Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon
With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing
Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane
Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.
For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/
Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin
This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…
Logan, Jennifer L.; Rumbaugh, Craig E.
"The Chemistry of Perfume" is a lab-only course for nonscience majors. Students learn fundamental concepts of chemistry through the context of fragrance, a pervasive aspect of daily life. The course consists of laboratories pertaining to five units: introduction, extraction, synthesis, characterization, and application. The introduction unit…
Boness, D. A.
The general public is heavily exposed to "news" and commentary---and arts and entertainment---that either inadvertently misrepresents science or even acts to undermine it. Climate change denial and evolution denial is well funded and pervasive. Even university-educated people get little exposure to the aims, methods, debates, and results of scientific inquiry because unless they earn degrees in science they typically only take one or two introductory science courses at the university level. This presentation reports the development of a new, non-science major Seattle University course on mass extinctions throughout earth history. Seattle University is an urban, Jesuit Catholic university. The topic of mass extinctions was chosen for several reasons: (1) To expose the students to a part of current science that has rich historical roots yet by necessity uses methods and reasoning from geology, geophysics, oceanography, physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy. This multidisciplinary course provides some coverage of sciences that the student would not typically ever see beyond secondary school. (2) To enable the students to learn enough to follow some of the recent and current debates within science (e.g., mass extinctions by asteroid impact versus massive volcanism, ocean anoxia, and ocean acidification), with the students reading some of the actual literature, such as articles in Science, Nature, or Nature Geoscience. (3) To emphasize the importance of "deep time" as evolutionary biological processes interact with massive environmental change over time scales from hundreds of millions of years down to the seconds and hours of an asteroid or comet strike. (4) To show the effects of climate change in the past, present, and future, due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. (5) To help the student critically evaluate the extent to which their future involves a human-caused mass extinction.
Weatherford, V. L.; Redemann, J.
Titled "Observing Climate Change From Space-what tools do we have?", this non-science major freshman seminar at UCLA is the culmination of a year-long interdisciplinary program sponsored by the Institute of the Environment and the College Honors programs at the University. Focusing on the anthropogenic and natural causes of climate change, students study climate forcings and learn about satellite and other technological means of monitoring climate and weather. NASA's Terra satellite is highlighted as one of the most recent and comprehensive monitoring systems put into space and the role of future NASA platforms in the "A-train"-constellation of satellites is discussed. Course material is typically presented in a Power-Point presentation by the instructor, with assigned supplementary reading to stimulate class discussion. In addition to preparing lectures for class presentation, students work on a final term paper and oral presentation which constitutes the majority of their grade. Field trips to the San Gabriel mountains to take atmospheric measurements with handheld sunphotometers and to JPL, Pasadena (CA) to listen to a NASA scientist discuss the MISR instrument aboard the Terra satellite help bring a real-world perspective to the science learned in the classroom. In this paper, we will describe the objectives and structure of this class and present measurement results taken during the field trip to the San Gabriel Mountains. In this context we will discuss the potential relevance of hands-on experience to meeting class objectives and give a student perspective of the overall class experience.
Anaam, Mahyoub Ali
The purposes of this study were: (a) to identify the variables associated with selection of majors; (b) to determine the differences between science and nonscience majors in general, and high and low achievers in particular, with respect to attitudes toward science, integrated science process skills, and logical thinking abilities; and (c) to determine if a significant relationship exists between students' majors and their personality types and learning styles. Data were gathered from 188 twelfth grade male and female high school students in Yemen, who enrolled in science (45 males and 47 females) and art and literature (47 males and 49 females) tracks. Data were collected by the following instruments: Past math and science achievement (data source taken from school records), Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (1985), Integrated Science Process Skills Test, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment, Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, Yemeni High School Students Questionnaire. The Logistic Regression Model and the Linear Discriminant Analysis identified several variables that are associated with selection of majors. Moreover, some of the characteristics of science and nonscience majors that were revealed by these models include the following: Science majors seem to have higher degrees of curiosity in science, high interest in science at high school level, high tendency to believe that their majors will help them to find a potential job in the future, and have had higher achievement in science subjects, and have rated their math teachers higher than did nonscience majors. In contrast, nonscience majors seem to have higher degrees of curiosity in nonscience subjects, higher interest in science at elementary school, higher anxiety during science lessons than did science majors. In addition, General Linear Models allow that science majors generally demonstrate more positive attitudes towards science than do nonscience majors and they
Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.
We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…
Hill, Gary D.
Two of the most important and difficult concepts in biology are photosynthesis and respiration. A pilot study was performed using student volunteers from introductory biology classes to assess student alternative frameworks regarding photosynthesis and respiration. The results of the pilot study were used to construct the Instrument for the Assessment of Respiration and Photosynthesis (IFARP). This was an 11-item, three-tier multiple choice instrument designed to conveniently assess the common misconceptions students have about these concepts upon entering a biology course. The first tier of each item of the IFARP contained a multiple choice question about photosynthesis or respiration. The second tier had a multiple choice question regarding the reason for the choice in the first tier. The third tier asked the students to indicate how confident they were in their responses, on a scale from 1 (not very confident) to 5 (very confident). The IFARP was administered as a pretest and posttest to a group of science non-majors in an introductory biology course. No significant changes were observed in student performance as measured by the IFARP between the pretest and posttest administrations. The students did, however, demonstrate a statistical increase in mean confidence levels regarding their knowledge of photosynthesis and respiration. Even though their comprehension and understanding regarding photosynthesis and respiration had not increased, the confidence they had in their responses about these two concepts had increased. The IFARP was also administered to a group of nursing student volunteers in an introductory microbiology course. This group of students also participated in the use of student-generated analogies as a learning strategy to alter conceptual frameworks. One test group of students provided analogies to photosynthesis and respiration, while the other test group provided analogies to two other concepts. No significant changes were observed in the
Labianca, Dominick A.
This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…
Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Tsaushu, Masha
Teaching nonscience majors topics in biotechnology through case studies is the focus of this research. Our "Biotechnology, Environment, and Related Issues" module, developed within the "Science for All" framework, is aimed at elevating the level of students' scientific and technological literacy and their higher order thinking…
Gross, Erin M.
An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…
Smith, A. B. E.; Murray, S. D.; Ward, R. A.
We describe and demonstrate two laboratory exercises, Kepler's Third Law and Stellar Structure, which are being developed for use in an astronomy laboratory class aimed at non-science majors. The labs run with Microsoft's Excel 98 (Macintosh) or Excel 97 (Windows). They can be run in a classroom setting or in an independent learning environment. The intent of the labs is twofold; first and foremost, students learn the subject matter through a series of informational frames. Next, students enhance their understanding by applying their knowledge in lab procedures, while also gaining familiarity with the use and power of a widely-used software package and scientific tool. No mathematical knowledge beyond basic algebra is required to complete the labs or to understand the computations in the spreadsheets, although the students are exposed to the concepts of numerical integration. The labs are contained in Excel workbook files. In the files are multiple spreadsheets, which contain either a frame with information on how to run the lab, material on the subject, or one or more procedures. Excel's VBA macro language is used to automate the labs. The macros are accessed through button interfaces positioned on the spreadsheets. This is done intentionally so that students can focus on learning the subject matter and the basic spreadsheet features without having to learn advanced Excel features all at once. Students open the file and progress through the informational frames to the procedures. After each procedure, student comments and data are automatically recorded in a preformatted Lab Report spreadsheet. Once all procedures have been completed, the student is prompted for a filename in which to save their Lab Report. The lab reports can then be printed or emailed to the instructor. The files will have full worksheet and workbook protection, and will have a "redo" feature at the end of the lab for students who want to repeat a procedure.
Smith, Donald A.
In 2006 I had the chance to design a physics course for students not majoring in scientific fields. I chose to shape the course around science fiction, not as a source for quantitative problems but as a means for conveying important physics concepts. I hoped that, by encountering these concepts in narratives, students with little or no science or…
Partin, Matthew L.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Worch, Eric A.
To develop a more scientifically literate society, students need to understand the nature of science, which may be affected by controversial topics such as evolution. There are conflicting views among researchers concerning the relationships between understanding evolution, acceptance of evolution, and understanding of the nature of science. Four…
The development of web-based technologies provides a new method for course delivery. As with any new technique, evaluation is a necessary tool to determine if the method is consistent with expectations. This study describes the conversion of a nonscience majors' microbiology lecture course to online delivery and evaluates the hypothesis that the online course can be as effective as the traditional course. Course examination scores are compared between the face-to-face and online sections over a 3-year period. On all but one of the course examinations, no significant difference is found for those students in these two distinctly different course types. The success rate, as defined by those students earning grades of C or better, is high for both course types, although the traditional course success rate is slightly higher. Student evaluations of the courses are also positive, though some differences are noted. Overall, student performance in the online course is equivalent to that in the traditional course.
Miller, Marie C Desaulniers; Montplaisir, Lisa M; Offerdahl, Erika G; Cheng, Fu-Chih; Ketterling, Gerald L
Science educators have the common goal of helping students develop scientific literacy, including understanding of the nature of science (NOS). University faculties are challenged with the need to develop informed NOS views in several major student subpopulations, including science majors and nonscience majors. Research into NOS views of undergraduates, particularly science majors, has been limited. In this study, NOS views of undergraduates in introductory environmental science and upper-level animal behavior courses were measured using Likert items and open-ended prompts. Analysis revealed similarities in students' views between the two courses; both populations held a mix of naïve, transitional, and moderately informed views. Comparison of pre- and postcourse mean scores revealed significant changes in NOS views only in select aspects of NOS. Student scores on sections addressing six aspects of NOS were significantly different in most cases, showing notably uninformed views of the distinctions between scientific theories and laws. Evidence-based insight into student NOS views can aid in reforming undergraduate science courses and will add to faculty and researcher understanding of the impressions of science held by undergraduates, helping educators improve scientific literacy in future scientists and diverse college graduates.
Henrich, Victor E.
To address the need for physics courses that stimulate non- STEM majors' interest in, and appreciation of, science, the Department of Applied Physics has developed a popular course for Yale College undergraduates, The Technological World, that explains the physics behind technologies that students use every day. The course provides an in-depth…
Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.
Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…
Busch, Hauke C.
A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…
Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.
A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.
Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students' attitudes toward science and achievement in BSC 1005L, a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college. Data were gathered on the participants' attitudes toward science and cognitive biology level pre and post treatment in BSC 1005L. Elements of the Learning Together model developed by Johnson and Johnson and the Student Team-Achievement Divisions model created by Slavin were incorporated into the experimental sections of BSC 1005L. Four sections of BSC 1005L participated in this study. Participants were enrolled in the 1998 spring (January) term. Students met weekly in a two hour laboratory session. The treatment was administered to the experimental group over a ten week period. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. Students in the cooperative learning group (nsb1 = 27) were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) and the cognitive biology test at the same time as the control group (nsb2 = 19) (at the beginning and end of the term). Statistical analyses confirmed that both groups were equivalent regarding ethnicity, gender, college grade point average and number of absences. Independent sample t-tests performed on pretest mean scores indicated no significant differences in the TOSRA scale two or biology knowledge between the cooperative learning group and the control group. The scores of TOSRA scales: one, three, four, five, six, and seven were significantly lower in the cooperative learning group. Independent sample t-tests of the mean score differences did not show any significant differences in posttest attitudes toward science or biology knowledge between the two groups. Paired t-tests did not indicate any significant differences on the TOSRA or biology knowledge within the cooperative learning group. Paired t-tests did show significant differences within the control group
Wielard, Valerie Michelle
The primary objective of this project was to learn what effect a computer program would have on academic achievement and attitude toward science of college students enrolled in a biology class for non-science majors. It became apparent that the instructor also had an effect on attitudes toward science. The researcher designed a computer program,…
Boose, David L.
Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…
Knierman, Karen; Anbar, Ariel; Tamer, A. Joseph; Hunsley, Diana; Young, Patrick A.; Center for Education Through eXploration
With the growth of online astronomy courses, it has become necessary to design different strategies for students to engage meaningfully with astronomy content. In contrast to some of the previously designed “cookbook”-style lab exercises, the strategy of these Infiniscope activities is to provide an experience where the students explore and discover the content for themselves. The Infiniscope project was created by ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration and NASA’s Science Mission Directorate as part of the NASA Exploration Connection project. As part of this project, online activities on topics such as asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects, eclipses, and Kepler’s Laws were designed and created for middle school (grades 6-8) and informal education settings. This poster discusses adapting these activities to the undergraduate non-science major setting. In fall 2017, the Infiniscope activities, such as Small Worlds and Kepler’s Laws, will be incorporated into an Arizona State University online astronomy course, AST 113, which is the laboratory component for the Introduction to Solar System Astronomy course sequence. This course typically enrolls about 800-900 students per semester with a combination of students who are online only as well as those who also take in person classes. In this type of class, we cannot have any in-person required sessions and all content must be delivered online asynchronously. The use of the Infiniscope exploratory exercises will provide students with the ability to use NASA data in a hands-on manner to discover the solar system for themselves.
Blatt, S. Leslie
How much did Seurat know about the physics, physiology, and perceptual science of color mixing when he began his experiments in pointillism? Did Vermeer have a camera obscura built into his studio to create the perfect perspective and luminous effects of his canvases? Early in the 20th century, consequences of the idea that "no single reference point is to be preferred above any other" were worked out in physics by Einstein (special and general relativity), in art by Picasso (early cubism), and in music by Schoenberg (12-tone compositions); did this same paradigm-shifting concept arise, in three disparate fields, merely by coincidence? We are developing a new course, aimed primarily at non-science majors, that addresses questions like these through a combination of hands-on experiments on the physics of light, investigations in visual perception, empirical tests of various drawing and painting techniques, and field trips to nearby museums. We will show a few examples of the kinds of art/science intersections our students will be exploring, and present a working outline for the course.
Ramirez, Jasmine; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Forster, Brian M
Today's science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors' and majors' answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines.
Donnelly, Lisa A.
Previous research has documented students' conceptual difficulties learning evolution and how student learning may be related to students' views of evolution and science. This mixed methods study addressed how 74 high school biology students from six Indiana high schools viewed their evolution learning experiences, the demarcations of science from non-science, and evolution understanding and acceptance. Data collection entailed qualitative and quantitative methods including interviews, classroom observations, surveys, and assessments to address students' views of science and non-science, evolution learning experiences, and understanding and acceptance of evolution. Qualitative coding generated several demarcation and evolution learning experience codes that were subsequently used in quantitative comparisons of evolution understanding and acceptance. The majority of students viewed science as empirical, tentative but ultimately leading to certain truth, compatible with religion, the product of experimental work, and the product of human creativity. None of the students offered the consensus NOS view that scientific theories are substantiated explanations of phenomena while scientific laws state relationships or patterns between phenomena. About half the students indicated that scientific knowledge was subjectively and socio-culturally influenced. The majority of students also indicated that they had positive evolution learning experiences and thought evolution should be taught in secondary school. The quantitative comparisons revealed how students who viewed scientific knowledge as subjectively and socio-culturally influenced had higher understanding than their peers. Furthermore, students who maintained that science and religion were compatible did not differ with respect to understanding but had higher acceptance than their peers who viewed science and religion as conflicting. Furthermore, students who maintained that science must be consistent with their
Brust, Gregory John
This study was designed to discover if there is a difference in the scientific attitudes and process skills between a group of students who were instructed with Living in a Material World and groups of students in non-science majors sections of introductory biology, chemistry, and geology courses at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM). Each of the four courses utilized different instructional techniques. Students' scientific attitudes were measured with the Scientific Attitudes Inventory (SAI II) and their knowledge of science process skills were measured with the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS II). The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) was also administered to determine if the cognitive levels of students are comparable. A series of four questionnaires called Qualitative Course Assessments (QCA) were also administered to students in the experimental course to evaluate subtle changes in their understanding of the nature and processes of science and attitudes towards science. Student responses to the QCA questionnaires were triangulated with results of the qualitative instruments, and students' work on the final project. Results of the GALT found a significant difference in the cognitive levels of students in the experimental course (PSC 190) and in one of the control group, the introductory biology (BSC 107). Results of the SAI II and the TIPS II found no significant difference between the experimental group and the control groups. Qualitative analyses of students' responses to selected questions from the TIPS II, selected items on the SAI II, QCA questionnaires, and Materials that Fly project reports demonstrate an improvement in the understanding of the nature and processes of science and a change to positive attitude toward science of students in the experimental group. Students indicated that hands-on, inquiry-based labs and performance assessment were the most effective methods for their learning. These results indicate that science
Madsen, Martin John
There is ongoing interest in how and what we teach in physics courses for non-science students, so-called "physics for poets" courses. Art Hobson has effectively argued that teaching science literacy should be a key ingredient in these courses. Hobson uses Jon Millers definition of science literacy, which has two components: first, "a basic…
Full Text Available Today’s science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors’ and majors’ answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory
Hundley, Stacey A.
