser cavity, and a stable 7-wavelength simultaneous lasing spaced at 21.5GHz is accordingly achieved with an extinction ratio of higher than 40 dB. The lasers are stable with a maximum power fluctuation per channel of less than 0.6 dB during an hour test.

  10. Sequence Tolerance of a Highly Stable Single Domain Antibody: Comparison of Computational and Experimental Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    popular construct of the heavy chain is single-domain antibody (sdAb) chains derived from camelids. The interest in sdAbs lies in their biotechnological ...thermal stable lama single domain antibody specific for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. BMC Biotechnology 11. 3. Zabetakis D, Anderson GP, Bayya N...neighbors from a Dali search of the single-chain conformers of the assembly. (a) Conformers of A3 where the color green denotes the A chain and blue

  11. A Highly Stable Nanotubular MOF Rotator for Selective Adsorption of Benzene and Separation of Xylene Isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Dayu; Xu, Jun; Xue, Bing; Kirillov, Alexander M

    2015-11-16

    A remarkably stable tubular 3D Zn-MOF with hexagonal channels and a rare ptr topology was prepared under solvothermal conditions for liquid and vapor phase adsorption and separation of the C6-8 aromatic compounds. The material showed preferential affinity for benzene and can effectively separate benzene from its organic analogues under ambient conditions in both vapor and liquid phases. Furthermore, it exhibited preferable uptake of p-xylene over other C8 xylenes.

  12. High-efficiency stable transformation of the model fern species Ceratopteris richardii via microparticle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Huang, Liandong; Sanders, Heather L; Langdale, Jane A

    2014-05-01

    Ferns represent the most closely related extant lineage to seed plants. The aquatic fern Ceratopteris richardii has been subject to research for a considerable period of time, but analyses of the genetic programs underpinning developmental processes have been hampered by a large genome size, a lack of available mutants, and an inability to create stable transgenic lines. In this paper, we report a protocol for efficient stable genetic transformation of C. richardii and a closely related species Ceratopteris thalictroides using microparticle bombardment. Indeterminate callus was generated and maintained from the sporophytes of both species using cytokinin treatment. In proof-of-principle experiments, a 35S::β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression cassette was introduced into callus cells via tungsten microparticles, and stable transformants were selected via a linked hygromycin B resistance marker. The presence of the transgene in regenerated plants and in subsequent generations was validated using DNA-blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and GUS staining. GUS staining patterns in most vegetative tissues corresponded with constitutive gene expression. The protocol described in this paper yields transformation efficiencies far greater than those previously published and represents a significant step toward the establishment of a tractable fern genetic model.

  13. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis of a Predator-Prey Biological Economic System with Nonselective Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Biwen Li; Zhenwei Li; Boshan Chen; Gan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A modified predator-prey biological economic system with nonselective harvesting is investigated. An important mathematical feature of the system is that the economic profit on the predator-prey system is investigated from an economic perspective. By using the local parameterization method and Hopf bifurcation theorem, we analyze the Hopf bifurcation of the proposed system. In addition, the modified model enriches the database for the predator-prey biological economic system. Finally, numeric...

  14. Cilantro microbiome before and after nonselective pre-enrichment for Salmonella using 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Karen G; White, James R; Grim, Christopher J; Ewing, Laura; Ottesen, Andrea R; Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Pettengill, James B; Brown, Eric; Hanes, Darcy E

    2015-08-12

    Salmonella enterica is a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States and is associated with outbreaks in fresh produce such as cilantro. Salmonella culture-based detection methods are complex and time consuming, and improvments to increase detection sensitivity will benefit consumers. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to determine the microbiome of cilantro. We also investigated changes to the microbial community prior to and after a 24-hour nonselective pre-enrichment culture step commonly used by laboratory analysts to resuscitate microorganisms in foods suspected of contamination with pathogens. Cilantro samples were processed for Salmonella detection according to the method in the United States Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Genomic DNA was extracted from culture supernatants prior to and after a 24-hour nonselective pre-enrichment step and 454 pyrosequencing was performed on 16S rRNA amplicon libraries. A database of Enterobacteriaceae 16S rRNA sequences was created, and used to screen the libraries for Salmonella, as some samples were known to be culture positive. Additionally, culture positive cilantro samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella using shotgun metagenomics on the Illumina MiSeq. Time zero uncultured samples had an abundance of Proteobacteria while the 24-hour enriched samples were composed mostly of Gram-positive Firmicutes. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of Salmonella culture positive cilantro samples revealed variable degrees of Salmonella contamination among the sequenced samples. Our cilantro study demonstrates the use of high-throughput sequencing to reveal the microbiome of cilantro, and how the microbiome changes during the culture-based protocols employed by food safety laboratories to detect foodborne pathogens. Finding that culturing the cilantro shifts the microbiome to a predominance of Firmicutes suggests that changing our culture-based methods will improve

  15. Stretch-activated nonselective cation, Cl- and K+ channels in apical membrane of epithelial cells of Reissner's membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T H; Tsai, M C; Lee, S Y; Hsu, M M; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1997-07-01

    Ion channels on the apical membrane of epithelial cells (the surface facing the endolymph) of acutely isolated Reissner's membrane from guinea-pig cochlea were investigated by using patch-clamp technique in cell-attached and inside-out configurations. Three types of ion channel were identified: namely, a stretch-activated nonselective cation, a chloride and a potassium channel. When the pipette was filled with high-K+ endolymph-like solution, the most significant channel activity was nonselective cation channels (85/110, 77% patches). The current versus voltage relationship was linear with a unitary conductance of 22.1 +/- 0.4 pS and reversal potential (Vr) of 2.3 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 18). The channel exhibited a lower conductance (14.0 +/- 0.6 pS, n = 8) to Ca2+. The open probability was low (NPo approximately 0.1) in cell-attached configuration under +60 mV pipette potential and increased when the membrane was stretched with negative pressure. The channel was blocked by 10 microM extracellular Gd3+. The two other types of channels were a small voltage-sensitive Cl- channel (6.0 +/- 0.3 pS; 91/99, 92% patches) and a K+ channel (approximately 30 pS; 29/191, 15% patches). These channels might play roles in the regulation of cell volume, in balancing the hydrostatic pressure across Reissner's membrane and in maintaining the electrochemical composition of endolymph.

  16. Efficient and reproducible generation of high-expressing, stable human cell lines without need for antibiotic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewes Helmut

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cell lines are the most innovative choice of host cell for production of biopharmaceuticals since they allow for authentic posttranslational modification of therapeutic proteins. We present a new method for generating high and stable protein expressing cell lines based on human amniocytes without the requirement of antibiotic selection. Results Primary amniocytes from routine amniocentesis samples can be efficiently transformed with adenoviral functions resulting in stable human cell lines. Cotransfection of the primary human amniocytes with a plasmid expressing adenoviral E1 functions plus a second plasmid containing a gene of interest resulted in permanent cell lines expressing up to 30 pg/cell/day of a fully glycosylated and sialylated protein. Expression of the gene of interest is very stable for more than 90 passages and, importantly, was achieved in the absence of any antibiotic selection. Conclusion We describe an improved method for developing high protein expressing stable human cell lines. These cell lines are of non-tumor origin, they are immortalized by a function not oncogenic in human and they are from an ethically accepted and easily accessible cell source. Since the cell can be easily adapted to growth in serum-free and chemically defined medium they fulfill the requirements of biopharmaceutical production processes.

  17. Zinc finger nuclease technology: A stable tool for high efficiency transformation in bloodstream form T. brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gabriela; Kangussu-Marcolino, Monica M; Doiron, Nicholas; Käser, Sandro; de Assis Burle-Caldas, Gabriela; DaRocha, Wanderson D; Teixeira, Santuza M; Roditi, Isabel

    2017-02-20

    In Trypanosoma brucei, the generation of knockout mutants is relatively easy compared to other organisms as transfection methods are well established. These methods have their limitations, however, when it comes to the generation of genome-wide libraries that require a minimum of several hundred thousand transformants. Double-strand breaks with the meganuclease ISce-I dramatically increase transformation efficiency, but are not widely in use as cell lines need to be generated de novo before each transfection. Here we show that zinc finger nucleases are a robust and stable tool that can enhance transformation in bloodstream forms by more than an order of magnitude.

  18. From High Dimensional Chaos to Stable Periodic Orbits: The Structure of Parameter Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, E.; Hunt, B.R.; Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Regions in the parameter space of chaotic systems that correspond to stable behavior are often referred to as windows. In this Letter, we elucidate the occurrence of such regions in higher dimensional chaotic systems. We describe the fundamental structure of these windows, and also indicate under what circumstances one can expect to find them. These results are applicable to systems that exhibit several positive Lyapunov exponents, and are of importance to both the theoretical and the experimental understanding of dynamical systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. A high-powered siren for stable acoustic levitation of dense materials in the earth's gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammel, Paul M.; Croonquist, Arvid P.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1988-01-01

    Levitation of large dense samples (e.g., 1-cm diameter steel balls) has been performed in a 1-g environment. A siren was used to study the effects of reflector geometry and variable-frequency operation in order to attain stable acoustic positioning. The harmonic content and spatial distribution of the acoustic field have been investigated. The best stability was obtained with an open reflector system, using a flat lower reflector and a slightly concave upper reflector while operating at a frequency slightly below resonance.

  20. A temperature-stable cryo-system for high-temperature superconducting MR in-vivo imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Tsang Lin

    Full Text Available To perform a rat experiment using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS surface resonator, a cryostat is essential to maintain the rat's temperature. In this work, a compact temperature-stable HTS cryo-system, keeping animal rectal temperature at 37.4°C for more than 3 hours, was successfully developed. With this HTS cryo-system, a 40-mm-diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 surface resonator at 77 K was demonstrated in a 3-Tesla MRI system. The proton resonant frequency (PRF method was employed to monitor the rat's temperature. Moreover, the capacity of MR thermometry in the HTS experiments was evaluated by correlating with data from independent fiber-optic sensor temperature measurements. The PRF thermal coefficient was derived as 0.03 rad/°C and the temperature-monitoring architecture can be implemented to upgrade the quality and safety in HTS experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the HTS surface resonator at 77 K was higher than that of a professionally made copper surface resonator at 300 K, which has the same geometry, by a 3.79-fold SNR gain. Furthermore, the temperature-stable HTS cryo-system we developed can obtain stable SNR gain in every scan. A temperature-stable HTS cryo-system with an external air-blowing circulation system is demonstrated.

  1. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  2. Fractional polymerization of a suspended planar bilayer creates a fluid, highly stable membrane for ion channel recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Benjamin A; Jones, Ian W; Hall, Henry K; Aspinwall, Craig A; Saavedra, S Scott

    2010-05-26

    Suspended planar lipid membranes (or black lipid membranes (BLMs)) are widely used for studying reconstituted ion channels, although they lack the chemical and mechanical stability needed for incorporation into high-throughput biosensors and biochips. Lipid polymerization enhances BLM stability but is incompatible with ion channel function when membrane fluidity is required. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of a highly stable BLM that retains significant fluidity by using a mixture of polymerizable and nonpolymerizable phospholipids. Alamethicin, a voltage-gated peptide channel for which membrane fluidity is required for activity, was reconstituted into mixed BLMs prepared using bis-dienoyl phosphatidylcholine (bis-DenPC) and diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC). Polymerization yielded BLMs that retain the fluidity required for alamethicin activity yet are stable for several days as compared to a few hours prior to polymerization. Thus, these polymerized, binary composition BLMs feature both fluidity and long-term stability.

  3. High Magnetic Shear Gain in a Liquid Sodium Stable Couette Flow Experiment; A Prelude to an alpha-Omega Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Colgate, Stirling A; Pariev, Vladimir; Finn, John; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The $\\Omega$-phase of the liquid sodium $\\alpha$-$\\Omega$ dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, $B_{\\phi} \\simeq 8\\times B_r$ from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, $B_r$. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at $Rm \\simeq 120$. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow where $ (\\delta v/v)^2 \\sim 10^{-3} $. This high $\\Omega$-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller $\\Omega$-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays only a smaller diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  4. Metal diselenide nanoparticles as highly active and stable electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Jingjie; Dong, Pei; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhang, Gengmin; Lou, Jun

    2015-09-01

    In this communication, nickel diselenide (NiSe2) nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile and low-cost hydrothermal method. The synthesis method can be extended to other metal diselenides as well. The electrode made of NiSe2 exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). A low Tafel slope of 31.1 mV per decade is achieved for NiSe2, which is comparable to that of platinum (~30 mV per decade). Moreover, the catalytic activity of NiSe2 is very stable and no obvious degradation is found even after 1000 cyclic voltammetric sweeps.In this communication, nickel diselenide (NiSe2) nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile and low-cost hydrothermal method. The synthesis method can be extended to other metal diselenides as well. The electrode made of NiSe2 exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). A low Tafel slope of 31.1 mV per decade is achieved for NiSe2, which is comparable to that of platinum (~30 mV per decade). Moreover, the catalytic activity of NiSe2 is very stable and no obvious degradation is found even after 1000 cyclic voltammetric sweeps. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, additional figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03724g

  5. High frequency of centromere inactivation resulting in stable dicentric chromosomes of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangpu; Lamb, Jonathan C; Birchler, James A

    2006-02-28

    Somatic chromosome spreads from maize (Zea mays L.) plants containing B-A translocation chromosomes undergoing the chromosome type breakage-fusion-bridge cycle were examined by FISH. The size and type of extra chromosomes varied among cells of the same individual. A collection of minichromosomes derived from the chromosome type breakage-fusion-bridge cycle was examined for the presence of stable dicentric chromosomes. Six of 23 chromosomes in the collection contained two regions with DNA sequences typical of centromeres. Functional analysis and immunolabeling of CENH3, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, revealed only one functional centromere per chromosome, despite the duplicate centromere sequences. One plant was found with an inactive B centromere that had been translocated to the short arm of chromosome 9. The translocated centromere region appeared identical to that of a normal B chromosome. The inactivation of the centromeres was stable for at least four generations. By using dicentrics from dispensable chromosomes, centromere inactivation was found to be quite common under these circumstances.

  6. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Matthew J.; Weingarden, Alexa R.; Unno, Tatsuya; Khoruts, Alexander; Michael J Sadowsky

    2013-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a more widely used technology for treatment of recurrent Clostridum difficile infection (CDI). While previous treatments used fresh fecal slurries as a source of microbiota for FMT, we recently reported the successful use of standardized, partially purified and frozen fecal microbiota to treat CDI. Here we report that high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed stable engraftment of gut microbiota following FMT using frozen fecal bacteria...

  7. BiCMOS operational amplifier with precise and stable dc gain for high-frequency switched capacitor circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschirotto, A.; Alini, R.; Castello, R.

    1991-07-01

    A novel approach in the design of high-frequency switched capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It is based on the use of simple and fast amplifiers with low but precisely controlled gain value. The effect of the precisely known and stable opamp gain is compensated for by changing the capacitor values during the synthesis of the SC cell. An example of an opamp with these features and the synthesis of a biquadratic filter based on this approach are given.

  8. Combination of FACS and homologous recombination for the generation of stable and high-expression engineered cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cell line generation requires several months and involves screening of over several hundred cell clones for high productivity before dozens are selected as candidate cell lines. Here, we have designed a new strategy for the generation of stable and high-expression cell lines by combining homologous recombination (HR and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. High expression was indicated by the expression of secreted green fluorescent protein (SEGFP. Parental cell lines with the highest expression of SEGFP were then selected by FACS and identified by stability analysis. Consequently, HR vectors were constructed using the cassette for SEGFP as the HR region. After transfecting the HR vector, the cells with negative SEGFP expression were enriched by FACS. The complete exchange between SEGFP and target gene (TNFR-Fc cassettes was demonstrated by DNA analysis. Compared with the traditional method, by integrating the cassette containing the gene of interest into the pre-selected site, the highest producing cells secreted a more than 8-fold higher titer of target protein. Hence, this new strategy can be applied to isolated stable cell lines with desirable expression of any gene of interest. The stable cell lines can rapidly produce proteins for researching protein structure and function and are even applicable in drug discovery.

  9. High tumour cannabinoid CB1 receptor immunoreactivity negatively impacts disease-specific survival in stage II microsatellite stable colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B Gustafsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is good evidence in the literature that the cannabinoid system is disturbed in colorectal cancer. In the present study, we have investigated whether CB(1 receptor immunoreactive intensity (CB(1IR intensity is associated with disease severity and outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CB(1IR was assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected with a consecutive intent during primary tumour surgical resection from a series of cases diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Tumour centre (n = 483 and invasive front (n = 486 CB(1IR was scored from 0 (absent to 3 (intense staining and the data was analysed as a median split i.e. CB(1IR <2 and ≥2. In microsatellite stable, but not microsatellite instable tumours (as adjudged on the basis of immunohistochemical determination of four mismatch repair proteins, there was a significant positive association of the tumour grade with the CB(1IR intensity. The difference between the microsatellite stable and instable tumours for this association of CB(1IR was related to the CpG island methylation status of the cases. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses indicated a significant contribution of CB(1IR to disease-specific survival in the microsatellite stable tumours when adjusting for tumour stage. For the cases with stage II microsatellite stable tumours, there was a significant effect of both tumour centre and front CB(1IR upon disease specific survival. The 5 year probabilities of event-free survival were: 85±5 and 66±8%; tumour interior, 86±4% and 63±8% for the CB(1IR<2 and CB(1IR≥2 groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The level of CB(1 receptor expression in colorectal cancer is associated with the tumour grade in a manner dependent upon the degree of CpG hypermethylation. A high CB(1IR is indicative of a poorer prognosis in stage II microsatellite stable tumour patients.

  10. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L; Appleton, Anthony L; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials.

  11. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. (Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

  12. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable Couette flow experiment: a prelude to an α-Ω dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Stirling A; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy; Ferrel, Regnar; Li, Hui; Pariev, Vladimir; Finn, John

    2011-04-29

    The Ω phase of the liquid sodium α-Ω dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B(ϕ) that is ≃8×B(r), where B(r) is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm≃120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of (δv/v)(2)∼10(-3).

  14. High intensity positive pressure ventilation and long term pulmonary function responses in severe stable COPD. A delicate and difficult balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Antonio M; Petroianni, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Method to improve minute ventilation (MV) during spontaneous breathing (SB) in stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a great clinical relevant in long term outcome. In this scenario, recommendations of early use of high-Intensity non-invasive Positive pressure Ventilation (HI-NPPV) or intelligent Volume Assured Pressure (iVAP) Support in Hypercapnic COPD have been proposed by safe therapeutics options. We analyze in this letter, Ekkernkamp et al. study that described the effect of HI-NPPV compared with SB on MV in patients receiving long-term treatment. We consider that interpretation of relationships between ABG, functional parameters, and respiratory mechanics reported need clarifications. Further prospective large clinical trials identifying the best mode of ventilation according to the characteristics in severe stable COPD are necessary to balance an effective approach and response on clinical symptoms and long-term effects.

  15. Bacterial communities in Arctic fjelds of Finnish Lapland are stable but highly pH-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Minna K; Tiirola, Marja; Häggblom, Max M

    2007-02-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations of microbial communities in Arctic fjelds of Finnish Lapland were studied. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and terminal restriction fragment analysis (T-RFLP) of amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to assess the effect of soil conditions and vegetation on microbial community structures along different altitudes of two fjelds, Saana and Jehkas. Terminal restriction fragments were additionally analysed from c. 160 cloned sequences and isolated bacterial strains and matched with those of soil DNA samples. T-RFLP and PLFA analyses indicated relatively similar microbial communities at various altitudes and under different vegetation of the two fjelds. However, soil pH had a major influence on microbial community composition. Members of the phylum Acidobacteria dominated especially in the low pH soils (pH 4.6-5.2), but above pH 5.5, the relative amount of terminal restriction fragments corresponding to acidobacterial clones was substantially lower. Both T-RFLP and PLFA analysis indicated stable microbial communities as the DNA and fatty acid profiles were similar in spring and late summer samples sampled over 3 years. These results indicate that differences in microbial community composition could be explained primarily by variation in the bedrock materials that cause variation in the soil pH.

  16. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhipeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Ren, Tianhui, E-mail: thren@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Zhao, Yidong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zeng, Xiangqiong; Heide, E. van der [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeSO{sub 4}.

  17. Maitotoxin activates a nonselective cation channel and stimulates Ca2+ entry in MDCK renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, P; Völkl, H

    1994-02-01

    We examined the mechanisms of maitotoxin (MTX), a water-soluble polyether from the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, in stimulation of Ca2+ entry into Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells. In the presence of bath Ca2+, MTX (3 nM) caused an elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was partially inhibited by SK&F 96365 (25 microM) or La3+ (100 microM). A stimulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels in cell-attached membrane patches coincided with this rise in [Ca2+]i and was also partially inhibited by SK&F 96365. Before the rise in [Ca2+]i, a nonselective cation current (Ins), studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, was irreversibly activated. Ins poorly discriminated between Na+, K+, and Cs+, was unaffected by replacement of Cl- with gluconate-, and was not voltage gated. MTX-induced Ins was partially blocked by La3+ ions (100 microM) but not by SK&F 96365 (25 microM) or nifedipine (10 microM). SK&F 96365 by itself induced a small but significant stimulation of Ins and a rise in [Ca2+]i. The activation of Ins by MTX was instantaneous and depended on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ ions. In the absence of other cations, the inward current of Ins was dependent on the bath Ca2+ concentration. Cell-attached and excised single-channel measurements revealed that MTX activated a SK&F 96365-insensitive, approximately 40-pS, nonselective cation channel from the outside. We conclude that the initial action of MTX is the stimulation of a nonselective cation channel, which requires the presence of extracellular Ca2+ ions. The subsequent rise in [Ca2+]i is at least in part caused by another, SK&F 96365-sensitive, Ca2+ entry pathway, which may be activated as a result of or independently of Ins.

  18. How to sell successfully a perfume in the non-selective market?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Maria Rita Pinto Coelho de Magalhães

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This document presents a market research on the positioning of perfumes in the non selective market. This project’s main goal had been to analyze the challenge of “successfully selling a perfume in the non-selective market” in order to propose potential solutions. To address this marketing problem, an exploratory research had been c...

  19. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  20. Highly Efficient and Stable Sn-Rich Perovskite Solar Cells by Introducing Bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seojun; Kang, Dong-Won

    2017-07-12

    Compositional engineering of recently arising methylammonium (MA) lead (Pb) halide based perovskites is an essential approach for finding better perovskite compositions to resolve still remaining issues of toxic Pb, long-term instability, etc. In this work, we carried out crystallographic, morphological, optical, and photovoltaic characterization of compositional MASn0.6Pb0.4I3-xBrx by gradually introducing bromine (Br) into parental Pb-Sn binary perovskite (MASn0.6Pb0.4I3) to elucidate its function in Sn-rich (Sn:Pb = 6:4) perovskites. We found significant advances in crystallinity and dense coverage of the perovskite films by inserting the Br into Sn-rich perovskite lattice. Furthermore, light-intensity-dependent open circuit voltage (Voc) measurement revealed much suppressed trap-assisted recombination for a proper Br-added (x = 0.4) device. These contributed to attaining the unprecedented power conversion efficiency of 12.1% and Voc of 0.78 V, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the highest performance in the Sn-rich (≥60%) perovskite solar cells reported so far. In addition, impressive enhancement of photocurrent-output stability and little hysteresis were found, which paves the way for the development of environmentally benign (Pb reduction), stable monolithic tandem cells using the developed low band gap (1.24-1.26 eV) MASn0.6Pb0.4I3-xBrx with suggested composition (x = 0.2-0.4).

  1. Proteome Scale-Protein Turnover Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometric Data from Stable-Isotope Labeled Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai-Ting; Rendahl, Aaron K; Chen, Wen-Ping; Freund, Dana M; Gray, William M; Cohen, Jerry D; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2016-03-04

    Protein turnover is an important aspect of the regulation of cellular processes for organisms when responding to developmental or environmental cues. The measurement of protein turnover in plants, in contrast to that of rapidly growing unicellular organismal cultures, is made more complicated by the high degree of amino acid recycling, resulting in significant transient isotope incorporation distributions that must be dealt with computationally for high throughput analysis to be practical. An algorithm in R, ProteinTurnover, was developed to calculate protein turnover with transient stable isotope incorporation distributions in a high throughput automated manner using high resolution MS and MS/MS proteomic analysis of stable isotopically labeled plant material. ProteinTurnover extracts isotopic distribution information from raw MS data for peptides identified by MS/MS from data sets of either isotopic label dilution or incorporation experiments. Variable isotopic incorporation distributions were modeled using binomial and beta-binomial distributions to deconvolute the natural abundance, newly synthesized/partial-labeled, and fully labeled peptide distributions. Maximum likelihood estimation was performed to calculate the distribution abundance proportion of old and newly synthesized peptides. The half-life or turnover rate of each peptide was calculated from changes in the distribution abundance proportions using nonlinear regression. We applied ProteinTurnover to obtain half-lives of proteins from enriched soluble and membrane fractions from Arabidopsis roots.

  2. Highly efficient synthesis of endomorphin-2 under thermodynamic control catalyzed by organic solvent stable proteases with in situ product removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxing; Sun, Honglin; He, Xuejun; Bai, Zhongzhong; He, Bingfang

    2013-02-01

    An efficient enzymatic synthesis of endomorphin-2 (EM-2) was achieved using organic solvent stable proteases in nonaqeous media, based on thermodynamic control and an in situ product removal methodology. The high stability of biocatalysts in organic solvents enabled the aleatoric modulation of the nonaqueous reaction media to shift thermodynamic equilibrium toward synthesis. Peptide Boc-Phe-Phe-NH2 was synthesized with a high yield of 96% by the solvent stable protease WQ9-2 in monophase medium with an economical molar ratio of the substrate of 1:1. The tetrapeptide Boc-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 was synthesized with a yield of 88% by another organic solvent tolerant protease PT121 from Boc-Tyr-Pro-OH and Phe-Phe-NH2 in an organic-aqueous biphasic system. The reaction-separation coupling in both enzymatic processes provides "driving forces" for the synthetic reactions and gives a high yield and high productivity without purification of the intermediate, thereby making the synthesis more amenable to scale-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable levitation of steel rotors using permanent magnets and high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.; Passmore, J. L.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Rossing, T. D.

    1994-07-01

    Individual freely spinning magnetic steel rotors were levitated by combining the attractive force between permanent magnets and the rotor with the repulsive force between high-temperature superconductors and the steel. The levitation force and stiffness of several configurations are presented, and the application of this levitation method to high-speed bearings is discussed.

  4. Efficiency Benchmarking of an Energy Stable High-Order Finite Difference Discretization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Giangaspero, G.; Svärd, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results are presented for a number of benchmark cases, proposed at the 2nd International Workshop on High-Order CFD Methods in Cologne, Germany, in 2013. A robust high-order-accurate finite difference method was used that was developed during the last 10–15 years. The robustness stems

  5. Development of high resolution Michelson interferometer for stable phase-locked ultrashort pulse pair generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takumi; Komori, Kazuhiro; Goshima, Keishiro; Yamauchi, Shohgo; Morohashi, Isao; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Ogura, Mutsuo; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2008-10-01

    We developed a high resolution Michelson interferometer with a two-frequency He-Ne laser positioning system in order to stabilize the relative phase of a pulse pair. The control resolution corresponded to a 12 as time resolution or a phase of 1.5 degrees at 900 nm. This high resolution Michelson interferometer can generate a phase-locked pulse pair either with a specific relative phase such as 0 or pi radians or with an arbitrary phase. Coherent control of an InAs self-assembled quantum dot was demonstrated using the high resolution Michelson interferometer with a microspectroscopy system.

  6. Highly efficient and stable cupronickel nanomesh electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Song, Myungkwan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Kim, Chang Su; Surabhi, Srivathsava; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2016-11-01

    Advances in flexible optoelectronic devices have led to increasing need for developing high performance, low cost, and flexible transparent conducting electrodes. Copper-based electrodes have been unattainable due to the relatively thermal instability and poor oxidation resistance. Herein, we present oxidation-resistive CuNi nanomesh electrodes that exhibit a low sheet resistance of ∼7.5 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of ∼81% at 550 nm. Further, high long-term stability against the effects of oxidation, heat, and chemicals is exhibited by the CuNi nanomesh, in comparison with the behavior of a pure Cu nanomesh sample.

  7. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration, a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice

  8. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and non-human primates. These

  9. Thermally Stable Catalytic Combustors for Very High Altitude Airbreathing Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerospace vehicles operating at high altitudes have the potential to be less expensive and more versatile alternatives to space based systems for earth/space...

  10. Graphene controlled H- and J-stacking of perylene dyes into highly stable supramolecular nanostructures for enhanced photocurrent generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhong, Lijie; Engelbrekt, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    We report a new method for controlling H- and J-stacking in supramolecular self-assembly. Graphene nanosheets act as structure inducers to direct the self-assembly of a versatile organic dye, perylene into two distinct types of functional nanostructures, i.e. one-dimensional nanotubes via J......-stacking and two-dimensional branched nanobuds through H-stacking. Graphene integrated supramolecular nanocomposites are highly stable and show significant enhancement of photocurrent generation in these two configurations of photosensing devices, i.e. solid-state optoelectronic constructs and liquid...

  11. Stable long-time semiclassical description of zero-point energy in high-dimensional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2008-07-14

    Semiclassical implementation of the quantum trajectory formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1181 (2004)] is further developed to give a stable long-time description of zero-point energy in anharmonic systems of high dimensionality. The method is based on a numerically cheap linearized quantum force approach; stabilizing terms compensating for the linearization errors are added into the time-evolution equations for the classical and nonclassical components of the momentum operator. The wave function normalization and energy are rigorously conserved. Numerical tests are performed for model systems of up to 40 degrees of freedom.

  12. Water-Stable Anionic Metal-Organic Framework for Highly Selective Separation of Methane from Natural Gas and Pyrolysis Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Wang, Xusheng; Liang, Jun; Huang, Yuanbiao; Li, Hongfang; Lin, Zujin; Cao, Rong

    2016-04-20

    A 3D water-stable anionic metal-organic framework [Zn4(hpdia)2]·[NH2(CH3)2]·3DMF·4H2O (FJI-C4) was constructed based on an elaborate phosphorus-containing ligand 5,5'-(hydroxyphosphoryl)diisophthalic acid (H5hpdia). FJI-C4 with narrow one-dimensional (1D) pore channels exhibits high selectivity of C3H8/CH4 and C2H2/CH4. It is the first time for the MOF which contains phosphorus for selective separation of methane from natural gas and pyrolysis gas.