In recent years there has been a national call for reform in undergraduate science education. The goal of this reform movement in science education is to develop ways to improve undergraduate student learning with an emphasis on developing more effective teaching practices. Introductory science courses at the college level are generally taught using a traditional lecture format. Recent studies have shown incorporating active learning strategies within the traditional lecture classroom has positive effects on student outcomes. This study focuses on incorporating interactive teaching methods into the traditional lecture classroom to enhance student learning for non-science majors enrolled in introductory geology courses at a private university. Students' experience and instructional preferences regarding introductory geology courses were identified from survey data analysis. The information gained from responses to the questionnaire was utilized to develop an interactive lecture introductory geology course for non-science majors. Student outcomes were examined in introductory geology courses based on two teaching methods: interactive lecture and traditional lecture. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups based on the student outcomes and teaching methods. Incorporating interactive lecture methods did not statistically improve student outcomes when compared to traditional lecture teaching methods. However, the responses to the survey revealed students have a preference for introductory geology courses taught with lecture and instructor-led discussions and students prefer to work independently or in small groups. The results of this study are useful to individuals who teach introductory geology courses and individuals who teach introductory science courses for non-science majors at the college level.
Cook, G. W.
At the University of California, San Diego, I teach a quarter-long, introductory Earth Science class titled "Volcanoes," which is, in essence, a functional class in volcanology designed specifically for non-majors. This large-format (enrollment ~ 85), lecture-based class provides students from an assortment of backgrounds an opportunity to acquire much-needed (and sometimes dreaded) area credits in science, while also serving as an introduction to the Earth Science major at UCSD (offered through Scripps Institution of Oceanography). The overall goal of the course is to provide students with a stimulating and exciting general science option that, using an inherently interesting topic, introduces them to the fundamentals of geoscience. A secondary goal is to promote general science and geoscience literacy among the general population of UCSD. Student evaluations of this course unequivocally indicate a high degree of learning and interest in the material. The majority of students in the class (>80%) are non-science majors and very few students (degree-seeking students. In addition, only a handful of students have typically had any form of geology class beyond high school level Earth Science. Consequently, there are challenges associated with teaching the class. Perhaps most significantly, students have very little background—background that is necessary for understanding the processes involved in volcanic eruptions. Second, many non-science students have built-in anxieties with respect to math and science, anxieties that must be considered when designing curriculum and syllabi. It is essential to provide the right balance of technical information while remaining in touch with the audience. My approach to the class involves a dynamic lecture format that incorporates a wide array of multimedia, analogue demonstrations of volcanic processes, and small-group discussions of topics and concepts. In addition to teaching about volcanoes—a fascinating subject in and of
Donais, Mary Kate; Whissel, Greg; Dumas, Ashley; Golden, Kathleen
A unique, interdisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and classics has led to the development of an experiment for nonscience majors. This instrumental analysis experiment was designed for use in an archaeology course to quantify the amount of lead in ancient bronze coins. The coins were corroded beyond visual identification, so provenance…
Halpin, Patricia A.
Nonscience majors often rely on general internet searches to locate science information. This practice can lead to misconceptions because the returned search information can be unreliable. In this article the authors describe how they used the social media site Twitter to address this problem in a general education course, BSCI 421 Diseases of the…
Full Text Available The development of web-based technologies provides a new method for course delivery. As with any new technique, evaluation is a necessary tool to determine if the method is consistent with expectations. This study describes the conversion of a nonscience majors’ microbiology lecture course to online delivery and evaluates the hypothesis that the online course can be as effective as the traditional course. Course examination scores are compared between the face-to-face and online sections over a 3-year period. On all but one of the course examinations, no significant difference is found for those students in these two distinctly different course types. The success rate, as defined by those students earning grades of C or better, is high for both course types, although the traditional course success rate is slightly higher. Student evaluations of the courses are also positive, though some differences are noted. Overall, student performance in the online course is equivalent to that in the traditional course.
Non-science majors often misunderstand the process of science, potentially leading to a fear or mistrust of scientific inquiry and current scientific theory. Citizen science projects are a critical means of reaching this audience, as many will only take a limited number of science courses during their undergraduate careers. For the past three years, our freshman Earth Science students have participated in both Globe at Night and the Great Worldwide Star Count, citizen science programs that encourage simple astronomical observations which can be compiled globally to investigate a number of issues. Our focus has been introducing students to the effect of light pollution on observational astronomy in an effort to highlight the effect of increasing urbanization in the U.S. on amateur astronomy. These programs, although focused on astronomy, often awaken natural curiosity about the Earth and man's effect on the natural world, a concept that can easily be translated to other areas of Earth science. Challenges encountered include content specific issues, such as misinterpreting the location or magnitude of the constellation being observed, as well as student disinterest or apathy if the project is not seen as being vital to their performance in the course. This presentation reports on lessons learned in the past three years, and offers suggestions for engaging these students more fully in future projects.
Leung, Jessica Shuk Ching; Wong, Alice Siu Ling; Yung, Benny Hin Wai
Understandings of nature of science (NOS) are a core component of scientific literacy, and a scientifically literate populace is expected to be able to critically evaluate science in the media. While evidence has remained inconclusive on whether better NOS understandings will lead to critical evaluation of science in the media, this study aimed at examining the correlation therein. Thirty-eight non-science majors, enrolled in a science course for non-specialists held in a local community college, evaluated three health news articles by rating the extent to which they agreed with the reported claims and providing as many justifications as possible. The majority of the participants were able to evaluate and justify their viewpoint from multiple perspectives. Students' evaluation was compared with their NOS conceptions, including the social and cultural embedded NOS, the tentative NOS, the peer review process and the community of practice. Results indicated that participants' understanding of the tentative NOS was significantly correlated with multiple perspective evaluation of science news reports of socioscientific nature (r = 0.434, p media of socioscientific nature. However, the null result for other target NOS aspects in this study suggested a lack of evidence to assume that understanding the social dimensions of science would have significant influence on the evaluation of science in the media. Future research on identifying the reasons for why and why not NOS understandings are applied in the evaluation will move this field forward.
Carley, S.; Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K. O.
In recent years several geoscience communities have been developing ocean, climate, atmosphere and earth science literacy frameworks as enhancements to the National Science Education Standards content standards. Like the older content standards these new geoscience literacy frameworks have focused on K-12 education although they are also intended for informal education and general public audiences. These geoscience literacy frameworks potentially provide a more integrated and less abstract approach to science literacy that may be more suitable for non-science major students that are not pursuing careers in science research or education. They provide a natural link to contemporary environmental issues - e.g., climate change, resource depletion, species and habitat loss, natural hazards, pollution, development of renewable energy, material recycling. The College of Exploration is an education research non-profit that has provided process and technical support for the development of most of these geoscience literacy frameworks. It has a unique perspective on their development. In the last ten years it has also gained considerable national and international expertise in facilitating web-based workshops that support in-depth conversations among educators and working scientists/researchers on important science topics. These workshops have been of enormous value to educators working in K-12, 4-year institutions and community colleges. How can these geoscience literacy frameworks promote more collaborative inquiry-based learning that enhances the appreciation of scientific thinking by non-majors? How can web- and mobile-based education technologies transform the undergraduate non-major survey course into a place where learners begin their passion for science literacy rather than end it? How do we assess science literacy in students and citizens?
Barmby, Pauline; Gallagher, S. C.; Cami, J.
A poster from the 2011 Western Conference on Science Education, describing the use of citizen science project Galaxy Zoo in a non-majors astronomy course. Lots more on this topic at https://www.zooniverse.org/education
Humphreys, R. R.; Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Rhodes, E.
Although inquiry-based/problem-based methods have been successfully incorporated in undergraduate lecture classes, a survey of commonly used laboratory manuals indicates that few non-major geoscience laboratory classes use these strategies. The Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences faculty members have developed a successful introductory Environmental Geology Laboratory course for undergraduate non-majors that challenges traditional teaching methodology as illustrated in most laboratory manuals. The Environmental Geology lab activities employ active learning methods to engage and challenge students. Crucial to establishing an open learning environment is capturing the attention of non-science majors from the moment they enter the classroom. We use catastrophic ‘gloom and doom’ current events to pique the imagination with images, news stories, and videos. Once our students are hooked, we can further the learning process with use of other teaching methods: an inquiry-based approach that requires students take control of their own learning, a cooperative learning approach that requires the participation of all team members in peer learning, and a problem/case study learning approach that primarily relies on activities distilled from current events. The final outcome is focused on creating innovative methods to communicate the findings to the general public. With the general public being the audience for their communiqué, students are less intimated, more focused, and more involved in solving the problem. During lab sessions, teams of students actively engage in mastering course content and develop essential communication skills while exploring real-world scenarios. These activities allow students to use scientific reasoning and concepts to develop solutions for scenarios such as volcanic eruptions, coastal erosion/sea level rise, flooding or landslide hazards, and then creatively communicate their solutions to the public. For example, during a two
Lyons, Daniel J.
This study explored the impact of a novel inquiry-based astronomy laboratory curriculum designed using the Backwards Faded Scaffolding inquiry teaching framework on non-science majoring undergraduate students' views of the nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI). The study focused on two aspects of NOSI: The Distinction between Data and Evidence (DvE), and The Multiple Methods of Science (MMS). Participants were 220 predominately non-science majoring undergraduate students at a small, doctoral granting, research-extensive university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. The student participants were enrolled in an introductory astronomy survey course with an associated laboratory section and were selected in two samples over consecutive fall and spring semesters. The participants also included four of the graduate student instructors who taught the laboratory courses using the intervention curriculum. In the first stage, student participant views of NOSI were measured using the VOSI-4 research instrument before and after the intervention curriculum was administered. The responses were quantified, and the distributions of pre and posttest scores of both samples were separately analyzed to determine if there was a significant improvement in understanding of either of the two aspects of NOSI. The results from both samples were compared to evaluate the consistency of the results. In the second stage, the quantitative results were used to strategically design a qualitative investigation, in which the four lab instructors were interviewed about their observations of how the student participants interacted with the intervention curriculum as compared to traditional lab activities, as well as their suggestions as to how the curriculum may or may not have contributed to the results of the first stage. These interviews were summarized and analyzed for common themes as to how the intervention curriculum influenced the students' understandings of the two aspect of
Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.
We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.
J. Christopher Moore
Full Text Available We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.
Reynolds, Bradley Robert
The impact of transformational leadership, experiential learning, and reflective journaling on the conservation ethic of non-science majors in a general education survey course was investigated. The main research questions were: (1) Is the Conservation of Biodiversity professor a transformational leader? (2) Is there a difference in the…
Dutra, Andrew Martin
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self
Black, Alice A. (Jill)
Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34
Bloom, Mark A.; Holden, Molly
When learning about large-scale environmental problems such as climate change, species extinctions, overpopulation, and habitat destruction, students can become hopelessly dismayed and experience ecophobia--a state of mind in which the student is fearful of the looming environmental problems but senses that there is nothing that can be done to…
Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.
Helping students develop criteria for judgment and apply examination skills is essential for promoting scientific literacy. With the increasing availability of the Internet, it is even more essential that students learn how to evaluate the science they gather from online resources. This is particularly true because publishing information on the web is not restricted to experts, and content quality can vary greatly across websites. The responsibility of evaluating websites falls upon the user. Little research has examined undergraduates' evaluation of web sites in science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate on which websites college students selected and how they evaluated the websites used when developing individual positions about stem-cell research. We used a qualitative approach in search of patterns in undergraduates' website selection and evaluation criteria. We found that students used a variety of web resources from eleven types of websites to complete their independent research report. Students also used eleven evaluation criteria to evaluate these sources, some useful (e.g., credibility) and some not useful (e.g., readability). We found that university students struggled with critically evaluating online resources. Undergraduates need prompts to learn how to critically evaluate the science content provided within websites. This type of scaffold can facilitate useful evaluation and promote critical thinking required for becoming scientifically literate.
Eason, Grace Teresa
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self
Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.
Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach
Simon, Molly; Impey, Chris David; Buxner, Sanlyn
A first order understanding of planet formation and the scientific concepts therein is critical in order for undergraduate students to understand our place in the Universe. Furthermore, planet formation integrates the topics of gravity, angular momentum, migration, and condensation in a “story-book” fashion where students can apply these concepts to a specific event. We collected syllabi and course topics from over 30 undergraduate general-education astrobiology courses from around the globe in order to determine the extent to which professors address planet formation. Additionally, we were looking to see if faculty had developed specific or original pedagogy to teach this topic. We find on average, instructors spend ½ of a lecture discussing planet formation or they leave it out all together. In the classes where planet formation is taught more extensively, instructors use PowerPoint slides or occasional videos to teach the topic. We aim to develop new pedagogy that will allow us to better determine learning gains and student understanding of this critical topic. If students in an astrobiology class are unable to understand how our own Solar System forms, it is significantly more challenging to make parallels (or find differences) between our home in the Universe and extrasolar planetary systems.
Baran, George R; Samuel, Solomon Praveen
This textbook introduces students not pursuing degrees in science or engineering to the remarkable new applications of technology now available to physicians and their patients and discusses how these technologies are evolving to permit new treatments and procedures. The book also elucidates the societal and ethical impacts of advances in medical technology, such as extending life and end of life decisions, the role of genetic testing, confidentiality, costs of health care delivery, scrutiny of scientific claims, and provides background on the engineering approach in healthcare and the scientific method as a guiding principle. This concise, highly relevant text enables faculty to offer a substantive course for students from non-scientific backgrounds that will empower them to make more informed decisions about their healthcare by significantly enhancing their understanding of these technological advancements. This book also: · Presents scientific concepts from modern medical science using r...
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, Liese
The Art of Astronomy is a new general education course developed at Indiana University. The topic appeals to a broad range of undergraduates and the course gives students the tools to understand and appreciate astronomical images in a new way. The course explores the science of imaging the universe and the technology that makes the images possible. Topics include the night sky, telescopes and cameras, light and color, and the science behind the images. Coloring the Universe: An Insider's Look at Making Spectacular Images of Space" by T. A. Rector, K. Arcand, and M. Watzke serves as the basic text for the course, supplemented by readings from the web. Through the course, students participate in exploration activities designed to help them first to understand astronomy images, and then to create them. Learning goals include an understanding of scientific inquiry, an understanding of the basics of imaging science as applied in astronomy, a knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and how observations at different wavelengths inform us about different environments in the universe, and an ability to interpret astronomical images to learn about the universe and to model and understand the physical world.
Abbas, Abdullah Othman
This interpretive research set out to investigate the characteristics of an exemplary college science instructor who endeavors to improve teaching and learning in a physical science course for prospective teachers. The course was innovative in the sense that it was designed to meet the specific needs of prospective elementary teachers who needed to have models of how to teach science in a way that employed materials and small group activities. The central purpose for this study is to understand the metaphors that Mark (a pseudonym), the chemistry instructor in the course, used as referents to conceptualize his roles and frame actions and interactions in the classroom. Within the theoretical frame of constructivism, human cognitive interests, and co-participation theories, an ethnographic research design, described by Erickson (1986), Guba and Lincoln (1989), and Gallagher (1991), was employed in the study. The main sources of data for this study were field notes, transcript analysis of interviews with the instructor and students, and analyses of videotaped excerpts. Additional data sources, such as student journals and the results of students' responses to the University/Community College Student Questionnaire which was developed by a group science education researchers at Florida State University, were employed to maximize that the assertions I constructed were consistent with the variety of data. Data analyses and interpretation in the study focused on identifying the aspects which the instructor and the researcher might find useful in reflecting to understand what was happening and why that was happening in the classroom. The analysis reveals how the instructor used constructivism as a referent for his teaching and the learning of his students. To be consistent with his beliefs and goals that prospective teachers should enjoy their journey of learning chemistry, Mark, the driver in the journey, used the roles of controller, facilitator, learner, and entertainer
Mlenga, Francis Howard
The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.
Several years ago I attended an AAPT Haunted Physics Workshop taught by Dr. Tom Zepf from Creighton University. Dr. Zepf's highly successful Haunted Physics Lab at Creighton was put on every October by his physics majors. I found the concept of exhibiting physics projects in a "fun" way to students, faculty, and the public very exciting, so an…
House, Chloe; Meades, Glen; Linenberger, Kimberly J.
Presented is a guided inquiry activity designed to be conducted with prenursing students using an analogous system to help develop a conceptual understanding of factors impacting enzyme kinetics and the various types of enzyme inhibition. Pre- and postconceptual understanding evaluations and effectiveness of implementation surveys were given to…
Ding, Lin; Mollohan, Katherine N.
This article describes a survey study of college students' epistemologies about biology and learning biology. Specifically, the authors examined the differences between science and nonscience majors and their changes in epistemologies over the course of a semester of instruction.
Willoughby, Shannon D.
Introductory astronomy is one of the most widely taught classes in the country and the majority of the students who take these classes are non-science majors. Because this demographic of students makes up the majority of astronomy enrollments, it is especially important as instructors that we do our best to make sure these students don't finish…
Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong
The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…
Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn
Abstract Background It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. Methods The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 200...
Low-income students are now a majority in U.S. public schools. Steve Suitts, formerly of the Southern Education Foundation, reviews statistics showing that the percentage of students in K-12 schools coming from low-income families has increased to 52 percent. Meanwhile, state funding for K-12 schools has increased much more modestly, so that…
Kennedy, Robert E
Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...
In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…
Enderson, Mary C.; Mann, Manveer
This article describes how for many college students the transition to college-level mathematics courses presents new challenges beyond those that were part of the high school experience. In this interdisciplinary study forty-four non-mathematics and non-science majors, enrolled in a retail-buying course, were studied to examine student confidence…
Seung, Eulsun; Choi, Aeran; Pestel, Beverly
We have developed a process-oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process-oriented chemistry laboratory…
Sowell, Mitzie Leigh
Recent declines in science literacy and inadequate numbers of individuals entering science careers has heightened the importance of determining why students major in science or do not major in science and then choose a science-related career. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental influences and student career choices of both males and females majoring and not majoring in science. This study specifically examined the constructs of parental occupation, parental involvement, and parental education levels. Aspects indicated by the participants as being influencers were also examined. In addition, differences between males and females were examined. A total of 282 students participated in the study; 122 were science majors and 160 were non-science majors. The data was collected through the use of a student information survey and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale. The findings suggest that students indicated the desire to help others, peers, salary, and skills as influencing their career choice. In regard to the various parental influences, mother's occupation was the only construct found as a statistically significant influencer on a student's decision to major in science. The results of this study can help educators, administrators, and policy makers understand what influences students to pursue science-related careers and possibly increase the number of students entering science-related careers. The results of the study specifically provide information that may prove useful to administrators and educators in the health science fields, particularly nursing fields. The findings provide insight into why students may choose to become nurses.
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which
Sigmar, Lucia S.; Hynes, Geraldine E.
This study analyzes the writing performance levels of 352 students to determine the extent to which business students are achieving written communication competency and whether differences exist among the business majors. Although most students met or exceeded expectations in format and content on a common writing task, students were weakest in…
Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.
The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…
Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie
In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…
Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.
Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred
Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable…
Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.
Previous research has demonstrated creationist, Lamarckian, and teleological reasoning in high school and college students. These lines of thinking conflict with the Darwinian notion of natural selection, which serves as the primary catalyst for biological evolution. The current study assessed evolutionary conceptions in non-science majors,…
Dobbin, Donya Rae
Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an
Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan
This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…
This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and…
Magnello, M. Eileen
An inventory was administered to 161 college students in the late fall of 1977 in an attempt to predict the academic major of either psychology or special education students. The predictors were from the following series of items: demographic characteristics, academic information, occupational interests, and utility of their college program. A…
Xu, Yonghong Jade
In this study, an online survey was constructed based on the extant literature on college student success. The survey was used to collect data from a sample of college students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors in order to examine their learning experiences and to identify the factors that may influence their persistence…
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn
It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 2000), who progressed normally on the 5-year undergraduate medical course at Nottingham. Pre-admission academic and socio-demographic data and undergraduate course marks were obtained. T-test and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken to identify independent predictors of five course outcomes at different stages throughout the course. There was no evidence that the choice of science or non-science as the third or fourth A-level subject had any influence on course performance. Demographic variables (age group, sex, and fee status) had some predictive value but ethnicity did not. Pre-clinical course performance was the strongest predictor in the clinical phases (pre-clinical Themes A&B (knowledge) predicted Clinical Knowledge, p A-level requirements should specify the choice of third or fourth subject.
Southern Education Foundation, 2015
For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…
Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo
Filling the pipeline for information systems workers is critical in the information era. Projected growth rates for jobs requiring information systems expertise are significantly higher than the projected growth rates for other jobs. Why then do relatively few students choose to major in information systems? This paper reviews survey results from…
Full Text Available Background: Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Methods: Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students. No incentives were offered for survey completion. Results: Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032, with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846. Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Conclusions: Medical student debt and particularly debt
Rohlfing, James; Navarro, Ryan; Maniya, Omar Z; Hughes, Byron D; Rogalsky, Derek K
Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students). No incentives were offered for survey completion. Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032), with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private) meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846). Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Medical student debt and particularly debt relative to peers at the same institution appears to
Schneider, Ray G.; Ross, Sally R.; Fisher, Morgan
Although journalists and reporters have written about academic clustering among college student-athletes, there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to the subject. This study explored football players' academic major selections to determine if academic clustering actually existed. The seasons 1996, 2001, and 2006 were selected for…
Sauer, Paul L.; O'Donnell, Joseph B.
A strategy used by industry to retain customers and remain competitive is the design and launch of new products. One might then question whether the launch of new courses and new majors by colleges and universities has the potential of reducing student attrition. Combining survey data from matriculating freshmen with administrative data taken from…
Landry, Raymond, Jr.; Moyes, Glen D.; Cortes, Angelica C.
In this study, the authors examined ethical perceptions of Hispanic students by analyzing differences between (a) accounting and nonaccounting business majors and (b) women and men. The authors used the following five constructs: justice, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology. Their study incorporated 12 moral characteristics into…
Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline
To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.
Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W
African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.
Mauldin, Shawn; Crain, John L.; Mounce, Patricia H.
A survey of 81 accounting majors, 60 business majors, 12 nonbusiness majors, and 13 undecided students in accounting principles courses found that accounting principles instructors play the most significant role in the decision to major in accounting. Many students decide to major during their first principles course. (SK)
Ngo, Huong; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda
Despite the plethora of literature examining higher education students' motivation to learn a second language, it is not known if students who choose to study English as their major differ from those who are required to study English as the minor component of their wider degree. Drawing on self-determination theory, this paper reports on the…
Crislaine Aparecida Spinazola
Full Text Available During teachers formation, it is important their undergraduate course majors have disciplines that address the diversity population they will have in the regular classroom, since they as teachers need a good education, so that their practice will be carried out with quality, with the look of educator directed to the potential of their student. This study sought to understand how does their undergraduate major is carried out at the Federal University of São Carlos, in São Carlos campus, to work with the special education target students. The participants were 67 from different majors offered by UFSCar. Data collection was performed using a semi-structured questionnaire with the participants. The results, demonstrated that there are some gaps in teacher education in Bachelor at UFSCar courses, São Carlos campus and there is a need that must be met in their process of formation concerning to the diversity population. It was conclude that it is necessary to rethink ways to prepare these teachers since the courses they are enrolled do not give any kind of support for a specific formation in a way these teachers be able to prepare activities covering the entire classroom and the special education target students. Keywords: Teacher Training. Educational Inclusion. Special Education. Higher Education. Accessibility.
Pritchard, Robert E.; Potter, Gregory C.; Saccucci, Michael S.
In this article, the authors examine the key factors that influence student choice of a business major and how business schools can help students make that choice more realistically. Investigating students at a regional university, the authors found that whereas those with better quantitative skills tended to major in accounting or finance, those…
This study addresses the interrelation among coherence, substitution, and reference by non-English major Chinese students. The author collected data through student questionnaires. Participants included 30 non-English major Chinese undergraduate students. The findings of this study suggested that the similarities and differences were confirmed…
This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):115-125, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea
An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001).
This study examined computer anxiety among university and college of education Physical and Health Education (PHE) majors. The influence of personal characteristics of gender, age and experience of PHE majors on computer anxiety level were analysed. The Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) developed by Marcoulides ...
Gunsch, Leonhardt Maurice
Student achievement and attitude changes resulting from two different approaches to teaching of physical science were studied among 94 non-science freshmen enrolled at Valley City State College during the 1970-71 winter quarter. Thirty-four students were taught the laboratory-oriented Physical Science for Nonscience Students (PSNS) Project course…
Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia
Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.
The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de
Sallie Mae Bank, 2016
Sallie Mae, the nation's saving, planning, and paying for college company, along with Ipsos, one of the world's largest, independent market research companies, surveyed 800 college students to learn more about how they are managing their finances and using credit. The online survey, completed in December 2015, comprised a cross-section of key…
Full Text Available Cancerology is, by all counts, a non-science, which may be defined as a so-called scientific pursuit in the teeth of obvious proofs to the contrary. Not one facet of current cancerology-etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and its latest fad, immunology -enjoys any clear, rational basis. No wonder that the outcome of the whole gargantuan effort is "precisely nil", with possibly more people living on, than dying of, cancer. The pathway to the logical-ly acceptable and comprehensible science is simple-to give cancer its due place in biology, to give the cancer cell its rightful place of but a form of cytodifferentiation, and to give the cancer therapist the supremely relevant role of a palliator. To talk of cancer cure is to deny - the cytosomatic reality that cancer is one′s own flesh and blood. Being a part of one′s self, cancer need not always be treated. I f a therapist has the right and obligation to diagnose, treat, and prognose upon a cancer patient, he has, hitherto unrecognized, equal right and obligation, not to do one or all of these. Cancer-realism offered in this article can guide a therapist to this often necessary path of inaction.
Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a
This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…
Gaze, Catherine M.
The present study investigates the frequency and confidence with which college students endorse popular psychological myths, contrasting introductory psychology students (at the beginning and end of the course) with upper-level psychology majors and students who have never taken Introduction to Psychology. This study builds on the existing…
Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.
This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…
Kaynama, Shohreh A.; Smith, Louise W.
A study found that using consumer behavior and decision models to guide students to a major can be useful and enjoyable for students. Students consider many of the basic parameters through multi-attribute and decision-analysis models, so time with professors, who were found to be the most influential group, can be used for more individual and…
As the credential for nutrition counselor with professional skills and knowledge for invalids, who also provides the nutrition education for local residence at the administrative organization, the qualification system of registered dietitian has been established in Japan. Additionally, in accordance with the legislation of Basic Act on Food Education and the revision of School Education Law, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System has established in 2005. Therefore, registered dietitian has been approved to teach at the elementary school or junior high school as a teacher. Since registered dietitian is the educator of the “diet and nutrition,” it is important to provide proper knowledge of food irradiation at the training facility for registered dietitian. This report describes the instruction of food irradiation at the education curriculum of the registered dietitian training course. In addition, questionnaire survey result on the knowledge of food irradiation gathered from newly-enrolled students in the registered dietitian training course will also be reported. (author)
Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Amanda; Girard, Suzanne; Buitenhuis, Deanna; Lee, Kyle; Warton, Aidan; Russell, Steve; Caines, Jill; Traficante, Eric; Graves, Lisa
Medical schools have tended to admit students with strong backgrounds in the biomedical sciences. Previous studies have shown that those with backgrounds in the social sciences can be as successful in medical school as those with science backgrounds. However, the experience of being a 'non-science' student over time has not been well described. A mixed-methods study was developed and run with the aim of elucidating the personal experiences of science and non-science students at our institution. Data were generated from a student survey that focused on participants' self-identification as science or non-science students, and on their sense of preparedness and stress, and from a series of student focus groups exploring participants' experiences of science and non-science issues in all aspects of their training. Descriptive statistics were generated for structured survey data. Focus group data and unstructured survey data were analysed to identify common themes. End-of-module and end-of-year examination data for the four class cohorts in the programme were also analysed to compare science and non-science student performance over time. There were clear differences between the experiences and performance of science and non-science students. We found dichotomies in students' self-reported sense of preparedness and stress levels, and marked differences in their examination performance, which diminished over time to converge around the third year of their studies. Combining science and non-science students in the same class affected the students to different extents and in different ways. The potential disruption of mixing science and non-science students diminished as their levels of performance converged. The psychosocial stress experienced by non-science students and the challenges it posed, in both their academic and their personal lives, have implications for how such students should be supported, and how curricula can be configured to afford quality learning for all
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to identifying and diagnosing qualitative indicators of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences, namely: indicators of objective and subjective assessment of students’ ESP competence, students’ motivation regarding professional choice, organizational features of professional training, its contents, the most popular learning activities, use of active methods of study in educational process. The paradigm of experimental research of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been defined. Based on the interpretation of the qualitative indicators the hypothesis of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been proven.
McFarlane, Hewlet G; Richeimer, Joel
We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement.
Kim, Jung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
This study was conducted with a goal to identify the factors that determine radiology students' satisfaction with their major and to provide the basic data for efficient education and career guidance. The result indicated that the students' satisfaction with the professors' roles was high. However, overall, the level of satisfaction with the curriculum was found to be low. In addition, it was analyzed that there was a large gap between recognition and practice of self-directed learning. In the correlation analysis, the professors' roles were also found to be a very important factor. Based on the result, the professors' roles of center(teaching or state examination, students with questions etc.,), it was concluded that improvement of the radiology students' satisfaction with their major would help the students adapt themselves to the major and school successfully and develop a positive character to perform as professionals in the future.
Kim, Jung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo
This study was conducted with a goal to identify the factors that determine radiology students' satisfaction with their major and to provide the basic data for efficient education and career guidance. The result indicated that the students' satisfaction with the professors' roles was high. However, overall, the level of satisfaction with the curriculum was found to be low. In addition, it was analyzed that there was a large gap between recognition and practice of self-directed learning. In the correlation analysis, the professors' roles were also found to be a very important factor. Based on the result, the professors' roles of center(teaching or state examination, students with questions etc.,), it was concluded that improvement of the radiology students' satisfaction with their major would help the students adapt themselves to the major and school successfully and develop a positive character to perform as professionals in the future
Koch, Robert; Kucsera, John; Angus, Kathryn Bartle; Norman, Kimberly; Bowers, Erica; Nair, Pradeep; Moon, Hye Sun; Karimi, Afshin; Barua, Susamma
Academic programs targeted for first-time students can help their persistence in STEM majors. Our project, ASCEND STEM, included three first-year experiences (FYEs) designed to offer students the skills that would help them successfully traverse potential barriers to academic success. In the FYEs, we sought to strengthen the learning power,…
Workman, Jamie L.
This article explores parental influence on exploratory students' college choice, major, and career decision making. The research began with examination of a first year academic advising model and Living Learning Community. Parental influence emerged as a key theme in student decision making processes. The project was conducted using grounded…
Montag, Tamara; Campo, Jill; Weissman, Julie; Walmsley, Angela; Snell, Alex
Utilizing generational theory, we explored the relationship between Millennial characteristics and students' major selection and academic advising experiences. We conducted focus groups of students with senior standing at a private, midwestern university, and we utilized a closed coding technique to analyze the qualitative data. Consistent with…
Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.
Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…
Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.
Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam
Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…
Holland, Jonathan M.; Major, Debra A.; Orvis, Karin A.
This study investigated the role of peer mentoring and voluntary self-development activities (i.e., capitalization) in anchoring science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students to their college majors. Online data were collected from 214 undergraduate students. As hypothesized, mentoring was positively related to capitalization, and…
The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students'' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.
Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Hemmatizad, Marzieh
The present study investigated de-motivation among Iranian secondary high school and university students with respect to gender, major, and level of education and explored students' experiences in overcoming de-motivation. Data were gathered from 485 participants who comprised 215 male and 270 female. A 35 Likert type item de-motivation…
White, Stephen Wilson
The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).
This study was designed to investigate the occupational aspirations and occupational expectations of college students majoring in jazz studies in the United States. Participants included the population of jazz studies majors (N = 211) at a large mid-southern university known for its prestigious and internationally recognized jazz program. A…
Isik, Ulviye; Wouters, Anouk; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
Medical students from ethnic minorities underperform in knowledge and skills assessments both in pre-clinical and clinical education compared to the ethnic majority group. Motivation, which influences learning and academic performance of medical students, might play an important role in explaining these differences, but is under-investigated. This study aimed to compare two types of motivation (autonomous and controlled) of ethnic minority (Western and non-Western) and majority (Dutch) students, and their association with academic performance. In a cross-sectional study, all students of a Dutch medical school were invited to complete a survey including the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, measuring autonomous and controlled motivation, in the academic year 2015-2016. Motivation was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and performance was compared using One-Way ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between motivation and performance (grade point average; GPA). The response rate was 38.6% (n = 947). Autonomous motivation (AM) of non-Western students was higher than that of Dutch students in pre-clinical and clinical education (p motivation was higher in Western students than in Dutch students (pre-clinical education; p motivation between the ethnic majority and minority groups. The association of motivation with performance also differs between ethnic groups. We found that AM has a positive influence on GPA. Further research is needed to uncover the underlying mechanisms.
Wade, P.; Courtney, A. R.