  13. Highly stable ultrabroadband mid-IR optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier optimized for superfluorescence suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J; Huang, S-W; Hong, K-H; Mücke, O D; Falcão-Filho, E L; Benedick, A; Ilday, F O; Dergachev, A; Bolger, J A; Eggleton, B J; Kärtner, F X

    2009-06-01

    We present a 9 GW peak power, three-cycle, 2.2 microm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source with 1.5% rms energy and 150 mrad carrier envelope phase fluctuations. These characteristics, in addition to excellent beam, wavefront, and pulse quality, make the source suitable for long-wavelength-driven high-harmonic generation. High stability is achieved by careful optimization of superfluorescence suppression, enabling energy scaling.

  14. Thermally stable yttrium-scandium oxide high-k dielectrics deposited by a solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbing; Frost, Bradley; Peterson, Rebecca L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the thermal stability of electrical properties in ternary alloy (Y x Sc1-x )2O3 high-k oxides as a function of yttrium fraction, x. The yttrium-scandium oxide dielectric films are deposited using a facile ink-based process. The oxides have a stoichiometry-dependent relative dielectric constant of 26.0 to 7.7 at 100 kHz, low leakage current density of 10-8 A·cm-2, high breakdown field of 4 MVṡcm-1, and interface trap density of 1012 cm-2·eV-1 with silicon. Compared with binary oxides, ternary alloys exhibit less frequency dispersion of the dielectric constant and a higher crystallization temperature. After crystallization is induced through a 900 °C anneal, ternary (Y0.6Sc0.4)2O3 films maintain their low leakage current and high breakdown field. In contrast, the electrical performance of the binary oxides significantly degrades following the same treatment. The solution-processed ternary oxide dielectrics demonstrated here may be used as high-k gate insulators in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, in novel electronic material systems and devices, and in printed, flexible thin film electronics, and as passivation layers for high power devices. These oxides may also be used as insulators in fabrication process flows that require a high thermal budget.

  15. Synthesis of Highly Stable Silver-Loaded Vertical ZnO Nanowires Array and its Acetylene Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Abu Sadat Mohammad Iftekhar; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2016-09-01

    A silver-loaded one-dimensional (1D) vertical ZnO nanowires (NWs) array synthesized by a facile seed mediated hydrothermal-RF magnetron sputtering method has been investigated for the fabrication of a highly stable and reproducible acetylene (C2H2) gas sensor. Successful immobilization of silver nanoparticles (NPs) as a sensitizer on the ZnO NWs array significantly enhanced the C2H2 sensing properties and showed a stable sensing performance. The grown structure exhibited high response magnitude (30.8 at 1000ppm), short response time (43s) and excellent selectivity at 220∘C. The enhanced performance can probably be accounted for the effect of combining the highly orientated ZnO NWs and catalytically active silver-based network. The superior sensing features toward C2H2 along with broad detection range (1-1000ppm), outstanding stability and excellent reproducibility indicate that the sensor is a promising candidate for practical applications.

  16. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  17. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy. PMID:27677240

  18. Design of a lightweight telescope with highly stable line of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Wright, Robert H.; Baker, Todd A.

    1999-09-01

    The weight and line of sight (LOS) stability are very critical in telescopes used for remote sensing and imaging in the presence of high dynamic loads and vibrations. A high stiffness and low-density material such as beryllium is ideally suited for such applications in spite of its high cost. This paper presents the design of an all-beryllium off-axis telescope in which the three diamond-machined mirrors are pinned and bolted to an extremely lightweight and stiff support structure. A number of design and fabrication techniques were employed to minimize the cost of material and fabrication. The importance of machining tolerances for optimizing the cost and yield of mirrors is also described.

  19. Catalysts and conditions for the highly efficient, selective and stable heterogeneous oligomerisation of ethylene

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heveling, J

    1998-10-11

    Full Text Available excluded. Further, calculation of the turnover numbers for the 0.76% and 1.56% nickel NiSA-II catalysts clearly indicate that the low loadings of metal cation result in a much more effective use of the nickel. In a separate experiment, the stability.... It can be observed that, with the exception of the bromine number, the speci?cation is met in all the properties listed, and that the very high cetane number indicates that a synthetic diesel fuel of high quality could be obtained from our catalytic...

  20. Wastewater nitrogen and trace metal uptake by biota on a high-energy rocky shore detected using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joanne M; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-11-15

    On high-energy rocky shores receiving treated wastewater, impacts are difficult to distinguish against a highly variable background and are localised due to rapid dilution. We demonstrate that nitrogen stable isotope values (δ(15)N) of rocky shore biota are highly sensitive to wastewater inputs. For macroalgae (Ulva lactuca and Endarachne binghamiae), grazing snails (Bembicium nanum and Nerita atramentosa), and predatory snails (Morula marginalba), δ(15)N was enriched near a wastewater outfall and declined with distance, returning to background levels within 290m. Any of these species therefore indicates the extent of influence of wastewater, allowing identification of an appropriate scale for studies of ecosystem impacts. For M. marginalba, significant regressions between δ(15)N and tissue copper, manganese, and zinc concentrations indicate a possible wastewater source for these metals. This suggests that δ(15)N is a proxy for exposure to wastewater contaminants, and may help to attribute variations in rocky shore communities to wastewater impacts.

  1. A stable route to high-{beta}{sub p} plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeldner, F.X.; Baranov, Y.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Bickley, A.J.; Challis, C.D.; Fischer, B.; Gormezano, C.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Rimini, F.; Sips, A.C.C.; Springmann, R.; Taroni, A. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Goedbloed, J.P.; Holties, H.A. [Institute for Plasmas Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Parail, V.V.; Pereverzev, G.V. [Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Steady-state operation of tokamak reactors seems feasible in so-called Advanced Scenarios with high bootstrap current in high-beta{sub p} operation. The stabilization of such discharges with noninductive profile control will be attempted on JET in pursuit of previous high bootstrap current studies. Results of modelling studies of full noninductive current drive scenarios in JET and ITER are presented. Fast Waves (FW), Lower Hybrid (LH) Waves and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) are used for heating and current drive, alternatively or in combination. A stable route to nonmonotonic q-profiles has been found with a specific ramp-up scenario which combines LH-current drive (LHCD) and a fast Ohmic ramp-up. A hollow current profile with deep shear reversal over the whole central region is thereby formed in an early low-beta phase and frozen in by additional heating. (authors). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Diogo Vieira; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2) and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance. PMID:26512701

  3. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  4. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  5. Highly Stable Transparent Electrodes Made from Copper Nanotrough Coated with AZO/Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yan, Xingzhen; Ma, Jiangang; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high flexibility, high conductivity and high transparency in a wide spectrum range, metal nanowires and meshes are considered to be two of the most promising candidates to replace the traditional transparent conducting films, such as tin doped indium oxide. In this paper, transparent conducting films made from copper nanotroughs are prepared by the electrospinning of polymer fibers and subsequent thermal evaporation of copper. The advantages of the technique include low junction resistance, low cost and low preparation temperature. Although the copper nanotrough transparent conducting films exhibited a low sheet resistance (19.2 Ω/sq), with a high transmittance (88% at 550 nm), the instability of copper in harsh environments seriously hinders its applications. In order to improve the stability of the metal transparent conducting films, copper nanotroughs were coated with 39 nm thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide and 1 nm thick aluminum oxide films by atomic layer deposition. The optical and electrical measurements show that coating copper nanotrough with oxides barely reduces the transparency of the films. It is worth noting that conductive oxide coating can effectively protect copper nanotroughs from thermal oxidation or acidic corrosion, whilst maintaining the same flexibility as copper nanotroughs on its own.

  6. Immobilization of molecular cobalt electrocatalyst by hydrophobic interaction with hematite photoanode for highly stable oxygen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2015-07-15

    A unique modification of a hematite photoanode with perfluorinated Co-phthalocyanine (CoFPc) by strong binding associated with hydrophobic interaction is demonstrated. The resultant molecular electrocatalyst – hematite photoanode hybrid material showed significant onset shift and high stability for photoelectrochemical oxidation evolution reaction (OER).

  7. Permselective graphene oxide membrane for highly stable and anti-self-discharge lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhuang, Ting-Zhou; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Jie; Chen, Cheng-Meng; Wei, Fei

    2015-03-24

    Lithium-sulfur batteries hold great promise for serving as next generation high energy density batteries. However, the shuttle of polysulfide induces rapid capacity degradation and poor cycling stability of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, we proposed a unique lithium-sulfur battery configuration with an ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) membrane for high stability. The oxygen electronegative atoms modified GO into a polar plane, and the carboxyl groups acted as ion-hopping sites of positively charged species (Li(+)) and rejected the transportation of negatively charged species (Sn(2-)) due to the electrostatic interactions. Such electrostatic repulsion and physical inhibition largely decreased the transference of polysulfides across the GO membrane in the lithium-sulfur system. Consequently, the GO membrane with highly tunable functionalization properties, high mechanical strength, low electric conductivity, and facile fabrication procedure is an effective permselective separator system in lithium-sulfur batteries. By the incorporation of a permselective GO membrane, the cyclic capacity decay rate is also reduced from 0.49 to 0.23%/cycle. As the GO membrane blocks the diffusion of polysulfides through the membrane, it is also with advantages of anti-self-discharge properties.

  8. Surfactant-free Preparation of Highly Stable Zwitterionic Poly(amido amine) Nanogels with Minimal Cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, A.E.; Jansman, M.M.T.; Roelofs-Haarhuis, H.M.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Narrowly dispersed zwitterionic poly(amido amine) (PAA) nanogels with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a high-yielding and surfactant-free, inverse nanoprecipitation of PAA polymers. The resulting, negatively charged, nanogels (PAA-NG1) were functionalized with N,N-dimethylethylen

  9. The search for more pH stable stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Carol H.; Silva, Cesar R.; Faria, Anizio M.; Collins, Kenneth E.; Jardim, Isabel Cristina S.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations are largely carried out using reversed phase conditions with stationary phases based on silica. A serious problem with these stationary phases is the tendency of silica to dissolve in high pH solutions often needed to separate basic compounds. The literature reports many different ways that have been tried to resolve this problem. This paper reports the results obtained in our laboratory with stationary phases prepared using silica supports having a layer of a metal oxide (zirconia or titania) attached on their surfaces, followed by immobilization of a polysiloxane or by organofunctionalization with a trimethoxyalkylsilane. Stability tests, also developed in our laboratory, indicate that the metal oxide layer increases the HPLC column lifetimes by making the stationary phase less susceptible to dissolution. (author)

  10. Self-supported interconnected Pt nanoassemblies as highly stable electrocatalysts for low-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bao Yu; Ng, Wan Theng; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Xin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-07-16

    In it for the long haul: Clusters of Pt nanowires (3D Pt nanoassemblies, Pt NA) serve as an electrocatalyst for low-temperature fuel cells. These Pt nanoassemblies exhibit remarkably high stability following thousands of voltage cycles and good catalytic activity, when compared with a commercial Pt catalyst and 20 % wt Pt catalyst supported on carbon black (20 % Pt/CB).

  11. CODEX: An Ultra-stable High Resolution Spectrograph for the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, L.; Cristiani, S.; Garcia-Lopez, R.; Haehnelt, M.; Mayor, M.

    2010-06-01

    CODEX is the proposed optical high resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT. Designed to make the most of the unique light-gathering power of the E-ELT and to obtain superb stability, CODEX will open up a new parameter space in astrophysical spectroscopy. The wide-ranging science case has a large discovery potential in stellar, Galactic and extra-galactic astronomy as well as in fundamental physics.

  12. Rad-Tolerant, Thermally Stable, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Network for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Matt; Hull, Tony; Leary, Michael; Leftwich, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA destinations will be challenging to get to, have extreme environmental conditions, and may present difficulty in retrieving a spacecraft or its data. Space Photonics is developing a radiation-tolerant (rad-tolerant), high-speed, multi-channel fiber-optic transceiver, associated reconfigurable intelligent node communications architecture, and supporting hardware for intravehicular and ground-based optical networking applications. Data rates approaching 3.2 Gbps per channel will be achieved.

  13. Highly selective and stable microdisc biosensors for l-glutamate monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; McNeil, Calum J.; Lowry, John P.; McMahon, Colm P.; O'Neill, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate mediates most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, and its abnormal regulation is considered a key factor underlying the appearance and progression of many neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In this work, a microdisc-based amperometric biosensor for glutamate detection with highly enhanced selectivity and good stability is proposed. The biosensor utilizes the enzyme glutamate oxidase which was dip-coated onto 125 um diameter platinum discs. To i...

  14. Stable Plastid Transformation for High-Level Recombinant Protein Expression: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of whole plant and plant cell bioproduction platform. Plastid genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgenic expression, transgenic containment via maternal inheritance, and multigene expression in a single transformation event. In recent years, the development of optimized expression strategies has given a huge boost to the exploitation of plastids in molecular farming. The driving forces behind the high expression level of plastid bioreactors include codon optimization, promoters and UTRs, genotypic modifications, endogenous enhancer and regulatory elements, posttranslational modification, and proteolysis. Exciting progress of the high expression level has been made with the plastid-based production of two particularly important classes of pharmaceuticals: vaccine antigens, therapeutic proteins, and antibiotics and enzymes. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include low transformation frequencies, the formation of inclusion bodies, and purification of recombinant proteins will also be discussed.

  15. Highly transparent, stable, and superhydrophobic coatings based on gradient structure design and fast regeneration from physical damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zao; Liu, Xiaojiang; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Guan, Zisheng, E-mail: zsguan@njtech.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly transparent, stable, and superhydrophobic PET film was fabricated by dip-coating way. • The gradient structure is beneficial to both hydrophobicity and transparency. • The superhydrophobic PET film after physical damage can quickly regain by one-step spary. • The fabrication method is available for various substrates and large-scale production. - Abstract: Optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and fast regeneration are important factors to expand the application of superhydrophobic surfaces. Herein, we fabricated highly transparent, stable, and superhydrophobic coatings through a novel gradient structure design by versatile dip-coating of silica colloid particles (SCPs) and diethoxydimethysiliane cross-linked silica nanoparticles (DDS-SNPs) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and glass, followed by the modification of octadecyltrichlorosiliane (OTCS). When the DDS concentration reached 5 wt%, the modified SCPs/DDS-SNPs coating exhibited a water contact angle (WCA) of 153° and a sliding angle (SA) <5°. Besides, the average transmittance of this superhydrophobic coating on PET film and glass was increased by 2.7% and 1% in the visible wavelength, respectively. This superhydrophobic coating also showed good robustness and stability against water dropping impact, ultrasonic damage, and acid solution. Moreover, the superhydrophobic PET film after physical damage can quickly regain the superhydrophobicity by one-step spray regenerative solution of dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTCS) modified silica nanoparticles at room temperature. The demonstrated method for the preparation and regeneration of superhydrophobic coating is available for different substrates and large-scale production at room temperature.

  16. Highly thermostable and pH-stable cellulases from Aspergillus niger NS-2: properties and application for cellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Namita; Janveja, Chetna; Tewari, Rupinder; Soni, Raman; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of cultural conditions for enhanced cellulase production by Aspergillus niger NS-2 were studied under solid-state fermentation. Significant increase in yields (CMCase 463.9 ± 20.1 U/g, FPase 101.1 ± 3.5 U/g and β-glucosidase 99 ± 4.0 U/g) were obtained under optimized conditions. Effect of different nutritional parameters was studied to induce the maximum production of cellulase complex. Scale-up studies for enzyme production process were carried out. Characterization studies showed that enzymes produced by A. niger NS-2 were highly temperature- and pH stable. At 50 °C, the half life for CMCase, FPase, β-glucosidase were approximately 240 h. Cellulases from A. niger NS-2 were stable at 35 °C for 24 h over a broader pH range of 3.0-9.0. We examined the feasibility of using steam pretreatment to increase the saccharification yields from various lignocellulosic residues for sugar release which can potentially be used in bioethanol production. Saccharification of pretreated dry potato peels, carrot peels, composite waste mixture, orange peels, onion peels, banana peels, pineapple peels by crude enzyme extract from A. niger NS-2, resulted in very high cellulose conversion efficiencies of 92-98 %.

  17. Reduced graphene oxide as a stable and high-capacity cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghulam; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong; Kim, Jaehoon; Chung, Kyung Yoon

    2017-01-01

    We report the feasibility of using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a cost-effective and high performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Graphene oxide is synthesized by a modified Hummers’ method and reduced using a solid-state microwave irradiation method. The RGO electrode delivers an exceptionally stable discharge capacity of 240 mAh g−1 with a stable long cycling up to 1000 cycles. A discharge capacity of 134 mAh g−1 is obtained at a high current density of 600 mA g−1, and the electrode recovers a capacity of 230 mAh g−1 when the current density is reset to 15 mA g−1 after deep cycling, thus demonstrating the excellent stability of the electrode with sodium de/intercalation. The successful use of the RGO electrode demonstrated in this study is expected to facilitate the emergence of low-cost and sustainable carbon-based materials for SIB cathode applications. PMID:28098231

  18. Highly stable and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials assembled from lipid-like peptoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haibao; Jiao, Fang; Daily, Michael D.; Chen, Yulin; Yan, Feng; Ding, Yan-Huai; Zhang, Xin; Robertson, Ellen J.; Baer, Marcel D.; Chen, Chun-Long

    2016-07-01

    An ability to develop sequence-defined synthetic polymers that both mimic lipid amphiphilicity for self-assembly of highly stable membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials and exhibit protein-like functionality would revolutionize the development of biomimetic membranes. Here we report the assembly of lipid-like peptoids into highly stable, crystalline, free-standing and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials through a facile crystallization process. Both experimental and molecular dynamics simulation results show that peptoids assemble into membranes through an anisotropic formation process. We further demonstrated the use of peptoid membranes as a robust platform to incorporate and pattern functional objects through large side-chain diversity and/or co-crystallization approaches. Similar to lipid membranes, peptoid membranes exhibit changes in thickness upon exposure to external stimuli; they can coat surfaces in single layers and self-repair. We anticipate that this new class of membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials will provide a robust matrix for development of biomimetic membranes tailored to specific applications.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide as a stable and high-capacity cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghulam; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong; Kim, Jaehoon; Chung, Kyung Yoon

    2017-01-01

    We report the feasibility of using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a cost-effective and high performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Graphene oxide is synthesized by a modified Hummers’ method and reduced using a solid-state microwave irradiation method. The RGO electrode delivers an exceptionally stable discharge capacity of 240 mAh g-1 with a stable long cycling up to 1000 cycles. A discharge capacity of 134 mAh g-1 is obtained at a high current density of 600 mA g-1, and the electrode recovers a capacity of 230 mAh g-1 when the current density is reset to 15 mA g-1 after deep cycling, thus demonstrating the excellent stability of the electrode with sodium de/intercalation. The successful use of the RGO electrode demonstrated in this study is expected to facilitate the emergence of low-cost and sustainable carbon-based materials for SIB cathode applications.

  20. 2D perovskite nanosheets with thermally-stable high-κ response: a new platform for high-temperature capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Osada, Minoru; Li, Bao-Wen; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-11-26

    We investigated high-temperature dielectric responses of high-κ perovskite nanosheet (Ca2Nb3O10), an important material platform for postgraphene technology and ultrascale electronic devices. Through in situ characterizations using conducting atomic force microscopy, we found a robust high-temperature property of Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet even in a monolayer form (∼2 nm). Furthermore, layer-by-layer assembled nanocapacitors retained both size-free high-εr characteristic (∼200) and high insulation resistance (∼1×10(-7) A/cm2) at high temperatures up to 250 °C. The simultaneous improvement of εr and thermal stability in high-κ nanodielectrics is of critical technological importance, and perovskite nanosheet has great potential for a rational design and construction of high-temperature capacitors.

  1. Oxygen rich titania: a dopant free, high temperature stable, and visible-light active anatase photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Pillai, Suresh C. [Centre for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Camden Row, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Seery, Michael K. [School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Hinder, Steven J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-07

    The simultaneous existence of visible light photocatalytic activity and high temperature anatase phase stability up to 900 C in undoped TiO{sub 2} is reported for the first time. These properties are achieved by the in-situ generation of oxygen through the thermal decomposition of peroxo-titania complex (formed by the precursor modification with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Titania containing the highest amount of oxygen (16 H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}) retains 100% anatase phase even at 900 C, where as the control sample exists as 100% rutile at this temperature. The same composition exhibits a six-fold and two-fold increase in visible light photocatalytic activities in comparison to the control sample and the standard photocatalyst Degussa P-25 respectively. Among the various para-meters affecting the photocatalytic action, such as band gap narrowing, textural properties, crystallite size, and anatase phase stability, band gap narrowing was identified as the major factor responsible for the visible light photocatalytic activity. Increased Ti-O-Ti bond strength and upward shifting of the valence band (VB) maximum, which is responsible for the high temperature stability and visible light activity respectively, are identified from FT-IR, XPS, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. It is therefore proposed that the oxygen excess defects present in these titania samples are responsible for the high temperature stability and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activities. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Fluid flow along North American Cordillera detachments determined from stable isotope and high resolution chemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, A.; Teyssier, C.; Mulch, A.; Nachlas, W.

    2009-12-01

    Fluid flow is likely a major parameter controlling the dynamics of extensional detachment zones. Buoyancy-driven fluid flow is generated by high heat flow beneath the detachment zone, where heat is advected by crustal thinning and magma intrusions. This hydrothermal convective flow is focused in the detachment zone for the duration of activity of the detachment at relatively high temperature (300-500°C), resulting in very significant fluid-rock interaction and isotopic exchange. Quantifying sources and fluid flux in detachments is a challenge because permeability of ductilely deforming rocks is poorly understood. In order to solve these problems, we studied two different Eocene extensional systems in the North American Cordillera: the quartzitic detachment which borders the Kettle dome metamorphic core complex (WA), and the quartzo-feldspathic Bitterroot shear zone along the Idaho batholith (MT). The Kettle Dome detachment provides a continuous section of ~200 m thick quartzite mylonite where high-resolution sampling (~5 m) indicates that Deuterium isotopic ratios that are obtained from synkinematic muscovite grains are consistent with a meteoric fluid source (-130 per mil). In the Bitterroot shear zone, Coyner (2003) reported similar Deuterium isotopic ratios (down to -140 per mil) in muscovite from mylonites and ultramylonites. Microprobe analyses were obtained for white mica porphyroclasts by performing transects perpendicular to the basal (001) cleavage in order to determine intragrain chemical zoning. Preliminary results for the Kettle dome indicate increasing phengite composition with depth, suggesting enhanced activity of the Tschermak exchange. The variations of the phengitic signature in muscovite indicates that temperature diminuish downsection, which is contradictory with the results obtained by the Qz-Ms oxygen isotope thermometer along the Kettle section. Our recent work provides geologic data for numerical models that address the permeability of

  3. Highly luminescent, stable, transparent and flexible perovskite quantum dot gels towards light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chun; Shen, Xinyu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xingru; Ji, Changyin; Shen, Hongzhi; Shi, Hengchong; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W.

    2017-09-01

    By controlling the hydrolysis of alkoxysilanes, highly luminescent, transparent and flexible perovskite quantum dot (QD) gels were synthesized. The gels could maintain the structure without shrinking and exhibited excellent stability comparing to the QDs in solution. This in situ fabrication can be easily scaled up for large-area/volume gels. The gels integrated the merits of the polymer matrices to avoid the non-uniformity of light output, making it convenient for practical LED applications. Monochrome and white LEDs were fabricated using these QD gels; the LEDs exhibited broader color gamut, demonstrating better property in the backlight display application.

  4. Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Youngu

    2013-09-07

    A new AgNW-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrode (TCE) was prepared by dry-transferring a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayer graphene onto a pristine AgNW TCE. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties as well as mechanical flexibility. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities because of the superior gas-barrier property of the graphene protection layer. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with the AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed excellent photovoltaic performance as well as superior long-term stability under ambient conditions.

  5. Highly Stable trans-Cyclooctene Amino Acids for Live-Cell Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan-Erik; Plass, Tilman; Nikić, Ivana; Aramburu, Iker Valle; Koehler, Christine; Gillandt, Hartmut; Lemke, Edward A; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-08-24

    trans-Cyclooctene groups incorporated into proteins via non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) are emerging as specific handles for bioorthogonal chemistry. Here, we present a highly improved synthetic access to the axially and the equatorially linked trans-cyclooct-2-ene isomers (1 a,b). We further show that the axially connected isomer has a half-life about 10 times higher than the equatorial isomer and reacts with tetrazines much faster, as determined by stopped-flow experiments. The improved properties resulted in different labeling performance of the insulin receptor on the surface of intact cells.

  6. A galvanic replacement route to prepare strongly fluorescent and highly stable gold nanodots for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanxi; Wang, Yu; Xu, Lin; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Xiangwei; Xu, Xiaowei; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai; Lin, Quan

    2013-02-11

    Fluorescent gold nanodots (GNDs) are an important kind of nanoprobes. Herein, the application of galvanic replacement for the preparation of fluorescent GNDs is reported. Using presynthesized and size-controlled Ag nanodots (Ag NDs) as templates, the as-prepared GNDs have strong fluorescence (quantum yields ~10%) with high stability and surface bioactivity. The resultant GNDs show excellent photoluminescence properties with high photo-, time-, metal-, and pH-stability, which are attributed to the protective surface layer of glutathione (GSH) and the presence of Au(I)-S complexes on the surface of the gold core. GSH, a naturally occurring and readily available tripeptide with carboxyl and amino functional groups, allows good dispersion of the as-prepared GNDs in aqueous solution and favorable biocompatibility. These advantages, combined with their small size, mean that the as-prepared GNDs have potential application in biological labeling, especially as a DNA probe for the specific detection of nucleic acids. In this study, the CAL-27 cells are used as a model to evaluate the fluorescence imaging of GNDs.

  7. Layered bismuth selenide utilized as hole transporting layer for highly stable organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Zhongcheng

    2015-11-01

    Abstract Layered bismuth selenide (L-Bi2Se3) nanoplates were implemented as hole transporting layers (HTLs) for inverted organic solar cells. Device based on L-Bi2Se3 showed increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE) during ambient condition storage process. A PCE of 4.37% was finally obtained after 5 days storage, which outperformed the ones with evaporated-MoO3 using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor. The improved device efficiency can be attributed to the high conductivity and increasing work function of L-Bi2Se3. The work function of L-Bi2Se3 increased with the storage time in ambient condition due to the oxygen atom doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to verify the increased work function, which originated from the p-type doping process. The device based on L-Bi2Se3 exhibited excellent stability in ambient condition up to 4 months, which was much improved compared to the device based on traditional HTLs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Strong and Stable Nanocomposites Prepared by High-Pressure Torsion of Cu-Coated Fe Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Müller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Segregation and chemical inhomogeneity are well-known problems in powder metallurgy and are also an issue for new applications of powder mixtures, for example as starting materials for severe plastic deformation. In this study, Cu-coated Fe powder was prepared via immersion deposition, inductively hot-pressed and subsequently deformed using high-pressure torsion. The homogeneity of the pressed material was found to be much better than that of powder mixtures that were prepared for comparison. During severe plastic deformation, higher hardness was observed for the coated powder as compared to powder mixtures even after low strains. In the saturation state, the coated powder was found to result in a hardness of about 600 HV, which is significantly harder than for the powder mixtures. This is attributed to the greater amount of impurities introduced by the coating process. It is shown that coated powders are promising starting materials for severe plastic deformation in order to reduce the amount of strain necessary to reach the saturation state and to obtain high strength and more homogeneous mechanical alloying.

  9. High-Spin States and Level Structure in Stable Nucleus 84Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shuifa; Han, Guangbing; Wen, Shuxian; Yan, Yupeng; Yan, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Lihua; Li, Guangsheng; He, Chuangye

    2011-01-01

    High-spin states of 84Sr were populated through the reaction 70Zn(18O, 4n)84Sr at 75 MeV beam energy. Measurement of excitation function, gamma-gamma coincidences, directional correlation of oriented states (DCO) ratios and gamma-transition intensities were performed using eight anticompton HPGe detectors and one planar HPGe detector. Based on the measured results, a new level scheme of 84Sr was established in which 12 new states and nearly 30 new gamma-transitions were identified in the present work. The positive-parity states of the new level scheme were compared with results from calculations in the framework of the projected shell model (PSM). One negative-parity band was extended to spin I=19 and it can be found that in the high-spin states the gamma-transition energies show the nature of signature staggering. The negative-parity band levels are in good agreement with the deformed configuration-mixing shell model (DCM) calculations.

  10. Liquid exfoliated pristine WS2 nanosheets for ultrasensitive and highly stable chemiresistive humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ravindra Kumar; Guha, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-11-01

    WS2 nanosheets have been synthesized by ultrasonication in a binary mixture of acetone and 2-propanol, with a volume ratio of 80:20. Hansen solubility parameters were taken into consideration as part of the process. These nanosheets have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction, along with spectroscopy such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanosheets were further used as a sensing material to fabricate a humidity sensor on interdigitated aluminum electrodes, realized over Si/SiO2 substrate using a conventional photolithography technique. The response for our sensor varied from 11.9 for 40% RH to as high as 37.5 for 80% RH. Response and recovery time were found to be 13 ± 2 s and 17 ± 2 s respectively. The suspended nanosheets were also treated with UV light in a nitrogen environment. The response for UV treated nanosheets shows better linearity, however its response decreases in the presence of humidity. This is due to a decrease in oxygen content of the UV treated sample. Furthermore, the effect of sonication time has been investigated, and it was found that samples with 10 h sonication are better than others due to their high surface-to-volume ratio. The repeatability and stability of the sensor have been investigated and found to be excellent. The hysteresis in the sensors was also explored. The mechanism of humidity sensing has been discussed in detail.

  11. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  12. Highly uniform and stable cerasomal microcapsule with good biocompatibility for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yang; Cao, Zhong; Zhu, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Qing; Shuai, Xin-Tao

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to improve the stability of liposomes have recently led to the development of organic-inorganic liposomal cerasomes. However, the uncontrollable size of cerasomes has greatly limited their biomedical applications. In this study, a novel strategy was introduced to fabricate hybrid liposomal cerasomes with high stability and uniform size. The hybrid lipids were first deposited onto CaCO3 microspheres through electrostatic interactions and self-assembly, and then the CaCO3 core was removed to obtain hollow microcapsules, i.e. the cerasomes. The species of the lipid oligomers was detected by MALDI-TOF-MS, which demonstrates the existence of siloxane network on microcapsules' surface. Anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) loaded cerasomal microcapsule (DLCM) exhibited an initial burst release behavior followed by the sustained release and remarkably high stability towards surfactant solubilization and long term storage. The DLCM displayed a pH-dependent and sustained DOX release profile in vitro, which can be well explained using a well established mathematical model. Our results indicate that these novel cerasomal microcapsules have great potential to be applied as drug delivery system in cancer therapy.