The use of digital video for science education has become common with the wide availability of video imagery. This study continues research into aspects of using digital video as a primary teaching tool to enhance student learning in undergraduate science courses. Two survey instruments were administered to undergraduate non-science majors. Survey One focused on: a) What science is being learned from watching science videos such as a "YouTube" clip of a volcanic eruption or an informational video on geologic time and b) What are student preferences with regard to their learning (e.g. using video versus traditional modes of delivery)? Survey Two addressed students' perspectives on the storytelling aspect of the video with respect to: a) sustaining interest, b) providing science information, c) style of video and d) quality of the video. Undergraduate non-science majors were the primary focus group in this study. Students were asked to view video segments and respond to a survey focused on what they learned from the segments. The storytelling aspect of each video was also addressed by students. Students watched 15-20 shorter (3-15 minute science videos) created within the last four years. Initial results of this research support that shorter video segments were preferred and the storytelling quality of each video related to student learning.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. PMID:27792162
Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated. PMID:28771564
This study aims at increasing our understanding of first-year medical students' learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills. We investigate different features of freshmen's behavior in relation to learning and explore the extent to which freshmen were satisfied with their major and perceived their study skills. A total of 106 freshmen participated in this study. At midyear, first-year medical students were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills. The data collected from the survey were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The study reported that most of freshmen had a lot of difficulties in studying at medical school by lack of prior learning. Despite first-year students, they were studying hard their major. Freshmen spent studying an average of 1 hour or less than 2 hours every day. The study also indicated that of major satisfaction, the overall satisfaction of the department was the highest and the satisfaction in learning environment was the lowest. There were significant differences among the freshmen on the major satisfaction due to admission process, academic performance, and housing type. Of 11 study skills, while freshman highly perceived their teamwork, stress management, and reading skills, their weak study skills identified in this study were writing, note taking, time management, and test taking skills. There were significant differences among the freshmen on the study skills due to gender and academic performance. Finally, freshmen's learning behaviors and major satisfaction were significantly associated with some of study skills. This study may have implications for the academic adjustment and learning processes in the first year. We need to consider variables such as learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills, when discussing about how to maximize the learning potential of medical students
Rash, Agnes M.; Zurbach, E. Peter
The intention of this article is to present a year-long interdisciplinary course, Mathematical Models in Chemistry. The course is comprised of eleven units, each of which has both a mathematical and a chemical component. A syllabus of the course is given and the format of the class is explained. The interaction of the professors and the content is…
Geerlings, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Children's ethnic outgroup attitudes are influenced by their teachers' beliefs and multicultural education. However, research has ignored the possible impact of interpersonal relationships with teachers on students' ethnic attitudes. Three studies, using comparable datasets gathered among native
Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.
Full Text Available The features of the methodology of the implementation of an individual approach to high school students majoring in technology are analysed. The main stages of the implementation have been defined as the analysis of the individual student characteristics; grouping 10–11 grade students; usage of the modern informational and communicational techniques and a set of facilities of differentiated studying. The examples of the differentiated tasks for different phases of the high school training such as providing training material by teachers; academic progress monitoring; self-studying materials; fulfilling tasks of practical (laboratory and practical works; goods manufacturing; carrying out creative projects have been provided.
Wachsmuth, Lucas P; Runyon, Christopher R; Drake, John M; Dolan, Erin L
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students' emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non-life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students' responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students' responses, while students' race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups-students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates' emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors' attitudes toward math. © 2017 L.P. Wachsmuth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…
Thomas, Gail E.
This study examines factors that determine the enrollment of black students in the high school math courses (i.e., advanced algebra, trigonometry, calculus) that are necessary for competitive college and major field access. The data are from a local college survey of juniors and seniors who were enrolled in eight (8) local public and private…
Bergbower, Matthew L.
For many political science programs, research methods courses are a fundamental component of the recommended undergraduate curriculum. However, instructors and students often see these courses as the most challenging. This study explores when it is most appropriate for political science majors to enroll and pass a research methods course. The…
Céspedes, Jensy Campos; Gutiérrez, Walter Solano
The article offers the results obtained in a study where, through the application of a survey and the development of a discussion forum with students from education majors, information about their perceptions with regard to four axes related to the future of the teaching profession was obtained, as follows: the teacher profile, the student…
Mohamed, Moataz Ehab; Mohy, Nagla; Salah, Sarah
The survey aimed to capture the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards plagiarism in three major public universities in Cairo, Egypt: Helwan, Ain-Shams, and Cairo Universities. This was a paper-based self-administrated survey study. The questionnaire was validated by both content and face validation. The final survey form captured the knowledge of the students on plagiarism in terms of definitions, attitudes, and practices. Four hundred and fourteen students, 320 females and 94 males, participated in the study. There was a significant difference between the students who knew the definition of plagiarism among the three universities with p-value = .01. More than half of the participants (67%) claimed that they had no previous education or training on plagiarism. However, after being informed about plagiarism, most of them agreed that plagiarism should be regarded as stealing and a punishment. Additionally, poor study skills and the ease of copying and pasting from the Internet were identified by the majority of the students to be the leading causes of plagiarism. Pharmacy students need to be more educated on plagiarism and its consequences on research and educational ethics. Finally, more strict policies should be incorporated to monitor and control plagiarism in undergraduate sections.
Kortz, K. M.; Cardace, D.; Savage, B.; Rieger, D.
Although internships have been shown to retain geoscience students, little research has been done on what components of research or field experiences during an internship impact students' decisions to major in the geosciences. We created and led a short, two-week field-based internship for 5 introductory-level students to conduct research and create a poster to present their results. In addition to the two professors leading the internship and the 5 interns, there were 2 masters students and 1 community college student who were returning to the field area to collect data for their own projects. These students also helped to guide and mentor the interns. The interns were diverse in many aspects: 3 were female, 2 were non-white, 3 were community college students (1 4YC student was a transfer), 2 were first-generation college students, and their ages ranged from 18 to 33. Based on our evaluation, we found that the research experience increased students' self-efficacy in the geosciences through various means, increased their connection with mentors and other individuals who could serve as resources, gave them a sense of belonging to the geoscience culture, increased their knowledge of geoscience career paths and expectations, helped them make connections with Earth, and maintained their interest. These factors have been described in the literature as leading to retention, and we propose that field-based internships are successful for recruitment or retention in the geosciences because they influence so many of these affective and cognitive components at once. In particular, the social aspect of internships plays a fundamental role in their success because many of these factors require close and sustained interactions with other people. An implication of this research is that these affective components, including social ones, should be explicitly considered in the design and implementation of internships to best serve as a recruitment and retention strategy.
There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the
Full Text Available The study described the production of intonation pattern of the Non-English major student teachers during their on-campus teaching. The qualitative research method was used to analyze the data and describe their intonation patterns. The utterances were investigated in distinction between falling and rising intonation of wh-questions and yes/no questions. In the conduct of analysis, an interview guide was used to gather data on the language profile of the student teachers. Data confirm that the student teachers’ mother tongue (Filipino was commonly used in most of their verbal exchanges activities. It is worthy to note that the utterances of the student teachers displayed evidence of intonation patterns variation on wh-questions and yes/no questions. The erratic production of intonation patterns of the student teachers was resulted from the common linguistic phenomenon in which they tended to carry the intonation and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue (Filipino into their English spoken discourse. This qualitative research study implies that there is an interference of Filipino language in the production of the student teachers’ intonation patterns which describes the Philippine English intonation pattern for wh- questions and yes/no questions. Forthcoming studies may obtain more valued insights by gathering geographically varied samples that would include student teachers across disciplines.
Brown, Susan Wightman
National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring
Nick John B. Solar
Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students in the College of Education, West Visayas State University, School Year 2013-2014. The academic performance were categorized or measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance. The Attributions in academic performance were evaluated using the closed-form questionnairechecklist,categorized intoin termsof ability, effort, luck, or task difficulty. Mean frequency, mean percentage, Mann-Whitney U-test, two-sampled test set at 0.05 level of significance were used to determine if there were significant difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level. The result of the study revealed that the Third Year biology majors attributed their academic performance to effort which is shown to have the highest percentage attribution in overall rank. There was no significant difference in the attributions of academic performance for third year and fourth year biology major students in termsof test, whilethe result forprojects, workbooks, and laboratory experiment and class participation and attendance categories,was found out to havea significant difference in the attributionfor the third and fourth years biology Major students’ academic performances.
Zeilik, Michael, II
Discusses the use of a horoscope-casting laboratory exercise in the astronomy course. Indicates that students can fulfill three objectives: (1) summarize the planetary motions in the geometric universe, (2) be familiar with sidereal and solar time, and (3) be acquainted with the uses ephemerides. (CC)
Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama
The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.
In fall 1979, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the characteristics, attitudes, and activities of former and present students in the Legal Technology Program. All students enrolled in a selected Legal Technology course between fall 1974 and fall 1979 were included in the survey. The questionnaire solicited…
Wang, Qin-Mei; Cui, Jian-Guo; Yu, Chang-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Mei
Undergraduate students majoring in forestry generally reflect that genetics is one of the most difficult compul-sory courses, because the traditional teaching method is difficult to satisfy their needs. According to the theoretical charac-teristics of forestry and actual demands of the students, in the light of teaching and research experience in recent years, we adopted a series of typical genetic cases such as 'opening coffin to identify relatives', stem-throne of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, and magic powers in Harry Potter. Our practices revealed that the case teaching in genetics could train good personality traits, learning abilities and creativity of the students, stimulate their interests and initiatives in learning, and increase systematic learning.
Today, one third of all college students are considered educationally "mobile," which means they will change institutions during their undergraduate careers. The concept of educational mobility challenges the traditional idea of students moving through an educational pipeline in a linear fashion, and recognizes that many of today's students, including those in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics), will have multiple transition points. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the transitional experiences of educationally mobile students moving into and through the STEM disciplines at a public university. Students who move from one educational environment to another undergo a significant transition process, and understanding this process for individual students and the institution's role in supporting transition has implications for educational policy. Grounded in the conceptual framework guided by Schlossberg's Transition Theory, and Swail, Redd, and Perna's Geometric Model for Student Persistence and Achievement, this study explores the following research question: How do students who are educationally mobile experience academic, social, and institutional support while transitioning into and through STEM disciplines at a four-year public university? Eighteen science and mathematics majors participated in this study, all of whom attended at least one institution of higher education prior to their current attendance at Mountain View University, a four-year comprehensive Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) in Southern California. Participants were interviewed utilizing a semi-structured interview protocol and completed a demographic questionnaire as well. Trustworthiness measures included member checking and peer debriefing. The findings of this study show that educationally mobile students are savvy agents of their education, and make personal and professional sacrifices in their pursuit of a STEM degree. They want to connect to like
Weinland, Kathryn Ann
Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.
Lehr, Jane L.
This dissertation contributes to efforts to rethink the meanings of democracy, scientific literacy, and non-scientist citizenship in the United States. Beginning with questions that emerged from action research and exploring the socio-political forces that shape educational practices, it shows why non-science educators who teach for social justice must first recognize formal science education as a primary site of training for (future) non-scientist citizens and then prepare to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship offered by formal science education. This model of citizenship defines (and limits) appropriate behavior for non-scientist citizens as acquiescing to the authority of science and the state by actively demarcating science from non-science, experts from non-experts, and the rational from the irrational. To question scientific authority is to be scientifically illiterate. This vision of 'acquiescent democracy' seeks to end challenges to the authority of science and the state by ensuring that scientific knowledge is privileged in all personal and public decision-making practices, producing a situation in which it becomes natural for non-scientist citizens to enroll scientific knowledge to naturalize oppression within our schools and society. It suggests that feminist and equity-oriented science educators, by themselves, are unable or unwilling to challenge certain assumptions in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship. Therefore, it is the responsibility of non-science educators who teach for social justice to articulate oppositional models of non-scientist citizenship and democracy in their classrooms and to challenge the naturalized authority of scientific knowledge in all aspects of our lives. It demonstrates how research in the field of Science & Technology Studies can serve as one resource in our efforts to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship and to support a model of
M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)
textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the
LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.
Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.
Full Text Available Many Thai English major students have problems when they translate Thai texts into English, as numerous errors can be found. Therefore, a study of translation errors is needed to find solutions to these problems. The objectives of this research were: 1 to examine types of translation errors in translation from Thai into English, 2 to determine the types of translation errors that are most common, and 3 to find possible explanations for the causes of errors. The results of this study will be used to improve translation teaching and the course “Translation from Thai into English”. The participants were 26 third-year, English major students at Kasetsart University. The data were collected from the students' exercises and examinations. Interviews and stimulated recall were also used to determine translation problems and causes of errors. The data were analyzed by considering the frequency and percentage, and by content analysis. The results shows that the most frequent translation errors were syntactic errors (65%, followed by semantic errors (26.5% and miscellaneous errors (8.5%, respectively. The causes of errors found in this study included translation procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. It is recommended that more class time be spent to address the problematic points. In addition, more authentic translation and group work should be implemented to increase self-confidence and decrease anxiety.
Muirhead, Vanessa; Locker, David
In this paper, we report the results of a survey on dental student stress carried out in April 2005. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 171 students (62% response rate). Identified stressors were academic, clinic-related, social and financial. "Examination and grades" produced the most academic stress, and inconsistent feedback from instructors created the most clinic-related stress. Students found that having a dual role--wife or husband and dental student--was the most burdensome social stressor. Approximately 60% of students reported marital problems and stress associated with "relations with members of the opposite sex." Survey results showed that students who expected a high graduating debt had higher total and academic stress scores. Total stress was not related to age, gender or marital status. Students living with parents during term time had significantly higher total stress scores than students living in other arrangements. Students residing with parents also had significantly higher debts on entry to dental school. Students with more predental education had (non-significantly) lower stress scores but also had higher student debts. Undergraduate subject major (biological science or non-science) had no bearing on reported stress. This study highlights the negative effects of student debt, the necessity for staff training and the need for further studies exploring relations among stress, psychological well-being and academic performance.
McFarlane, Hewlet G.; Richeimer, Joel
We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement. PMID:26240533
Robinson, Nakia Rae
The science laboratory is an integral component of science education. However, the academic value of student participation in the laboratory is not clearly understood. One way to discern student perceptions of the science laboratory is by exploring their views of the classroom environment. The classroom environment is one determinant that can directly influence student learning and affective outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to examine community college students' perceptions of the laboratory classroom environment and their attitudes toward science. Quantitative methods using two survey instruments, the Science Laboratory Environment Instrument (SLEI) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TORSA) were administered to measure laboratory perceptions and attitudes, respectively. A determination of differences among males and females as well as three academic streams were examined. Findings indicated that overall community college students had positive views of the laboratory environment regardless of gender of academic major. However, the results indicated that the opportunity to pursue open-ended activities in the laboratory was not prevalent. Additionally, females viewed the laboratory material environment more favorably than their male classmates did. Students' attitudes toward science ranged from favorable to undecided and no significant gender differences were present. However, there were significantly statistical differences between the attitudes of nonscience majors compared to both allied health and STEM majors. Nonscience majors had less positive attitudes toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, and enjoyment of science lessons. Results also indicated that collectively, students' experiences in the laboratory were positive predicators of their attitudes toward science. However, no laboratory environment scale was a significant independent predictor of student attitudes. .A students' academic streams was the only significant
Motivating nonscience majors in science and mathematics studies became one of the most interesting and important challenges in contemporary science and mathematics education. Therefore, designing and studying a learning environment, which enhances students' motivation, is an important task. This experimental study sought to explore the implications of student autonomy in topic choice in a project-based Physical Science Course for nonscience majors' on students' motivational orientation. It also suggested and tested a model explaining motivational outcomes of project-based learning environment through increased student ownership of science projects. A project, How Things Work, was designed and implemented in this study. The focus of the project was application of physical science concepts learned in the classroom to everyday life situations. Participants of the study (N = 59) were students enrolled in three selected sections of a Physical Science Course, designed to fulfill science requirements for nonscience majors. These sections were taught by the same instructor over a period of an entire 16-week semester at a large public research university. The study focused on four main variables: student autonomy in choosing a project topic, their motivational orientation, student ownership of the project, and the interest in the project topic. Achievement Goal Orientation theory became the theoretical framework for the study. Student motivational orientation, defined as mastery or performance goal orientation, was measured by an Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire. Student ownership was measured using an original instrument, Ownership Measurement Questionnaire, designed and tested by the researchers. Repeated measures yoked design, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were implemented in the study. Qualitative analysis was used to complement and verify quantitative results. It has been found that student autonomy in the project choice did not make a
Brevik, Eric C.; Vaughan, Karen L.; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Dolliver, Holly; Lindbo, David; Steffan, Joshua J.; Weindorf, David; McDaniel, Paul; Mbila, Monday; Edinger-Marshall, Susan
Many papers have been written in recent years discussing the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of soil science. Therefore, it would make sense that soil science courses would be taken by students in a wide array of academic majors. To investigate this, we collected data from eight different American universities on the declared academic majors of students enrolled in soil science courses over a 10 year time period (2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years). Data was collected for seven different classes taught at the undergraduate level: introduction to soil science, soil fertility, soil management, pedology, soil biology/microbiology, soil chemistry, and soil physics. Overall trends and trends for each class were evaluated. Generally, environmental science and crop science/horticulture/agronomy students were enrolled in soil science courses in the greatest numbers. Environmental science and engineering students showed rapid increases in enrollment over the 10 years of the study, while the number of crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students declined. In the introduction to soil science classes, environmental science and crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students were enrolled in the greatest numbers, while declared soil science majors only made up 6.6% of the average enrollment. The highest enrollments in soil fertility were crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students and other agricultural students (all agricultural majors except crop science, horticulture, agronomy, or soil science). In both the soil management and pedology classes, environmental science and other agricultural students were the largest groups enrolled. Other agricultural students and students from other majors (all majors not otherwise expressly investigated) were the largest enrolled groups in soil biology/microbiology courses, and environmental science and soil science students were the largest enrolled groups in soil chemistry classes. Soil physics was the only class
Hammersley, L. C.
The lack of diversity in the geosciences has long been recognized as a problem. While improvements have been made, the proportion of Bachelor's degrees in the earth sciences awarded to Hispanic students in 2012 was only 5.6%, a huge disparity with the 17% of the U.S. population that is Hispanic. At California State University, Sacramento, 19% of the student population is Hispanic but, of the 61 students that earned an undergraduate degree in geology between 2005 and 2010, only four were Hispanic. In response to the lack of diversity in the geology major, we developed a new Geology of Mexico course with the goal of recruiting Hispanic students to the major. We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of this course in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. Data was collected in the Geology of Mexico course and in the equivalent Physical Geology course. During the period evaluated, 93% of enrollment in Geology of Mexico was Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We found that Hispanic students in Physical Geology earned lower grades than did nonminority students, while Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico earned grades comparable with nonminority students in Physical Geology. Overall, Geology of Mexico students also showed more positive attitude changes to the geosciences and were more likely to take another geology course. The recruitment rate into the major for Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico was comparable to the recruitment rate for nonminority students in Physical Geology. Since 2008, the proportion of Hispanic geology majors has risen from 4.5% to 14.1% and, notably, the proportion of underrepresented minorities has increased from 4.5% to 22.2%, reflecting a significant overall increase in diversity of the major. In order to increase retention of minority students, we developed a field course for new majors who were not yet ready for upper division courses
Smith, Geoffrey R.
Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…
Lisa Florence Seymour
Full Text Available Shortage of computing skills is a global concern as it affects national development and business success. Yet, despite high job availability and high salaries in computing professions, insufficient numbers of students are choosing to study the various computing disciplines. This South African study looks at the Information Systems (IS major which is misunderstood by high school students. This retroductive case study identifies the events which lead students to change their major to IS. The study confirms the importance of interest in a major as well as the perceived high value of a major, which feature as dominant factors in the literature. Yet these are not the initial events that lead to students changing their major to IS. Events that initiate the process include losing passion for a previous major, experiencing difficulty in a previous major as well as enjoying the introductory IS course. The paper has practical advice for IS Departments and argues for a generic first year for students as well as a focus on enjoyment and skills aligned to IS professional practice in introductory IS courses. These findings can be generalised to other majors and, hence, the theoretical contribution adds to the literature on career choice in general.
Sandilands, Debra; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye
Minority Francophone students in predominantly English-speaking Canadian provinces tend to perform lower on large-scale assessments of achievement than their Anglophone peers and majority Francophone students in Quebec. This study is the first to apply multilevel modeling methods to examine the extent to which school-level factors may be…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas
Guided by the assumptions of the social ecological model and the social marketing approach, this study provides a simultaneous and comprehensive assessment of 4 major alcohol reduction strategies for college campuses: school education programs, social norms campaigns, alcohol counter-marketing, and alcohol control policies. Analysis of nationally representative secondary survey data among 5,472 underage students reveals that alcohol marketing seems to be the most formidable risk factor for underage drinking, followed by perceived drinking norms (injunctive norm) and lax policy enforcement. This analysis suggests that, to make social norms campaigns and alcohol control policies more effective, alcohol reduction strategies should be developed to counter the powerful influence of alcohol marketing and promotions.
Nishihara, H.; Shiroya, S.; Kanda, K.
With the use of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a joint reactor laboratory course of graduate level is offered every summer since 1975 by nine associated Japanese universities (Hokkaido University, Tohoku University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokai University, Nagoya University, Osaka University, Kobe University of Mercantile Marine and Kyushu University) in addition to a reactor laboratory course of undergraduate level for Kyoto University. These courses are opened for three weeks (two weeks for the joint course and one week for the undergraduate course) to students majoring in nuclear engineering and a total of 1,360 students have taken the course in the last 21 years. The joint course has been institutionalized with the background that it is extremely difficult for a single university in Japan to have her own research or training reactor. By their effort, the united faculty team of the joint course have succeeded in giving an effective, unique one-week course, taking advantage of their collaboration. Last year, an enquete (questionnaire survey) was conducted to survey the needs for the educational experiments of graduate level and precious data have been obtained for promoting reactor laboratory courses. (author)
Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J
The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.
Long, Mark C.; Goldhaber, Dan; Huntington-Klein, Nick
We find statistically significant relationships between changes in wages by occupation and subsequent changes in college majors completed in associated fields. College majors (defined at a detailed level) are most strongly related to wages observed three years earlier, when students were college freshmen. The responses to wages vary depending on…
Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande
This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…
Cornerstone courses bridge introductory content from lower-level survey courses with the more advanced theoretical and methodological content of upper-level, major-only courses. Cornerstones are implemented with the goal of better preparing students for advanced coursework and/or assisting them with understanding their major and its associated…
Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; Bosker, Roel; van der Werf, Greetje
Do non-science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students' views about STEM studies correspond with how STEM students actually perceive these studies? This paper deals with this issue by comparing higher education students' attitudes towards STEM studies between those who actually did
Full Text Available To strength training of the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and then explore an effective way to train the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college is a very necessary and urgent task. On this basis, this paper aims at investigating the situation of the professional quality of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college according to the requirements of the industry and enterprise, constructs a multi-dimensional space of the professional quality by the use of the AHP analysis method, and proposes the training method of the professional quality, in order to further improve the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and provide reference for the training of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college.
Burnett, Lorie Lasseter
Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive
Seo, K. W.; Han, K. W.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Ji, Y. J.; Oh, S. Y
This report was written as following contents, to develop a program for university students majoring in science and technology, which is intended to provide the students with opportunities to obtain hands on experience and knowledge on various nuclear technology, through experiments using HANARO and its facilities. Thus obtain experience and knowledge are expected to be a great help for their current study and for their selection of a specific future study area. The purpose of this research is as follows: - development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO as part of their university study. - continuous operation of research reactor experimental programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. - development and operation of training programs of experiments using research reactor for university students majoring in nuclear engineering and also for university students majoring in diverse fields of science and technology such as physics, advanced metallurgy, mechanical engineering, energy engineering, radiological science, nanoscience, etc. to cultivate future potential users of HANARO as well as broadening the user group. As a whole, 263 students from 15 universities have completed the courses of the programs developed and offered by this project. Also, 5 textbooks have been developed to support the programs.
Seo, K. W.; Han, K. W.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Ji, Y. J.; Oh, S. Y.
This report was written as following contents, to develop a program for university students majoring in science and technology, which is intended to provide the students with opportunities to obtain hands on experience and knowledge on various nuclear technology, through experiments using HANARO and its facilities. Thus obtain experience and knowledge are expected to be a great help for their current study and for their selection of a specific future study area. The purpose of this research is as follows: - development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO as part of their university study. - continuous operation of research reactor experimental programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. - development and operation of training programs of experiments using research reactor for university students majoring in nuclear engineering and also for university students majoring in diverse fields of science and technology such as physics, advanced metallurgy, mechanical engineering, energy engineering, radiological science, nanoscience, etc. to cultivate future potential users of HANARO as well as broadening the user group. As a whole, 263 students from 15 universities have completed the courses of the programs developed and offered by this project. Also, 5 textbooks have been developed to support the programs
Mareng, Chuei D.
This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…
TG (Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation), 2012
As the importance of a college degree climbs and federal and state grant funding remains inadequate, millions of students in the U.S. continue to take out student loans each year to help pay for their rising education costs. In October 2011, the total amount of outstanding student loan debt in the U.S. exceeded $1 trillion (Chopra, 2012),…
Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping
With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the
Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and large, it was found that the students reflected "mixed" motives in biology learning, while those who had more sophisticated epistemic beliefs tended to employ deep strategies. In addition, the results of paired t tests revealed that the female students were more likely to possess beliefs about biological knowledge residing in external authorities, to believe in a right answer, and to utilize rote learning as a learning strategy. Moreover, compared to juniors and seniors, freshmen and sophomores tended to hold less mature views on all factors of epistemic beliefs regarding biology. Another comparison indicated that theoretical biology students (e.g. students majoring in the Department of Biology) tended to have more mature beliefs in learning biology and more advanced strategies for biology learning than those students studying applied biology (e.g. in the Department of Biotechnology). Stepwise regression analysis, in general, indicated that students who valued the role of experiments and justify epistemic assumptions and knowledge claims based on evidence were more oriented towards having mixed motives and utilizing deep strategies to learn biology. In contrast, students who believed in the certainty of biological knowledge were more likely to adopt rote learning strategies and to aim to qualify in biology.
Wozniak, Breann M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This study shows that POGIL is an effective technique at eliciting students' misconceptions, and addressing these misconceptions, leading to an increase in student understanding of biological classification.
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Online education has exploded in popularity. While there is ample research on predictors of traditional college student success, little research has been done on effective methods of predicting student success in online education. In this study, a number of demographic variables including GPA, ACT, gender, age and others were examined to determine what, if any, role they play in successfully predicting student success in an online, lab-based biology for non-majors course. Within course variables such as participation in specific categories of assignment and frequency of online visits were also examined. Groups of students including Native American/Non-Native American and Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives and others were also examined to determine if overall course success differed significantly. Good predictors of online success were found to be GPA, ACT, previous course experience and frequency of online visits with the course materials. Additionally, students who completed more of the online assignments within the course were more successful. Native American and Non-Native American students were found to differ in overall course success significantly as well. Findings indicate student academic background, previous college experience and time spent with course materials are the most important factors in course success. Recommendations include encouraging enrollment advisors to advise students about the importance of maintaining high academic levels, previous course experience and spending time with course materials may impact students' choices for online courses. A need for additional research in several areas is indicated, including Native American and Non-Native American differences. A more detailed examination of students' previous coursework would also be valuable. A study involving more courses, a larger number of students and surveys from faculty who teach online courses would help improve the generalizability of the conclusions.
Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.
This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…
Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.
This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…
Barry, Nancy H.; Orlofsky, Diane DeNicola
Examines the song leading effectiveness of undergraduate education majors under three conditions: unaccompanied, accompanied with autoharp, and accompanied by recording. Finds that students rate themselves higher than experts do; there is greater eye contact using rote or recording; and there is greater tempo accuracy using rote and autoharp. (DSK)
Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp; Fudge, Julie; Hubbard, Glenn T.; Filak, Vincent F.
A study of news media and strategic communication majors (n = 273) revealed differences in regard to personality indices and impetuses for selecting to pursue degrees. Showing overall agreement in the importance of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, strategic communication students were significantly higher in their ratings of…
Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping
With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…
The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…
Barber, Clifton E.
Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…
Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…
Cook, Samuel A.; Borkovitz, Debra K.
In this paper we present data from one-on-one interviews conducted with students who have taken intermediate and advanced inquiry-based mathematics courses in a program that prepares future preK-8 teachers. Many of these students entered college with a fear of math, but then gained confidence from a required introductory math course and chose to…
Rodgers, Vikki L.
This article describes an active learning strategy for engaging undergraduate business students, a group often ignored in scientific pedagogy, in learning about renewable energy technology and associated trade-offs. I designed a small-group activity to appeal to and engage business students, but the exercise could easily be used for a variety of…
Lang, Kenneth Brandon
Several studies have found a relationship between college students' academic majors and their environmental attitudes and behaviors. Results from this study of incoming first-year students at a medium-sized public university suggest that students majoring in different programs of study were likely to have different environmental attitudes and…
Logue, Christen T.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick T. L.
Based on 164 undergraduate business majors, we examined the relationship between satisfaction with major and Holland's vocational interests and with the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Contrary to our hypothesis, enterprising scores were unrelated to major satisfaction. As hypothesized, using ipsative and normative scores, investigative,…
Mukhopadhyay Prianka, Sain Sonali, Mandal Nirmal Kumar, Saha Tushar Kanti , Dey Indira, Chattopadhyay Amitava
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medical students experience depression, burnout, and mental illness at a higher rate than general population. A better understanding of related risk factors can help target appropriate support services for them. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of depression and identify its risk factors among undergraduate students in a medical College in Kolkata, India. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study using a two stage, stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 289 students. Data were collected using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire based on Becks Depression Inventory II. Results: The mean score of students on depression scale was 10.47±10.39. 22.5 % of students tested positive for some form of depression while 6.2% had severe to extreme depression. The risk factors of depressive symptoms identified were older age, lower family income, students who did not choose admission in MBBS course on their own, had addictions, felt negatively about results, faced difficulty with study course and had relationship issues. Students with relationship issues in their personal lives were 3.7 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Students who faced difficulty coping with study course were 2.18 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Conclusion: Academic performance alone doesn’t influence the mental health of students, rather factors like older age, socioeconomic status, role in choice of medical career, negative perception of academic performance, difficulty with study course and relationship issues are also important.
Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Yutaka; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kako, Yuki; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro
The suicide risk among young adults is related to multiple factors; therefore, it is difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behavior. We conducted the present study to reveal the most important factors relating to suicidal ideation in Japanese university students with major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive disorder (MDD). The subjects were 30 Japanese university students who had MDEs of MDD, and were aged between 18 and 26 years old. They were divided into two groups - without suicide risk group (n=15), and with suicide risk group (n=15) - based on the results of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Additionally, healthy controls were recruited from the same population (n=15). All subjects completed the self-assessment scales including the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd edition (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and SF-36v2™ (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey version 2), and they were all administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. The RSES score of the suicide risk group was significantly lower than the RSES score of the without suicide risk group, whereas the BDI-II score and the BHS score were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean social functioning score on the SF-36v2 of the with suicide risk group was significantly lower than that of the without suicide risk group. The individual's self-esteem and social functioning may play an important role in suicide risk among young adults with MDEs of MDD.
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.
Zeilik, Michael; Bisard, Walter
Reports on students' preexisting knowledge and examines misconceptions among nonscience major undergraduate students. Focuses on evaluating results of misconceptions in selected astronomy courses. (YDS)
Zheng, Jihong; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Xu, Boqing; Schreiner, Rupert; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Seebauer, Gudrun; Zhu, Jiyan
Different higher education backgrounds in China and Germany led to challenges in the curriculum design at the beginning of our cooperative bachelor program in Optoelectronics Engineering. We see challenges in different subject requirements from both sides and in the German language requirements for Chinese students. The curriculum was optimized according to the ASIIN criteria, which makes it acceptable and understandable by both countries. German students are integrated into the Chinese class and get the same lectures like their Chinese colleagues. Intercultural and curriculum challenges are successfully solved. The results are summarized to provide an example for other similar international programs.
Gonzalez, Eliseo A.
Fostering resiliency and educational success in students that are faced with adversity is not a simple task. The gap in educational success and achievement among low-income, first generation, traditionally marginalized students continues to be significant. California's educational system needs to stop the hemorrhaging from its educational pipeline, also known as the P-20 pipeline, of all students, especially those groups of students with larger gaps in educational attainment. One potential path towards fixing California's educational pipeline for all students is to form and keep partnerships with programs such as Upward Bound, AVID, and Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). In 2010-11, the California Department of Education (CDE) reported that over 51% of students enrolled in California's school system and 51% of all California high school seniors were Latino were Latino. Of the 231,231 Latino high school seniors, 79%, graduated. However, of those that graduated, only 26%, met University of California/California State University (UC/CSU) college entrance requirements. Even though 79% of Latinos graduated, 74% did not qualify to apply to a UC or CSU. If the majority of Latino students continue to fall through holes in the educational pipeline, companies will continue to look abroad to fill STEM jobs that remain unfilled by American workers (California Department of Education [CDE], 2012). Alongside the U.S.'s current economic woes, the lack of college preparedness and knowledge by parents and students has led to a decrease in first generation, low-income Latino students' higher education enrollment (Camacho & Lord, 2011). With strong and positive leadership from family, supplemented by the MESA program, these youths can exert their resiliency, face adversity, and overcome extraordinary barriers. Leaders in education such as teachers, coordinators, advisers, administrators, and parents are in the best position to teach students about resilience (Ginsburg, 2007
Full Text Available Background: Assessment of educational courses has a critical impact on quality improvement in all curricula. Surveys aimed at alumni and graduating students may be useful for the evaluation of the program outcomes and revision. The aims of this study were to describe levels of competency of last year students of an Iranian dental school in the major skills needed for a new dentist and to investigate its relationship with background factors such as gender, marriage status, entrance exam score , entrance quotas and their economic status.Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, 55 last year dental students filled out a valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 132 competencies that could be rated on a four point Likert’s Scale. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, independent-samples ttest and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Students' total competencies mean score was 47.48±2.03 out of 100. The lowest and highest score belonged to oral diseases diagnosis (%18.48 and Preventive dentistry (%66.06 respectively. The past dental hygiene students continued their education as a doctoral degree were more competent than the others but there were no significant differences between competency levels of other quotas. The competency score had no significant relationship with marriage and economic statuses of students aswell as their entrance exam score.Conclusion: responses to the students’ self-reported preparedness described the general state of competency of the last year dental students as fairly satisfactory. However, the theoretical backgrounds related to some subjects need to be more emphasized.Key words: COMPETENCY, DENTISTRY STUDENTS EDUCATION
Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos
Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.