  13. In situ Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Graphene Composite Gel Electrolytes for Highly Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-il; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with long-term stability are produced using polymer-gel electrolytes (PGEs). In this study, we introduce the formation of PGEs using in situ gelation with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles and graphene fillers that are pre-deposited on the counter electrodes. We obtain a high concentration PMMA-based PGEs (i.e., over 10 wt%). A DSC composed of a PMMA/graphene composite PGEs exhibits an 8.49% photon-to-electric conversion efficiency, which is comparable to conventional liquid electrolyte DSCs. This finding is attributed to increased ion diffusivity and conductivity of the PMMA-based PGEs resulting from the incorporation of graphene nanofillers. The PMMA-based PGE DSCs exhibit highly stable long-term efficiencies, maintaining up to 90% of their initial efficiency during thermal soaking, whereas the efficiencies of liquid electrolyte cells decrease significantly, by up to 60%.

  14. Highly stable surface functionalization of microgas chromatography columns using layer-by-layer self-assembly of silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shakeel, Hamza; Lovette, John; Rice, Gary W; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2013-09-03

    A controllable and high-yield surface functionalization of silicon microchannels using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) is presented. The application of SNPs (45 nm average diameter) coating as a stationary phase for chromatographic separation is also demonstrated with surface functionalization using chloroalkylsilanes. This method facilitates a simple, low-cost, and parallel processing scheme that also provides homogeneous and stable nanoparticle-based stationary phases with ease of control over the coating thickness. The SNP-functionalized microfabricated columns with either single capillary channels (1 m long, 150 μm wide, 240 μm deep) or very narrow multicapillary channels (25 cm long, 30 μm wide, 240 μm deep, 16 parallel channels) successfully separated a multicomponent gas mixture with a wide range of boiling points with high reproducibility.

  15. Cationic Silica-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Sites: Highly Active and Stable Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucino, Margherita; Mougel, Victor; Schowner, Roman; Fedorov, Alexey; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-03-18

    Designing supported alkene metathesis catalysts with high activity and stability is still a challenge, despite significant advances in the last years. Described herein is the combination of strong σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with weak σ-donating surface silanolates and cationic tungsten sites leading to highly active and stable alkene metathesis catalysts. These well-defined silica-supported catalysts, [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(OTf)] and [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(+) ][B(Ar(F) )4 (-) ] [IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene, B(Ar(F) )4 =B(3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 )4 ] catalyze alkene metathesis, and the cationic species display unprecedented activity for a broad range of substrates, especially for terminal olefins with turnover numbers above 1.2 million for propene.

  16. Syntheses and properties of several metastable and stable hydrides derived from intermetallic compounds under high hydrogen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, S. M.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Liu, R. S.; Jacob, I.; Tsutaoka, T.; Budziak, A.; Morawski, A.; Sugiura, H.; Zachariasz, P.; Dybko, K.; Diduszko, R.

    2016-12-01

    Brief summary of our former work on high hydrogen pressure syntheses of novel hydrides and studies of their properties is supplemented with new results. Syntheses and properties of a number of hydrides (unstable, metastable or stable in ambient conditions) derived under high hydrogen pressure from intermetallic compounds, like MeT2, MeNi5, Me7T3, Y6Mn23 and YMn12 (where Me = zirconium, yttrium or rare earth; T = transition metal) are presented. Stabilization of ZrFe2H4 due to surface phenomena was revealed. Unusual role of manganese in hydride forming processes is pointed out. Hydrogen induced phase transitions, suppression of magnetism, antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic and metal-insulator or semimetal-metal transitions are described. Equations of state (EOS) of hydrides submitted to hydrostatic pressures up to 30 GPa are presented and discussed.

  17. High Molecular Weight Thermally Stable Poly (Sodium Methacrylate / Magnetites Nanocomposites Via Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha A. El-Ghazawya,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites (MN were synthesized using sodium methacrylate (NMA monomer. Functionalized and bare magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by conventional co-precipitation method giving particles with 3-10 nm in diameter. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structure with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly (sodium methacrylate as shell. Chemical structure and morphology of the synthesized PNMA/magnetite nanocomposites were investigated using FTIR and TEM, respectively. The synthesized nanocomposites show effective encapsulation of different treated magnetite nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and exhibited good thermal stability. Such magnetite nanocomposites with high molecular weight and thermal stability have potential application in enhanced oil recovery application.

  18. Highly stable evolution of Earth's future orbit despite chaotic behavior of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Due to the chaotic nature of the Solar System, the question of its dynamic long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, e.g. based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization, including catastrophic encounters and/or collisions involving the Earth, has been suggested to be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity (eM), with an estimated probability of ~1%. However, it has recently been shown that the statistics of numerical Solar System integrations are sensitive to the accuracy and type of numerical algorithm. Here I report results from computationally demanding ensemble integrations (N=1,600 with slightly different initial conditions) at unprecedented accuracy based on the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The standard symplectic algorithm produced spurious results for highly eccentric orbits and during close encounters, which were hence integrated with a suitabl...

  19. Novel high- and low-copy stable cosmids for use in Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, D R; Novak, S; Kado, C I

    1985-09-01

    Presented are a set of cosmids based on the unit copy Agrobacterium plasmid, pTAR, and the high-copy-number mutant plasmid, pUCD500, of pTiC58. The addition of a par function derived from pTAR to the vectors allowed them to be stably maintained throughout the cell population in the absence of selective pressure. These vectors, designed for Agrobacterium and Rhizobium, also work in Escherichia coli. The vectors can be cotransferred to Rhizobiaceae from E. coli with the helper plasmid, pRK2013. The pTiC58 origin containing vectors, pUCD1000 and pUCD1001 were found to be incompatible with a 250-kb plasmid harbored by R. meliloti RM102Z1. RM102Z1(pUCD1000) was still capable of nodulating roots in alfalfa.

  20. Near field magnetostatics and Neel Brownian interactions mediated magnetorheological characteristics of highly stable nano ferrocolloids

    CERN Document Server

    Katiyar, Ajay; Das, Sarit K; Nandi, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanocolloids with synthesized super paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPION) (5 to 15 nm) dispersed in insitu developed Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 400) and nano silica complex have been synthesized. The PEG nano Silica complex physically encapsulates the SPIONs, ensuring no phase separation under high magnetic fields (1.2 T). Exhaustive magnetorheological investigations have been performed to comprehend the structural behavior and response of the ferrocolloids. Remarkable stability and reversibility have been observed under magnetic field for concentrated systems. The results exhibit the impact of particle concentration, size and encapsulation efficiency on parameters such as shear viscosity, yield stress, viscoelastic moduli, magnetoviscous hysteresis etc. Analytical models to reveal the system mechanism and mathematically predict the magnetoviscosity and magneto yield stress has been theorized. The mechanistic approach based on near field magnetostatics and Neel Brownian interactivities can predict t...

  1. Carbon dioxide selective adsorption within a highly stable mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Lin

    2014-08-01

    A new mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Zn4(2-mbIm) 3(bIm)5·4H2O (named JUC-160, 2-mbIm = 2-methylbenzimidazole, bIm = benzimidazole and JUC = Jilin University China) was synthesized with a solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3) 2·6H2O, bIm and 2-mbIm in DMF solution at 180 °C. Topological analysis indicated that JUC-160 has a zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of JUC-160 demonstrated its selective adsorption property for carbon dioxide, high thermal stability, and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvent for up to one week. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Preparation of highly aligned silicon oxide nanowires with stable intensive photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansurov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Beall, Gary W. [Texas State University-San Marcos, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 601 University Dr., San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of highly aligned vertical silicon oxide nanowires. The source of silicon was from the substrate itself without any additional source of silicon. X-ray measurement demonstrated that our nanowires are amorphous. Photoluminescence measurements were conducted through 18 months and indicated that there is a very good intensive emission peaks near the violet regions. The FTIR measurements indicated the existence of peaks at 463, 604, 795 and a wide peak at 1111 cm{sup -1} and this can be attributed to Si-O-Si and Si-O stretching vibrations. We also report the formation of the octopus-like silicon oxide nanowires and the growth mechanism of these structures was discussed.

  3. Study of Stable Cathodes and Electrolytes for High Specific Density Lithium-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.; Wu, James; Bennett, William; Ming, Yu; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions require high specific energy battery technologies, greater than 400 Wh/kg. Current NASA missions are using "state-of-the-art" (SOA) Li-ion batteries (LIB), which consist of a metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the physical and electrochemical properties of the anode-electrolyte interface for ionic liquid based Li-air batteries. The voltage-time profiles for Pyr13FSI and Pyr14TFSI ionic liquids electrolytes studies on symmetric cells show low over-potentials and no dendritic lithium morphology. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that these ionic liquids have a wide electrochemical window. As a continuation of this work, sp2 carbon cathode and these low flammability electrolytes were paired and the physical and electrochemical properties were studied in a Li-air battery system under an oxygen environment.

  4. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  5. High-radiance LDP source: clean, reliable, and stable EUV source for mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Shirai, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kiyotada; Aoki, Kazuya; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput and -resolution actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. To realize such inspection tools, a high-radiance EUV source is necessary. Ushio's laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) source is able to meet industry's requirements in radiance, cleanliness, stability and reliability. Ushio's LDP source has shown the peak radiance at plasma of 180 W/mm2/sr and the area-averaged radiance in a 200-μm-diameter circle behind the debris mitigation system of 120 W/mm2/sr. A new version of the debris mitigation system is in testing phase. Its optical transmission was confirmed to be 73 %, which is 4 % lower than that of the previous version and therefore will be improved. Cleanliness of the system is evaluated by exposing Ru mirrors placed behind the debris mitigation system. Ru sputter rate was proven to be sufficiently low as 3~5 nm/Gpulse at 7 kHz, whereas frequency-dependent sputter rate was 1~3 nm/Gpulse at 5~9 kHz as previously reported. Sn deposition remained very low (discharge frequencies. Pulse energy stability was approximately 10 %. Dose energy stability dropped from approximately 2 % to 0.1 % when feedback control was activated. EUV emission position stability was studied at 3 kHz. Deviation of the plasma center of gravity was 6 μm, which is 3 % of plasma diameter and therefore considered to be negligible. Reliability tests were performed on both R and D and prototype machines and up to 200 hours of non-interrupted operation was demonstrated.

  6. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  7. Air-stable magnesium nanocomposites provide rapid and high-capacity hydrogen storage without using heavy-metal catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Joon; Moon, Hoi Ri; Ruminski, Anne M; Jiang, Bin; Kisielowski, Christian; Bardhan, Rizia; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy carrier that can potentially facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to sources of clean energy because of its prominent advantages such as high energy density (142 MJ kg(-1); ref. 1), great variety of potential sources (for example water, biomass, organic matter), light weight, and low environmental impact (water is the sole combustion product). However, there remains a challenge to produce a material capable of simultaneously optimizing two conflicting criteria--absorbing hydrogen strongly enough to form a stable thermodynamic state, but weakly enough to release it on-demand with a small temperature rise. Many materials under development, including metal-organic frameworks, nanoporous polymers, and other carbon-based materials, physisorb only a small amount of hydrogen (typically 1-2 wt%) at room temperature. Metal hydrides were traditionally thought to be unsuitable materials because of their high bond formation enthalpies (for example MgH(2) has a ΔHf~75 kJ mol(-1)), thus requiring unacceptably high release temperatures resulting in low energy efficiency. However, recent theoretical calculations and metal-catalysed thin-film studies have shown that microstructuring of these materials can enhance the kinetics by decreasing diffusion path lengths for hydrogen and decreasing the required thickness of the poorly permeable hydride layer that forms during absorption. Here, we report the synthesis of an air-stable composite material that consists of metallic Mg nanocrystals (NCs) in a gas-barrier polymer matrix that enables both the storage of a high density of hydrogen (up to 6 wt% of Mg, 4 wt% for the composite) and rapid kinetics (loading in storage kinetics without using expensive heavy-metal catalysts.

  8. Air-stable magnesium nanocomposites provide rapid and high-capacity hydrogen storage without using heavy-metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Joon; Moon, Hoi Ri; Ruminski, Anne M.; Jiang, Bin; Kisielowski, Christian; Bardhan, Rizia; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy carrier that can potentially facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to sources of clean energy because of its prominent advantages such as high energy density (142 MJ kg-1 ref. 1), great variety of potential sources (for example water, biomass, organic matter), light weight, and low environmental impact (water is the sole combustion product). However, there remains a challenge to produce a material capable of simultaneously optimizing two conflicting criteria—absorbing hydrogen strongly enough to form a stable thermodynamic state, but weakly enough to release it on-demand with a small temperature rise. Many materials under development, including metal-organic frameworks, nanoporous polymers, and other carbon-based materials, physisorb only a small amount of hydrogen (typically 1-2 wt%) at room temperature. Metal hydrides were traditionally thought to be unsuitable materials because of their high bond formation enthalpies (for example MgH2 has a ΔHf˜75 kJ mol-1), thus requiring unacceptably high release temperatures resulting in low energy efficiency. However, recent theoretical calculations and metal-catalysed thin-film studies have shown that microstructuring of these materials can enhance the kinetics by decreasing diffusion path lengths for hydrogen and decreasing the required thickness of the poorly permeable hydride layer that forms during absorption. Here, we report the synthesis of an air-stable composite material that consists of metallic Mg nanocrystals (NCs) in a gas-barrier polymer matrix that enables both the storage of a high density of hydrogen (up to 6 wt% of Mg, 4 wt% for the composite) and rapid kinetics (loading in storage kinetics without using expensive heavy-metal catalysts.

  9. Using initial field campaigns for optimal placement of high resolution stable water isotope and water chemistry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Amirhossein; Kraft, Philipp; Windhorst, David; Orlowski, Natalie; Bestian, Konrad; Holly, Hartmut; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Understanding hydrological processes and flow paths is of major importance for the management of catchment water resources. The power of stable isotopes as a tracer and to encoder environmental information provides the opportunity to assess hydrological flow paths, catchment residence times, landscape influences, and the origin of water resources in catchments. High resolution isotope sampling of multiple sources ensures detailed comprehension of hydrological and biogeochemical interactions within catchments. Technical advances over the last years have made it feasible to directly measure stable water isotope signatures of various sources online in a high temporal resolution during field campaigns. However, measuring long time series in a high temporal resolutions are still costly and can only be performed at few places in a study area. The identification of locations where measurements should be implemented is still challenging. Our study is conducted in the developed landscape of the Schwingbach catchment located in central Germany. A reconnaissance assessment of the spatial distribution of runoff generating areas was performed in a short time frame prior to the selection of the final sampling site. We used a combination of: water quality snapshot sampling to identify spatial differences and potential hot spots, event-based hydrograph separation to differentiate possible flow paths, consecutive runoff measurements by salt dilution to identify gaining and loosing reaches, field reconnaissance mapping of potentially variable source areas in the riparian zone, infrared imagery of stream surface temperatures to locate potential concentrated groundwater discharge to the stream, and groundwater table mapping to identify sites where different dominant processes (e.g., groundwater flow, groundwater-surface water interactions and runoff generation) can be expected. First results indicated that precipitation and stream water are significantly different in isotopic

  10. Pcal_1127, a highly stable and efficient ribose-5-phosphate pyrophosphokinase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Perveen, Sumera; Aziz, Iram; Bashir, Qamar; Rashid, Naeem; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of the genome sequence of Pyrobaculum calidifontis revealed the presence of an open reading frame Pcal_1127 annotated as ribose-5-phosphate pyrophosphokinase. To examine the properties of Pcal_1127 the coding gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified gene product was characterized. Pcal_1127 exhibited higher activity when ATP was replaced by dATP as pyrophosphate donor. Phosphate and EDTA activated the enzyme activity and equivalent amount of activity was detected with ATP and dATP in their presence. Recombinant Pcal_1127 could utilize all the four nucleotides as pyrophosphate donors with a marked preference for ATP. Optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 55 °C and 10.5, respectively. A unique feature of Pcal_1127 was its stability against temperature as well as denaturants. Pcal_1127 exhibited more than 95 % residual activity after heating for 4 h at 90 °C and a half-life of 15 min in the boiling water. The enzyme activity was not affected by the presence of 8 M urea or 4 M guanidinium chloride. Pcal_1127 was a highly efficient enzyme with a catalytic efficiency of 5183 mM(-1) s(-1). These features make Pcal_1127, a novel and unique ribose-5-phosphate pyrophosphokinase.

  11. Stable operation of air-blowing direct methanol fuel cells with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Jirae; Han, Sangil; Song, Inseob

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that is a combination of a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) for the anode and a catalyst-coated substrate (CCS) for the cathode is studied under air-blower conditions for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Compared with MEAs prepared by only the CCS method, the performance of DMFC MEAs employing the combination method is significantly improved by 30% with less methanol crossover. This feature can be attributed to an enhanced electrode|membrane interface in the anode side and significantly higher catalyst efficiency. Furthermore, DMFC MEAs designed by the combination method retain high power density without any degradation, while the CCM-type cell shows a downward tendency in electrochemical performance under air-blower conditions. This may be due to MEAs with CCM have a much more difficult structure of catalytic active sites in the cathode to eliminate the water produced by electrochemical reaction. In addition, DMFCs produced via combination methods exhibit a lower water crossover flux than CCS alternatives, due to the comparatively dense structure of the CCM anode. Hence, DMFCs with a combination MEA structure demonstrate the feasibility of a small fuel cell system employing the low noise of a fan, instead of a noisy and large capacity air pump, for portable electronic devices.

  12. Intrinsic Flame-Retardant and Thermally Stable Epoxy Endowed by a Highly Efficient, Multifunctional Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to realize flame retardancy of epoxy without suffering much detriment in thermal stability. To solve the problem, a super-efficient phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reactive-type flame retardant, 10-(hydroxy(4-hydroxyphenylmethyl-5,10-dihydrophenophosphazinine-10-oxide (HB-DPPA is synthesized and characterized. When it is used as a co-curing agent of 4,4′-methylenedianiline (DDM for curing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, the cured epoxy achieves UL-94 V-0 rating with the limiting oxygen index of 29.3%. In this case, the phosphorus content in the system is exceptionally low (0.18 wt %. To the best of our knowledge, it currently has the highest efficiency among similar epoxy systems. Such excellent flame retardancy originates from the exclusive chemical structure of the phenophosphazine moiety, in which the phosphorus element is stabilized by the two adjacent aromatic rings. The action in the condensed phase is enhanced and followed by pressurization of the pyrolytic gases that induces the blowing-out effect during combustion. The cone calorimeter result reveals the formation of a unique intumescent char structure with five discernible layers. Owing to the super-efficient flame retardancy and the rigid molecular structure of HB-DPPA, the flame-retardant epoxy acquires high thermal stability and its initial decomposition temperature only decreases by 4.6 °C as compared with the unmodified one.

  13. Highly stable hydrophilic surfaces of PDMS thin layer obtained by UV radiation and oxygen plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes Atayde, Cleuson de; Doi, Ioshiaki [Center for Semiconductor Components, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Sylgard 184) was carried out by O{sub 2} plasma and UV in broadband mode/O{sub 2} plasma treatments with different exposure times, and studied in terms of hydrophilic stability. Water contact angle measurements, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for the analysis of the modified surface and hydrophilic stability of the PDMS films. The results show reasonably good hydrophilic stability in the range of a week with a contact angle of around 70 for O{sub 2} plasma treated samples, whereas a more high hydrophilic stability, with a low contact angle of 65 up to 15 days, was observed for UV/O{sub 2} plasma treated PDMS. FTIR analysis of the samples reveals significant oxidation noted by large presence of Si-O-Si, and Si-OH bonds on the PDMS surface, which improves the affinity with water molecules and increases the hydrophilicy. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. High and stable substrate specificities of microorganisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Nierychlo, Marta; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2013-06-01

    Microbial communities are typically characterized by conditions of nutrient limitation so the availability of the resources is likely a key factor in the niche differentiation across all species and in the regulation of the community structure. In this study we have investigated whether four species exhibit any in situ short-term changes in substrate uptake pattern when exposed to variations in substrate and growth conditions. Microautoradiography was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate in situ cell-specific substrate uptake profiles of four probe-defined coexisting species in a wastewater treatment plant with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. These were the filamentous 'Candidatus Microthrix' and Caldilinea (type 0803), the polyphosphate-accumulating organism 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', and the denitrifying Azoarcus. The experimental conditions mimicked the conditions potentially encountered in the respective environment (starvation, high/low substrate concentration, induction with specific substrates, and single/multiple substrates). The results showed that each probe-defined species exhibited very distinct and constant substrate uptake profile in time and space, which hardly changed under any of the conditions tested. Such niche partitioning implies that a significant change in substrate composition will be reflected in a changed community structure rather than the substrate uptake response from the different species. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Bimetallic Co-Mn perovskite fluorides as high-stable electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Ding, Rui; Li, Xudong; Xu, Qilei; Ying, Danfeng; Huang, Yongfa; Liu, Enhui

    2017-09-14

    Bimetallic Co-Mn perovskite fluorides (KCoxMn1-xF3, denoted as K-Co-Mn-F) with various Co/Mn ratios (1:0, 12:1, 6:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1) were prepared via one-pot solvothermal strategy and further used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The optimal K-Co-Mn-F (Co/Mn=6:1) candidate showed size range of 0.1-1 μm and uniform element distribution, exhibiting the light changes in XRD diffraction peaks and XPS binding energy in comparison for the bare K-Co-F and K-Mn-F due to the structural/electronic effects. Owing to the stronger synergistic effect of Co/Mn redox species, the K-Co-Mn-F (Co/Mn=6:1) electrode exhibited superior specific capacity and rate behavior (113-100 C g-1 at 1-16 A g-1) together with excellent cycling stability (118% for 5000 cycles at 8 A g-1), and the AC//K-Co-Mn-F (Co/Mn=6:1) asymmetric capacitor showed superior energy and power densities (8.0-2.4 Wh Kg-1 at 0.14-8.7 KW Kg-1) along with high cycling stability (90% for 10000 cycles at 5 A g-1). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekeon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98 using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s−1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Banerjee, Indranil [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Das, Manasmita [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: dipsikha.chem@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T{sub 2} contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T{sub 2} relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  18. Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tongay, S; Berke, K; Nasrollahi, Z; Tanner, D B; Hebard, A F [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lemaitre, M; Appleton, B R, E-mail: tongay@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: afh@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: appleton@eng.ufl.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    We report on the p doping of graphene with the polymer TFSA ((CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH). Modification of graphene with TFSA decreases the graphene sheet resistance by 70%. Through such modification, we report sheet resistance values as low as 129 {Omega}, thus attaining values comparable to those of indium-tin oxide (ITO), while displaying superior environmental stability and preserving electrical properties over extended time scales. Electrical transport measurements reveal that, after doping, the carrier density of holes increases, consistent with the acceptor nature of TFSA, and the mobility decreases due to enhanced short-range scattering. The Drude formula predicts that competition between these two effects yields an overall increase in conductivity. We confirm changes in the carrier density and Fermi level of graphene through changes in the Raman G and 2D peak positions. Doped graphene samples display high transmittance in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, preserving graphene's optical properties without any significant reduction in transparency, and are therefore superior to ITO films in the near infrared. The presented results allow integration of doped graphene sheets into optoelectronics, solar cells, and thermoelectric solar cells as well as engineering of the electrical characteristics of various devices by tuning the Fermi level of graphene.

  19. Highly stable liquid metal-based pressure sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-05-21

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30-1000 s(-1). The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability.

  20. STUDIES ON HIGH SOLID CONTENT AND STABLE EMULSIFIER—FREE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等

    1998-01-01

    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  1. Highly stable acyclic bifunctional chelator for {sup 64}Cu PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, S.; Lecointre, A.; Christine, C.; Charbonniere, L. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. d' Ingenierie Appliquee a l' Analyse; Dechamps-Olivier, I. [Univ. de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France). Group Chimie de Coordination; Platas-Iglesias, C. [Univ. da Coruna (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Elhabiri, M. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Physico-Chimie Bioinorganique

    2011-07-01

    Ligand L{sup 1}, based on a pyridine scaffold, functionalized by two bis(methane phosphonate)aminomethyl groups, was shown to display a very high affinity towards Cu(II) (log K{sub CuL}=22.7) and selectivity over Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ga(III) ({delta} log K{sub ML}>4) as shown by the values of the stability constants obtained from potentiometric measurements. Insights into the coordination mode of the ligand around Cu(II) cation were obtained by UV-Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopies as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model) performed in aqueous solution. The results point to a pentacoordination pattern of the metal ion in the fully deprotonated [CuL{sup 1}]{sup 6-} species. Considering the beneficial thermodynamic parameters of this ligand, kinetic experiments were run to follow the formation of the copper(II) complexes, indicating a very rapid formation of the complex, appropriate for {sup 64}Cu complexation. As L{sup 1} represents a particularly interesting target within the frame of {sup 64}Cu PET imaging, a synthetic protocol was developed to introduce a labeling function on the pyridyl moiety of L{sup 1}, thereby affording L{sup 2}, a potential bifunctional chelator (BFC) for PET imaging.

  2. On the Highly Stable Performance of Loss-Free Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kozak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of bandwidth demand in data networks, driven by the continuous growth of the Internet and the increase of bandwidth greedy applications, raise the issue of how to support all the bandwidth requirements in the near future. Three optical switching paradigms have been defined and are being investigated: Optical Circuit Switching (OCS; Optical Packet Switching (OPS; and Optical Burst Switching (OBS. Among these paradigms, OBS is seen as the most appropriate solution today. However, OBS suffers from high burst loss as a result of contention in the bufferless mode of operation. This issue was investigated by Coutelen et al., 2009 who proposed the loss-free CAROBS framework whereby signal convertors of the optical signal to the electrical domain ensure electrical buffering. Convertors increase the network price which must be minimized to reduce the installation and operating costs of the CAROBS framework. An analysis capturing convertor requirements, with respect to the number of merging flows and CAROBS node offered load, was carried out. We demonstrated the convertor location significance, which led to an additional investigation of the shared wavelength convertors scenario. Shared wavelength convertors significantly decrease the number of required convertors and show great promise for CAROBS. Based on this study we can design a CAROBS network to contain a combination of simple and complex nodes that include none or some convertors respectively, a vital feature of network throughput efficiency and cost.

  3. Lithium Thiophosphate Compounds as Stable High Rate Li-Ion Separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Battery separators based upon lithium thiophosphate (LiPS4) have previously been demonstrated at UC Boulder, but the thickness of the separators was too high to be of practical use in a lithium ion battery. The separators are solid phase, which makes them intrinsically less prone to thermal runaway and thereby improves safety. Results of attempting to develop sputtered thin film layers of this material by starting with targets of pure Li, Li2S, and P2S5 are reported. Sputtering rates and film quality and composition are discussed, along with efforts to use Raman spectroscopy to determine quantitative film composition. The latter is a rate limiting step in the investigation of these films, as they are typically thin and require long times to get to sufficient thickness to be analyzed using traditional methods, whereas Raman is particularly well suited to this analysis, if it can be made quantitative. The final results of the film deposition methods are reported, and a path towards new films is discussed. Finally, it should be noted that this program originally began with one graduate student working on the program, but this student ultimately chose to not continue with a PhD. A second student took over in the middle of the effort, and a new program has been proposed with a significantly altered chemistry to take the program in a new direction.

  4. Reproducible fabrication of stable small nano Pt with high activity for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Pingping; Guo, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guiting; Chen, Huifen; Pan, Yuxia; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2013-07-01

    Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2-3 nm in diameter were reproducibly synthesized by reduction of H2PtCl6 solution containing inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) as the stabilizing agent. Single crystals with Pt(111) faces of the resulting cubic nanoparticles were revealed by the electron diffraction pattern. The PtNPs-IP6 nanoparticles were used to modify an electrode as a nonenzymatic sensor for H2O2 detection, exhibiting a fast response and high sensitivity. A low detection limit of 2.0 × 10-7 M (S/N = 3) with two linear ranges between 2.4 × 10-7 and 1.3 × 10-3 M (R2 = 0.9987) and between 1.3 × 10-3 and 1.3 × 10-2 M (R2 = 0.9980) was achieved. The attractive electrochemical performance of PtNPs-IP6 enables it to be employed as a promising material for the development of Pt-based analytical systems and other applications.

  5. Graphene oxide-immobilized NH₂-terminated silicon nanoparticles by cross-linked interactions for highly stable silicon negative electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Deng, Yuanfu; Wan, Lina; Qin, Xusong; Chen, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    There is a great interest in the utilization of silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, its poor cycling stability, which is caused by a dramatic volume change during lithium-ion intercalation, and intrinsic low electric conductivity hamper its industrial applications. A facile strategy is reported here to fabricate graphene oxide-immobilized NH2-terminated silicon nanoparticles (NPs) negative electrode (Si@NH2/GO) directed by hydrogen bonding and cross-linked interactions to enhance the capacity retention of the anode. The NH2-modified Si NPs first form strong hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds with GO. The Si@NH2/GO composite further forms hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds with sodium alginate, which acts as a binder, to yield a stable composite negative electrode. These two chemical cross-linked/hydrogen bonding interactions-one between NH2-modified Si NPs and GO, and another between the GO and sodium alginate-along with highly mechanically flexible graphene oxide, produced a robust network in the negative electrode system to stabilize the electrode during discharge and charge cycles. The as-prepared Si@NH2/GO electrode exhibits an outstanding capacity retention capability and good rate performance, delivering a reversible capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current of 420 mA g(-1) with almost 100% capacity retention. The results indicated the importance of system-level strategy for fabricating stable electrodes with improved electrochemical performance.

  6. Highly Stable Nanocontainer of APTES-Anchored Layered Titanate Nanosheet for Reliable Protection/Recovery of Nucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, In Young; Park, Dae-Hwan; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-02-01

    A universal technology for the encapsulative protection of unstable anionic species by highly stable layered metal oxide has been developed via the surface modification of a metal oxide nanosheet. The surface anchoring of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on exfoliated titanate nanosheet yields a novel cationic metal oxide nanosheet, which can be universally used for the hybridization with various biological and inorganic anions. The encapsulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cationic APTES-anchored titanate lattice makes possible the reliable long-term protection of DNA against enzymatic, chemical, and UV-vis light corrosions. The encapsulated DNA can be easily released from the titanate lattice via sonication, underscoring the functionality of the cationic APTES-anchored titanate nanosheet as a stable nanocontainer for DNA. The APTES-anchored titanate nanosheet can be also used as an efficient CO2 adsorbent and a versatile host material for various inorganic anions like polyoxometalates, leading to the synthesis of novel intercalative nanohybrids with unexplored properties and useful functionalities.