Despite all the national efforts to increase STEM enrollment in the United States, the gap between the U.S. and other developed countries in terms of STEM graduates has widened over the last 20 years. Researchers have studied factors such as gender, race, high school GPA, and the student's socioeconomic status for their impact on STEM enrollment.…
Al Asmari, AbdulRahman
The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…
School districts throughout the United States provide in-home schooling for students whose health problems, both physical and mental, prevent them from attending regular classes. This service is an outgrowth of the federal legislation which addressed the provision of education to all children with special needs. Home/Hospital teachers who serve…
Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Zhou, Sasha; Wagner, Blake, III; Beck, Katie; Eisenberg, Daniel
This article explores variations in mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines using a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 64,519) at 81 colleges and universities. We report prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, and self-injury, and rates of help-seeking across disciplines, including results…
This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…
Li, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Guangzhi
Weak enrollment growth has been a concern for many Information Systems (IS) programs in recent years although the IT/IS job market remains strong. Stimulating undergraduate students' interest to IS programs have been a challenge. In this paper, the researchers took a comprehensive approach to study how to effectively promote a Management…
Full Text Available Nobuyuki Mitsui,1 Satoshi Asakura,1,2 Yusuke Shimizu,1 Yutaka Fujii,1 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Yuki Kako,1 Teruaki Tanaka,1 Nobuki Kitagawa,3 Takeshi Inoue,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Health care center of Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 3Department of Clinical Social Work, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido School of Nursing and Social Services, Tobetsu, Ishikari, Japan Background: The suicide risk among young adults is related to multiple factors; therefore, it is difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behavior. Aim: We conducted the present study to reveal the most important factors relating to suicidal ideation in Japanese university students with major depressive episodes (MDEs of major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: The subjects were 30 Japanese university students who had MDEs of MDD, and were aged between 18 and 26 years old. They were divided into two groups – without suicide risk group (n=15, and with suicide risk group (n=15 – based on the results of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Additionally, healthy controls were recruited from the same population (n=15. All subjects completed the self-assessment scales including the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd edition (BDI-II, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and SF-36v2TM (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey version 2, and they were all administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results: The RSES score of the suicide risk group was significantly lower than the RSES score of the without suicide risk group, whereas the BDI-II score and the BHS score were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean social functioning score on the SF-36v2 of the with suicide risk group was significantly lower than that of the without suicide risk group. Conclusion: The individual's self-esteem and social functioning may play an
Carter, Frances A; Bell, Caroline J; Ali, Anthony N; McKenzie, Janice; Wilkinson, Timothy J
No previous studies have systematically assessed the psychological functioning of medical students following a major disaster. To describe the psychological functioning of medical students following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, and identify predictors of adverse psychological functioning. 7 months following the most severe earthquake, medical students completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and Likert scales assessing psychological functioning at worst and currently. A substantial minority of medical students reported moderate-extreme difficulties on the DASS subscales 7 months following the most severe earthquake (Depression =12%; Anxiety =9%; Stress =10%). Multiple linear modelling produced a model that predicted 27% of the variance in total scores on the DASS. Variables contributing significantly to the model were: year of medical course, presence of mental health problems prior to the earthquakes, not being New Zealand European, and being higher on retrospectively rated neuroticism prior to the earthquakes. Around 10% of medical students experienced moderate-extreme psychological difficulties 7 months following the most severe earthquake on 22 February 2011. Specific groups at high risk for ongoing psychological symptomatology were able to be identified.
Hill, Gloria Pinckney
To understand the causes for the disproportionately high rate of attrition among ethnic minority students, it is important to consider not only how they differ from the majority population, but what differences exist in personal qualities and academic preparation within groups at particular types of institutions, and within particular majors. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of African-American students enrolled in engineering at a predominately white, selective research university to determine which cognitive, non-cognitive and situational variables impact their progress towards graduation. The goal was to see how African-American students who meet or exceed the minimum criteria for admission perceive their experience on campus, and what strategies they use to manage their day-to-day existence. The study was conducted using personal interviews guided by an open-ended questionnaire. The qualitative methodology allowed students to assess the college experience through their own cultural lens, and to identify the cognitive, non-cognitive, and situational variables important to them. Responses were sorted by class and gender, tabulated and grouped into categories. Interpretation was primarily descriptive. Consistencies, inconsistencies, patterns and relationships to concepts in the literature and to the research questions were discussed. Findings indicate that well prepared students become less confident about their commitment to engineering and their ability to succeed academically after they begin matriculating rather than before, and that redefinition of what it means to be academically successful is an effective coping mechanism to sustain the effort required to master courses. The study suggests that the current focus on the impact of the freshman year transition on student retention should be expanded to include the sophomore year. This is particularly true for institutions where engineering students spend the first year in a core
Zhao, Chun-Mei; Carini, Robert M.; Kuh, George D.
This study examined the extent to which women and men majoring in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) fields engaged in a broad array of effective educational practices. Women in SMET fields were generally as, or more, engaged in educationally fruitful activities as their male counterparts. The results of this study, when combined…
Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min; Han, Eun Ok; Jang, Hyon Chul; Ko, Jong Kyung
This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job
Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyon Chul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Suseong College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Kyung [Radiation Safety Management Commission, Daegu Health College, (Korea, Republic of)
This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job.
Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…
Maldini, Agnesya; Usodo, Budi; Subanti, Sri
In the process of learning, especially math learning, process of interaction between teachers and students is certainly a noteworthy thing. In these interactions appear gestures or other body spontaneously. Gesture is an important source of information, because it supports oral communication and reduce the ambiguity of understanding the concept/meaning of the material and improve posture. This research which is particularly suitable for an exploratory research design to provide an initial illustration of the phenomenon. The goal of the research in this article is to describe the gesture of S1 and S2 students of mathematics education at the micro teaching process. To analyze gesture subjects, researchers used McNeil clarification. The result is two subjects using 238 gesture in the process of micro teaching as a means of conveying ideas and concepts in mathematics learning. During the process of micro teaching, subjects using the four types of gesture that is iconic gestures, deictic gesture, regulator gesturesand adapter gesture as a means to facilitate the delivery of the intent of the material being taught and communication to the listener. Variance gesture that appear on the subject due to the subject using a different gesture patterns to communicate mathematical ideas of their own so that the intensity of gesture that appeared too different.
Full Text Available The article tackles the question of the interconnection between the components of social intelligence (the N. Hall test and the D. V. Lyusin questionnaire test Emln and self-presentation tactics (the S. Lee, B. Quigley scale. To win on the market of vacancies the graduates have to know how to present themselves and their own projects, and have high social intelligence. The survey of 147 Russian students of Tyumen Industrial university has shown that the subjects with high and low levels of emotional awareness tend to resort to intimidation and managing behavior and emotions as well as such assertive self-presentation tactics as entitlement and blasting. Students with a developed ability to manage their emotions more often than the others declare their virtues and past achievements. Examinees with low and with high ability to control their emotional states can be characterized by negative and critical evaluation of others. The authors emphasize the research prospects of individual human resources where social intelligence as one of the components of the behavioral control is seen as a predictor of various self-presentation tactics, protective and assertive in particular.
Chambers, Sara Lang Ketchum
This social action study followed an introductory biology course for a three-year period to determine whether changes in teaching personnel, instructional techniques and reorientation to student-centered learning would impact student performance. The course was redirected from a traditional lecture-laboratory format to one emphasizing active learning inquiry methods. Student retention, achievement, and failure were observed for three years in addition to one year prior, and one year following, the study. The study examined the two semester introductory biology course required of all biology majors and those intending a career in science, medicine or dentistry. During the first semester of the study, the dropout rate decreased from 46% to 21%. Prior to the study, 39% of the students completing the course received a grade of D or F while only 4% received a grade of B or above. During the first semester of the study 14% of the students received a grade of D or F while 46% received a B, B+ or A grade. Similar results were seen in other semesters of the study. A statistical comparison of student retention and performance was carried out using grade data for classes taught by the original faculty, the action study faculty and the post-study faculty. The differences between the original faculty and the action study faculty were statistically significant. Effect size calculations indicated large differences between the action study faculty and the two other faculty groups in terms of student retention, achievement and failure. The results are attributed to both the personnel change and, more significantly, the change in teaching methods and emphasis on student-active learning. Comparison between the pre- and post-study teams showed less dramatic effect sizes than when the action study data were compared with the data from either other team. Nevertheless, the post-study results showed that although the retention rate dropped during the year after the study, the improvement
This article presents the results of a comparative study of two groups of learners--group 1 (25 non-science students) and group 2 (25 A-level physics students). It explores the extent to which their feelings and emotions in conjunction with their knowledge about nuclear energy impacts and influences their views and feelings about the use of…
Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.
5,6) showed a jump of nearly 25,000 followers. We see the RSN Facebook page as an opportunity to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations and thus providing intensity data for felt earthquakes. This approach to science education might transform the view of geological processes for Costa Ricans and might positively alter the current perception towards hazards.
Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.
Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.
Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.
Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…
Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji
The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.
Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013)]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI) and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.
Fredrick, L. Denise
The focus of this study was to investigate college students' perception of high school and college introductory science learning experiences related to persistence in science as a major area of study in college. The study included students' perceptions of the following areas of science education: (1) teacher interpersonal relationship with students, (2) teacher personality styles, (3) teacher knowledge of the content, (4) instructional methods, and (5) science course content. A survey research design was employed in the investigative study to collect and analyze data. One hundred ninety two students participated in the research study. A survey instrument entitled Science Education Perception Survey was used to collect data. The researcher sought to reject or support three null hypotheses as related to participants' perceptions of high school and college introductory science education experiences. Using binomial regression analysis, this study analyzed differences between students persisting in science and students not persisting in science as a major. The quantitative research indicated that significant differences exist between persistence in science as a major and high school science teacher traits and college introductory science instructional methods. Although these variables were found to be significant predictors, the percent variance was low and should be considered closely before concluded these as strong predictors of persistence. Major findings of the qualitative component indicated that students perceived that: (a) interest in high school science course content and high school science teacher personality and interpersonal relationships had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (b) interest in college introductory science course content had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (c) students recalled laboratory activities and overall good teaching as most meaningful to their high school science
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum on students' scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Four hundred and eighty (480) Senior Secondary two science and non-science students were randomly selected from intact classes in six secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of…
Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting people in the world. It is also a growing concern in younger population particularly medical students. There are many pharmaceutical interventions for treatment of depression but there is paucity of data to determine the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge, attitude and help seeking behaviour regarding depression among medical students. Methods: An interventional study was carried out among randomly selected 100 medical students except interns over a period of 6 months from March August 2011 in a medical college in Delhi to assess the effect of educational booklet on knowledge and attitude about depression. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Statistical significance in pre and post intervention proportions was determined using Mc Nemar test (MN and for other proportions Chi-square test. Results: The study shown that only 71% of subjects knew that depression is a disease in pre intervention phase, which rose to 88% in post intervention phase (p=0.01. Knowledge of symptoms and treatment significantly improved such as trouble falling asleep or too much sleep (p=0.03, feeling tired or decreased energy (MN=17.6, p=0.01, feeling bad about self (MN=21.8, p=0.01, speaking slowly other can notice (MN=19.1, p=0.01 and can be treated by improving awareness (MN=8.6, p=0.03, and anti-depressants do not cause much of side effects (MN=17.3, p=0.01. Most common reasons for not seeking help were thinking that there is lack of understanding by other people about the depression (63%, lack of confidentiality (49%, social stigma (30%, fear of rejection (26% and time constraints (6%. Majority of students accepted the booklet for their understanding about depression where 63% considered that it improved their knowledge to great extent. Conclusion:Educational interventional booklet should be promoted at bigger
Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir
This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…
The goal of this study was to explore and understand the factors that influence students' intention to major in and complete an undergraduate program in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) discipline, in a non-STEM field, and how students' gender directly and indirectly affects their success in college. A quantitative study of three thousand four (3004) ACT-tested students who entered a Midwestern, land-grant university as freshmen in fall, 1999 was conducted based on their ACT Assessment information and their enrollment and graduation status after five years. A wide variety of variables were considered and logistic regression, factor analysis, and path analysis were used to analyze the data. The results show that students who intended to major in or completed STEM programs generally have better academic qualifications than their counterparts who intended to major in non-STEM fields. Students who intended to major in or completed STEM programs came from lower income families and smaller communities than those who intended to major in or graduated from non-STEM programs. In this study, gender's direct effect on students' college achievement is eleven times the total of gender's indirect effects through several major factors for students in both STEM fields and non-STEM fields. Perhaps nature has favored females when students' achievement is measured as their college GPA. The results also show that the overall high dropout rate is strongly associated with students' inadequate preparation in high school and family income. Out-of-school accomplishment in community service is a negative influence on their completion of a college degree. ACT scores are not necessary for prediction of college graduation.
This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.
Full Text Available This research was aimed to make students majoring in early childhood education learn about the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy by integrating learning process through practicing planting vegetables and herbs, harvesting, processing products and selling the products at the CEECE farm. This case study include 104 students in total, 2 males students and 102 females students majoring in early childhood education in the second semester of academic year 2016, Mahasarakham university. The researcher integrated the learning with subjects in early childhood education field such as Story and literature for young Children, Thai languages and literacy for young children, Independent study in early childhood education and Early childhood education quality assurance. The research instruments were 1 CEECE Farm area for practicing growing vegetables and herbs and 2 Self Reflection from the students. Data collection was conducted through three phases including 1 preparation 2 process and 3 data collection. The researcher analyzed the content by describing and drawing conclusions from students opinions about the learning. This research revealed: 1. Factors affecting success or barriers to learning include students, location, materials, budget, academic advisors and other factors such as climate and workloads of students. 2. Students majoring in early childhood education learn the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy through practicing at the CEECE farm. Students learn Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and knowledge as follows ; 2.1 Moderation: Students learn to use the resources sufficiently. Students realize the value and use resources in order to maximize savings ; location, materials and budget. 2.2 Reasonableness: Students learn to apply the principles of reason and critical thinking to planning decisions and resolving issues arising from the implementation based on information that they have gathered and relies on the concept, “if students are consumers, will they
Cuisinier, Adrien; Schilte, Clotilde; Declety, Philippe; Picard, Julien; Berger, Karine; Bouzat, Pierre; Falcon, Dominique; Bosson, Jean Luc; Payen, Jean-François; Albaladejo, Pierre
Medical competence requires the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and technical skills. Severe trauma management teaching is poorly developed during internship. Nevertheless, the basics of major trauma management should be acquired by every future physician. For this reason, the major trauma course (MTC), an educational course in major traumatology, has been developed for medical students. Our objective was to evaluate, via a high fidelity medical simulator, the impact of the MTC on medical student skills concerning major trauma management. The MTC contains 3 teaching modalities: posters with associated audio-guides, a procedural workshop on airway management and a teaching session using a medical simulator. Skills evaluation was performed 1 month before (step 1) and 1 month after (step 3) the MTC (step 2). Nineteen students were individually evaluated on 2 different major trauma scenarios. The primary endpoint was the difference between steps 1 and 3, in a combined score evaluating: admission, equipment, monitoring and safety (skill set 1) and systematic clinical examinations (skill set 2). After the course, the combined primary outcome score improved by 47% (P<0.01). Scenario choice or the order of use had no significant influence on the skill set evaluations. This study shows improvement in student skills for major trauma management, which we attribute mainly to the major trauma course developed in our institution. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thames, Tasha Herrington
The advancement in technology integration is laying the groundwork of a paradigm shift in the higher education system (Noonoo, 2011). The National Dropout Prevention Center (n.d.) claims that technology offers some of the best opportunities for presenting instruction to engage students in meaningful education, addressing multiple intelligences, and adjusting to students' various learning styles. The purpose of this study was to investigate if implementing clicker technology would have a statistically significant difference on student retention and student achievement, while controlling for learning styles, for students in non-major biology courses who were and were not subjected to the technology. This study also sought to identify if students perceived the use of clickers as beneficial to their learning. A quantitative quasi-experimental research design was utilized to determine the significance of differences in pre/posttest achievement scores between students who participated during the fall semester in 2014. Overall, 118 students (n = 118) voluntarily enrolled in the researcher's fall non-major Biology course at a southern community college. A total of 71 students were assigned to the experimental group who participated in instruction incorporating the ConcepTest Process with clicker technology along with traditional lecture. The remaining 51 students were assigned to the control group who participated in a traditional lecture format with peer instruction embedded. Statistical analysis revealed the experimental clicker courses did have higher posttest scores than the non-clicker control courses, but this was not significant (p >.05). Results also implied that clickers did not statistically help retain students to complete the course. Lastly, the results indicated that there were no significant statistical difference in student's clicker perception scores between the different learning style preferences.
Crossgrove, Kirsten; Curran, Kristen L
Student response systems (clickers) are viewed positively by students and instructors in numerous studies. Evidence that clickers enhance student learning is more variable. After becoming comfortable with the technology during fall 2005-spring 2006, we compared student opinion and student achievement in two different courses taught with clickers in fall 2006. One course was an introductory biology class for nonmajors, and the other course was a 200 level genetics class for biology majors. Students in both courses had positive opinions of the clickers, although we observed some interesting differences between the two groups of students. Student performance was significantly higher on exam questions covering material taught with clickers, although the differences were more dramatic for the nonmajors biology course than the genetics course. We also compared retention of information 4 mo after the course ended, and we saw increased retention of material taught with clickers for the nonmajors course, but not for the genetics course. We discuss the implications of our results in light of differences in how the two courses were taught and differences between science majors and nonmajors.
The aim of this study is to investigate the reading strategies used by Chinese English major students in the reading component in standardized national tests of TEM-4 with regard to reading efficiency. The research questions include: 1) what strategies are used by the students in TEM-4 test context; 2) whether there is a significant correlation between strategy use and efficient reading in the test; 3) what kinds of reading problems are revealed in the students’ use of processing strategies; ...
Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Tecknology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.
Han, Eun Ok
As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.
Park, Soowon; Cho, Seunghee; Lee, Jun-Young
In the process of developing a professional medical expertise, goals can become a psychological impetus and act as a source of retaining an individual's persistency. Therefore, the goals of medical students should be considered when designing a curriculum for health professions. The purpose of this study was to examine relative effects of goal categories on the value of learning and intention to change one's major. Data were obtained from the Korea Education Longitudinal Study, which included 1938 representative Korean college freshmen majoring in medicine, engineering, natural science and humanities. They answered a survey questionnaire about goal categories (i.e., social concern, affiliation, self-growth, leisure, wealth, and fame), the value of learning, and intention to change one's major. For medical students, social concern goals were positively related to the value of learning and negatively related to the intention to change one's major. Social concern goals decreased the intention to change one's major directly, and also indirectly through increased value of learning. Providing context for enhancing medical students' social concern goals is necessary in a medical training curriculum, not only for the students' professional development but also for improving society. GCT: Goal contents theory GPA: Grade point average KELS: Korea education longitudinal study SDLA: Self-directed learning abilities SDT: Self-determination theory.
Carbajal, Sandy C.
Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.
Madison, Ed; Hopp, Toby; Santana, Arthur D.; Stansberry, Kathleen
This study used self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the motivations for selecting a major among mass communication and media majors at 18 colleges and universities across the United States. Specifically, 669 mass communication majors were queried on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for choosing a major, their degree of major…
Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn
In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…
Griep, Mark A.; Reimer, Kaitlin
Chemistry courses for nonscience majors emphasize chemical concepts and the relationship of chemical knowledge to everyday life while teaching the utility of quantitative analysis. As an introduction to the topic of global warming, the first half of "An Inconvenient Truth," released in 2006, has been shown annually since 2008 in the…
Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.
Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.
This study reports on the integration of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) multimedia courseware for oral presentations into a self-learning and elective program for non-English major students in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting. A computer-aided instruction approach, combined with a task-based learning approach, was adopted.…
Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…
Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong
Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…
Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Islam, A. B. M. Shafiqul; Shuchi, Israt Jahan
The present study investigates the writing errors of ninety Saudi non-English major undergraduate students of different proficiency levels from three faculties, who studied English as a foundation course at the English Language Center in the College of Languages &Translation at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2016-17.…
Grineski, Sara; Daniels, Heather; Collins, Timothy; Morales, Danielle X.; Frederick, Angela; Garcia, Marilyn
Research on the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) student development pipeline has largely ignored social class and instead examined inequalities based on gender and race. We investigate the role of social class in undergraduate student research publications. Data come from a sample of 213 undergraduate research participants…
Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…
Chan, Evelyn T. Y.
This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…
Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira
All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…
Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…
Wyer, Mary Beth
Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality
Okamoto, Kazuto; Koyanagi, Masae; Miura, Michiko
Opinions of students of Tokyo Gakugei University concerning the energy problems are investigated. Comparison is made between the natural science group (231 students) and the nonnatural science group (162 students: about 1/4 mathematics, about 3/4 literature, art etc.). The majority choose nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and solar energy as future energy. About half of them are in favour of development of nuclear fission, but about 1/3 wants keeping nuclear fission at the present level or abolishing it. The science group is more favourable to nuclear fission. Oil depletion is the strongest reason for development of nuclear fission, while the problem of radioactive wastes is the strongest reason for opposition, major accidents being the second. Most of the students oppose construction of nuclear power plants in their neighbourhood, but the science group is more favourable to the construction than the non-science group. Knowledge about natural radiations is very poor, but about 1/4 ∼ 1/5 knows the release of radioactivities from thermal power plants. Knowledge about the greenhouse effect is unexpectedly high. Especially 81 % of male students in the science group knows it. The majority do not understand the energy balance of nuclear energy, but those who answer that the energy balance holds is more than those who answer that it does not. In general the science group and males answer more correctly and are more favourable to nuclear fission. Comparison with other opinion polls is made and it is found that their general tendencies are in agreement. (author)
Hooper, Eric Jon; Nossal, S.; Watson, L.; Timbie, P.
Large introductory astronomy and physics survey courses can be very challenging and stressful. The University of Wisconsin-Madison Physics Learning Center (PLC) reaches about 10 percent of the students in four introductory physics courses, algebra and calculus based versions of both classical mechanics and electromagnetism. Participants include those potentially most vulnerable to experiencing isolation and hence to having difficulty finding study partners as well as students struggling with the course. They receive specially written tutorials, conceptual summaries, and practice problems; exam reviews; and most importantly, membership in small groups of 3 - 8 students which meet twice per week in a hybrid of traditional teaching and tutoring. Almost all students who regularly participate in the PLC earn at least a "C,” with many earning higher grades. The PLC works closely with other campus programs which seek to increase the participation and enhance the success of underrepresented minorities, first generation college students, and students from lower-income circumstances; and it is well received by students, departmental faculty, and University administration. The PLC staff includes physics education specialists and research scientists with a passion for education. However, the bulk of the teaching is conducted by undergraduates who are majoring in physics, astronomy, mathematics, engineering, and secondary science teaching (many have multiple majors). The staff train these enthusiastic students, denoted Peer Mentor Tutors (PMTs) in general pedagogy and mentoring strategies, as well as the specifics of teaching the physics covered in the course. The PMTs are among the best undergraduates at the university. While currently there is no UW-Madison learning center for astronomy courses, establishing one is a possible future direction. The introductory astronomy courses cater to non-science majors and consequently are less quantitative. However, the basic structure
Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida
Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style's questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts' views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x(2) test. Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners.
D'Cruz, Noella L.
Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL offers a one semester introductory astronomy course each semester. We teach over 110 primarily non-science major students each semester. We use proven active learning strategies such lecture tutorials, think-pair-share questions and small group discussions to help these students develop and retain a good understanding of astrophysical concepts. Occasionally, we offer projects that allow students to explore course topics beyond the classroom. We hope that such projects will increase students' interest in astronomy. We also hope that these assignments will help students to improve their critical thinking and writing skills. In Spring 12, we are offering three short individual essay assignments in our face-to-face sections. The essays focus on transits, eclipses and occultations to highlight the 2012 transit of Venus. For the first essay, students will find images of transit and occultation events using the Astronomy Picture of the Day website and describe their chosen events. In addition, students will predict how variations in certain physical and orbital parameters would alter their particular events. The second essay involves transits, eclipses and occultations observed by spacecraft. Students will describe their transit event, their spacecraft's mission, orbital path, how the orbital path was achieved, etc. The third essay deals with transiting exoplanets. Students will choose at least two exoplanets from an exoplanet database, one of which has been discovered through the transit method. This essay will enable students to learn about detecting exoplanets and how they compare with our solar system. Details of the essay assignments and students' reactions to them will be presented at the meeting.
EFFICIENCY OF THE TRANSITIONAL PROGRAM AT KING SAUD UNIVERSITY: A Comparative Study of Educational Achievement Among Female Students of the Transitional Program and University Female Students Majoring in Kindergarten, Special Education, and Psychology
ALJAAD, Nawal H.
The aim of this study was to identify the efficiency of the transitional programs at the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Saud University. Data collection relied on the educational achievement rates of the female students enrolled in the College of Applied Studies and also the regular students at the College of Education, King Saud University, majoring in kindergarten, special education, and psychology. The study was conducted on the whole population of the fifth level...
Two green chemistry courses have been introduced into the liberal arts curriculum at Susquehanna University. Green chemistry was integrated into an existing course, Chemical Concepts, and offered as Green Chemical Concepts for nonscience majors. This course is designed to instill an appreciation for green chemistry in a large and diverse group of…
Karpiak, Christie P.; Buchanan, James P.; Hosey, Megan; Smith, Allison
We conducted an archival study at a coeducational Catholic university to test the proposition that single-sex secondary education predicts lasting differences in college majors. Men from single-sex schools were more likely to both declare and graduate in gender-neutral majors than those from coeducational schools. Women from single-sex schools…
Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of…
Hooper, E. J.
Five radio shows; a full-page color spread in the campus newspaper; YouTube videos; an interactive activity at the local children's museum; a star party for a dorm; children's books; an outing with Boy Scouts. This is just a sampling of group projects planned and executed in a single semester by students in an introductory course for non-science majors. Everyone in the class joins a group self-organized around common interests to produce a product or activity that communicates some aspect of astronomy to a segment of the general population. These projects give the students a creative outlet to merge some of their outside interests with the course material, a practical exposure to scientific communication, an opportunity for peer instruction including peer evaluation, and a chance to hone their skills in managing group dynamics. The semester long effort begins with everyone in the class submitting individual ideas for subjects and presentation methods. After these ideas are categorized, students begin organizing the groups on a web discussion board. They articulate learning goals for the intended audience and describe how they plan to evaluate the success of the project and the attainment of these goals. The group members seek outside advice from people in other groups during one week of the course discussion section. They submit a progress report and then a first draft, the latter also sent to a different group for review. After feedback from the instructor and a week of the teaching assistant's (TA's) office hours devoted to scheduled meetings with each group, the students draft the final versions or make presentations near the end of the semester.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the writing errors of ninety Saudi non-English major undergraduate students of different proficiency levels from three faculties, who studied English as a foundation course at the English Language Center in the College of Languages &Translation at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2016-17. The findings reveal that the common errors the Saudi EFL students make in writing English paragraphs fall under four categories namely grammar, lexis, semantics and mechanics. Then it compares the categories, types and frequency of errors committed by these three groups of students. Among these categories, grammar has been observed as the most error-prone area where students commit errors the most. The study also posits that among the three groups, the students of the College of Medicine make the minimum errors in all the types and the highest number of errors is committed by the students of Engineering College. The College of Computer Science is in the second position in making errors. The frequency of error types is also found different among these three groups.
Stella Regina Martins
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.
Guertin, L. A.; Farley, I.; Geary, A.
Introductory-level Earth science courses provide the opportunity for science and non-science majors to expand discipline-specific content knowledge while enhancing skill sets applicable to all disciplines. The outcomes of the student work can then benefit the education and outreach efforts of an international organization - in this case, a wiki devoted exclusively to the geosciences, managed by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). The course Environment Earth at Penn State Brandywine is a general education science course with the overarching course goal for students to understand, communicate examples, and make informed decisions relating to big ideas and fundamental concepts of Earth science. To help accomplish this goal, students carry out a semester-long digital engaged scholarship project that benefits the users of the SEG Wiki (http://wiki.seg.org/). To begin with developing the literacy of students and their ability to read, interpret, and evaluate sources of scientific news, the first assignment requires students to write an annotated bibliography on a specific topic that serves as the foundation for a new SEG Wiki article. Once students have collected and summarized information from reliable sources, students learn how writing for a wiki is different than writing a term paper and begin drafting their wiki page. Students peer review each other's work for content and clarity before publishing their work on the SEG wiki. Students respond positively to this project, reporting a better understanding of and respect towards the authors of online wiki pages, as well as an overall satisfaction of knowing their work will benefit others. Links to student-generated pages and instructional materials can be found at: http://sites.psu.edu/segwiki/.
This study investigates the self-reported experiences of students participating in a Galician language and culture course. Galician, a language historically spoken in northwestern Spain, has been losing ground with respect to Spanish, particularly in urban areas and among the younger generations. The research specifically focuses on informal…
Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.
The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…
Ariga, T.; Watanabe, T.
The explosive growth of the Internet has made the knowledge and skills for creating Web pages into general subjects that all students should learn. It is now common to teach the technical side of the production of Web pages and many teaching materials have been developed. However teaching the aesthetic side of Web page design has been neglected,…
Al-Sehiemy, Zainab Abdul-Rahman; Gheith, Nervana Abdul-Rahman
Recently, public administration graduates are exposed to new set of challenges because of globalization, virtual world and using modern technology as a base of all today's dealings. It imposes PAD at faculty of economic and administration faculty to prepare its students to confront these changes in organizations in the community. Therefore, the…
Alkubaidi, Miriam A.
This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners' learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the…
Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Wigfield, Allan; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study extends previous research on the long-term connections between motivation constructs in expectancy-value theory and achievement outcomes. Using growth mixture modelling, we examined trajectories of change for 421 students from 4th grade through college in their self-concept of ability (SCA) in math, interest in math, and perceived…
Genoways, Sharon K.
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education creates critical thinkers, increases science literacy, and enables the next generation of innovators, which leads to new products and processes that sustain our economy (Hossain & Robinson, 2012). We have been hearing the warnings for several years, that there simply are not enough young scientists entering into the STEM professional pathways to replace all of the retiring professionals (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Harsh, Maltese, & Tai, 2012; Heilbronner, 2011; Scott, 2012). The problem is not necessarily due to a lack of STEM skills and concept proficiency. There also appears to be a lack of interest in these fields. Recent evidence suggests that many of the most proficient students, especially minority students and women, have been gravitating away from science and engineering toward other professions. (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative research study was an attempt to determine how high schools can best prepare and encourage young women for a career in engineering or computer science. This was accomplished by interviewing a pool of 21 women, 5 recent high school graduates planning to major in STEM, 5 college students who had completed at least one full year of coursework in an engineering or computer science major and 11 professional women who had been employed as an engineer or computer scientist for at least one full year. These women were asked to share the high school courses, activities, and experiences that best prepared them to pursue an engineering or computer science major. Five central themes emerged from this study; coursework in physics and calculus, promotion of STEM camps and clubs, teacher encouragement of STEM capabilities and careers, problem solving, critical thinking and confidence building activities in the classroom, and allowing students the opportunity to fail and ask questions in a safe environment. These
Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida
Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style?s questionnaire was do...
Courtney, A. R.
Students today process information very differently than those of previous generations. They are used to getting their news from 140-character tweets, being entertained by You-Tube videos, and Googling everything. Thus, traditional passive methods of content delivery do not work well for many of these millennials. All students, regardless of career goals, need to become scientifically literate to be able to function in a world where scientific issues are of increasing importance. Those who have had experience applying scientific reasoning to real-world problems in the classroom will be better equipped to make informed decisions in the future. The problem to be solved is how to present scientific content in a manner that fosters student learning in today's world. This presentation will describe how the appeal of technology and social communication via creation of documentary-style videos has been used to engage students to learn scientific concepts in a university non-science major course focused on energy and the environment. These video projects place control of the learning experience into the hands of the learner and provide an opportunity to develop critical thinking skills. Students discover how to locate scientifically reliable information by limiting searches to respected sources and synthesize the information through collaborative content creation to generate a "story". Video projects have a number of advantages over research paper writing. They allow students to develop collaboration skills and be creative in how they deliver the scientific content. Research projects are more effective when the audience is larger than just a teacher. Although our videos are used as peer-teaching tools in the classroom, they also are shown to a larger audience in a public forum to increase the challenge. Video will be the professional communication tool of the future. This presentation will cover the components of the video production process and instructional lessons
Full Text Available In our world of growing complexity, linear thinking and the belief that the whole is only the sum of its parts are evidently obsolete. Systems thinking, which promotes a holistic view of reality, is a situation-adequate handling of complex systems, and is therefore one of the most important skills of future executives in the business world. A new teaching concept was introduced one year ago by the Faculty of Business Administration at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. This concept was designed to help the students to develop abilities in thinking in models, operating complex systems and handling dynamic, non-linear situations. By use of a computer-simulated game the business students should gain knowledge about systemic realities and improve their complex-problem-solving skills. In the semester when the newly designed lecture started, the highly motivated class became aware of the problems in dealing with complexity. Documenting any significant improvements in our students' performance in playing the game was not possible, but we observed a change in their behaviour and ways of thinking in situations of complex problem-solving. Some necessary changes and adjustments in the teaching concept were made and the next class will be investigated in autumn 2003.