  7. Nonstop Selection for High and Stable Crop Yield by Two Prognostic Equations to Reduce Yield Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia A. Fasoula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yield losses occurring at the field level, whether due to plant diseases or abiotic stresses, reveal reduced stability of the crop yield potential. The paper argues that the stability of crop yield potential is a trait with a clear genetic component, which can be successfully selected for at the single-plant level and incorporated into high-yielding cultivars. Two novel selection equations with prognostic power are presented, capable to objectively phenotype and evaluate individual plants in real field conditions in the absence of the masking effects of interplant competition and soil heterogeneity. The equations predict performance at the crop stand through the key concept of coefficient of homeostasis and are equally useful for early generation selection and for nonstop selection within finished cultivars in order to continuously incorporate the adaptive (genetic or epigenetic responses of plants. Exploitation of adaptive responses acquires particular importance in view of the climate change effects on crop productivity and the changing biotic or abiotic micro-environments. Cotton is used as a case study to highlight the potential of nonstop selection for increasing crop yield and for the gradual build-up of disease resistance. In addition, the paper envisions and proposes the formation of international networks of researchers focusing on specific diseases as, for example, the cereal root-rot or the cotton Verticillium wilt that will concurrently use the proposed strategy in their respective environments to select for resistant genotypes, while gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of the genetic or epigenetic changes at the phenotypic and genomic levels.

  8. Crystalline oligo(ethylene sulfide) domains define highly stable supramolecular block copolymer assemblies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Carrie E.; Velluto, Diana; Demurtas, Davide; Phelps, Edward A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    With proper control over copolymer design and solvation conditions, self-assembled materials display impressive morphological variety that encompasses nanoscale colloids as well as bulk three-dimensional architectures. Here we take advantage of both hydrophobicity and crystallinity to mediate supra-molecular self-assembly of spherical micellar, linear fibrillar, or hydrogel structures by a family of highly asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-oligo(ethylene sulfide) (PEG-OES) copolymers. Assembly structural polymorphism was achieved with modification of PEG-OES topology (linear versus multiarm) and with precise, monomer-by-monomer control of OES length. Notably, all three morphologies were accessed utilizing OES oligomers with degrees of polymerization as short as three. These exceptionally small assembly forming blocks represent the first application of ethylene sulfide oligomers in supramolecular materials. While the assemblies demonstrated robust aqueous stability over time, oxidation by hydrogen peroxide progressively converted ethylene sulfide residues to increasingly hydrophilic and amorphous sulfoxides and sulfones, causing morphological changes and permanent disassembly. We utilized complementary microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to confirm this chemical stimulus-responsive behavior in self-assembled PEG-OES colloidal dispersions and physical gels. In addition to inherent stimulus-responsive behavior, fibrillar assemblies demonstrated biologically relevant molecular delivery, as confirmed by the dose-dependent activation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells following fibril-mediated delivery of the immunological adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A. In physical gels composed of either linear or multiarm PEG-OES precursors, rheologic analysis also identified mechanical stimulus-responsive shear thinning behavior. Thanks to the facile preparation, user-defined morphology, aqueous stability, carrier functionality, and stimuli-responsive behaviors of

  9. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-01

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg-1 by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high

  10. Characterization of a Highly pH Stable Chi-Class Glutathione S-Transferase from Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Chhetri, Gaurav; Tripathi, Timir; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes present in virtually all organisms. Besides having an essential role in cellular detoxification, they also perform various other functions, including responses in stress conditions and signaling. GSTs are highly studied in plants and animals; however, the knowledge regarding GSTs in cyanobacteria seems rudimentary. In this study, we report the characterization of a highly pH stable GST from the model cyanobacterium--Synechocystis PCC 6803. The gene sll0067 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The expressed protein exists as a homo-dimer, which is composed of about 20 kDa subunit. The results of the steady-state enzyme kinetics displayed protein's glutathione conjugation activity towards its class specific substrate- isothiocyanate, having the maximal activity with phenethyl isothiocyanate. Contrary to the poor catalytic activity and low specificity towards standard GST substrates such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene by bacterial GSTs, PmGST B1-1 from Proteus mirabilis, and E. coli GST, sll0067 has broad substrate degradation capability like most of the mammalian GST. Moreover, we have shown that cyanobacterial GST sll0067 is catalytically efficient compared to the best mammalian enzymes. The structural stability of GST was studied as a function of pH. The fluorescence and CD spectroscopy in combination with size exclusion chromatography showed a highly stable nature of the protein over a broad pH range from 2.0 to 11.0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first GST with such a wide range of pH related structural stability. Furthermore, the presence of conserved Proline-53, structural motifs such as N-capping box and hydrophobic staple further aid in the stability and proper folding of cyanobacterial GST-sll0067.

  11. Characterization of a Highly pH Stable Chi-Class Glutathione S-Transferase from Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Pandey

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are multifunctional enzymes present in virtually all organisms. Besides having an essential role in cellular detoxification, they also perform various other functions, including responses in stress conditions and signaling. GSTs are highly studied in plants and animals; however, the knowledge regarding GSTs in cyanobacteria seems rudimentary. In this study, we report the characterization of a highly pH stable GST from the model cyanobacterium--Synechocystis PCC 6803. The gene sll0067 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli, and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The expressed protein exists as a homo-dimer, which is composed of about 20 kDa subunit. The results of the steady-state enzyme kinetics displayed protein's glutathione conjugation activity towards its class specific substrate- isothiocyanate, having the maximal activity with phenethyl isothiocyanate. Contrary to the poor catalytic activity and low specificity towards standard GST substrates such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene by bacterial GSTs, PmGST B1-1 from Proteus mirabilis, and E. coli GST, sll0067 has broad substrate degradation capability like most of the mammalian GST. Moreover, we have shown that cyanobacterial GST sll0067 is catalytically efficient compared to the best mammalian enzymes. The structural stability of GST was studied as a function of pH. The fluorescence and CD spectroscopy in combination with size exclusion chromatography showed a highly stable nature of the protein over a broad pH range from 2.0 to 11.0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first GST with such a wide range of pH related structural stability. Furthermore, the presence of conserved Proline-53, structural motifs such as N-capping box and hydrophobic staple further aid in the stability and proper folding of cyanobacterial GST-sll0067.

  12. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N4B2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N4B2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N4B2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N4B2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N4C2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N4B2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N4B2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  13. Highly stable and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials assembled from lipid-like peptoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Haibao; Jiao, Fang; Daily, Michael D.; Chen, Yulin; Yan, Feng; Ding, Yanhuai; Zhang, Xin; Robertson, Ellen J.; Baer, Marcel D.; Chen, Chunlong

    2016-07-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with molecular-scale thickness have attracted increasing interest for separation, electronic, catalytic, optical, energy and biomedical applications.1-4 Although extensive research on 2D materials, such as graphene and graphene oxide, has been performed in recent years, progress is limited on self-assembly of 2D materials from sequence-specific macromolecules,5-7 especially from synthetic sequences that could exhibit lipid-like self-assembly of bilayer sheets and mimic membrane proteins for functions. The creation of such new class of materials could enable development of highly stable biomimetic membranes that exhibit cell-membrane-like molecular transport with exceptional selectively and high transport rates.8,9 Here we demonstrate self-assembly of lipid-like 12-mer peptoids into extremely stable, crystalline, flexible and free-standing 2D membrane materials. As with cell membranes, upon exposure to external stimuli, these materials exhibit changes in thickness,10 varying from 3.5 nm to 5.6 nm. We find that self-assembly occurs through a facile crystallization process, in which inter-peptoid hydrogen bonds and enhanced hydrophobic interactions drive the formation of a highly-ordered structure. Molecular simulation confirms this is the energetically favored structure. Displaying functional groups at arbitrary locations of membrane-forming peptoids produces membranes with similar structures. This research further shows that single-layer membranes can be coated onto substrate surfaces. Moreover, membranes with mechanically-induced defects can self-repair. Given that peptoids are sequence-specific and exhibit protein-like molecular recognition with enhanced stability,11 we anticipate our membranes to be a robust platform tailored to specific applications.

  14. High-temperature stable absorber coatings for linear concentrating solar thermal power plants; Hochtemperaturstabile Absorberschichten fuer linear konzentrierende solarthermische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Christina

    2009-03-23

    This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at

  15. Highly stable copper oxide composite as an effective photocathode for water splitting via a facile electrochemical synthesis strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting using solar light as an energy resource is believed to be a clean and efficient way to overcome the global energy and environmental problems. Extensive research effort has been focused on n-type metal oxide semiconductors as photoanodes, whereas studies of p-type metal oxide semiconductors as photocathodes where hydrogen is generated are scarce. In this paper, highly efficient and stable copper oxide composite photocathode materials were successfully fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical strategy, which consists of electrodeposition of a Cu film on an ITO glass substrate followed by anodization of the Cu film under a suitable current density and then calcination to form a Cu 2O/CuO composite. The synthesized Cu 2O/CuO composite was composed of a thin layer of Cu 2O with a thin film of CuO on its top as a protecting coating. The rational control of chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the composite materials was easily achieved by varying the electrochemical parameters, including electrodeposition potential and anodization current density, to achieve an enhanced PEC performance. The best photocathode material among all materials prepared was the Cu 2O/CuO composite with Cu 2O in (220) orientation, which showed a highly stable photocurrent of -1.54 mA cm -2 at a potential of 0 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode at a mild pH under illumination of AM 1.5G. This photocurrent density was more than 2 times that generated by the bare Cu 2O electrode (-0.65 mAcm -2) and the stability was considerably enhanced to 74.4% from 30.1% on the bare Cu 2O electrode. The results of this study showed that the top layer of CuO in the Cu 2O/CuO composite not only minimized the Cu 2O photocorrosion but also served as a recombination inhibitor for the photogenerated electrons and holes from Cu 2O, which collectively explained much enhanced stability and PEC activity of the Cu 2O/CuO composite

  16. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shin Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  17. An Overview of the CNS-Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Nonselective and Selective GABA Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various 2,3 subtype selective partial GABA-A agonists are in development to treat anxiety disorders. These compounds are expected to be anxiolytic with fewer undesirable side effects, compared to nonselective GABA-A agonists like benzodiazepines. Several 2,3 subtype selective and nonselective GABA-A agonists have been examined in healthy volunteers, using a battery addressing different brain domains. Data from five placebo-controlled double-blind studies were pooled. Lorazepam 2 mg was the comparator in three studies. Three 2,3-selective GABAA agonists (i.e., TPA023, TPACMP2, SL65.1498, one 1-selective GABAA agonists (zolpidem, and another full agonist (alprazolam were examined. Pharmacological selectivity was assessed by determination of regression lines for the change from baseline of saccadic-peak-velocity- (ΔSPV- relative effect, relative to changes in different pharmacodynamic endpoints (ΔPD. SPV was chosen for its sensitivity to the anxiolysis of benzodiazepines. Slopes of the ΔSPV-ΔPD relations were consistently lower with the 2,3 selective GABA-A agonists than with lorazepam, indicating that their PD effects are less than their SPV-effects. The ΔSPV-ΔPD relations of lorazepam were comparable to alprazolam. Zolpidem showed relatively higher impairments in ΔPD relative to ΔSPV, but did not significantly differ from lorazepam. These PD results support the pharmacological selectivity of the 2,3-selective GABA-A agonists, implying an improved therapeutic window.

  18. A uniquely defined entropy stable matrix dissipation operator for high Mach number ideal MHD and compressible Euler simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Andrew R.; Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    We describe a unique averaging procedure to design an entropy stable dissipation operator for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and compressible Euler equations. Often in the derivation of an entropy conservative numerical flux function much care is taken in the design and averaging of the entropy conservative numerical flux. We demonstrate in this work that if the discrete dissipation operator is not carefully chosen as well it can have deleterious effects on the numerical approximation. This is particularly true for very strong shocks or high Mach number flows present, for example, in astrophysical simulations. We present the underlying technique of how to construct a unique averaging technique for the discrete dissipation operator. We also demonstrate numerically the increased robustness of the approximation.

  19. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  20. Regenerative Soot-IX: C3 as the dominant, stable carbon cluster in high pressure sooting discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Janjua, Sohail Ahmad; Khan, S D; Khalid, R; Aleem, A; Ahmad, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented that have been obtained while operating the graphite hollow cathode duoplasmatron ion source in dual mode under constant discharge current. This dual mode operation enabled us to obtain the mass and emission spectra simultaneously. In mass spectra C3 is the main feature but C4 and C5 are also prominent, whereas in emission spectra C2 is also there and its presence shows that it is in an excited state rather than in an ionic state. These facts provide evidence that C3 is produced due to the regeneration of a soot forming sequence and leave it in ionic state. C3 is a stable molecule and the only dominant species among the carbon clusters that survives in a regenerative sooting environment at high-pressure discharges.

  1. Highly stable and re-dispersible nano Cu hydrosols with sensitively size-dependent catalytic and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Pengli; Li, Gang; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Liang; Lu, Daoqiang Daniel; Sun, Rong; Zhou, Feng; Wong, Chingping

    2015-08-01

    Highly stable monodispersed nano Cu hydrosols were facilely prepared by an aqueous chemical reduction method through selecting copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) as the copper precursor, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and ethanol amine (EA) as the complexing agents, and hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. The size of the obtained Cu colloidal nanoparticles was controlled from 0.96 to 26.26 nm by adjusting the dosage of the copper precursor. Moreover, the highly stable nano Cu hydrosols could be easily concentrated and re-dispersed in water meanwhile maintaining good dispersibility. A model catalytic reaction of reducing p-nitrophenol with NaBH4 in the presence of nano Cu hydrosols with different sizes was performed to set up the relationship between the apparent kinetic rate constant (kapp) and the particle size of Cu catalysts. The experimental results indicate that the corresponding kapp showed an obvious size-dependency. Calculations revealed that kapp was directly proportional to the surface area of Cu catalyst nanoparticles, and also proportional to the reciprocal of the particle size based on the same mass of Cu catalysts. This relationship might be a universal principle for predicting and assessing the catalytic efficiency of Cu nanoparticles. The activation energy (Ea) of this catalytic reaction when using 0.96 nm Cu hydrosol as a catalyst was calculated to be 9.37 kJ mol-1, which is considered an extremely low potential barrier. In addition, the synthesized nano Cu hydrosols showed size-dependent antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the minimal inhibitory concentration of the optimal sample was lower than 5.82 μg L-1.Highly stable monodispersed nano Cu hydrosols were facilely prepared by an aqueous chemical reduction method through selecting copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) as the copper precursor, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and ethanol amine (EA) as the complexing agents, and hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. The size of the

  2. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  3. An effective method for the preparation of high temperature stable anatase TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Rachel; Synnott, Damian W.; McCormack, Declan E. [Centre for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Pillai, Suresh C., E-mail: pillai.suresh@itsligo.ie [Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo (Ireland); Centre for Precision Engineering, Materials and Manufacturing Research (PEM), Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo (Ireland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A rapid preparation method for the N, F codoped TiO{sub 2} is reported. • Anatase stability was achieved by using N, F doping and a microwave process. • High temperature stable anatase up to 1200 °C is reported. • Production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH{sub 4}TiOF{sub 3}) intermediate is reported. - Abstract: An efficient, rapid and straightforward method for the preparation of nitrogen and fluorine (N, F) codoped high temperature stable anatase using a microwave pre-treatment is reported. Using a single source, ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F) for both nitrogen and fluorine, effective doping of the precursor titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) was possible. These samples were characterised for their structural and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform IR (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. In terms of the anatase to rutile transition enhancement using a novel microwave assisted technique, the sample prepared in a composition of 1:8 TiO{sub 2}: NH{sub 4}F at 1200 °C was seen to be most effective, having stable anatase present at 57.1% compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} being 100% rutile from 900 °C. This method involves the production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH{sub 4}TiOF{sub 3}) at low temperatures. The inclusion of these intermediates greatly reduces the particle size growth and delays the anatase to rutile transition. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was studied by analysing the degradation of an organic dye, rhodamine 6G as a model system and the rate constant was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetics. These results showed that the doped sample (0.0225 min{sup −1}) was three times more active than the undoped sample (0.0076 min{sup −1}) and over seven times faster than the commercial TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst standard Degussa P-25 calcined at 1200 °C (0.0030 min{sup −1}). The formation of intermediate compounds, oxofluorotitanates, was identified as the major

  4. Furazans with Azo Linkages: Stable CHNO Energetic Materials with High Densities, Highly Energetic Performance, and Low Impact and Friction Sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyang; Zeng, Qun; Wang, Jun; Ma, Qing; Li, Hongzhen; Li, Haibo; Yang, Guangcheng

    2016-08-22

    Various highly energetic azofurazan derivatives were synthesized by simple and efficient chemical routes. These nitrogen-rich materials were fully characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Four of them were further confirmed structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These compounds exhibit high densities, ranging from 1.62 g cm(-3) up to a remarkably high 2.12 g cm(-3) for nitramine-substituted azofurazan DDAzF (2), which is the highest yet reported for an azofurazan-based CHNO energetic compound and is a consequence of the formation of strong intermolecular hydrogen-bonding networks. From the heats of formation, calculated with Gaussian 09, and the experimentally determined densities, the energetic performances (detonation pressure and velocities) of the materials were ascertained with EXPLO5 v6.02. The results suggest that azofurazan derivatives exhibit excellent detonation properties (detonation pressures of 21.8-46.1 GPa and detonation velocities of 6602-10 114 m s(-1) ) and relatively low impact and friction sensitivities (6.0-80 J and 80-360 N, respectively). In particular, they have low electrostatic spark sensitivities (0.13-1.05 J). These properties, together with their high nitrogen contents, make them potential candidates as mechanically insensitive energetic materials with high-explosive performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stable high-level transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using gene silencing mutants and matrix attachment regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Pues, Jonathan M-T G; Delauré, Stijn L; Broekaert, Willem F; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C

    2004-08-01

    Basic and applied research involving transgenic plants often requires consistent high-level expression of transgenes. However, high inter-transformant variability of transgene expression caused by various phenomena, including gene silencing, is frequently observed. Here, we show that stable, high-level transgene expression is obtained using Arabidopsis thaliana post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) sgs2 and sgs3 mutants. In populations of first generation (T1) A. thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) driven by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (p35S), the incidence of highly expressing transformants shifted from 20% in wild type background to 100% in sgs2 and sgs3 backgrounds. Likewise, when sgs2 mutants were transformed with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 6 gene under control of p35S, all transformants showed a clear phenotype typified by serrated leaves, whereas such phenotype was only observed in about one of five wild type transformants. p35S-driven uidA expression remained high and steady in T2 sgs2 and sgs3 transformants, in marked contrast to the variable expression patterns observed in wild type T2 populations. We further show that T-DNA constructs flanked by matrix attachment regions of the chicken lysozyme gene (chiMARs) cause a boost in GUS activity by fivefold in sgs2 and 12-fold in sgs3 plants, reaching up to 10% of the total soluble proteins, whereas no such boost is observed in the wild type background. MAR-based plant transformation vectors used in a PTGS mutant background might be of high value for efficient high-throughput screening of transgene-based phenotypes as well as for obtaining extremely high transgene expression in plants.

  6. Theoretical predictions of novel superconducting phases of BaGe3 stable at atmospheric and high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Eva; Yao, Yansun

    2015-03-16

    A series of new superconducting binary silicides and germanides have recently been synthesized under high-pressure high-temperature conditions. A representative member of this group, BaGe3, was theoretically investigated using evolutionary structure searches coupled with structural analogies in the pressure range from 1 atm to 250 GPa, where three new phases were discovered. At 1 atm, in addition to the synthesized P63/mmc phase, we predicted two new phases, I4/mmm and Amm2, to be dynamically stable. The Amm2 structure comprises Ge clusters and triangular prisms intercalated with Ba and Ge atoms, a unique structural motif unknown to this group. The I4/mmm structure has been previously synthesized in binary silicides and is calculated to be thermodynamically stable in BaGe3 between 15.6 and 35.4 GPa. Above 35.4 GPa, two new phases of P6̅m2 and R3̅m symmetry become the global minima and remain so up to the highest pressure considered. These two phases have very similar enthalpies, and both feature layers of double Kagome nets of Ge intercalated with Ba-Ge layers. The predicted phases are suggested to be metallic with itinerant electrons and to be potentially superconducting from the considerable electron-phonon coupling strength. Density functional perturbation calculations combined with the Allen-Dynes-modified McMillan formula were used to estimate the superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) for these new phases, which, with slight pressure variations, are comparable to the experimental Tc measured for the P63/mmc phase.

  7. Towards Highly Performing and Stable PtNi Catalysts in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina C. Zignani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs, it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. The main objective of this work is to investigate PtNi/C catalysts in a PEFC under low relative humidity and pressure conditions, more representative of automotive applications. Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments. The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated. The catalyst characterized by a larger Pt content (Pt3Ni2/C presented the highest catalytic activity (lower potential losses in the activation region among the synthesized bimetallic PtNi catalysts and the commercial Pt/C, used as the reference material, after testing at high temperature (95 °C and low humidification (50% conditions for automotive applications, showing a cell potential (ohmic drop-free of 0.82 V at 500 mA·cm−2. In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0.6 V and 1.2 V. By comparing the electrochemical and physico-chemical parameters at the beginning of life (BoL and end of life (EoL, it was demonstrated that the Pt1Ni1/C catalyst was the most stable among the catalyst series, with only a 2% loss of voltage at 200 mA·cm−2 and 12.5% at 950 mA·cm−2. However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts.

  8. Copper and Zinc Ions Specifically Promote Nonamyloid Aggregation of the Highly Stable Human γ-D Crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Liliana; Domínguez-Calva, José A; Serebryany, Eugene; Rivillas-Acevedo, Lina; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Amero, Carlos; King, Jonathan A

    2016-01-15

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world. It results from aggregation of eye lens proteins into high-molecular-weight complexes, causing light scattering and lens opacity. Copper and zinc concentrations in cataractous lens are increased significantly relative to a healthy lens, and a variety of experimental and epidemiological studies implicate metals as potential etiological agents for cataract. The natively monomeric, β-sheet rich human γD (HγD) crystallin is one of the more abundant proteins in the core of the lens. It is also one of the most thermodynamically stable proteins in the human body. Surprisingly, we found that both Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions induced rapid, nonamyloid aggregation of HγD, forming high-molecular-weight light-scattering aggregates. Unlike Zn(II), Cu(II) also substantially decreased the thermal stability of HγD and promoted the formation of disulfide-bridged dimers, suggesting distinct aggregation mechanisms. In both cases, however, metal-induced aggregation depended strongly on temperature and was suppressed by the human lens chaperone αB-crystallin (HαB), implicating partially folded intermediates in the aggregation process. Consistently, distinct site-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions with the protein and conformational changes in specific hinge regions were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provides insights into the mechanisms of metal-induced aggregation of one of the more stable proteins in the human body, and it reveals a novel and unexplored bioinorganic facet of cataract disease.

  9. High-precision Distribution of Highly-stable Optical Pulse Trains with Sub-10-fs Timing Jitter

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, B; Hou, D; Wu, J T; Li, Z B; Zhao, J Y

    2014-01-01

    High-precision optical pulse trains distribution via fibre links has made huge impacts in many fields. In most published works, the accuracies are still fundamentally limited by some unavoidable noises, such as thermal and shot noise from conventional photodiodes, thermal noise from mixers. Here, we demonstrate a new high-precision timing distribution system by using highly-precision phase detector to overcome the limitations. Instead of using photodiodes and microwave mixers, we use several fibre Sagnac-loop-based optical-microwave phase detectors to realize optical-electrical conversion and phase measurements, for suppressing the noises and achieving ultra-high accuracy. A 10-km fibre link distribution experiment shows our system provides a residual instability at the level of 4.6*10-15@1-s and 6.1*10-18@10000-s, with an integrated timing jitter as low as 3.8 fs in a bandwidth of 1 Hz to 100 KHz. This low instability and timing jitter makes it possible that our system can be used in the optical clock distri...

  10. Highly Stable Tetra-Phenolato Titanium(IV Agent Formulated into Nanoparticles Demonstrates Anti-Tumoral Activity and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalit Meker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium(IV complexes exhibit high potential as anti-tumor agents, particularly due to their low intrinsic toxicity and cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant cells. Nevertheless, Ti(IV complexes generally undergo rapid hydrolysis that previously hampered their utilization as anticancer drugs. We recently overcame this difficulty by developing a highly stable Ti(IV complex that is based on tetra-phenolato, hexadentate ligand, formulated into organic nanoparticles. Herein we investigated the activity of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Although inactive when tested directly due to poor solubility, when formulated, this complex displayed (a high cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant human ovarian cells, A2780-cp, with resistance factor of 1.1; (b additive behavior in combination with cisplatin toward ovarian and colon cancer cells; (c selectivity toward cancer cells as implied by its mild activity toward non-cancerous, fibroblast lung cells, MRC-5; (d high stability and durability as manifested by the ability to maintain cytotoxicity, even following one week of incubation in 100% aquatic medium solution; and (e in vivo efficacy toward solid tumors of human colon cancer cells, HT-29, in nude mice without any clinical signs of toxicity. These features support the formulated phenolato Ti(IV complex being an effective and selective anti-tumoral agent.

  11. Electrodeposited Structurally Stable V2O5 Inverse Opal Networks as High Performance Thin Film Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Eileen; McNulty, David; Geaney, Hugh; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-12-01

    High performance thin film lithium batteries using structurally stable electrodeposited V2O5 inverse opal (IO) networks as cathodes provide high capacity and outstanding cycling capability and also were demonstrated on transparent conducting oxide current collectors. The superior electrochemical performance of the inverse opal structures was evaluated through galvanostatic and potentiodynamic cycling, and the IO thin film battery offers increased capacity retention compared to micron-scale bulk particles from improved mechanical stability and electrical contact to stainless steel or transparent conducting current collectors from bottom-up electrodeposition growth. Li(+) is inserted into planar and IO structures at different potentials, and correlated to a preferential exposure of insertion sites of the IO network to the electrolyte. Additionally, potentiodynamic testing quantified the portion of the capacity stored as surface bound capacitive charge. Raman scattering and XRD characterization showed how the IO allows swelling into the pore volume rather than away from the current collector. V2O5 IO coin cells offer high initial capacities, but capacity fading can occur with limited electrolyte. Finally, we demonstrate that a V2O5 IO thin film battery prepared on a transparent conducting current collector with excess electrolyte exhibits high capacities (∼200 mAh g(-1)) and outstanding capacity retention and rate capability.

  12. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  13. Synthesis of highly luminescent water stable ZnO quantum dots as photoluminescent sensor for picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kulvinder; Chaudhary, G.R.; Singh, Sukhjinder; Mehta, S.K., E-mail: skmehta@pu.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highly luminescent, water stable (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane capped ZnO quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized using a simple solution route. The synthesized ZnO QDs have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analyzer (PSA), UV–visible (UV–vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The PL studies demonstrate that the particles synthesized are highly luminescent in nature emitting yellow color on exposure to UV radiation. Further, PL emission of ZnO QDs in the presence of picric acid (PA) shows their high sensitivity and selectivity for PA. The superior response of ZnO QDs in the presence of PA makes them very effective PL sensors. The limit of detection comes out to be 2.86 µM. - Highlights: • ZnO QDs act as photoluminiscent sensor for picric acid in aqueous medium. • Sensor shows high selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 2.86 μM. • More the number of nitro groups, more is the quenching in PL emission of ZnO QDs.

  14. High-temperature synthesis of highly hydrothermal stable mesoporous silica and Fe-SiO 2 using ionic liquid as a template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Mengyang; Hu, Hongjiu; Liang, Yuguang; Wang, Yong; Cao, Weiran; Wang, Xiaohong

    2011-03-01

    Mesoporous silicas and Fe-SiO 2 with worm-like structures have been synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-hexadecane-3-methylimidazolium bromide, as a template at a high aging temperature (150-190 °C) with the assistance of NaF. The hydrothermal stability of mesoporous silica was effectively improved by increasing the aging temperature and adding NaF to the synthesis gel. High hydrothermally stable mesoporous silica was obtained after being aged at 190 °C in the presence of NaF, which endured the hydrothermal treatment in boiling water at least for 10 d or steam treatment at 600 °C for 6 h. The ultra hydrothermal stability could be attributed to its high degree of polymerization of silicate. Furthermore, highly hydrothermal stable mesoporous Fe-SiO 2 has been synthesized, which still remained its mesostructure after being hydrothermally treated at 100 °C for 12 d or steam-treated at 600 °C for 6 h.

  15. New frontiers in water purification: highly stable amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized Ag-AgCl nanocomposite and its newly discovered potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Kudrinskiy, Alexey A.; Zubavichus, Yan V.; Presniakov, Mikhail Yu; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Karabtseva, Anastasia V.; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2016-09-01

    A simple synthetic procedure for high-stable dispersions of porous composite Ag/AgCl nanoparticles stabilized with amphoteric surfactant sodium tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate has been proposed for the first time. The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, small area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron probe micro-analysis. In addition, measurements (carried out at the Kurchatov synchrotron radiation source stations) of the Ag K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra and XRD of the prepared nanoparticles have been performed. The obtained results suggest that small-sized Ag clusters are homogeneously distributed in the mass of the AgCl nanoparticle (~80 nm) formed during the synthesis. The Ag/AgCl dispersion demonstrates photocatalytic activity (with respect to methyl orange) and high bactericidal activity against E. coli. This activity is superior to the activity of both Ag and AgCl nanoparticles stabilized by the same surfactant. Thus, porous composite Ag/AgCl nanoparticles can be used as a multifunctional agent that is able to remove both pollutants and bacterium from water.

  16. Highly stable and magnetically separable alginate/Fe3O4 composite for the removal of strontium (Sr) from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Hong, Jeongsik; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Hyuncheol; Ryu, Jungho

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly stable alginate/Fe3O4 composite was synthesized, and systematically investigated for the practical application of strontium (Sr) removal in complex media, such as seawater and radioactive wastewater. To overcome the drawbacks of the use of alginate microspheres, high contents of alginic acid and Fe3O4 were used to provide a more rigid structure with little swelling and facile separation, respectively. The synthesized composite was optimized for particle sizes of alginate/Fe3O4 composite showed excellent Sr uptake (≈400.0 mg/g) and exhibited outstanding selectivity for Sr among various cations (Na, Mg, Ca and K). However, in diluted Sr condition (50 mg/L), Ca significantly affected Sr adsorption, resulting in a decrease of Kd value from 3.7 to 2.4 at the 0.01 M Ca. The alginate/Fe3O4 composite could be completely regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and CaCl2. In real seawater spiked with 50 mg/L of Sr, the alginate/Fe3O4 composite showed 12.5 mg/g of Sr uptake, despite the highly concentrated ions in seawater. The adsorption experiment for radio-active (90)Sr revealed a removal efficiency of 67% in real seawater, demonstrating the reliability of the alginate/Fe3O4 composite.

  17. Stable isotopes reflect the ecological stability of two high-elevation mammals from the late Quaternary of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-05-01

    The vertebrate fossil record of Cement Creek Cave, Colorado, spans from > 45,000 yr ago to the present and represents the richest stratified series of high-elevation (> 2900 m) mammal remains known from the late Quaternary of North America. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of tooth enamel were used to assess potential ecological responses of two species found commonly throughout the cave, Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and Bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), to late Quaternary climate and environmental changes of the Southern Rocky Mountains. Results indicate that despite such perturbations, the dietary ecologies of both species were maintained across this period. Neither taxon shifted to consuming C4 taxa or different C3 functional groups; similarly, no significant shifts in surface water use were detected. Variations in enamel δ13C were observed, however, that represent the physiological responses of high-elevation plants to changing levels of late Quaternary atmospheric CO2. While our findings extend both the geographic and elevational record of this plant CO2 response, they simultaneously highlight the ecological stability of high-elevation M. flaviventris and N. cinerea during climate changes of late Quaternary magnitude.

  18. Stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Svante

    2011-01-01

    We give some explicit calculations for stable distributions and convergence to them, mainly based on less explicit results in Feller (1971). The main purpose is to provide ourselves with easy reference to explicit formulas. (There are no new results.)

  19. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; El'tsov, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-08-01

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al2O3 ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse-1, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ <= 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system.

  20. High stable, high efficient ultraviolet laser with angle-phase-mismatching compensation by adjusting temperature of the nonlinear crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Houwen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhaojun; Cheng, Wenyong

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated an ultraviolet laser at 355 nm using a type-I and a type-II phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of LiB3O5 (LBO). A method of adjusting temperature for compensation is presented. The crystal temperature is controlled by proportional integral derivative (PID) thermal controllers with a  ±0.01 °C resolution. The value of wave vector mismatch, distance of light propagation in nonlinear crystals, effective nonlinear coefficient, theoretical analysis and calculation of conversion efficiency versus temperature are discussed. The experimental results show that the average output power of the 355 nm laser is 1.24 W with the pump power of 13.33 W, when the repetition frequency is 15 kHz. The pulse duration is 9.8 ns, and the beam quality factors are of Mx2   =  1.8, My2   =  1.7. The conversion efficiency from 808 nm to 355 nm laser is 9.3%, which nearly reaches the optimum value reported so far and is limited by the wavelength mismatch between the pumping and absorbing lasers. The 355 nm output power instability of the laser device is 0.45% in 2 h. A compact no-water-cooling ultraviolet laser with high stability and high efficiency is obtained.

  1. Partitioning of evapotranspiration using a stable isotope technique in an arid and high temperature agricultural production system

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-08-22

    Agricultural production in the hot and arid low desert systems of southern California relies heavily on irrigation. A better understanding of how much and to what extent irrigated water is transpired by crops relative to being lost through evaporation would improve the management of increasingly limited water resources. In this study, we examined the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) over a field of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which was under evaluation as a potential biofuel feedstock, based on isotope measurements of three irrigation cycles at the vegetative stage. This study employed customized transparent chambers coupled with a laser-based isotope analyzer to continuously measure near-surface variations in the stable isotopic composition of evaporation (E, δ), transpiration (T, δ) and ET (δ) to partition the total water flux. Due to the extreme heat and aridity, δ and δ were very similar, which makes this system highly unusual. Contrary to an expectation that the isotopic signatures of T, E, and ET would become increasingly enriched as soils became drier, our results showed an interesting pattern that δ, δ, and δ increased initially as soil water was depleted following irrigation, but decreased with further soil drying in mid to late irrigation cycle. These changes are likely caused by root water transport from deeper to shallower soil layers. Results indicate that about 46% of the irrigated water delivered to the crop was used as transpiration, with 54% lost as direct evaporation. This implies that 28 − 39% of the total source water was used by the crop, considering the typical 60 − 85% efficiency of flood irrigation. The stable isotope technique provided an effective means of determining surface partitioning of irrigation water in this unusually harsh production environment. The results suggest the potential to further minimize unproductive water losses in these production systems.

  2. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted.

  3. High-Efficiency and Air-Stable Perovskite Quantum Dots Light-Emitting Diodes with an All-Inorganic Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuantao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Xinjian; Wu, Di; Xu, Tingting; Shan, Chongxin; Du, Guotong

    2017-01-11

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), because of its fundamental scientific importance and practical applications in the fields of low-cost light source or display applications, have drawn worldwide attention in recent years. However, PeLEDs available today suffer from a compromise in their emission efficiency and operation stability. In this study, we designed and fabricated a stacking all-inorganic multilayer structure by using inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) as the emissive layer and inorganic n-type MgZnO and p-type MgNiO as the carrier injectors, respectively. Through energy band engineering of carrier injectors by Mg incorporation and their thickness optimization, PeLEDs with maximum luminance of 3809 cd/m(2), luminous efficiency of 2.25 cd/A, and external quantum efficiency of 2.39% have been realized, which are much better than most PeLEDs from CH3NH3PbBr3 films, and comparable with the highest results reported on CsPbBr3 QDs LEDs. More importantly, the unencapsulated PeLEDs in a continuous current mode demonstrate a remarkable operation stability against water and oxygen degradation. After a continuous operation for 10 h under a dc bias (10.0 V), nearly 80% of the original efficiency of the PeLEDs has been retained, greatly superior to reference and other previously reported devices constructed with conventional organic carrier injectors. Our results obtained open possibilities for the design and development of high-efficiency and air-stable PeLEDs that are not dependent on expensive and less-stable organic carrier injectors.

  4. Fe-O stable isotope pairs elucidate a high-temperature origin of Chilean iron oxide-apatite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Gajos, Norbert; Bindeman, Ilya; Barra, Fernando; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ore deposits occur globally and can host millions to billions of tons of Fe in addition to economic reserves of other metals such as rare earth elements, which are critical for the expected growth of technology and renewable energy resources. In this study, we pair the stable Fe and O isotope compositions of magnetite samples from several IOA deposits to constrain the source reservoir of these elements in IOAs. Since magnetite constitutes up to 90 modal% of many IOAs, identifying the source of Fe and O within the magnetite may elucidate high-temperature and/or lower-temperature processes responsible for their formation. Here, we focus on the world-class Los Colorados IOA in the Chilean iron belt (CIB), and present data for magnetite from other Fe oxide deposits in the CIB (El Laco, Mariela). We also report Fe and O isotopic values for other IOA deposits, including Mineville, New York (USA) and the type locale, Kiruna (Sweden). The ranges of Fe isotopic composition (δ56Fe, 56Fe/54Fe relative to IRMM-14) of magnetite from the Chilean deposits are: Los Colorados, δ56Fe (±2σ) = 0.08 ± 0.03‰ to 0.24 ± 0.08‰; El Laco, δ56Fe = 0.20 ± 0.03‰ to 0.53 ± 0.03‰; Mariela, δ56Fe = 0.13 ± 0.03‰. The O isotopic composition (δ18O, 18O/16O relative to VSMOW) of the same Chilean magnetite samples are: Los Colorados, δ18O (±2σ) = 1.92 ± 0.08‰ to 3.17 ± 0.03‰; El Laco, δ18O = 4.00 ± 0.10‰ to 4.34 ± 0.10‰; Mariela, δ18O = (1.48 ± 0.04‰). The δ18O and δ56Fe values for Kiruna magnetite yield an average of 1.76 ± 0.25‰ and 0.16 ± 0.07‰, respectively. The Fe and O isotope data from the Chilean IOAs fit unequivocally within the range of magnetite formed by high-temperature magmatic or magmatic-hydrothermal processes (i.e., δ56Fe 0.06-0.49‰ and δ18O = 1.0-4.5‰), consistent with a high-temperature origin for Chilean IOA deposits. Additionally, minimum formation temperatures calculated by using the measured Δ18O

  5. Highly stable linear carbonate-containing electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate for high-performance cathodes in sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Hyungsub; Kang, Kisuk; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-07-01

    Employing linear carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) as electrolyte solvents provides an opportunity to design appropriate electrolyte systems for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, in practice, the use of linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is quite challenging because linear carbonates readily decompose at Na metal electrodes or sodiated anodes. One of the promising approaches is using an electrolyte additive to resolve the critical problems related to linear carbonates. Our investigation reveals that remarkable enhancement in electrochemical performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathodes with linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is achieved by using a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Importantly, the initial Coulombic efficiency of the Na deposition/stripping on a stainless steel (SS) electrode is drastically improved from 16% to 90% by introducing the FEC additive into ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC)/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M NaClO4. The underlying mechanism of FEC at the electrode-electrolyte interface is clearly demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathode in EC/PC/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) with FEC delivers a discharge capacity of 90.5 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/2 and exhibits excellent capacity retention of 97.5% with high Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% after 300 cycles at 30 °C.

  6. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or nonselective NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents: What to prescribe in daily clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.C. Masclee (Gwen); V.E. Valkhoff (Vera); E.M. van Soest; R. Schade (René); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); M. Molokhia (Mariam); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); J.L. Goldstein; S. Hernández-Díaz (Sonia); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Two strategies for prevention of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events for nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsNSAID) users are replacement of the nsNSAID by a cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor (coxib) or co-prescription of a gastroprotective agent (GPA). Aim

  7. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or nonselective NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents: What to prescribe in daily clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.C. Masclee (Gwen); V.E. Valkhoff (Vera); E.M. van Soest; R. Schade (René); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); M. Molokhia (Mariam); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); J.L. Goldstein; S. Hernández-Díaz (Sonia); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Two strategies for prevention of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events for nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsNSAID) users are replacement of the nsNSAID by a cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor (coxib) or co-prescription of a gastroprotective agent (GPA). Aim

  8. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and

  9. Carbon-bridged oligo(phenylenevinylene)s: stable π-systems with high responsiveness to doping and excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaozhang; Tsuji, Hayato; Navarrete, Juan T López; Casado, Juan; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2012-11-21

    The high responsiveness of π-conjugated materials to external stimuli, such as electrons and photons, accounts for both their utility in optoelectronic applications and their chemical instability. Extensive studies on heteroatom-stabilized π-conjugated systems notwithstanding, it is still difficult to combine high performance and stability. We report here that carbon-bridged oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s (COPV-n) are not only more responsive to doping and photoexcitation but also more stable than the conventional p-phenylenevinylenes and poly(3-hexylthiophene), surviving photolysis very well in air, suggesting that they could serve as building blocks for optoelectronic applications. Activation of the ground state by installation of bond angle strain toward the doped or photoexcited state and the flat, rigid, and hindered structure endows COPVs with stimuli-responsiveness and stability without recourse to heteroatoms. For example, COPV-6 can be doped with an extremely small reorganization energy and form a bipolaron delocalized over the entire π-conjugated system. Applications to bulk and molecular optoelectronic devices are foreseen.

  10. Stable White Light Electroluminescence from Highly Flexible Polymer/ZnO Nanorods Hybrid Heterojunction Grown at 50°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainelabdin A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stable intrinsic white light–emitting diodes were fabricated from c-axially oriented ZnO nanorods (NRs grown at 50°C via the chemical bath deposition on top of a multi-layered poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co–N-(4-butylpheneylaminediphenylamine/poly(9,9dioctyl-fluorene deposited on PEDOT:PSS on highly flexible plastic substrate. The low growth temperature enables the use of a variety of flexible plastic substrates. The fabricated flexible white light–emitting diode (FWLED demonstrated good electrical properties and a single broad white emission peak extending from 420 nm and up to 800 nm combining the blue light emission of the polyflourene (PFO polymer layer with the deep level emission (DLEs of ZnO NRs. The influence of the temperature variations on the FWLED white emissions characteristics was studied and the devices exhibited high operation stability. Our results are promising for the development of white lighting sources using existing lighting glass bulbs, tubes, and armature technologies.

  11. Highly active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts based on molybdenum compounds on carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Han, Suenghoon; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Yul; Park, Hunmin; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-05-27

    Highly active and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution have been developed on the basis of molybdenum compounds (Mo2C, Mo2N, and MoS2) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene hybrid support via a modified urea-glass route. By a simple modification of synthetic variables, the final phases are easily controlled from carbide, nitride to sulfide with homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals on the CNT-graphene support. Among the prepared catalysts, Mo2C/CNT-graphene shows the highest activity for hydrogen evolution reaction with a small onset overpotential of 62 mV and Tafel slope of 58 mV/dec as well as an excellent stability in acid media. Such enhanced catalytic activity may originate from its low hydrogen binding energy and high conductivity. Moreover, the CNT-graphene hybrid support plays crucial roles to enhance the activity of molybdenum compounds by alleviating aggregation of the nanocrystals, providing a large area to contact with electrolyte, and facilitating the electron transfer.

  12. A stable high-order finite difference scheme for the compressible Navier Stokes equations: No-slip wall boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svärd, Magnus; Nordström, Jan

    2008-05-01

    A stable wall boundary procedure is derived for the discretized compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The procedure leads to an energy estimate for the linearized equations. We discretize the equations using high-order accurate finite difference summation-by-parts (SBP) operators. The boundary conditions are imposed weakly with penalty terms. We prove linear stability for the scheme including the wall boundary conditions. The penalty imposition of the boundary conditions is tested for the flow around a circular cylinder at Ma=0.1 and Re=100. We demonstrate the robustness of the SBP-SAT technique by imposing incompatible initial data and show the behavior of the boundary condition implementation. Using the errors at the wall we show that higher convergence rates are obtained for the high-order schemes. We compute the vortex shedding from a circular cylinder and obtain good agreement with previously published (computational and experimental) results for lift, drag and the Strouhal number. We use our results to compare the computational time for a given for a accuracy and show the superior efficiency of the 5th-order scheme.

  13. High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power, CRADA Number: CRD-14-554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    As part of a Federal Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Award, the project will be led by Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to explore and demonstrate the efficacy of highly reducible, redox-stable oxides to provide efficient thermochemical energy storage for heat release at temperatures of 900 degrees Celcius or more. NREL will support the material development for its application in a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. In the project, NREL will provide its inventive system design, chemical looping for CSP, and use it as a platform to accommodate the chemical processes using a cost effective perovskite materials identified by CSM. NREL will design a 5-10kW particle receiver for perovskite reduction to store solar energy and help the development of a fluidized-bed reoxidation reactor and system integration. NREL will develop the demonstration receiver for on-sun test in the 5-10 kWt range in NREL's high flux solar furnace. NREL will assist in system analysis and provide techno-economic inputs for the overall system configuration.

  14. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics.

  15. Development of Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers as Stable Near-infrared Calibration Sources for High Resolution Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Hearty, Fred; Wilson, John; Holtzman, Jon; Redman, Stephen; Nave, Gillian; Nidever, David; Nelson, Matt; Venditti, Nick; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Fleming, Scott

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the ongoing development of single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) Interferometers as precise astro-photonic calibration sources for high precision radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. FFPs are simple, inexpensive, monolithic units that can yield a stable and repeatable output spectrum. An FFP is a unique alternative to a traditional etalon, as the interferometric cavity is made of single-mode fiber rather than an air-gap spacer. This design allows for excellent collimation, high spectral finesse, rigid mechanical stability, insensitivity to vibrations, and no need for vacuum operation. The device we have tested is a commercially available product from Micron Optics. Our development path is targeted towards a calibration source for the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around low-mass stars, but this reference could also be used in many existing and planned fiber-fed spectrographs as we illustrate using the Apache Point Observato...

  16. Turbulence Fine Structure, Intermittency, and Large-Scale Interactions in the Stable Boundary Layer and Residual Layer: Correlative High-Resolution Measurements and Direct Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The research employed stable boundary layer measurements using the DataHawk UAV and high-resolution direct numerical...simulations ( DNS ) to examine the interactions and instabilities occurring in multi-scale flows that drive intermittent turbulence events in the stable...atmosphere. Both measurements and the DNS revealed the occurrence and persistence of sheet-and-layer structures in the temperature and velocity fields that

  17. Hydrogen adsorption in a highly stable porous rare-earth metal-organic framework: sorption properties and neutron diffraction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Xu, Hongwu; Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luke L; Brown, Craig; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2008-07-30

    A highly stable porous lanthanide metal-organic framework, Y(BTC)(H2O).4.3H2O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), with pore size of 5.8 A has been constructed and investigated for hydrogen storage. Gas sorption measurements show that this porous MOF exhibits highly selective sorption behaviors of hydrogen over nitrogen gas molecules and can take up hydrogen of about 2.1 wt % at 77 K and 10 bar. Difference Fourier analysis of neutron powder diffraction data revealed four distinct D2 sites that are progressively filled within the nanoporous framework. Interestingly, the strongest adsorption sites identified are associated with the aromatic organic linkers rather than the open metal sites, as occurred in previously reported MOFs. Our results provide for the first time direct structural evidence demonstrating that optimal pore size (around 6 A, twice the kinetic diameter of hydrogen) strengthens the interactions between H2 molecules and pore walls and increases the heat of adsorption, which thus allows for enhancing hydrogen adsorption from the interaction between hydrogen molecules with the pore walls rather than with the normally stronger adsorption sites (the open metal sites) within the framework. At high concentration H2 loadings (5.5 H2 molecules (3.7 wt %) per Y(BTC) formula), H2 molecules form highly symmetric novel nanoclusters with relatively short H2-H2 distances compared to solid H2. These observations are important and hold the key to optimizing this new class of rare metal-organic framework (RMOF) materials for practical hydrogen storage applications.

  18. Genomic saturation mutagenesis and polygenic analysis identify novel yeast genes affecting ethyl acetate production, a non-selectable polygenic trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Den Abt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of mutants in populations of microorganisms has been a valuable tool in experimental genetics for decades. The main disadvantage, however, is the inability of isolating mutants in non-selectable polygenic traits. Most traits of organisms, however, are non-selectable and polygenic, including industrially important properties of microorganisms. The advent of powerful technologies for polygenic analysis of complex traits has allowed simultaneous identification of multiple causative mutations among many thousands of irrelevant mutations. We now show that this also applies to haploid strains of which the genome has been loaded with induced mutations so as to affect as many non-selectable, polygenic traits as possible. We have introduced about 900 mutations into single haploid yeast strains using multiple rounds of EMS mutagenesis, while maintaining the mating capacity required for genetic mapping. We screened the strains for defects in flavor production, an important non-selectable, polygenic trait in yeast alcoholic beverage production. A haploid strain with multiple induced mutations showing reduced ethyl acetate production in semi-anaerobic fermentation, was selected and the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTLs were mapped using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis after crossing with an unrelated haploid strain. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis and allele exchange identified PMA1 and CEM1 as causative mutant alleles and TPS1 as a causative genetic background allele. The case of CEM1 revealed that relevant mutations without observable effect in the haploid strain with multiple induced mutations (in this case due to defective mitochondria can be identified by polygenic analysis as long as the mutations have an effect in part of the segregants (in this case those that regained fully functional mitochondria. Our results show that genomic saturation mutagenesis combined with complex trait polygenic analysis could be used

  19. Characteristics of the Nonselective Cation Current (NSCCs) in Rabbit Left Ventricular Epicardial, Midmyocardial and Endocardial Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zong; Xinchun Yang; Xiulan Liu; Liang Shi; Taifeng Liu

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have described regional differences in the electrophysiology and pharmacology of ventricular myocardium in canine,feline,rat,guinea pig,and human hearts.This has been shown to be due to a smaller IKs and a lager sodium-calcium exchange current (INa-Ca ) and late INa in M region (deep subepicardial to midmyocardial).Studies from our laboratory have found a new repolarization current-nonselective cation current (NSCCs) existing in rabbit right ventricular myocytes.Methods We examined the characteristics of NSCCs in epicardial,M region,and endocardial cells isolated from the rabbit left ventricle with standard microelectrode and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques.The permeability to Na+,K + ,Li + ,Cs + but not to Cl-indicating that it was a nonselective cation current.Gd3+ (0.1 mmol/1) and La3+ (0.1 mmol/1) can block the current markedly.Results Further characterization of NSCCs was significantly smaller in M cells than in epicardial and endocardial cells.NSCCs current density was significantly smaller in M cells than in epicardial and endocardial cells.With repolarization to-80 mV,INs current density was (-0.44 ±0.05) PA/PF in endocardial cells,(-0.12 ±0.05) PA/PF in M cells and (-0.28 ±0.07) PA/PF in epicardial cells;and with repolarization to + 30 mV,INs current density was ( 1.09 ± 0.29) PA/PF in endocardial cells,(0.38 ± 0.09) PA/PF in M cells and (0.91 ± 0.32) PA/PF in epicardial cells.Conclusions Transmural dispersion of repolarization was due to the heterogeneity of NSCCs in rabbit left ventricle epicardial,endocardial myocytes and M cells.These findings may advance our understanding of the ionic basis for our understanding of factors contributing to the development of cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. Epicardial-endocardial breakthrough during stable atrial macroreentry: Evidence from ultra-high-resolution 3-dimensional mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Lee, Geoffrey; Sacher, Frédéric; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Massoullié, Grégoire; Derval, Nicolas; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Evidence for epicardial-endocardial breakthrough (EEB) is derived from mapping inferences in patients with atrial fibrillation who may also have focal activations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether EEB could be discerned during stable right atrial (RA) macroreentry using high-density high-spatial resolution 3-dimensional mapping. Macroreentry was diagnosed using 3-dimensional mapping and entrainment. Bipolar maps were reviewed for EEB defined as (1) presence of focal endocardial activation with radial spread unaccounted for by an endocardial wavefront and (2) present with the same timing on every tachycardia cycle. The EEB site was always in proximity to a line of endocardial conduction slowing or block. Distance and conduction velocity from the line of block to the EEB site was calculated. Electrograms at EEB sites were individually analyzed for morphology and to confirm direction of activation. Entrainment was performed at EEB sites. Twenty-six patients were studied. Fourteen examples of EEB were seen: 11 at the posterior RA (4 at the superior portion of the posterior wall and 7 at the inferior section) and 1 each at the cavotricuspid isthmus postablation, RA septum, and inferolateral RA. The mean area of the EEB site was 0.6 ± 0.2 cm(2). A mean of 79.5% ± 18.6% of unipolar electrograms at the EEB site demonstrated an rS morphology. The mean distance and conduction velocity from the line of endocardial block to the EEB site at the posterior RA was 13.6 ± 2.3 mm and 59.3 ± 12.3 cm/s, respectively. In 4 patients, entrainment demonstrated that EEB sites were within the circuit and in 1 of these patients critical to arrhythmia maintenance. Activation maps during tachycardia and coronary sinus pacing demonstrated EEB at the same anatomic site. EEB sites were demonstrated in stable atrial macroreentry supported by systematic entrainment confirmation and demonstration of the same phenomenon during pacing. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society

  1. A highly stable plastidic-type ferredoxin-NADP(H reductase in the pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Catalano-Dupuy

    Full Text Available Leptospira interrogans is a bacterium that is capable of infecting animals and humans, and its infection causes leptospirosis with a range of symptoms from flu-like to severe illness and death. Despite being a bacteria, Leptospira interrogans contains a plastidic class ferredoxin-NADP(H reductase (FNR with high catalytic efficiency, at difference from the bacterial class FNRs. These flavoenzymes catalyze the electron transfer between NADP(H and ferredoxins or flavodoxins. The inclusion of a plastidic FNR in Leptospira metabolism and in its parasitic life cycle is not currently understood. Bioinformatic analyses of the available genomic and proteins sequences showed that the presence of this enzyme in nonphotosynthetic bacteria is restricted to the Leptospira genus and that a [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin (LB107 encoded by the Leptospira genome may be the natural substrate of the enzyme. Leptospira FNR (LepFNR displayed high diaphorase activity using artificial acceptors and functioned as a ferric reductase. LepFNR displayed cytochrome c reductase activity with the Leptospira LB107 ferredoxin with an optimum at pH 6.5. Structural stability analysis demonstrates that LepFNR is one of the most stable FNRs analyzed to date. The persistence of a native folded LepFNR structure was detected in up to 6 M urea, a condition in which the enzyme retains 38% activity. In silico analysis indicates that the high LepFNR stability might be due to robust interactions between the FAD and the NADP(+ domains of the protein. The limited bacterial distribution of plastidic class FNRs and the biochemical and structural properties of LepFNR emphasize the uniqueness of this enzyme in the Leptospira metabolism. Our studies show that in L. interrogans a plastidic-type FNR exchanges electrons with a bacterial-type ferredoxin, process which has not been previously observed in nature.

  2. A highly stable plastidic-type ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase in the pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L; Musumeci, Matías A; López-Rivero, Arleth; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A

    2011-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is a bacterium that is capable of infecting animals and humans, and its infection causes leptospirosis with a range of symptoms from flu-like to severe illness and death. Despite being a bacteria, Leptospira interrogans contains a plastidic class ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase (FNR) with high catalytic efficiency, at difference from the bacterial class FNRs. These flavoenzymes catalyze the electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxins or flavodoxins. The inclusion of a plastidic FNR in Leptospira metabolism and in its parasitic life cycle is not currently understood. Bioinformatic analyses of the available genomic and proteins sequences showed that the presence of this enzyme in nonphotosynthetic bacteria is restricted to the Leptospira genus and that a [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin (LB107) encoded by the Leptospira genome may be the natural substrate of the enzyme. Leptospira FNR (LepFNR) displayed high diaphorase activity using artificial acceptors and functioned as a ferric reductase. LepFNR displayed cytochrome c reductase activity with the Leptospira LB107 ferredoxin with an optimum at pH 6.5. Structural stability analysis demonstrates that LepFNR is one of the most stable FNRs analyzed to date. The persistence of a native folded LepFNR structure was detected in up to 6 M urea, a condition in which the enzyme retains 38% activity. In silico analysis indicates that the high LepFNR stability might be due to robust interactions between the FAD and the NADP(+) domains of the protein. The limited bacterial distribution of plastidic class FNRs and the biochemical and structural properties of LepFNR emphasize the uniqueness of this enzyme in the Leptospira metabolism. Our studies show that in L. interrogans a plastidic-type FNR exchanges electrons with a bacterial-type ferredoxin, process which has not been previously observed in nature.

  3. Stable High Power and High Beam Quality Diode-Side-Pumped Continuous-Wave Intracavity Frequency-Doubled Nd:YAG Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xian-Kun; ZHOU Yong; CUI Qian-Jin; YANG Feng; BO Yong; PENG Qin-Jun; CUI Da-Fu; XU Zu-Yan

    2009-01-01

    We report a stable high power and high beam quality diode-side-pumped cw green laser from intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with KTP.By using a L-shaped concave-convex resonator,designed with two Nd:YAG rods birefringence compensation,a large fundamental mode size in the laser crystal arid a tight focus in the nonlinear crystal could be obtained simultaneously.The green laser delivers a maximum 532nm output power of 23.2 W.Under 532 nm output power of 20.9 W,the beam quality factor is measured to be 4.1,and the fluctuation of the output power is less than 1.4% in an hour.

  4. Nonselective beta-blockers in cirrhotic patients with no or small varices: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xing-Shun; Bao, Yong-Xin; Bai, Ming; Xu, Wen-Da; Dai, Jun-Na; Guo, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-03-14

    To explore effects of nonselective beta-blockers (NSBBs) in cirrhotic patients with no or small varices. The PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant papers. A meta-analysis was performed using ORs with 95%CI as the effect sizes. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to the studies including patients without varices and those with small varices. Overall, 784 papers were initially retrieved from the database searches, of which six randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The incidences of large varices development (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.25-4.36; P = 0.95), first upper gastrointestinal bleeding (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.24-1.47; P = 0.26), and death (OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.45-1.10; P = 0.12) were similar between NSBB and placebo groups. However, the incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in the NSBB group compared with the placebo group (OR = 3.47, 95%CI: 1.45-8.33; P = 0.005). The results of subgroup analyses were similar to those of overall analyses. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that NSBBs should not be recommended for cirrhotic patients with no or small varices.

  5. The characteristics of action potential and nonselective cation current of cardiomyocytes in rabbit superior vena cava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pan; YANG XinChun; LIU XiuLan; BAO RongFeng; LIU TaiFeng

    2008-01-01

    As s special focus in initiating and maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF), cardiomyocytes in superior vena cavs (SVC) have distinctive electrophysiological characters. In this study, we found that comparing with the right atrial (RA) cardiomyoctyes, the SVC cardiomyoctyes had longer APD90 at the different basic cycle lengths; the conduction block could be observed on both RA and SVC cardiomyoctyes. A few of SVC cardiomyoctyes showed slow response action potentials with automatic activity and some others showed early afterdepolarization (EAD) spontaneously. Further more, we found that there are nonselective cation current (INs) in both SVC and RA cardiomyocytes. The peak density of INs in SVC cardiomyocytes was smaller than that in RA cardiomyocytes. Removal of extracellular divalent cation and glucose could increase INs in SVC cardiomyocytes. The agonist or the antagonist of INs may increase or decrease APD. To sum up, some SVC cardiomyocytes possess the ability of spontaneous activity; the difference of transmembrane action potentials between SVC and RA cardiomyocytes is partly because of the different density of INs between them; the agonist or the antagonist of INs can increase or decrease APD leading to the enhancement or reduction of EAD genesis in SVC cardiomyocytes. INs in rabbit myocytes is fairly similar to TRPC3 current in electrophysiological property, which might play an important role in the mechanisms of AF.

  6. Non-selective cation channels mediate chloroquine-induced relaxation in precontracted mouse airway smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available Bitter tastants can induce relaxation in precontracted airway smooth muscle by activating big-conductance potassium channels (BKs or by inactivating voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels (VDLCCs. In this study, a new pathway for bitter tastant-induced relaxation was defined and investigated. We found nifedipine-insensitive and bitter tastant chloroquine-sensitive relaxation in epithelium-denuded mouse tracheal rings (TRs precontracted with acetylcholine (ACH. In the presence of nifedipine (10 µM, ACH induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and cell shortening in single airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs, and these changes were inhibited by chloroquine. In TRs, ACH triggered a transient contraction under Ca2+-free conditions, and, following a restoration of Ca2+, a strong contraction occurred, which was inhibited by chloroquine. Moreover, the ACH-activated whole-cell and single channel currents of non-selective cation channels (NSCCs were blocked by chloroquine. Pyrazole 3 (Pyr3, an inhibitor of transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3 channels, partially inhibited ACH-induced contraction, intracellular Ca2+ elevation, and NSCC currents. These results demonstrate that NSCCs play a role in bitter tastant-induced relaxation in precontracted airway smooth muscle.

  7. Stable high-level expression of truncated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in Drosophila Schneider-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zheng; Xiaofeng Yang; Ying Sun; Baochang Lai; Yili Wang

    2008-01-01

    To improve the existing human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) virus-like particle (VLP) preparation, the Drosophila inducible/secreted expression system, a highly efficient, economical method, was used to produce HPV16 VLPs. Drosophila Schneider-2 cells were cotransfected with pMT/BiP/V5-His expression vector containing the target gene encoding HPV16L1protein without nucleus localization sequence and the selection vector pCoHygro plasmids at the ratio of 4:1. The stabled hygromycin-resistant cell line was obtained 1 month later, and the protein expression was induced by copper sulfate. The molecular mass of expressed HPV16L1 protein was 66 kDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE,and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The yield of HPV16L1 protein was 0.554 mg per lxl07 cells. The characteristics of HPV16L1 protein were further analyzed by mouse erythrocyte hemagglutination assay, hemagglutination inhibition assay, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the truncated protein was as biologically active as natural HPVLI protein, inducing murine erythrocyte agglutination and VLP formation. These findings indicate that the Drosophila inducible/secreted expression system is promising as a convenient and economical method for the preparation of HPV 16 VLP vaccine.

  8. Self-assembled monolayer as an interfacial modification material for highly efficient and air-stable inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myungkwan; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sung-Gyu; Nam, Sanggil; Jo, Sungjin; Yoon Ryu, Seung; Su Kim, Chang

    2013-04-01

    Organic solar cells with inverted structures can greatly improve photovoltaic stability. This paper reports a method to lower the work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) in inverted organic solar cells by modification with ultrathin 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) monolayers. The device studies showed that the resulting photovoltaic efficiencies were significantly increased from 0.64% to 4.83% with the use of the APTES monolayer, which could be attributed to the dramatic enhancement in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The effective electron selectivity in the case of the APTES-modified ITO could be attributed to the reduction of the work function of ITO as a result of the electron-donating nature of the amine groups in the APTES monolayer. The power conversion efficiency of the unencapsulated inverted organic solar cells with APTES-modified ITO remained above 80% of their original values even after storage in air for thirty days. Our results provide a promising approach to improve the performance of highly efficient and air-stable inverted organic solar cells.

  9. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-03-05

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs.

  10. Highly Stable PEGylated Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles for the Effective Delivery of Docetaxel in Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long-Bin; Zeng, Sha; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a highly stable luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-conjugated PEGylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed for the successful treatment of prostate cancers. We have demonstrated that a unique combination of targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release is effective against prostate cancer therapy. The docetaxel (DTX)/PLGA-LHRH micelles possessed a uniform spherical shape with an average diameter of ~170 nm. The micelles exhibited a controlled drug release for up to 96 h which can minimize the non-specific systemic spread of toxic drugs during circulation while maximizing the efficiency of tumor-targeted drug delivery. The LHRH-conjugated micelles showed enhanced cellular uptake and exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against LNCaP cancer cells. We have showed that PLGA-LHRH induced greater caspase-3 activity indicating its superior apoptosis potential. Consistently, LHRH-conjugated micelles induced threefold and twofold higher G2/M phase arrest than compared to free DTX or PLGA NP-treated groups. Overall, results indicate that use of LHRH-conjugated nanocarriers may potentially be an effective nanocarrier to effectively treat prostate cancer.

  11. Innermost stable circular orbit near dirty black holes in magnetic field and ultra-high energy particle collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavskii, O B

    2014-01-01

    We consider the behavior of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) in the magnetic field $B$ near "dirty" (surrounded by matter) axially-symmetric black holes. The cases of near-extremal, extremal and nonextremal black holes is analyzed. For nonrotating extremal or nonextremal black holes, in the strong magnetic field ISCO approaches the horizon. Rotation destroys this phenomenon. For near-extremal dirty black holes, the ISCO radius depends on $B$ in the main approximation in contrast to the Kerr case where such dependence appears in the next correction with respect to the small surface gravity. In terms of the dimensionless variables, the angular momentum and radius of ISCO look model-independent in the main approximation in $B^{-1}$. We also study the collisions between two particles which result in the ultra-high energy $E_{c.m.}$ in the centre of mass frame. Two scenarios are considered - when one particle moves on the near-horizon ISCO or when collision occurs on the horizon, one particle having the ...

  12. Highly stable noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in biocompatible solvents: synthesis of cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles in water and DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju-Nam, Yon; Abdussalam-Mohammed, Wanisa; Ojeda, Jesus J

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of novel cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles dispersible in water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for their potential use in biomedical applications. All the cationic-functionalising ligands currently reported in the literature are ammonium-based species. Here, the synthesis and characterisation of an alternative system, based on phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions and phosphonioalkylthioacetate were carried out. We have also demonstrated that our phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions readily disproportionate into phosphonioalkylthiolates in situ during the synthesis of gold nanoparticles produced by the borohydride reduction of gold(III) salts. The synthesis of the cationic gold nanoparticles using these phosphonium ligands was carried out in water and DMSO. UV-visible spectroscopic and TEM studies have shown that the phosphonioalkylthiolates bind to the surface of gold nanoparticles which are typically around 10 nm in diameter. The resulting cationic-functionalised gold nanoparticles are dispersible in aqueous media and in DMSO, which is the only organic solvent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for drug carrier tests. This indicates their potential future use in biological applications. This work shows the synthesis of a new family of phosphonium-based ligands, which behave as cationic masked thiolate ligands in the functionalisation of gold nanoparticles. These highly stable colloidal cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles dispersed in water and DMSO can offer a great opportunity for the design of novel biorecognition and drug delivery systems.

  13. Highly efficient and stable phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes employing TADF materials as host (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Iwasaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Takahisa

    2016-09-01

    The OLED is one of the key devices for realizing next-generation displays and lighting. The efficiency of OLEDs has been improved markedly by employing phosphorescent emitters. However, there are two main issues in the practical application of phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs): the relatively short operational lifetime of green/blue devices and the relatively high cost owing to the use of a costly emitter with a concentration of about 10% in the emitting layer. Here, we report on our success in resolving these issues by the utilization of thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials as the host materials for phosphorescent emitters. Operationally stable green PHOLEDs are demonstrated by employing a TADF material as the host since the triplet excitons of the host, which are key elements in operational degradation, are transferred rapidly to the emitter following the Förster process via reverse intersystem crossing from the triplet to singlet states. In this case, the concentration of the emitter can be reduced to 1-3 wt%, similar to that in fluorescent OLEDs. Although an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of about 20% is obtained in many PHOLEDs regardless of the TADF host, the operational lifetime strongly depends on the host. Our optimized green PHOLED employing only 1 wt% phosphorescent emitter exhibits an EQE of over 20%, a small efficiency roll-off, and a long operational lifetime on the order of 10,000 h with an initial luminance of 1,000 cd/m2.

  14. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin; Zhang Zhibing; Le Yuan; Chen Jianfeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Hong, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-07-29

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions-dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions-that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  15. HIGH-SPEED, CLINICAL-SCALE MICROFLUIDIC GENERATION OF STABLE PHASE-CHANGE DROPLETS FOR GAS EMBOLOTHERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, David; Martz, Thomas D.; Sheeran, Paul S.; Shih, Roger; Dayton, Paul A.; Lee, Abraham P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report on a microfluidic device and droplet formation regime capable of generating clinical-scale quantities of droplet emulsions suitable in size and functionality for in vivo therapeutics. By increasing the capillary number – based on the flow rate of the continuous outer phase – in our flow-focusing device, we examine three modes of droplet breakup: geometry-controlled, dripping, and jetting. Operation of our device in the dripping regime results in the generation of highly monodisperse liquid perfluoropentane droplets in the appropriate 3–6 µm range at rates exceeding 105 droplets per second. Based on experimental results relating droplet diameter and the ratio of the continuous and dispersed phase flow rates, we derive a power series equation, valid in the dripping regime, to predict droplet size by Dd ≅ 27(QC/QD)−5/12. The volatile droplets in this study are stable for weeks at room temperature yet undergo rapid liquid-to-gas phase transition, and volume expansion, above a uniform thermal activation threshold. The opportunity exists to potentiate locoregional cancer therapies such as thermal ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection using thermal or acoustic vaporization of these monodisperse phase-change droplets to intentionally occlude the vessels of a cancer. PMID:22011845

  16. Tracing nitrogenous disinfection byproducts after medium pressure UV water treatment by stable isotope labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Martijn, Bram J; Vughs, Dennis; Baken, Kirsten A; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-04-07

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides) in (drinking) water treatment. Studies indicate that medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 treatment leads to a positive response in Ames mutagenicity tests, which is then removed after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. The formed potentially mutagenic substances were hitherto not identified and may result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM). In this study we present an innovative approach to trace the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of MP UV water treatment, based on stable isotope labeled nitrate combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. It was shown that after MP UV treatment of artificial water containing NOM and nitrate, multiple nitrogen containing substances were formed. In total 84 N-DBPs were detected at individual concentrations between 1 to 135 ng/L bentazon-d6 equivalents, with a summed concentration of 1.2 μg/L bentazon-d6 equivalents. The chemical structures of three byproducts were confirmed. Screening for the 84 N-DBPs in water samples from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant based on MP UV/H2O2 treatment showed that 22 of the N-DBPs found in artificial water were also detected in real water samples.

  17. In-situ synthesis of high stable CdS quantum dots and their application for photocatalytic degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Sadeghi-Maleki, Mohammad-Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis based on semiconductor quantum dots, which utilize the solar energy can be used for elimination of pollutants from aqueous media and applied for water purification. In this paper, high stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) with good optical properties were successfully synthesized in a facile in-situ method, using Na2S2O3 as precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a catalyst, as well as capping agent in aqueous media. The synthesis process was optimized with a 2IV7-3 fractional factorial design method. Then, we studied the degradation of some industrial dyes including: alizarin, acid violet, mordant red and thymol blue as a tool to check the photocatalytic activity of synthesized CdS QDs. Results specified that the synthesized CdS QDs are capable for degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation with good recycling stability during photocatalytic experiments. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the synthesized CdS QDs were studied by TEM, XRD and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized TGA-capped CdS QDs have sizes in the range of 2.65-2.93 nm with cubic crystalline structures.

  18. A facile synthesis of highly stable multiblock poly(arylene ether)s based alkaline membranes for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Amaranadh; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we are disclosing simple route for the preparation of alkaline membranes (AMs) based on aminated multiblock poly(arylene ether)s (AMPEs) synthesized by nucleophilic substitution-poly condensation followed by quaternization and alkalization reactions. In this procedure, four quaternary ammonium groups are successfully introduced without use of carcinogenic reagents such as chloromethylmethyl ether (CMME). Hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation is responsible for their high hydroxide conductivity (∼150 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) due to development of interconnected ion transport pathway. AMs are exhibiting good alkaline stability due to the presence of two vicinal quaternary ammonium groups and avoid degradation such as Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement and Hofmann elimination. Vicinal quaternary ammonium groups also resist nucleophilic (OH-) attack and suppress the Stevens rearrangement as well as SN2 substitution reaction due to stearic hindrance. Optimized AM (AMPE-M20N15 (55% DCM)) exhibits about 0.95 V open circuit voltage (OCV) and 48.8 mW cm-2 power density at 65 °C in alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) operation. These results suggest promising begin for the preparation of stable and conductive AMs for ADMFC applications and useful for developing hydroxide conductive materials.

  19. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Weingarden, Alexa R; Unno, Tatsuya; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a more widely used technology for treatment of recurrent Clostridum difficile infection (CDI). While previous treatments used fresh fecal slurries as a source of microbiota for FMT, we recently reported the successful use of standardized, partially purified and frozen fecal microbiota to treat CDI. Here we report that high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed stable engraftment of gut microbiota following FMT using frozen fecal bacteria from a healthy donor. Similar bacterial taxa were found in post-transplantation samples obtained from the recipients and donor samples, but the relative abundance varied considerably between patients and time points. Post FMT samples from patients showed an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, representing 75-80% of the total sequence reads. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were less abundant (fecal microbiota from a healthy donor can be used to effectively treat recurrent CDI resulting in restoration of the structure of gut microbiota and clearing of Clostridum difficile.

  20. Highly transparent, stable, and superhydrophobic coatings based on gradient structure design and fast regeneration from physical damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zao; Liu, Xiaojiang; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Guan, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    Optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and fast regeneration are important factors to expand the application of superhydrophobic surfaces. Herein, we fabricated highly transparent, stable, and superhydrophobic coatings through a novel gradient structure design by versatile dip-coating of silica colloid particles (SCPs) and diethoxydimethysiliane cross-linked silica nanoparticles (DDS-SNPs) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and glass, followed by the modification of octadecyltrichlorosiliane (OTCS). When the DDS concentration reached 5 wt%, the modified SCPs/DDS-SNPs coating exhibited a water contact angle (WCA) of 153° and a sliding angle (SA) <5°. Besides, the average transmittance of this superhydrophobic coating on PET film and glass was increased by 2.7% and 1% in the visible wavelength, respectively. This superhydrophobic coating also showed good robustness and stability against water dropping impact, ultrasonic damage, and acid solution. Moreover, the superhydrophobic PET film after physical damage can quickly regain the superhydrophobicity by one-step spray regenerative solution of dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTCS) modified silica nanoparticles at room temperature. The demonstrated method for the preparation and regeneration of superhydrophobic coating is available for different substrates and large-scale production at room temperature.

  1. A highly stable amino-coordinated MOF for unprecedented block off N2 adsorption and extraordinary CO2/N2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Ke; Jiang, Mengdie; Yue, Dan; Wan, Yating; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2016-11-15

    A highly stable amino-coordinated metal-organic framework ZJU-198 has been synthesized and structurally characterized, exhibiting high CO2 uptake of 105.8 cm(3) cm(-3) while blocking off N2 adsorption at 1.0 bar and 298 K, attributed to the unique pore window sizes.

  2. [Research on the Highly Stable White LED with CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot as Light Conversion Layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Jing-weil; Chen, An-ping; Zhang, Xuel; Yin, Lu-qiao; Zhang, Jian-hua

    2016-02-01

    In accordance with the one-step synthesis, in this paper, we synthesized 510, 550 and 630 nm three emission peaks CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots with high stability and high quantum yield whose quantum yield were 82%, 98% and 97%. We used the quantum dot material to replace the phosphor material, and mixed QDs with the silicone uniformly, then dispersed the QDs/silicone composites onto the blue InGaN LEDs to fabricate the QDs-WLEDs. By successively adding different colors of quantum dots for the preparation of quantum dot light converting layer, We investigated that how does the ratio of the three kind of quantum dots whose peaks were 510, 550 and 630 nm effect on the properties of the white LED devices. This paper also studied the mechanism of energy conversion between different colors of quantum dots. We also utilized the mechanism that the quantum dots effect on the white spectrum and color coordinates; we got the results of the optimization of the white device and the ratio of three-color quantum dots. The results show that when the quantum dot ratio is 24:7:10, white LED devices with high stability and high efficiency can be obtained, in the current range of 20-200 mA, the range of color temperature is from 4 607 to 5 920 K, the CIE-1931 coordinates is from (0.355 1,0.348 3) to (0.323 4, 0.336 1), the color rendering index is from 77. 6 to 84. 2, and the highest power efficiency of the devices achieves to 31.69 lm · W⁻¹ @ 20 mA. In addition, in order to further investigate the reason of stable device performance, We studied the effects of time, temperature, UV treatment on the stability of CdSe/ZnS QDs/silicone light conversion material, the results show that the excellent stability of the devices attributes to the stability of the one-step synthesis of core-shell structure of the quantum dot material, the final optimized device is a low-power high-quality white light source and the device has good application prospects in the field of standard white

  3. Highly Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells via Interface Engineering with a Nanostructured ITR-GO/PFN Bilayer Cathode Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bilayer cathode interlayer (CIL with a nanostructure consisting of in situ thermal reduced graphene oxide (ITR-GO and poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamionpropyl-2,7-fluorene-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl fluorene] (PFN has been fabricated for inverted organic solar cells (OSCs. An approach to prepare a CIL of high electronic quality by using ITR-GO as a template to modulate the morphology of the interface between the active layer and electrode and to further reduce the work function of the electrode has also been realized. This bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is processed by a spray-coating method with facile in situ thermal reduction. Meanwhile, the CIL shows a good charge transport efficiency and less charge recombination, which leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency from 6.47% to 8.34% for Poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl} (PTB7:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM-based OSCs. In addition, the long-term stability of the OSC is improved by using the ITR-GO/PFN CIL when compared with the pristine device. These results indicate that the bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is a promising way to realize high-efficiency and stable OSCs by using water-soluble conjugated polymer electrolytes such as PFN.

  4. Highly Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells via Interface Engineering with a Nanostructured ITR-GO/PFN Bilayer Cathode Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ding; Zhao, Lili; Fan, Pu; Ji, Ran

    2017-01-01

    An innovative bilayer cathode interlayer (CIL) with a nanostructure consisting of in situ thermal reduced graphene oxide (ITR-GO) and poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamion)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl) fluorene] (PFN) has been fabricated for inverted organic solar cells (OSCs). An approach to prepare a CIL of high electronic quality by using ITR-GO as a template to modulate the morphology of the interface between the active layer and electrode and to further reduce the work function of the electrode has also been realized. This bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is processed by a spray-coating method with facile in situ thermal reduction. Meanwhile, the CIL shows a good charge transport efficiency and less charge recombination, which leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency from 6.47% to 8.34% for Poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl} (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)-based OSCs. In addition, the long-term stability of the OSC is improved by using the ITR-GO/PFN CIL when compared with the pristine device. These results indicate that the bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is a promising way to realize high-efficiency and stable OSCs by using water-soluble conjugated polymer electrolytes such as PFN. PMID:28832508

  5. Stable compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.

    1986-03-01

    We show that compactifications of theories with extra dimensions are unstable if due to monopole configurations of an antisymmetric tensor field balanced against one-loop Casimir corrections. In the case of ten dimensional supergravity, it is possible, at least for a portion of the phase space, to achieve a stable compactification without fine-tuning by including the contribution of fermionic condensates to the monopole configurations. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Sustainable production of syngas from biomass-derived glycerol by steam reforming over highly stable Ni/SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Min; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2012-08-01

    The production of syngas was investigated by steam reforming glycerol over Ni/Al(2)O(3), Ni/CeO(2), and Ni/SiC (which have acidic, basic, and neutral properties) at temperatures below 773 K. The complete and stable conversion of glycerol with a yield (higher than 90 %) of gaseous products (mainly syngas) was achieved over Ni/SiC during a 60 h reaction, whereas the conversion of glycerol continually decreases over Ni/Al(2)O(3) (by 49.8 %) and Ni/CeO(2) (by 77.1 %). The deactivation of Ni/Al(2)O(3) and Ni/CeO(2) is mainly caused by coke deposition because of the C-C cleavage of the byproducts produced by dehydration over acidic sites and condensation over basic sites. Gaseous products with a 1.0-1.9 syngas ratio (H(2)/CO) are produced over Ni/SiC. This ratio is required for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. However, a syngas ratio of more than 3.0 was observed over Ni/Al(2)O(3) and Ni/CeO(2) because of the high activity of the water-gas-shift reaction. Any dissociative or associative adsorption of water on Al(2)O(3) and CeO(2) promotes a water-gas-shift reaction and produces a higher syngas ratio. H(2) and CO were mainly produced by decomposition of glycerol through dehydrogenation and decarbonylation over Ni sites. Thus, SiC promotes an intrinsic contribution of nickel (dehydrogenation, and decarbonylation) without any byproducts from the dehydration and condensation.

  7. High-speed highly temperature stable 980 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gb/s at up to 85 °C for short reach optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey A.; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Hofmann, Werner; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The progressive penetration of optical communication links into traditional copper interconnect markets greatly expands the applications of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the next-generation of board-to-board, moduleto- module, chip-to-chip, and on-chip optical interconnects. Stability of the VCSEL parameters at high temperatures is indispensable for such applications, since these lasers typically reside directly on or near integrated circuit chips. Here we present 980 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating error-free at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at temperatures as high as 85 °C without adjustment of the drive current and peak-to-peak modulation voltage. The driver design is therefore simplified and the power consumption of the driver electronics is lowered, reducing the production and operational costs. Small and large signal modulation experiments at various temperatures from 20 up to 85 °C for lasers with different oxide aperture diameters are presented in order to analyze the physical processes controlling the performance of the VCSELs. Temperature insensitive maximum -3 dB bandwidths of around 13-15 GHz for VCSELs with aperture diameters of 10 μm and corresponding parasitic cut-off frequencies exceeding 22 GHz are observed. Presented results demonstrate the suitability of our VCSELs for practical high speed and high temperature stable short-reach optical links.

  8. Cilantro microbiome before and after nonselective pre-enrichment for Salmonella using 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Karen G.; White, James R; Grim, Christopher J.; Ewing, Laura; Ottesen, Andrea R; Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Pettengill, James B.; Brown, Eric; Hanes, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica is a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States and is associated with outbreaks in fresh produce such as cilantro. Salmonella culture-based detection methods are complex and time consuming, and improvments to increase detection sensitivity will benefit consumers. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to determine the microbiome of cilantro. We also investigated changes to the microbial community prior to and after a 24-hour nonselective...

  9. Potassium current inhibition by nonselective cation channel-mediated sodium entry in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Strübing, C; J Hescheler

    1996-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, nonselective cation (NSC) channels mediate the entry of cations into cells, the most important being Na+ and Ca2+. In contrast to the Ca(2+)-dependent signaling mechanisms, little is known about the consequences and the spatial distribution of intracellular [Na+] elevation. In this study we demonstrate that Na+ entry, during the opening of ATP-activated NSC channels, leads to an inhibition of voltage-dependent K+ currents (IK) in cromaffin-like undifferentiated...

  10. Application of stable isotope analysis to study temporal changes in foraging ecology in a highly endangered amphibian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hayley Gillespie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding dietary trends for endangered species may be essential to assessing the effects of ecological disturbances such as habitat modification, species introductions or global climate change. Documenting temporal variation in prey selection may also be crucial for understanding population dynamics. However, the rarity, secretive behaviours and obscure microhabitats of some endangered species can make direct foraging observations difficult or impossible. Furthermore, the lethality or invasiveness of some traditional methods of dietary analysis (e.g. gut contents analysis, gastric lavage makes them inappropriate for such species. Stable isotope analysis facilitates non-lethal, indirect analysis of animal diet that has unrealized potential in the conservation of endangered organisms, particularly amphibians. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: I determined proportional contributions of aquatic macroinvertebrate prey to the diet of an endangered aquatic salamander Eurycea sosorum over a two-year period using stable isotope analysis of (13/12C and (15/14N and the Bayesian stable isotope mixing model SIAR. I calculated Strauss' dietary electivity indices by comparing these proportions with changing relative abundance of potential prey species through time. Stable isotope analyses revealed that a previously unknown prey item (soft-bodied planarian flatworms in the genus Dugesia made up the majority of E. sosorum diet. Results also demonstrate that E. sosorum is an opportunistic forager capable of diet switching to include a greater proportion of alternative prey when Dugesia populations decline. There is also evidence of intra-population dietary variation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective application of stable isotope analysis can help circumvent two key limitations commonly experienced by researchers of endangered species: the inability to directly observe these species in nature and the invasiveness or lethality of traditional methods of

  11. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan

    2017-09-01

    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  12. Ru-assisted synthesis of {111}-faceted Pd truncated bipyramids: a highly reactive, stable and restorable catalyst for formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongshuang; Cao, Minna; Cao, Rong

    2014-11-04

    {111}-Faceted Pd truncated triangular bipyramids (TTBPs) are first presented under the assistance of Ru. Attributed to their unique shape, the TTBPs are highly active and stable for formic acid oxidation. The electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) can be restored to its initial value after a harsh degradation test.

  13. Highly stable chemisorption of dyes with pyridyl anchors over TiO2: application in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical water reduction in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takijiri, Kohei; Morita, Kohei; Nakazono, Takashi; Sakai, Ken; Ozawa, Hironobu

    2017-03-09

    A polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer possessing pyridyl anchors (Ru-py) forms much stronger chemical linkages to TiO2 surfaces compared to the conventional carboxylate and phosphonate ones. A highly stable dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell for water reduction is successfully demonstrated using this technique.

  14. A versatile method for stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates by high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Van Breugel, P.; Houtekamer, M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to analyze stable carbon isotope (13C/12C) ratios in a variety of carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC/IRMS). The chromatography is based on strong anion-exchange columns with low strength NaOH eluents. An eluent

  15. High-throughput synthesis of stable isotope-labeled transmembrane proteins for targeted transmembrane proteomics using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, Nobuaki; Takemori, Ayako; Matsuoka, Kazuhiro; Morishita, Ryo; Matsushita, Natsuki; Aoshima, Masato; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Endo, Yaeta; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2015-02-01

    Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we developed a high-throughput method for the synthesis of stable isotope-labeled full-length transmembrane proteins as proteoliposomes to mimic the in vivo environment, and we successfully constructed an internal standard library for targeted transmembrane proteomics by using mass spectrometry.

  16. Protein remains stable at unusually high temperatures when solvated in aqueous mixtures of amino acid based ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    [EMIM][TRP] (5 mol% in water). Upon analyzing the radius of gyration, the solvent-accessible surface area, root-mean-squared deviations, and inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, we found that the mini-protein remains stable at 30–40 K higher temperatures in aqueous amino acid based ionic liquids...

  17. Phase transitions, prominent dielectric anomalies, and negative thermal expansion in three high thermally stable ammonium magnesium-formate frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ran; Xu, Guan-Cheng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2014-01-20

    We present three Mg-formate frameworks, incorporating three different ammoniums: [NH4][Mg(HCOO)3] (1), [CH3CH2NH3][Mg(HCOO)3] (2) and [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Mg2(HCOO)6] (3). They display structural phase transitions accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and anisotropic and negative thermal expansion. The temperature-dependent structures, covering the whole temperature region in which the phase transitions occur, reveal detailed structural changes, and structure-property relationships are established. Compound 1 is a chiral Mg-formate framework with the NH4(+) cations located in the channels. Above 255 K, the NH4(+) cation vibrates quickly between two positions of shallow energy minima. Below 255 K, the cations undergo two steps of freezing of their vibrations, caused by the different inner profiles of the channels, producing non-compensated antipolarization. These lead to significant negative thermal expansion and a relaxor-like dielectric response. In perovskite 2, the orthorhombic phase below 374 K possesses ordered CH3CH2NH3(+) cations in the cubic cavities of the Mg-formate framework. Above 374 K, the structure becomes trigonal, with trigonally disordered cations, and above 426 K, another phase transition occurs and the cation changes to a two-fold disordered state. The two transitions are accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and negative and positive thermal expansion, contributing to the large regulation of the framework coupled the order-disorder transition of CH3CH2NH3(+). For niccolite 3, the gradually enhanced flipping movement of the middle ethylene of [NH3(CH2)4NH3](2+) in the elongated framework cavity finally leads to the phase transition with a critical temperature of 412 K, and the trigonally disordered cations and relevant framework change, providing the basis for the very strong dielectric dispersion, high dielectric constant (comparable to inorganic oxides), and large negative thermal expansion. The spontaneous polarizations

  18. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  19. Graphite-coated ZnO nanosheets as high-capacity, highly stable, and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Dall'Asta, Valentina; Resmini, Alessandro; Tealdi, Cristina; Tredici, Ilenia Giuseppina; Tamburini, Umberto Anselmi; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2016-07-01

    ZnO is one of the materials of choice as anode for lithium batteries, due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, low toxicity, and low cost. At present, however, its industrial exploitation is impeded by massive capacity fading, and by cycling instability due to the drastic volume expansions during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process. Herein, we present a novel graphite coated-ZnO anode for LiBs based on films of nanosheets, coated with graphite. The electrode is obtained by a simple and inexpensive solution hydrothermal synthesis, whereas the graphite is deposited by thermal evaporation, which is easier to perform than a wet chemistry technique. Our approach leads to a substantial increase of the permanent specific capacity, obtaining values of 600 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 1 Ag-1. This represents the best performance for long-cycled, ZnO-based anodes obtained so far. Such result derives from the peculiar porous structure of the nanosheets film (pore diameter < 1 nm), as well as by the graphite coating that works as a dimensional buffer and preserves its morphology during cycling. This appears a very promising strategy for designing more stable ZnO-based anodes for Li batteries and microbatteries.

  20. High-Speed and Low-Energy Flip-Flop Operation of Asymmetric Active-Multimode Interferometer Bi-Stable Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haisong; Chaen, Yutaka; Hagio, Takuma;

    2011-01-01

    High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses.......High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses....

  1. CuGaO2 : A Promising Inorganic Hole-Transporting Material for Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Huan; Chen, Wei; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-02-01

    The p-type inorganic semiconductor CuGaO2 as a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) provides higher carrier mobility, better-energy level matching, and superior stability, as well as low-temperature processing technique. Compared to organic HTL, a very competitive PCE of 18.51% with long-term stability is achieved. This indicates that CuGaO2 is a promising HTL for efficient and stable PSCs.

  2. Invention of temperature-insensitive quartz oscillation plate enabling highly stable communications and clocks: Review of Issac Koga's works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Kenichi

    2016-10-01

    This is a review article on a stable quartz oscillator. In April 1933, Issac Koga of Tokyo Institute of Technology reported R1 cut quartz crystal plates having a zero temperature coefficient of frequency. This invention was used at first for radio transmitters and later on for clocks. Today, this type of temperature-insensitive quartz crystal oscillator has proven indispensable to all radio communication systems and much of information electronics.

  3. Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures (-180C to +450C)and radiation (>250 Krad TID) are not met with the current...

  4. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Zhang, H.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Chang, H. X.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-05-01

    A method to achieve stable radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of heavy ions from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed, where a high-Z material coating in front is used. The coated high-Z material, acting as a moving electron repository, continuously replenishes the accelerating heavy ion foil with comoving electrons in the light-sail acceleration stage due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal profile. As a result, the detrimental effects such as foil deformation and electron loss induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor-like and other instabilities in RPA are significantly offset and suppressed so that stable acceleration of heavy ions are maintained. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic Al13 + beam with peak energy 3.8 GeV and particle number 1 010 (charge >20 nC ) can be obtained at intensity 1 022 W /cm2 .

  5. Biomimetic spiral grating for stable and highly efficient absorption in crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin

    2017-09-12

    By emulating the phyllotaxis structure of natural plants, which has an efficient and stable light capture capability, a two-dimensional spiral grating is introduced on the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain both efficient and stable light absorption. Using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method, the absorption performance on structural parameter variations of spiral gratings is investigated firstly. Owing to diffraction resonance and excellent superficies antireflection, the integrated absorption of the optimal spiral grating cell is raised by about 77 percent compared with the conventional slab cell. Moreover, though a 15 percent deviation of structural parameters from the optimal spiral grating is applied, only a 5 percent decrease of the absorption is observed. This reveals that the performance of the proposed grating would tolerate large structural variations. Furthermore, the angular and polarization dependence on the absorption of the optimized cell is studied. For average polarizations, a small decrease of only 11 percent from the maximum absorption is observed within an incident angle ranging from −70 to 70 degrees. The results show promising application potentials of the biomimetic spiral grating in the solar cell.

  6. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting...... primary events per 1000 patient-years exposure. There were only 15 adjudicated secondary upper gastrointestinal complication endpoints (0.078/100 patient-years on celecoxib vs. 0.053 on nsNSAIDs OT, 0.078 vs. 0.053 ITT). More gastrointestinal serious adverse reactions and haematological adverse reactions...

  7. CHO-S Antibody Titers >1 Gram/Liter Using Flow Electroporation-Mediated Transient Gene Expression followed by Rapid Migration to High-Yield Stable Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Steger, Krista; Brady, James; WANG, WEILI; Duskin, Meg; Donato, Karen; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development. Despite advances in transfection methods and culture optimization, the majority of CHO-based TGE systems produce insufficient antibody titers for extensive use within biotherapeutic development pipelines. Flow electroporation using the MaxCyte STX Scalable Transfection System is a highly efficient, scalable means of CHO-based TG...

  8. Annual cyclicity in high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the wood of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyden, A.; Gerhard Helle; G. H. Schleser; F. Dehairs; BEECKMAN, H.; Koedam, N.;  

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the high-resolution stable carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratio profiles in the wood of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam., a tropical tree species lacking distinct growth rings, were investigated. Variations of both isotope ratios revealed a remarkable annual cyclicity with lowest values occurring at the latewood/earlywood boundary (April–May) and highest values during the transition from earlywood to latewood (October–November). Based on the current ...

  9. Annual cyclicity in high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the wood of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyden, A.; Helle, G.; G. H. Schleser; F. Dehairs; BEECKMAN, H.; Koedam, N.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the high-resolution stable carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and oxygen ((18)O/(16)O) isotope ratio profiles in the wood of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam., a tropical tree species lacking distinct growth rings, were investigated. Variations of both isotope ratios revealed a remarkable annual cyclicity with lowest values occurring at the latewood/earlywood boundary (April-May) and highest values during the transition from earlywood to latewood (October-November). Based on the ...

  10. High-intensity Statin Treatments in Clinically Stable Patients on Aspirin Monotherapy 12 Months After Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eui; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Suh, Yongsung; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kang, Woong Chol; Yun, Kyeong Ho; Yoo, Sang-Yong; Cheong, Sang-Sig; Shin, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Chul-Min; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2017-07-14

    Current guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommend continuous maintenance of high-intensity statin treatment in drug-eluting stent (DES)-treated patients. However, high-intensity statin treatment is frequently underused in clinical practice after stabilization of DES-treated patients. Currently, the impact of continuous high-intensity statin treatment on the incidence of late adverse events in these patients is unknown. We investigated whether high-intensity statin treatment reduces late adverse events in clinically stable patients on aspirin monotherapy 12 months after DES implantation. Clinically stable patients who underwent DES implantation 12 months previously and received aspirin monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either high-intensity (40mg atorvastatin, n = 1000) or low-intensity (20mg pravastatin, n = 1000) statin treatment. The primary endpoint was adverse clinical events at 12-month follow-up (a composite of all death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stent thrombosis, stroke, renal deterioration, intervention for peripheral artery disease, and admission for cardiac events). The primary endpoint at 12-month follow-up occurred in 25 patients (2.5%) receiving high-intensity statin treatment and in 40 patients (4.1%) receiving low-intensity statin treatment (HR, 0.58; 95%CI, 0.36-0.92; P = .018). This difference was mainly driven by a lower rate of cardiac death (0 vs 0.4%, P = .025) and nontarget vessel myocardial infarction (0.1 vs 0.7%, P = .033) in the high-intensity statin treatment group. Among clinically stable DES-treated patients on aspirin monotherapy, high-intensity statin treatment significantly reduced late adverse events compared with low-intensity statin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01557075. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards highly stable aqueous dispersions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: the effect of oxygen plasma functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia Trulli, Marta; Sardella, Eloisa; Palumbo, Fabio; Palazzo, Gerardo; Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Mangone, Annarosa; Comparelli, Roberto; Musso, Simone; Favia, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in aqueous media, their surface functionalization was carried out in O2-fed low-pressure plasmas. Differently from what can be found in the literature of this field, homogeneous functionalization was achieved by generating the plasma inside vials containing the nanotube powders properly stirred. Experimental parameters, such as input power, treatment time and pressure, were varied to investigate their influence on the process efficiency. A detailed characterization of the plasma treated nanotubes, dry and in aqueous suspension, was carried out with a multi-diagnostic analytical approach, to evaluate their surface chemical properties, morphology, structural integrity and stability in the colloidal state. The plasma grafting of polar ionizable (e.g. acid) groups has been proved to successfully limit the agglomeration of MWCNTs and to produce nanotubes suspensions that are stable for one month and more in water.

  12. Design and Synthesis of a Highly Stable Six-hydrogen-bonded Self-assembly Yellowish Green Electroluminescent Molecular Duplex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design, synthesis and characterization of a hydrogen-bonded molecular duplex with 1,8-naphthalimide fluorescent pendants. The two oligoamide molecular strands, with complementary hydrogen bond sequences of DDADAA and AADADD, caa form an ultra stable self-assembly duplex. Its molecular structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and ESI-MS, and its photoluminescence properties were determined. The resulting duplex exhibited a dramatically enhanced photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency of 63.7% compared to the corresponding 1,8-naphthalimide segment (32.4%), suggesting that the formation of the duplex with larger molecular weight could successfully inhibit the quenching of the fluorescent pendant.This novel duplex is a prospective candidate for new electroluminescent emitter.

  13. Early Recovery of Salmonella from Food Using a 6-Hour Non-selective Pre-enrichment and Reformulation of Tetrathionate Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquigan, Ninalynn; Grim, Christopher J.; White, James R.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Jarvis, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria. Examples of non-selective pre-enrichment broths used to isolate Salmonella from food include Lactose, Universal Pre-enrichment, BPW, and Trypticase Soy broths. Tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport–Vassiliadis (RV) broths are employed after a 24-h non-selective enrichment to select for Salmonella and hamper the growth of competitive bacteria. In this study, we tested a new formulation of TT broth that lacks brilliant green dye and has lower levels of TT . We employed this TT broth formulation in conjunction with a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment period and determined that Salmonella recovery was possible one day earlier than standard food culture methods. We tested the shortened culture method in different non-selective enrichment broths, enumerated Salmonella in the non-selective enrichments, and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the proportional abundances of Salmonella in the TT and RV selective enrichments. Together these data revealed that a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment reduces the levels of competitive bacteria inoculated into the selective TT and RV broths, enabling the recovery of Salmonella 1 day earlier than standard culture enrichment methods. PMID:28082968

  14. Capillary electrophoresis for the characterization of quantum dots after non-selective or selective bioconjugation with antibodies for immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Edward PC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence was used for the characterization of quantum dots and their conjugates to biological molecules. The CE-LIF was laboratory-built and capable of injection (hydrodynamic and electrokinetic from sample volumes as low as 4 μL via the use of a modified micro-fluidic chip platform. Commercially available quantum dots were bioconjugated to proteins and immunoglobulins through the use of established techniques (non-selective and selective. Non-selective techniques involved the use of EDCHCl/sulfo-NHS for the conjugation of BSA and myoglobin to carboxylic acid-functionalized quantum dots. Selective techniques involved 1 the use of heterobifunctional crosslinker, sulfo-SMCC, for the conjugation of partially reduced IgG to amine-functionalized quantum dots, and 2 the conjugation of periodate-oxidized IgGs to hydrazide-functionalized quantum dots. The migration times of these conjugates were determined in comparison to their non-conjugated QD relatives based upon their charge-to-size ratio values. The performance of capillary electrophoresis in characterizing immunoconjugates of quantum dot-labeled IgGs was also evaluated. Together, both QDs and CE-LIF can be applied as a sensitive technique for the detection of biological molecules. This work will contribute to the advancements in applying nanotechnology for molecular diagnosis in medical field.

  15. Facile synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layer for thin film solar cells using a highly stable precursor solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, M.; Bhat, S. Venkataprasad

    2017-10-01

    In search of simpler, environment friendly, scalable method to make device quality Cu2ZnSnS4 semiconductor thinfilms for solar cell applications, we have developed a solution based technique based on a highly stable precursor solution. A clear transparent precursor solution, stable for more than a year was prepared using a novel combination of the sulfur source and the solvent. The absorber film on Mo coated glass substrate was formed by dip-coating and drying in open air, followed by annealing in inert atmosphere. Further, we have fabricated and demonstrated a simple solar cell, combining this method with vacuum-free laminated conductive tape as the top electrode, having the device structure of glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/Al.

  16. High-performance alternating current field-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescent devices employing a down-conversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yingdong; Chen, Yonghua; Smith, Gregory M. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Sun, Hengda; Yang, Dezhi [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Nie, Wanyi; Li, Yuan; Huang, Wenxiao [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a high-performance alternating current (AC) filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated by combining a fluorophor Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO)-based blue device with a yellow down-conversion layer (YAG:Ce). A maximum luminance of this down-conversion FIPEL device achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, which is 1.41 times higher than the device without the down-conversion layer. A maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the down-conversion WFIPEL device reach 19.7 cd A{sup −1} at 3050 cd m{sup −2} and 5.37 lm W{sup −1} at 2310 cd m{sup −2} respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. Moreover, Commison Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.28, 0.30) is obtained by adjusting the thickness of the down-conversion layer to 30 μm and it is kept stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range. We believe that this AC-driven, down-conversion, WFIPEL device may offer an easy way towards future flat and flexible lighting sources. - Highlights: • A high-performance AC filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated. • A maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, 19.7 cd A{sup −1}, and 5.37 lm W{sup −1}, respectively. • The power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. • The EL spectrum kept very stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range.

  17. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  18. Testing the sensitivity of stable carbon isotopes of sub-fossil Sphagnum cellulose to past climate variability: a two millennia high resolution stable carbon isotope time series from the peat deposit "Dürres Maar", Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Robert; Kühl, Norbert; Peters, Sabrina; Vos, Heinz; Lücke, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Peat deposits are terrestrial archives of environmental changes and climate dynamics over time. They are widely distributed and cover a large part of the earth's land surface often within human habitat and, thus, form an excellent basis for evaluating ecosystem and climate dynamics by multiple geochemical and biological methods. Records of the stable carbon composition of cellulose separately extracted from selected Sphagnum plant components (δ13CSphagnum) from the kettle-hole type peat deposit of 'Dürres Maar' are presented. Manually separated Sphagnum stems, branches and the small leaves covering Sphagnum branches were used for cellulose extraction and subsequent isotope measurements, because intra-plant δ13CSphagnum variability between different physical components of individual modern plants has been described (Loader et al. 2007). We observed the same isotopic offset between single plant components of sub-fossil Sphagnum plant components which is statistically highly significant and observable down-core (Moschen et al. 2009). Using the size fraction of 355-630 μm, which almost exclusively consists of single Sphagnum leaves, allows to derive environmental and climate signals based on a plant response to external controls, presumably including temperature and relative humidity. Because down-core changes in the ratio of different plant components in the peat profile seem probable, erroneous interpretations of isotope records are likely if no differentiation into single Sphagnum plant components is possible. A high resolution time series of δ13CSphagnum is presented covering the last two millennia, tracing decadal to sub-decadal past environmental and climate dynamics. The thickness of the water film surrounding the chloroplasts of Sphagnum plants has been suggested as the most important factor influencing δ13CSphagnum. This points to bog surface wetness which is primarily driven by precipitation and evaporation temperature as the major control of δ13

  19. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-06

    Time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers represent an attractive alternative to finite difference (FDTD) and finite element (FEM) schemes for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions on composite scatterers. Current induced on a scatterer, in response to a transient incident field, generates a scattered field. First, the scattered field is expressed as a spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function of the background medium. Then, a TDIE is obtained by enforcing boundary conditions and/or fundamental field relations. TDIEs are often solved for the unknown current using marching on-in-time (MOT) schemes. MOT-TDIE solvers expand the current using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a lower triangular system of equations (termed MOT system), which can be solved by marching in time for the coefficients of the current expansion. Stability of the MOT scheme often depends on how accurately the spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function is discretized. In this work, band-limited prolate-based interpolation functions are used as temporal bases in expanding the current and discretizing the spatio-temporal convolution. Unfortunately, these functions are two sided, i.e., they require ”future” current samples for interpolation, resulting in a non-causal MOT system. To alleviate the effect of non-causality and restore the ability to march in time, an extrapolation scheme can be used to estimate the future values of the currents from their past values. Here, an accurate, stable and band-limited extrapolation scheme is developed for this purpose. This extrapolation scheme uses complex exponents, rather than commonly used harmonics, so that propagating and decaying mode fields inside the dielectric scatterers are accurately modeled. The resulting MOT scheme is applied to solving the time domain volume integral equation (VIE

  20. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata forms a highly stable dimeric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Suresh, C G

    2007-10-01

    Different protease inhibitors including Bowman-Birk type (BBI) have been reported from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. Protease isoinhibitors of double-headed Bowman-Birk type from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata have been purified and characterized. The BBI from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-BBI) has been found to undergo self-association to form very stable dimers and more complex oligomers, by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. Many BBIs have been reported to undergo self-association to form homodimers or more complex oligomers in solution. Only one dimeric crystal structure of a BBI (pea-BBI) is reported to date. We report the three-dimensional structure of a Vu-BBI determined at 2.5 A resolution. Although, the inhibitor has a monomer fold similar to that found in other known structures of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors, its quaternary structure is different from that commonly observed in this family. The structural elements responsible for the stability of monomer molecule and dimeric association are discussed. The Vu-BBI may use dimeric or higher quaternary association to maintain the physiological state and to execute its biological function.

  1. Highly sensitive and stable Ag@SiO2 nanocubes for label-free SERS-photoluminescence detection of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Kha; Su, Wei-Nien; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Rick, John; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence microscopy are a widely used biological and chemical characterization techniques. However, the peak overlapping in multiplexed experiments and rapid photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes is still the limitations. When compared to Ag nanocubes (NCs), higher SERS sensitivities can be obtained with thin shelled silica Ag@SiO2 NCs, in contrast metal-enhanced photoluminescence (MEPL) is only found with NCs that have thicker silica shells. A 'dual functionality' represented by the simultaneous strengthening of SERS and MEPL signals can be achieved by mixing Ag@SiO2 NCs, with a silica shell thickness of 1.5 nm and 4.4 nm. This approach allows both the Ag@SiO2 NCs SERS and MEPL sensitivities to be maintained at 90% after 12 weeks of storage. Based on the distinguished detection of creatinine and flavin adenine dinucleotide in the mixture, the integration of SERS and MEPL together on a stable single plasmonic nanoparticle platform offers an opportunity to enhance both biomarker detection sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Development of Electronic Nose with High Stable Sample Heater to Classify Quality Levels of Local Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Lelono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (e-nose equipped with a stable temperature controller has been successfully developed. Sensor response is very influenced by the temperature of the sample. The performance of the e-nose was then evaluated to differentiate the quality levels of black tea (Q1, Q2, and Q3. The black tea samples were purchased from Tambi Tea Industry in Central Java, Indonesia. Here, the quality is based on the information from the factory. For each quality level, the measurement was repeated 31 times. Therefore, the total of measurements is 93, and only six sensors, i.e. MQ-7, TGS 813, TGS 2602, TGS 826, TGS 2620 and TGS 825 have the highest influence on the patterns. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA, the e-nose is able to classify the quality levels of all sample almost 100%. The Q1 and Q2 are 100% predicted, while for the 31 data from Q3, total 29 data can be predicted correctly.

  3. Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Ananta; Zore, Omkar V.; Thilakarathne, Vindya K.; Briand, Victoria A.; Lenehan, Patrick J.; Lei, Yu; Kasi, Rajeswari M.; Kumar, Challa V.

    2015-01-01

    In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, MW 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17–20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at −0.279 and −0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications. PMID:26393601

  4. Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Ghimire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid (PAA, MW 450k, and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17–20 psi without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at −0.279 and −0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications.

  5. High-Performance Integrated Self-Package Flexible Li-O2 Battery Based on Stable Composite Anode and Flexible Gas Diffusion Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Ji-Jing; Bao, Di; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Da-Peng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-07-01

    With the rising development of flexible and wearable electronics, corresponding flexible energy storage devices with high energy density are required to provide a sustainable energy supply. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible Li-O2 batteries can provide high specific energy density; however, there are only a few reports on the construction of flexible Li-O2 batteries. Conventional flexible Li-O2 batteries possess a loose battery structure, which prevents flexibility and stability. The low mechanical strength of the gas diffusion layer and anode also lead to a flexible Li-O2 battery with poor mechanical properties. All these attributes limit their practical applications. Herein, the authors develop an integrated flexible Li-O2 battery based on a high-fatigue-resistance anode and a novel flexible stretchable gas diffusion layer. Owing to the synergistic effect of the stable electrocatalytic activity and hierarchical 3D interconnected network structure of the free-standing cathode, the obtained flexible Li-O2 batteries exhibit superior electrochemical performance, including a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability, and exceptional cycle stability. Furthermore, benefitting from the above advantages, the as-fabricated flexible batteries can realize excellent mechanical and electrochemical stability. Even after a thousand cycles of the bending process, the flexible Li-O2 battery can still possess a stable open-circuit voltage, a high specific capacity, and a durable cycle performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. "Stable-on-the-Table" Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Ananta; Zore, Omkar V; Thilakarathne, Vindya K; Briand, Victoria A; Lenehan, Patrick J; Lei, Yu; Kasi, Rajeswari M; Kumar, Challa V

    2015-09-18

    In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, M(W) 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17-20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at -0.279 and -0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications.

  7. Compact, Programmable, and Stable Biofunctionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles Prepared through Peptide-Mediated Phase Transfer for High-Sensitive Protease Sensing and in Vivo Apoptosis Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Zhi; Wu, Dan; Wang, Li; Guo, Jun; He, Xuewen; Ma, Nan

    2015-06-10

    Protease represents an important class of biomarkers for disease diagnostics and drug screening. Conventional fluorescence-based probes for in vivo protease imaging suffer from short excitation wavelengths and poor photostability. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) hold great promise for biosensing and bioimaging because of their deep-tissue excitability, robust photostability, and minimal imaging background. However, producing highly stable and compact biofunctionalized UCNP probes with optimal bioresponsivity for in vivo imaging of protease activities still remains challenging and has not been previously demonstrated. Herein, we report facile preparation of highly compact and stable biofunctionalized UCNPs through peptide-mediated phase transfer for high-sensitive detection of protease in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that the polyhistidine-containing chimeric peptides could displace oleic acid molecules capped on UCNPs synthesized in organic solvents and, thereby, directly transfer UCNPs from the chloroform phase to the water phase. The resulting UCNPs possess high stability, programmable surface properties, and a compact coating layer with minimized thickness for efficient luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). On the basis of this strategy, we prepared LRET-based UCNP probes with optimal bioresponsivity for in vitro high-sensitive detection of trypsin and in vivo imaging of apoptosis for chemotherapy efficacy evaluation. The reported strategy could be extended to construct a variety of peptide-functionalized UCNPs for various biomedical applications.

  8. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  9. Nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction as reliable synthetic route to highly stable CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingzhu; Zhang, Tiankai; Chai, Yang; Ng, Chun-Fai; Mak, Thomas C. W.; Xu, Jianbin; Yan, Keyou

    2016-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have received worldwide interests due to swiftly improved efficiency but the poor stability of the perovskite component hampers the device fabrication under normal condition. Herein, we develop a reliable nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route to stable perovskite films by intermediate chemistry and technology. Perovskite thin-film prepared by nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route is stable for two months with negligible PbI2-impurity under ~65% humidity, whereas other perovskites prepared by traditional methods degrade distinctly after 2 weeks. Route optimization involves the reaction of PbI2 with excess HI to generate HPbI3, which subsequently undergoes reaction with excess CH3NH2 to deliver CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. High quality of intermediate HPbI3 and CH3NH2 abundance are two important factors to stable CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. Excess volatile acid/base not only affords full conversion in nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route but also permits its facile removal for stoichiometric purification, resulting in average efficiency of 16.1% in forward/reverse scans.

  10. High-level expression and purification of the human bradykinin B(2) receptor in a tetracycline-inducible stable HEK293S cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponova, Paméla; Baud, Stéphanie; Mattras, Hélène; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Bonnafous, Jean-Claude; Marie, Jacky

    2007-10-01

    The B(2) bradykinin receptor belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor family. Development of new drugs for this important therapeutic target requires structural information on the receptor. The main goal of the present work was to overexpress the human B(2) receptor for future biophysical studies. Different tagged B(2) receptors were engineered and their properties were evaluated by transient expression in HEK293S cells. A B(2) receptor tagged with a hexahistidine at the N-terminus and a nonapeptide at the C-terminus was selected for high expression level and preserved ligand-binding characteristics. First, we generated a HEK293S stable cell line expressing the receptor constitutively at a level of 60pmol/mg of crude membrane protein. However, the decrease of expression level with cell passages led us to express the B(2) receptor in a HEK293S tetracycline-inducible stable cell line. Induction of expression of the B(2) receptor with tetracycline and sodium butyrate led to a level of 100pmol/mg of membrane protein, which is the highest level reported so far for this receptor. The expression level was stable with cell passages and the ligand-binding and signal transduction properties of the receptor were unaltered. The receptor was purified to near homogeneity by solubilization with n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside followed by a two-step purification procedure combining hydroxyapatite and immunoaffinity chromatography. Although the purified receptor is not functional, the purification of the B(2) receptor to near homogeneity from a stable cell line overexpressing this receptor pave the way for future structural studies of this receptor.

  11. Double-layer poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary for highly sensitive and stable capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry glycan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Zhao, Ming-Zhe; Liu, Jing-Xin; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in protein conformations and functions as well as many biological activities. Capillary electrophoresis combined with various detection methods provided remarkable developments for high-sensitivity glycan profiling. The coating of the capillary is needed for highly polar molecules from complex biosamples. A poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary is commonly utilized in the capillary electrophoresis separation of saccharides sample due to the high-hydrophilicity properties. A modified facile coating workflow was carried out to acquire a novel multiple-layer poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary for highly sensitive and stable analysis of glycans. The migration time fluctuation was used as index in the optimization of layers and a double layer was finally chosen, considering both the effects and simplicity in fabrication. With migration time relative standard deviation less than 1% and theoretical plates kept stable during 100 consecutive separations, the method was presented to be suitable for the analysis of glycosylation with wide linear dynamic range and good reproducibility. The glycan profiling of enzymatically released N-glycans from human serum was obtained by the presented capillary electrophoresis method combined with mass spectrometry detection with acceptable results.

  12. Finding the Stable Structures of N1-xWx with an Ab Initio High-Throughput Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-26

    1930). [15] R. Kiessling and Y. H. Liu, Thermal stability of the chromium, iron, and tungsten borides in streaming ammonia and the existence of a new...Prediction of novel phases of tantalum(V) nitride and tungsten(VI) nitride that can be synthesized under high pressure and high temperature, Angew. Chem

  13. Highly Constrained Bicyclic Scaffolds for the Discovery of Protease-Stable Peptides via mRNA Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David E; Hoinka, Jan; Iqbal, Emil S; Przytycka, Teresa M; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2017-02-01

    Highly constrained peptides such as the knotted peptide natural products are promising medicinal agents because of their impressive biostability and potent activity. Yet, libraries of highly constrained peptides are challenging to prepare. Here, we present a method which utilizes two robust, orthogonal chemical steps to create highly constrained bicyclic peptide libraries. This technology was optimized to be compatible with in vitro selections by mRNA display. We performed side-by-side monocyclic and bicyclic selections against a model protein (streptavidin). Both selections resulted in peptides with mid-nanomolar affinity, and the bicyclic selection yielded a peptide with remarkable protease resistance.

  14. New class of two-dimensional bimetallic nanoplatelets for high energy density and electrochemically stable hybrid supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiting; Ma, Peng; Ulstrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the application of supercapacitors (SCs) in portable electronic devices and vehicles is limited by their low energy density. Developing high-energy density SCs without sacrificing their advantages, such as their long-term stability and high power density, has thus become an increasing...... and a 96.1% retention of the initial capacitance over 5,000 cycles. We exploited the novel 2D nanoplatelets as cathode materials to assemble a hybrid SC for full-cell tests. The resulting SCs operated in a wide potential window of 0 - 1.7 V, exhibited a high energy density over 50 Wh·kg-1, and sustained...

  15. Highly oriented δ-Bi2O3 thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunca Popa, P.; Sønderby, S.; Kerdsongpanya, S.;

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of δ–Bi2O3. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150–200 °C in a narrow window of O2/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%–20%). Transmission electron microsc...... microscopy and x-ray diffraction reveal a polycrystalline columnar structure with (111) texture. The films are stable from room temperature up to 250 °C in vacuum and 350 °C in ambient air. © 2013 American Institute of Physics...

  16. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-06-06

    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  17. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-20

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  18. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse.

  19. Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockade prevents reduction of the cerebral metabolic ratio during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    of a non-selective beta-adrenergic (beta(1) + beta(2)) receptor antagonist (propranolol) reduced heart rate (69 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 6 beats min(-1)) and exercise capacity (239 +/- 42 to 209 +/- 31 W; P exercise with propranolol, the increase in a......Intense exercise decreases the cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen to carbohydrates [O(2)/(glucose + (1/2)lactate)], but whether this ratio is influenced by adrenergic stimulation is not known. In eight males, incremental cycle ergometry increased arterial lactate to 15.3 +/- 4.2 mm (mean +/- s.......d.) and the arterial-jugular venous (a-v) difference from -0.02 +/- 0.03 mm at rest to 1.0 +/- 0.5 mm (P increased from 0.7 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mm (P

  20. Highly stable aluminum-based metal-organic frameworks as biosensing platforms for assessment of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sen; Sun, Chun-Xiao; Tian, Jia-Yue; Wang, Zhuo-Wei; Ji, Hong-Fei; Song, Ying-Pan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; He, Ling-Hao; Du, Miao

    2017-05-15

    Two unique immunosensors made of aluminum-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, 515- and 516-MOFs, with 4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3NTB) were successfully obtained to efficiently assess food safety. The as-prepared 515- and 516-MOFs exhibited superior thermal and physicochemical stability, high electrochemical activity, and good biocompatibility. Among these immunosensors, 516-MOF showed a preferable biosensing ability toward analytes determined by electrochemical techniques. The developed 516-MOF-based electrochemical biosensor not only demonstrated high sensitivity with low detection limits of 0.70 and 0.40pgmL(-1) toward vomitoxin and salbutamol, respectively, but also showed good selectivity in the presence of other interferences. Therefore, with the advantages of high sensitivity, good selectivity, and simple operation, this new strategy is believed to exhibit great potential for simple and convenient detection of poisonous and harmful residues in food.

  1. Thermally Stable Siloxane Hybrid Matrix with Low Dielectric Loss for Copper-Clad Laminates for High-Frequency Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Lim, Young-Woo; Kim, Yun Hyeok; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-04-06

    We report vinyl-phenyl siloxane hybrid material (VPH) that can be used as a matrix for copper-clad laminates (CCLs) for high-frequency applications. The CCLs, with a VPH matrix fabricated via radical polymerization of resin blend consisting of sol-gel-derived linear vinyl oligosiloxane and bulky siloxane monomer, phenyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane, achieve low dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (Df). The CCLs with the VPH matrix exhibit excellent dielectric performance (Dk = 2.75, Df = 0.0015 at 1 GHz) with stability in wide frequency range (1 MHz to 10 GHz) and at high temperature (up to 275 °C). Also, the VPH shows good flame resistance without any additives. These results suggest the potential of the VPH for use in high-speed IC boards.

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular thrombotic events in patients with osteoarthritis treated with rofecoxib versus nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, and nabumetone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicin, Alise S; Shapiro, Deborah; Sperling, Rhoda S; Barr, Eliav; Yu, Qinfen

    2002-01-15

    Aspirin, nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors each have distinctive effects on COX-1-mediated thromboxane biosynthesis, the major determinant of platelet aggregation. It is unclear whether these effects are associated with differences in thrombogenic risks. To compare the risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events among patients receiving rofecoxib, nonselective NSAIDs, and placebo, cardiovascular safety was assessed in 5,435 participants in 8 phase IIB/III osteoarthritis trials. The median treatment exposure was 31/2 months. The primary end point assessed was the risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic cardiovascular adverse event (AE). A second analysis assessed differences in the Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) events, a cluster end point that consists of the combined incidence of (1) cardiovascular, hemorrhagic, and unknown death; (2) myocardial infarction; and (3) cerebrovascular accident. Similar rates of thrombotic cardiovascular AEs were reported with rofecoxib, placebo, and comparator nonselective NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, or nabumetone). In trials that compared rofecoxib with NSAIDs, the incidence of thrombotic cardiovascular AEs was 1.93/100 patient-years in the rofecoxib treatment group compared with 2.27/100 patient-years in the combined nonselective NSAID group. In trials that compared rofecoxib with placebo, the incidence of thrombotic cardiovascular AEs was 2.71/100 patient-years in the rofecoxib group compared with 2.57/100 patient-years in the placebo group. Consistent with the risks of cardiovascular AEs, similar rates of APTC events were reported with rofecoxib, placebo, and comparator nonselective NSAIDs. Thus, in the rofecoxib osteoarthritis development program, there was no difference between rofecoxib, comparator nonselective NSAIDs, and placebo in the risks of cardiovascular thrombotic events.

  3. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report a porous covalent triazine-piperazine linked polymer (CTPP) featuring 3D nanoflower morphology and enhanced capture/removal of CO2, CH4 from air (N2), essential to control greenhouse gas emission and natural gas upgrading. 13C solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses and CHN and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elemental analyses confirmed the integration of triazine and piperazine components in the network. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed a relatively uniform particle size of approximately 400 to 500 nm with 3D nanoflower microstructure, which was formed by the self-assembly of interwoven and slight bent nanoflake components. The material exhibited outstanding chemical robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K, 1 bar; coupled with high sorption selectivities for CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 of 128 and 17, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity of the CTPP favors the interaction with CO2, which results in an enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and high CO2/N2 selectivity. The binary mixture breakthrough study for the flue gas composition at 298 K showed a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 82. CO2 heats of adsorption for the CTPP (34 kJ mol−1) were realized at the borderline between strong physisorption and weak chemisorption (QstCO2; 25−50 kJ mol−1) and low Qst value for N2 (22.09 kJ mol−1), providing the ultimate validation for the high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  4. Highly stable CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity in hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic porous polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Lee, Han Myoung; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2014-05-28

    The largest obstacles for landfill/flue gas separation using microporous materials are small adsorption values and low selectivity ratios. This study demonstrates that these adsorption and selectivity challenges can be overcome by utilizing a series of hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic polymer networks. These microporous organic polymers (MOPs) were synthesized in a single step by inexpensive Friedel-Crafts-catalyzed reactions using dimethoxymethane as an external linker. The amorphous networks show moderate Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas up to 1022 m(2) g(-1), a narrow pore size distribution in the range from 6 to 8 Å, and high physicochemical stability. Owing to the presence of the heteroatomic pore surfaces in the networks, they exhibit maximum storage capacities for CO2 of 11.4 wt % at 273 K and 1 atm. Additionally, remarkable selectivity ratios for CO2 adsorption over N2 (100) and CH4 (15) at 273 K were obtained. More importantly, as compared with any other porous materials, much higher selectivity for CO2/N2 (80) and CO2/CH4 (15) was observed at 298 K, showing that these selectivity ratios remain high at elevated temperature. The very high CO2/N2 selectivity values are ascribed to the binding affinity of abundantly available electron-rich basic heteroatoms, high CO2 isoteric heats of adsorption (49-38 kJ mol(-1)), and the predominantly microporous nature of the MOPs. Binding energies calculated using the high level of ab initio theory showed that the selectivity is indeed attributed to the heteroatom-CO2 interactions. By employing an easy and economical synthesis procedure these MOPs with high thermochemical stability are believed to be a promising candidate for selective CO2 capture.

  5. Evaluation of Pressure Stable Chip-to-Tube Fittings Enabling High-Speed Chip-HPLC with Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Carsten; Heiland, Josef J; Stein, Volkmar; Klimkait, Michael; Queisser, Marco; Belder, Detlev

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate chip-to-tube interfacing is an enabling technology for high-pressure and high-speed liquid chromatography on chip. For this purpose, various approaches, to connect pressure resistant glass chips with HPLC pumps working at pressures of up to 500 bar, were examined. Three side-port and one top-port connection approach were evaluated with regard to pressure stability and extra column band broadening. A clamp-based top-port approach enabled chip-HPLC-MS analysis of herbicides at the highest pressure and speed.

  6. A Novel Route for Preparing Highly Stable Fe3O4 Fluid with Poly(Acrylic Acid) as Phase Transfer Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanh, Vuong Thi Kim; Lam, Tran Dai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lu, Le Trong; Nam, Pham Hong; Tam, Le The; Manh, Do Hung; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan

    2016-08-01

    Highly stable Fe3O4 liquid was synthesized by thermal decomposition using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a phase transfer ligand. The crystalline structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the as-prepared samples were thoroughly characterized. Results demonstrated that the magnetic Fe3O4 nanomaterial was formed in liquid phase with a spinel single-phase structure, average size of 8-13 nm, and high saturation magnetization (up to 75 emu/g). The PAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles displayed high stability over a wide pH range (from 4 to 7) in 300 mM salt solution. More importantly, the heat-generating capacity of the nanoparticle systems was quantified at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 70.22 W/g, which is 35% higher than magnetic nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). These findings suggest the potential application of PAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic hyperthermia.

  7. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  8. Similar reductions in the risk of human colon cancer by selective and nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshafie Galal A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations suggest that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have chemopreventive effects against colon cancer perhaps due at least in part to their activity against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, the rate-limiting enzyme of the prostaglandin cascade. Methods We conducted a case control study of colon cancer designed to compare effects of selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors. A total of 326 incident colon cancer patients were ascertained from the James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, during 2003–2004 and compared with 652 controls with no history of cancer and matched to the cases at a 2:1 ratio on age, race, and county of residence. Data on the past and current use of prescription and over the counter medications and colon cancer risk factors were ascertained using a standardized risk factor questionnaire. Effects of COX-2 inhibiting agents were quantified by calculating odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results Results showed significant risk reductions for selective COX-2 inhibitors (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.16–0.57, regular aspirin (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.20–0.56, and ibuprofen or naproxen (0.28, 95% CI = 0.15–0.54. Acetaminophen, a compound with negligible COX-2 activity and low dose aspirin (81 mg produced no significant change in the risk of colon cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that both non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors produce significant reductions in the risk of colon cancer, underscoring their strong potential for colon cancer chemoprevention.

  9. A stable, reusable, and highly active photosynthetic bioreactor by bio-interfacing an individual cyanobacterium with a mesoporous bilayer nanoshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Zhao; Wang, Li; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Tian, Ge; Ying, Guo-Liang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Ming-Xi; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-05-06

    An individual cyanobacterium cell is interfaced with a nanoporous biohybrid layer within a mesoporous silica layer. The bio-interface acts as an egg membrane for cell protection and growth of outer shell. The resulting bilayer shell provides efficient functions to create a single cell photosynthetic bioreactor with high stability, reusability, and activity.

  10. Highly soluble benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide derivatives: stable and air-insensitive electron acceptors for artificial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.P.; Reek, J.N.H.; Williams, R.M.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A series of new benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These remarkably soluble BPTI derivatives show strong optical absorption in the range of =300-500nm and have a high triplet-state energy of 1.67eV. A cyanophenyl substituent renders BPTI such a stro

  11. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  12. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate Central Asian Middle Eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafelis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  13. Stable and solid pellets of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes produced under high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Pâmela Andréa Mantey dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais (Brazil); Gallas, Marcia Russman [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Radtke, Cláudio; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Elias, Ana Laura [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics and Center for 2-D and Layered Materials (United States); Rajukumar, Lakshmy Pulickal [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Terrones, Humberto [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy (United States); Endo, Morinobu [Shinshu University, Carbon Institute of Science and Technology (Japan); Terrones, Mauricio [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics and Center for 2-D and Layered Materials (United States); Costa, Tania Maria Haas, E-mail: taniaha@iq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: taniahac@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    High pressure/temperature was applied on samples of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), functionalized nanotubes (f-MWCNT), and nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CN{sub x}MWNT). Cylindrical compact pellets of f-MWCNT with diameters of about 6 mm were obtained under pressure of 4.0 GPa at room temperature and at 400 °C, using graphite as pressure transmitting medium. The best pellet samples were produced using nitric and sulfuric acids for the functionalization of MWCNT. The effect of high pressure/temperature on CNT was investigated by several spectroscopy and characterization techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that MWCNT maintain their main features in the compacted pellets, such as integrity, original morphology, and structure, demonstrating that high-pressure/temperature compaction can indeed be used to fabricate novel CNT self-supported materials. Additionally, the specific surface area and porosity are unchanged, which is important when using bulk CNT in adsorption processes. Raman analysis of the G’-band showed a shift to lower wavenumbers when f-MWCNT were processed under high pressure, suggesting that CNT are under tensile stress.

  14. High performing and stable supported nano-alloys for the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Wenhao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341385972; Meenakshisundaram, Sankar; Beale, Andrew M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802068; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    The catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid, a key platform molecule in many biorefinery schemes, into gamma-valerolactone is considered as one of the pivotal reactions to convert lignocellulose-based biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we report on the development of highly active,

  15. High performing and stable supported nano-alloys for the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Wenhao; Meenakshisundaram, Sankar; Beale, Andrew M.; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid, a key platform molecule in many biorefinery schemes, into gamma-valerolactone is considered as one of the pivotal reactions to convert lignocellulose-based biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we report on the development of highly active, s

  16. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic 59Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Severin, Gregory; Andreasen, Hans B.;

    2016-01-01

    of the supplements in the presence of [Fe-59]FeCl3 for 24h at 95 degrees C for Monofer, and 85 degrees C for Cosmofer, resulting in radiochemical yields greater than 94%. High performance size exclusion chromatography, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to show that the supplements remained...

  17. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersoperations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin biomacromolecules.

  18. Polyhedral Palladium-Silver Alloy Nanocrystals as Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Formic Acid Oxidation Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Geng-Tao; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Polyhedral noble-metal nanocrystals have received much attention and wide applications as electrical and optical devices as well as catalysts. In this work, a straightforward and effective hydrothermal route for the controllable synthesis of the high-quality Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons with uniform size is presented. The morphology, composition and structure of the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are fully characterized by the various physical techniques, demonstrating the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are highly alloying. The formation/growth mechanisms of the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are explored and discussed based on the experimental observations and discussions. As a preliminary electrochemical application, the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are applied in the formic acid oxidation reaction, which shows higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercially available Pd black due to the “synergistic effects” between Pd and Ag atoms.

  19. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jérémie; Walter, Arnaud; Rucavado, Esteban; Moon, Soo-Jin; Sacchetto, Davide; Rienaecker, Michael; Peibst, Robby; Brendel, Rolf; Niquille, Xavier; De Wolf, Stefaan; Löper, Philipp; Morales-Masis, Monica; Nicolay, Sylvain; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to reach efficiencies beyond those of silicon single-junction record devices. However, the high-temperature process of 500 °C needed for state-of-the-art mesoscopic perovskite cells has, so far, been limiting their implementation in monolithic tandem devices. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of zinc tin oxide as a recombination layer and show its electrical and optical stability at temperatures up to 500 °C. To prove the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem device. Finally, we discuss the perspective of mesoscopic perovskite cells for high-efficiency monolithic tandem solar cells.

  20. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Jérémie

    2016-12-05

    Perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to reach efficiencies beyond those of silicon single-junction record devices. However, the high-temperature process of 500 °C needed for state-of-the-art mesoscopic perovskite cells has, so far, been limiting their implementation in monolithic tandem devices. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of zinc tin oxide as a recombination layer and show its electrical and optical stability at temperatures up to 500 °C. To prove the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem device. Finally, we discuss the perspective of mesoscopic perovskite cells for high-efficiency monolithic tandem solar cells. © 2016 Author(s)

  1. Amorphous silicon films with high deposition rate prepared using argon and hydrogen diluted silane for stable solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, Purabi; Agarwal, Pratima [Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Dixit, P.N. [Plasma Processed Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2007-08-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films with high deposition rate (4-5 Aa/s) and reduced Staebler-Wronski effect are prepared using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), hydrogen and argon. The films show an improvement in short and medium range order. The structural, transport and stability studies on the films are done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman scattering studies, electrical conductivity and diffusion length measurement. Presence of both atomic hydrogen and Ar{sup *} in the plasma causes breaking of weak Si-Si bonds and subsequent reconstruction of strong bonds resulting in improvement of short and medium range order. The improved structural order enhances the stability of these films against light soaking. High deposition rate is due to the lesser etching of growing surface compared to the case of only hydrogen diluted silane. (author)

  2. Flakelike LiCoO2 with Exposed {010} Facets As a Stable Cathode Material for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiteng; Zhang, Yun; Guo, Yi; Liu, Shengjie; Liu, Heng; Wu, Hao

    2016-02-03

    A thick and dense flakelike LiCoO2 with exposed {010} active facets is synthesized using Co(OH)2 nanoflake as a self-sacrificial template obtained from a simple coprecipitation method, and served as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. When operated at a high cutoff voltage up to 4.5 V, the resultant LiCoO2 exhibits an outstanding rate capability, delivering a reversible discharge capacity as high as 179, 176, 168, 116, and 96 mA h g(-1) at 25 °C under the current rate of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 C, respectively. When charge/discharge cycling at 55 °C, a high specific capacity of 148 mA h g(-1) (∼88% retention) can be retained after 100 cycles under 1 C, demonstrating excellent cycling and thermal stability. Besides, the flakelike LiCoO2 also shows an impressive low-temperature electrochemical activity with specific capacities of 175 (0.1 C) and 154 mA h g(-1) (1 C) at -10 °C, being the highest ever reported for a subzero-temperature lithium storage capability, as well as 52% capacity retention even after 80 cycles under 1 C. Such superior high-voltage electrochemical performances of the flakelike LiCoO2 operated at a wide temperature range are mainly attributed to its unique hierarchical structure with specifically exposed facets. The exposed {010} active facets provide a preferential crystallographic orientation for Li-ion migration, while the micrometer-sized secondary particles agglomerated by submicron primary LiCoO2 flakes endow the electrode with better structural integrity, both of which ensure the LiCoO2 cathode to manifest remarkably enhanced reversible lithium storage properties.

  3. Highly efficient and thermally stable polymer solar cells with dihydronaphthyl-based [70]fullerene bisadduct derivative as the acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangyue; Ma, Yihan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wenqing; Tan, Zhan' ao [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, The New and Renewable Energy of Beijing Key Laboratory, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Yongfang [Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Taishan; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru [Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-05-23

    The efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs) can be essentially enhanced by improving the performance of electron-acceptor materials, including by increasing the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level, improving the optical absorption, and tuning the material solubility. Here, a new soluble C{sub 70} derivative, dihydronaphthyl-based C{sub 70} bisadduct (NC{sub 70}BA), is synthesized and explored as acceptor in PSCs. The NC{sub 70}BA has high LUMO energy level that is 0.2 eV higher than [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and displays broad light absorption in the visible region. Consequently, the PSC based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and NC{sub 70}BA shows a high open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc} = 0.83 V) and a high power conversion efficiency (PCE = 5.95%), which are much better than those of the P3HT:PCBM-based device (V{sub oc} = 0.60 V; PCE = 3.74%). Moreover, the amorphous nature of NC{sub 70}BA effectively suppresses the thermally driven crystallization, leading to high thermal stability of the P3HT:NC{sub 70}BA-based solar cell devices. It is observed that the P3HT:NC{sub 70}BA-based device retains 80% of its original PCE value against thermal heating at 150 C over 20 h. The results unambiguously indicate that the NC{sub 70}BA is a promising acceptor material for practical PSCs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Highly stable 2D material (2DM) field-effect transistors (FETs) with wafer-scale multidyad encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Gyo Jeong, Eun; Kim, Eungtaek; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Youngjun; Woo, Whang Je; Lee, Myung Keun; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seong-Bae; Kim, Hyungjun; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of 2D materials (2DMs) such as transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials show unstable electrical characteristics in ambient air due to the high sensitivity of 2DMs to water adsorbates. In this work, in order to demonstrate the long-term retention of electrical characteristics of a TMD FET, a multidyad encapsulation method was applied to a MoS2 FET and thereby its durability was warranted for one month. It was well known that the multidyad encapsulation method was effective to mitigate high sensitivity to ambient air in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) composed of organic materials. However, there was no attempt to check the feasibility of such a multidyad encapsulation method for 2DM FETs. It is timely to investigate the water vapor transmission ratio (WVTR) required for long-term stability of 2DM FETs. The 2DM FETs were fabricated with MoS2 flakes by both an exfoliation method, that is desirable to attain high quality film, and a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, that is applicable to fabrication for a large-sized substrate. In order to eliminate other unwanted variables, the MoS2 FETs composed of exfoliated flakes were primarily investigated to assure the effectiveness of the encapsulation method. The encapsulation method uses multiple dyads comprised of a polymer layer by spin coating and an Al2O3 layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The proposed method shows wafer-scale uniformity, high transparency, and protective barrier properties against adsorbates (WVTR of 8 × 10-6 g m-2 day-1) over one month.

  5. A systematic approach to high and stable discharge capacity for scaling up the lithium-sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mohammad Rejaul; Wang, Jiazhao; Liang, Xin; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2015-04-01

    A systematic approach to improving the performance of the Li-S battery is presented, based on applying high energy ball milling to create a porous sulfur-carbon composite, insertion of a free-standing layer, and adoption of a new charging method. Surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope imaging show that the ball-milled sulfur powder has a porous structure and very high specific surface area. A vacuum-filtrated single-walled carbon nanotube free-standing layer is inserted in between the sulfur cathode and the separator. It is believed that high-surface-area porous sulfur will help to increase the conductivity of the elemental sulfur due to better adhesion between the conducting carbon and the sulfur, while the free-standing layer will sequester longer chain polysulfides, which are responsible for the well-known shuttling phenomenon. By the combination of these methods, we have achieved excellent capacity and cycle life. Finally, a new charging method which will largely prevent the formation of longer chain polysulfides is also applied to increase the capacity retention. It is believed that with the combination of ball milling, the free-standing layer, and the new charging method, it is possible to commercialize the Li-S battery with better capacity and cycle life.

  6. On-chip high-power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10000 cycles (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium ion battery anode with over 50x power density and 100x energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip porous silicon supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA/cm2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, but not underlying bulk silicon material. This prevents the degradation and poor cycling performance that is commonly observed from deep storage in bulk silicon materials. As a result, this device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10,000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mAh/cm2, without notable capacity fade. This work demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration of energy storage into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based technology.

  7. Nanostructured intermetallic FeSn2-carbonaceous composites as highly stable anode for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Eldho; Satish, Rohit; Ling, Wong Chui; Bucher, Nicolas; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2017-03-01

    The commercialization of Na-ion batteries demands the development of technologically feasible and economically viable electrodes, in particular anodes. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of nanostructured FeSn2 by a hydrothermal route and the formulation of composites with different carbonaceous materials like Super P, graphite, and graphene via high-throughput ball-milling. The influence of the carbonaceous matrix on the electrochemical performance of the alloy anode is investigated in half-cell assembly. Amongst, FeSn2-Graphite composite exhibits excellent cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 333 mAh g-1 obtained after 100 cycles at a specific current of 100 mA g-1. The composite also displayed a good rate performance even at high current rates of 1 A g-1 which is a desirable feature for high power applications such as hybrid electric vehicles. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the composite anodes is ascribed to the effective encapsulation of the alloy particles in the carbonaceous matrix, which sustains the volume change and facilitates excellent Na-storage capability.

  8. Dimensionally-stable phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazoles for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobai; Ma, Hongwei; Shen, Yanchao; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PA-m-PBI) membranes are widely investigated for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells because of their low cost and high performance. For this system, a major challenge is in achieving a good compromise between the phosphoric acid doping level and the membrane dimensional-mechanical stability. Different from the established PA-m-PBI system, the present work investigates two types of PA-PBI membranes incorporating flexible ether linkages and asymmetric bulky pendants (phenyl and methylphenyl), which exhibit much better dimensional-mechanical stability after immersing in PA solution, even at high temperature for an extended period. This superior stability allowed higher acid doping levels (20.6 and 24.6) to be achieved, thus increasing proton conductivity (165 and 217 mS cm-1 at 200 °C under anhydrous conditions) as well as significantly improving fuel cell performance. The peak power densities in hydrogen/air fuel cell were 279 and 320 mW cm-2 at 160 °C, without humidification. Molecular simulation, density and fractional free volume, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to investigate their structure-property relationships.

  9. Highly stable nanofluid based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-decorated graphene oxide nanosheets and its enhanced electro-responsive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhuo; Guan, Yanqing; Liu, Yang; Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) shows potential as an anisotropic nanofiller or a dispersed phase of electro-responsive electrorheological (ER) nanofluid due to its small size and high aspect ratio. But it is difficult to disperse GO in non-polar oil due to the hydrophilic nature of GO and thus the resulting fluid is often subject to dispersion instability and low ER effect. These disadvantages largely limit the real application of GO-based ER nanofluid. In this paper, we develop the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-decorated GO (POSS-GO) nanosheets and demonstrate that decorating with POSS overcomes the dispersion instability of GO in silicone oil and enhances the ER effect. The morphology and structure of samples are characterized by atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy. The results show that the POSS-GO nanosheets are ultrathin with ∼3 nm thickness and have good compatibility with silicone oil and, as a result, the nanofluid of POSS-GO nanosheets in silicone oil shows high dispersion stability. After standing for one year at room temperature, no sedimentation occurs. Under an external electric field, the ER efficiency of the POSS-GO nanofluid is ten times as high as that of the pure GO fluid. This enhanced electro-responsive behavior is related to the fact that decorating with POSS partly reduces the GO and compresses the dielectrophoretic effect of the negatively charged pure GO fluid.

  10. High-Sensitivity Troponin I in Stable Patients with Atherosclerotic Disease in the TRA 2°P - TIMI 50 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Alon; Bonaca, Marc P; Jarolim, Petr; Scirica, Benjamin M; White, Harvey D; Tendera, Michal; Dellborg, Mikael; Nicolau, Jose C; Morais, Joao; Fox, Keith A A; Bohula, Erin A; Murphy, Sabina A; Braunwald, Eugene; Morrow, David A

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I, measured with a high-sensitivity assay (hs-TnI), is well-established for risk prediction in acute coronary syndromes. However, its prognostic role in stable atherosclerotic disease, particularly for future myocardial infarction (MI), is less well defined. We measured hs-TnI (Abbott ARCHITECT) in 15833 patients with prior MI, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease from the placebo-controlled Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2°P)-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 50 trial of the platelet inhibitor vorapaxar, excluding patients with recent MI (26 ng/L vs 26 ng/L vs 0.3% with hs-TnI <1.9 ng/L; P interaction = 0.82). In stable patients with established atherosclerosis, hs-TnI concentrations effectively stratified the risk of new or recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events, in particular CV death and MI. High-risk patients with prior MI identified by increased hs-TnI had a substantial absolute improvement in net clinical outcome with vorapaxar. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. CHO-S antibody titers >1 gram/liter using flow electroporation-mediated transient gene expression followed by rapid migration to high-yield stable cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Krista; Brady, James; Wang, Weili; Duskin, Meg; Donato, Karen; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development. Despite advances in transfection methods and culture optimization, the majority of CHO-based TGE systems produce insufficient antibody titers for extensive use within biotherapeutic development pipelines. Flow electroporation using the MaxCyte STX Scalable Transfection System is a highly efficient, scalable means of CHO-based TGE for gram-level production of antibodies without the need for specialized expression vectors or genetically engineered CHO cell lines. CHO cell flow electroporation is easily scaled from milligram to multigram quantities without protocol reoptimization while maintaining transfection performance and antibody productivity. In this article, data are presented that demonstrate the reproducibility, scalability, and antibody production capabilities of CHO-based TGE using the MaxCyte STX. Data show optimization of posttransfection parameters such as cell density, media composition, and feed strategy that result in secreted antibody titers >1 g/L and production of multiple grams of antibody within 2 weeks of a single CHO-S cell transfection. In addition, data are presented to demonstrate the application of scalable electroporation for the rapid generation of high-yield stable CHO cell lines to bridge the gap between early- and late-stage antibody development activities.

  12. High-resolution alkenone palaeobarometry indicates relatively stable pCO(2) during the Pliocene (3.3-2.8 Ma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Marcus P S; Schmidt, Daniela N; Mackensen, Andreas; Pancost, Richard D

    2013-10-28

    Temperature reconstructions indicate that the Pliocene was approximately 3(°)C warmer globally than today, and several recent reconstructions of Pliocene atmospheric CO2 indicate that it was above pre-industrial levels and similar to those likely to be seen this century. However, many of these reconstructions have been of relatively low temporal resolution, meaning that these records may have failed to capture variations associated with the 41 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles thought to have operated in the Pliocene. Here we present a new, high temporal resolution alkenone carbon isotope-based record of pCO2 spanning 3.3-2.8 Ma from Ocean Drilling Program Site 999. Our record is of high enough resolution (approx. 19 kyr) to resolve glacial-interglacial changes beyond the intrinsic uncertainty of the proxy method. The record suggests that Pliocene CO2 levels were relatively stable, exhibiting variation less than 55 ppm. We perform sensitivity studies to investigate the possible effect of changing sea surface temperature (SST), which highlights the importance of accurate and precise SST reconstructions for alkenone palaeobarometry, but demonstrate that these uncertainties do not affect our conclusions of relatively stable pCO2 levels during this interval.

  13. A STABLE, ACCURATE METHODOLOGY FOR HIGH MACH NUMBER, STRONG MAGNETIC FIELD MHD TURBULENCE WITH ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT: RESOLUTION AND REFINEMENT STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.edu, E-mail: klein@astron.berkeley.edu, E-mail: DFMartin@lbl.gov, E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.edu [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Performing a stable, long-duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and constrained transport electromotive force averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma {beta}{sub 0} of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers (M{sub rms}= 17.3) and smaller plasma beta ({beta}{sub 0} = 0.0067) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulations show that the turbulent dissipation coefficient for supersonic MHD turbulence is about 0.5, in agreement with unigrid simulations.

  14. A Stable, Accurate Methodology for High Mach Number, Strong Magnetic Field MHD Turbulence with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Resolution and Refinement Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; McKee, Christopher F

    2011-01-01

    Performing a stable, long duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and Constrained Transport EMF averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma $\\beta_0$ of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers ($M_rms = 17.3$) and smaller plasma beta ($\\beta_0 = 0.0067$) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulati...

  15. Combined use of stable isotopes and hydrologic modeling to better understand nutrient sources and cycling in highly altered systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Guerin, M.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Silva, S. R.; Harter, T.; Parker, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers provide the majority of freshwater for the San Francisco Bay Delta. Both rivers are important sources of drinking and irrigation water for California, and play critical roles in the health of California fisheries. Understanding the factors controlling water quality and primary productivity in these rivers and the Delta is essential for making sound economic and environmental water management decisions. However, these highly altered surface water systems present many challenges for water quality monitoring studies due to factors such as multiple potential nutrient and contaminant inputs, dynamic source water inputs, and changing flow regimes controlled by both natural and engineered conditions. The watersheds for both rivers contain areas of intensive agriculture along with many other land uses, and the Sacramento River receives significant amounts of treated wastewater from the large population around the City of Sacramento. We have used a multi-isotope approach combined with mass balance and hydrodynamic modeling in order to better understand the dominant nutrient sources for each of these rivers, and to track nutrient sources and cycling within the complex Delta region around the confluence of the rivers. High nitrate concentrations within the San Joaquin River fuel summer algal blooms, contributing to low dissolved oxygen conditions. High δ15N-NO3 values combined with the high nitrate concentrations suggest that animal manure is a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River. In contrast, the Sacramento River has lower nitrate concentrations but elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge. Downstream nitrification of the ammonium can be clearly traced using δ15N-NH4. Flow conditions for these rivers and the Delta have strong seasonal and inter-annual variations, resulting in significant changes in nutrient delivery and cycling. Isotopic measurements and estimates of source water contributions

  16. An easily sintered, chemically stable, barium zirconate-based proton conductor for high-performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Wenping

    2014-07-25

    Yttrium and indium co-doped barium zirconate is investigated to develop a chemically stable and sintering active proton conductor for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). BaZr0.8Y0.2-xInxO3- δ possesses a pure cubic perovskite structure. The sintering activity of BaZr0.8Y0.2-xInxO3- δ increases significantly with In concentration. BaZr0.8Y0.15In0.05O3- δ (BZYI5) exhibits the highest total electrical conductivity among the sintered oxides. BZYI5 also retains high chemical stability against CO2, vapor, and reduction of H2. The good sintering activity, high conductivity, and chemical stability of BZYI5 facilitate the fabrication of durable SOFCs based on a highly conductive BZYI5 electrolyte film by cost-effective ceramic processes. Fully dense BZYI5 electrolyte film is successfully prepared on the anode substrate by a facile drop-coating technique followed by co-firing at 1400 °C for 5 h in air. The BZYI5 film exhibits one of the highest conductivity among the BaZrO3-based electrolyte films with various sintering aids. BZYI5-based single cells output very encouraging and by far the highest peak power density for BaZrO3-based proton-conducting SOFCs, reaching as high as 379 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. The results demonstrate that Y and In co-doping is an effective strategy for exploring sintering active and chemically stable BaZrO3-based proton conductors for high performance proton-conducting SOFCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Highly fluorescence-stable blue CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots against degradable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kang, Hee-Don; Han, Chang-Yeol [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seung Muk [Kunsan National University Center For Research Facilities, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon [Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Jeonbuk 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Heesun, E-mail: hyang@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Blue-emitting CdZnS/ZnS alloy QDs exhibited the excellent fluorescent stability against a thorough purification cycle, long-term UV illumination, and hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ligand exchange. - Highlights: • Highly efficient, color-pure blue CdZnS/ZnS QDs are synthesized. • Fluorescent properties of the QDs remain unchanged against various degradable conditions. • Closely-packed solid QD film is compared with QD solution in PL QY and emission decay dynamics. - Abstract: We report on synthesis of highly efficient, color-pure blue CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and their excellent fluorescent stability against degradable environmental conditions. The CdZnS/ZnS QDs finely emission-tunable in the range of 440–461 nm exhibit high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs) of 81–92% along with an exceptionally narrow spectral bandwidth of 19 nm. These QDs are subjected to various post-treatments of a thorough purification cycle, long-term UV illumination, and hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ligand exchange, each of which is usually detrimental to QD fluorescence. As a result, no noticeable deterioration in the fluorescent properties is observed, indicative of the insensitiveness of our CdZnS/ZnS QDs to the above degradable processes. Furthermore, PL properties of a solid film of multiple QD layers are assessed and compared with those of a diluted QD solution, showing an unprecedentedly small QY reduction of solid QD film versus QD solution. The above promising results are justified mainly by emphasizing the role of a thick ZnS shell present in CdZnS/ZnS QDs.

  18. Trapping of xenon gas in closed inner spaces of carbon nanomaterials for stable gas storage under high-vacuum condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keita; Yasuda, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Xe gas can be trapped in the closed inner spaces of glassy carbon derived from C60 fullerene by thermal coalescence of C60 in Xe atmosphere and in cap-opened carbon nanotubes (CNTs) covered with an ionic liquid by soaking Xe-adsorbing CNTs in an ionic liquid. The trapped Xe gas is detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a spectrometer mounted on an analytical transmission electron microscope. The closed inner spaces store gas molecules even under high-vacuum condition (˜10-5 Pa).

  19. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  20. Developing a highly stable PLGA-mPEG nanoparticle loaded with cisplatin for chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a potent anticancer drug, but its clinical application has been limited due to its undesirable physicochemical characteristics and severe side effects. Better drug formulations for cisplatin are highly desired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we have developed a nanoparticle formulation for cisplatin with high encapsulation efficiency and reduced toxicity by using cisplatin-crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC core nanoparticles made from poly(lactide-co-glycolide-monomethoxy-poly(polyethylene glycol copolymers (PLGA-mPEG. The nanoparticles have an average diameter of approximately 80 nm measured by transmission electron microscope (TEM. The encapsulation efficiency of cisplatin in the nanoparticles is up to 72%. Meanwhile, we have also observed a controlled release of cisplatin in a sustained manner and dose-dependent treatment efficacy of cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles against IGROV1-CP cells. Moreover, the median lethal dose (LD(50 of the cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles was more than 100 mg/kg by intravenous administration, which was much higher than that of free cisplatin. CONCLUSION: This developed cisplatin-loaded nanoparticle is a promising formulation for the delivery of cisplatin, which will be an effective therapeutic regimen of ovarian cancer without severe side effects and cumulative toxicity.