Full Text Available Background: To determine the most usual resources that adolescents and teenagers are using to learn about sexual issues. A cross-sectional exploratory study implemented in June 2015 in Zahedan, the capital city of Sistan-va-Baluchestan Province, located in the southeast of Iran. Methods: Using convenient sampling method, from among student of two large universities in Zahedan, 134 students 18 to 22 years old, accepted invitation for filling a self-administered anonymized questionnaire containing, 8 semi-closed questions about sexual issues. Results: 44.9% of women and 41.6% of men mentioned one of their friends as their tutors. While 42.0% of women mentioned their mothers as one of their tutors, only 18.8% of them believed that more than 50% of their sexual knowledge came from their mothers. 23.1% of male participants and 36.2% of female ones alleged to know personally people of their own ages who had been subjected to sexual abuse or harassment earlier in their life. Conclusion: In Iran, educating sexual issues to adolescents is badly in need of organization and management. While the rule of a committed extra-family tutor (e.g. an officially appointed school teacher might not be considered a solution, parents have to be prompted for filling the gap.
Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez
Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Ozkan, Eric Dogan
Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and
Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.
Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo
The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.
Szymanski, D. W.
Successful collaborations in community science require the participation of non-scientists as advocates for the use of science in addressing complex problems. This is especially true, but particularly difficult, with respect to the wicked problems of sustainability. The complicated, unsolvable, and inherently political nature of challenges like climate change can provoke cynicism and apathy about the use of science. While science education is a critical part of preparing all students to address wicked problems, it is not sufficient. Non-scientists must also learn how to advocate for the role of science in policy solutions. Fortunately, the transdisciplinary nature of sustainability provides a venue for engaging all undergraduates in community science, regardless of major. I describe a model for involving non-science majors in a form of service-learning, where the pursuit of community science becomes a powerful pedagogical tool for civic engagement. Bentley University is one of the few stand-alone business schools in the United States and provides an ideal venue to test this model, given that 95% of Bentley's 4000 undergraduates major in a business discipline. The technology-focused business program is combined with an integrated arts & sciences curriculum and experiential learning opportunities though the nationally recognized Bentley Service-Learning and Civic Engagement Center. In addition to a required general education core that includes the natural sciences, students may opt to complete a second major in liberal studies with thematic concentrations like Earth, Environment, and Global Sustainability. In the course Science in Environmental Policy, students may apply to complete a service-learning project for an additional course credit. The smaller group of students then act as consultants, conducting research for a non-profit organization in the Washington, D.C. area involved in geoscience policy. At the end of the semester, students travel to D.C. and present
Walters, Kristi L.
The importance of student motivation and its connection to other learning variables (i.e., attitudes, knowledge, persistence, attendance) is well established. Collaborative work at the undergraduate level has been recognized as a valuable tool in large courses. However, motivation and collaborative group work have rarely been combined. This project utilized student motivation to learn biology to place non-major biology undergraduates in collaborative learning groups at East Carolina University, a mid-sized southeastern American university, to determine the effects of this construct on student learning. A pre-test measuring motivation to learn biology, attitudes toward biology, perceptions of biology and biologists, views of science, and content knowledge was administered. A similar post-test followed as part of the final exam. Two sections of the same introductory biology course (n = 312) were used and students were divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous groups (based on their motivation score). The heterogeneous groups (n = 32) consisted of a mixture of different motivation levels, while the homogeneous groups (n = 32) were organized into teams with similar motivation scores using tiers of high-, middle-, and low-level participants. Data analysis determined mixed perceptions of biology and biologists. These include the perceptions biology was less intriguing, less relevant, less practical, less ethical, and less understandable. Biologists were perceived as being neat and slightly intelligent, but not very altruistic, humane, ethical, logical, honest, or moral. Content knowledge scores more than doubled from pre- to post-test. Half of the items measuring views of science were not statistically significantly different from pre- to post-test. Many of the factors for attitudes toward biology became more agreeable from pre- to post-test. Correlations between motivation scores, participation levels, attendance rates, and final course grades were examined at both the
Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Levine, R.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Velasco, A. A.
Anecdotally, it is often stated that the majority of students that enter the geosciences usually do so sometime after their initial entrance into college. With the objective of providing concrete and useful information for individuals developing programs for inspiring interest in the Geosciences amongst pre-college students and trying to increase the number of freshman Geoscience majors, we conducted a critical incident study. Twenty-two students, who were undergraduate or graduate Geoscience majors, were asked, "Why did you decide to major in the Geosciences?" in a series of interviews. Their responses were then used to identify over 100 critical incidents, each of which described a specific behavior that was causally responsible for a student's choice to major in Geoscience. Using these critical incidents, we developed a preliminary taxonomy that is comprised of three major categories: Informal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., outdoor experiences, family involvement), Formal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., academic experiences, program participation) and a Combined Informal and Formal Exposure (e.g., media exposure). Within these three main categories we identified thirteen subcategories. These categories and subcategories, describe, classify, and provide concrete examples of strategies that were responsible for geosciences career choices. As a whole, the taxonomy is valuable as a new, data-based guide for designing geosciences recruitment programs for the pre-college student population.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Feng, Danjun; Zhao, Wenjing; Shen, Shiyu; Chen, Jieru; Li, Lu
The gender-based stereotype of nursing as a female profession has been a large obstacle to men entering the nursing profession. However, there is little quantitative research on the influence of prejudice induced by this stereotype on male nursing students' willingness to be nurses. To examine the effect of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse via the mediating effect of satisfaction with major among Chinese male nursing students. A cross-sectional survey was used. Four hundred and sixty male nursing students who were enrolled either in bachelor's programs in universities or advanced diploma programs in colleges in Jinan, China, were surveyed using questionnaires measuring perceived prejudice, satisfaction with major, and willingness to be a nurse. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was employed to determine the influence of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse with major satisfaction as a mediator. Male students who were in an advanced diploma nursing program and those for whom nursing was the first-choice major reported significantly less perceived prejudice, greater satisfaction with major, and greater willingness to be nurses than did those in a bachelor's nursing program and those for whom nursing was not the first-choice major, respectively. Moreover, although perceived prejudice had no significant direct effect on willingness to be a nurse (β=0.07, p>0.05), it did have a strong indirect effect (full mediation) via satisfaction with major (β=-0.59, pnursing students' willingness to be nurses via the full mediating effect of satisfaction with major. Because this obsolete stereotype of nursing as a female occupation gives birth to prejudice against male nursing students, effective measures should be taken to change this stereotype to recruit more men as nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...
Decision Support System For Approval New Student And Majoring Selection Based On Student’s Interest And Talent By Fuzzy Multiple Decision Making, Simple Additive Weighting And Buble Sort Method In SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan
Full Text Available Decision Support System for New Student Acceptance aims to simplify the Decision Maker who is the Committee of New Student Acceptance to select prospective new students based on eight criteria. That is registration number, the average value of National Examinations, medical tests, interview, their achievements, salary of parents per month, number of siblings who are still in school and administration department and give recommendations for the major of accepted students based on their interests and talents. There are four major in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, these are Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak (RPL, Teknik Komputer dan Jaringan (TKJ, Multimedia and Teknik Kendaraan Ringan (TKR. And the talents be measured by math test, electro test, daw test and physics test.
Hu, Jun; Zhang, Mu
Currently there is inconformity between quality of graduate education and social demand in our country. Graduate students' ability can't meet the demand of national innovation and changing the cultivation mode of graduate student is imminent. Enlightened by the open and independent "student-centered" postgraduate education in foreign…
D'Cruz, Noella L.
It seems surprising that non-science major introductory astronomy students find the daily path of the Sun and shadows created by the Sun challenging to learn even though both can be easily observed (provided students do not look directly at the Sun). In order for our students to master the relevant concepts, we have usually used lecture, a lecture tutorial (from Prather, et al.) followed by think-pair-share questions, a planetarium presentation and an animation from the Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project to teach these topics. We cover these topics in a lecture-only, one semester introductory astronomy course at Joliet Junior College. Feedback from our Spring 2014 students indicated that the planetarium presentation was the most helpful in learning the path of the Sun while none of the four teaching methods was helpful when learning about shadows cast by the Sun. Our students did not find the lecture tutorial to be much help even though such tutorials have been proven to promote deep conceptual change. In Fall 2014, we continued to use these four methods, but we modified how we teach both topics so our students could gain more from the tutorial. We hoped our modifications would cause students to have a better overall grasp of the concepts. After our regular lecture, we gave a shorter than usual planetarium presentation on the path of the Sun and we asked students to work through a shadow activity from Project Astro materials. Then students completed the lecture tutorial and some think-pair-share questions. After this, we asked students to predict the Sun's path on certain days of the year and we used the planetarium projector to show them how well their predictions matched up. We ended our coverage of these topics by asking students a few more think-pair-share questions. In our poster, we will present our approach to teaching these topics in Fall 2014, how our Fall 2014 students feel about our teaching strategies and how they fared on related test questions.
Mack, Ana C.
likely to withdraw from the course than occasional or non-SI participants. In biology, no relationship between SI participation, gender, and student ethnic background was found. In chemistry, female students were significantly more likely to attend SI regularly than males. Chemistry minority students had significantly higher representation among occasional SI participants. An important implication involved the use of pedagogical approaches that make lecture classrooms more interactive and encourage student motivation and engagement. This study could be replicated in other science and non-science courses that offer SI sessions. Additional factors in the success of SI programs and student motivation can be added, such as SI leaders' experience and major. Follow-up studies on students who completed the courses included in this study can be conducted to determine whether they reenrolled in other science courses, continued attending SI sessions, and gained self-regulated learning skills.
Burns, Timothy; Gao, Yuan; Sherman, Cherie; Vengerov, Alexander; Klein, Stephen
This paper reports the results of a survey administered to 322 undergraduate business students enrolled in an introductory Information Systems course at a public liberal arts college located in the northeast US. The goal of this research was to learn, given the increased demand for technology oriented jobs, why fewer students are choosing the…
Neal, Micki; Fletcher, Carla; Shook, Melissa; Webster, Jeff
As the cost and importance of education continue to rise, more college students across the U.S. begin their postsecondary education by signing a contract to repay an ever-increasing amount of student loan debt. Conventional wisdom maintains that borrowing for college is an investment in the future that should be deemed "good debt". Data…
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Milkent, Marlene M.
This study was designed as a test for two neo-Piagetian theories. More specifically, this research examined the relationships between the development of proportional reasoning strategies and three cognitive variables from Pascual-Leone's and Case's neo-Piagetian theories. A priori hypotheses linked the number of problems students worked until they induced a proportional reasoning strategy to the variables of M-space, degree of field dependence, and short-term storage space. The subjects consisted of students enrolled in Physical Science I, a science course for nonscience majors at the University of Southern Mississippi. Of the 34 subjects in the study, 23 were classified as concrete operational on the basis of eight ratio tasks. Problems corresponding to five developmental levels of proportional reasoning (according to Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theory), were presented by a microcomputer to the 23 subjects who had been classified as concrete operational. After a maximum of 6 hours of treatment, 17 of the 23 subjects had induced ratio schemata at the upper formal level (IIIB), while the remaining subjects used lower formal level (IIIA) schemata. The data analyses showed that neither M-space and degree of field-dependence, either alone or in combination, nor short-term storage predicted the number of problems students need to do until they induce an appropriate problem-solving strategy. However, there were significant differences in the short-term storage space of those subjects who mastered ratio problems at the highest level and those who did not. Also, the subjects' degree of field-dependence was not a predictor of either the ability to transfer problem-solving strategies to a new setting or the reuse of inappropriate strategies. The results of this study also suggest that short-term storage space is a variable with high correlations to a number of aspects of learning such as transfer and choice of strategy after feedback.
Wade, P.; Courtney, A.
Students enrolled in an undergraduate non-science majors’ Energy Perspectives course created 10-15 minute video documentaries on topics related to Energy Resources and the Environment. Video project topics included wave, biodiesel, clean coal, hydro, solar and “off-the-grid” energy technologies. No student had any prior experience with creating video projects. Students had Liberal Arts academic backgrounds that included Anthropology, Theater Arts, International Studies, English and Early Childhood Education. Students were required to: 1) select a topic, 2) conduct research, 3) write a narrative, 4) construct a project storyboard, 5) shoot or acquire video and photos (from legal sources), 6) record the narrative, and 7) construct the video documentary. This study describes the instructional approach of using student created video documentaries as projects in an undergraduate non-science majors’ science course. Two knowledge survey instruments were used for assessment purposes. Each instrument was administered Pre-, Mid- and Post course. One survey focused on the skills necessary to research and produce video documentaries. Results showed students acquired enhanced technology skills especially with regard to research techniques, writing skills and video editing. The second survey assessed students’ content knowledge acquired from each documentary. Results indicated students’ increased their content knowledge of energy resource topics. Students reported very favorable evaluations concerning their experience with creating “Ken Burns” video project documentaries.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of perception and motivation to Students Career Interests in Taxation of Departement of Accounting Faculty of Economics at the State University of Jakarta. This study used 75 students S1 Departement of Accounting, State University of Jakarta which is still active academic year 2010. Data used in this study is primary data and selection of samples using a convenience sampling method. The analytical tool used is multiple linear regression analysis at a significance level of 5%. The first phase of testing the validity and reliability of the statement of each variable. The second stage, performing variable regression perception and motivation towards a career in the field of taxation the interest of students. The results of testing the feasibility of the model shows that the two independent variables, namely perception and motivation affect the career interests of students in the field of taxation Accounting Department of Economics at the State University of Jakarta simultaneously.
Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael
In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…
Ahmad Mosa Batianeh
Full Text Available Abstractــ-This study explored the effects of using online chat and word processors on students' writing skills that include; organizing a text, spelling, punctuation, grammar, phrasal verbs, idioms, idiomatic expressions, pragmatics, creativity, vocabulary growth, content, relational words, conjunctions, authenticity, figures of speech, imagination, coherence, style, socio-cultural aspects, language use, and the production of authentic text. The study group consisted of students in the Department of Languages and Translation at Taibah University who registered for the Writing Two course in the first semester of the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Fourty subjects were divided into two sections: section one was assigned as an experimental group (supported by Facebook and Skype and section two was assigned as a control group and was asked to write their essays with paper and pencil. Facebook and Skype accounts were created for every student in the experimental group. Data was analyzed from pre-test and post-test results to evaluate the question posed by the study: Does the use of online text chat assisted with word processors help undergraduate students develop their writing skills more than traditional methods of teaching? The results revealed that students who worked with Facebook and Skype showed a significant improvement in their writing skills when compared to the control group. In light of these findings, it is recommended that online discussions via Facebook, Skype, and other social media sites should be utilized when teaching writing and the other language skills.
Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd R. Stinebrickner
Taking advantage of unique longitudinal data, we provide the first characterization of what college students believe at the time of entrance about their final major, relate these beliefs to actual major outcomes, and provide an understanding of why students hold the initial beliefs about majors that they do. The data collection and analysis are based directly on a conceptual model in which a student's final major is best viewed as the end result of a learning process. We find that students en...
Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).
Hawkins, Dianne Kendrick
African American students receive placements in special education in numbers disproportionate to their representation in the population at large. They are also placed in most restrictive settings in large numbers. The current quantitative study was designed to examine the influence of participation in ARD/IEP meetings by African American parents…
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in…
Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph S.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Weaver, Hayley; da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong
Purpose: To examine the mediational effect of core self-evaluations (CSE) on the relationship between functional disability and life satisfaction. Methods: A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression analysis. The participants were 97 college students with disabilities receiving services through Hunter College's Minority-Disability…
Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.
Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…
Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Fisher, Ginger R; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen
Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices' development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to "think like a scientist." Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students' development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. © 2016 J. T. Olimpo et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Wallace, Michael L.
This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS
Despite decades of efforts to increase the participation of women and people from underrepresented minority groups (URM) in science and math majors and careers, and despite the increasing diversification of the US population as a whole (Planty et al. in National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of…
Moss, David M.
The purpose of this research was to develop descriptive accounts of precollege students' conceptions of the nature of science from two project-based classrooms, and track those conceptions over the course of an academic year. A model of the nature of science was developed and served as the criterion by which students' beliefs were evaluated. The model distinguishes between two major categories of science, the nature of the scientific enterprise and the nature of scientific knowledge. Five students were selected from each class and interviewed individually for 30-45 minutes each, six times over the year. Data from semi-structured, formal interviewing consisted of audio-recorded interviews which were transcribed verbatim. All passages were coded using codes which corresponded to the premises of the model of the nature of science. Passages in the transcripts were interpreted to develop a summary of the students' conceptions over the year. Qualitative methodologies, especially formal interviewing in conjunction with participant observation, were effective for uncovering students' conceptions of the nature of science, adding to the knowledge base in this field. The research design of the current study was a significant factor in explaining the inconsistencies seen between findings from this study and the literature. This study finds that participants at both classroom sites held fully formed conceptions of the nature of science for approximately 40 percent of the premises across the model. For two-thirds of the elements which comprise the premises, participants held full understandings. Participants held more complete understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge than the nature of the scientific enterprise. Most participants had difficulty distinguishing between science and non-science and held poor understandings of the role of questions in science. Students' beliefs generally remained unchanged over the year. When their conceptions did evolve, project
Peters, John S.
This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7
Jammula, Diane Crenshaw
Physics is one of the least diverse sciences; in the U.S. in 2010, only 21% of bachelors degrees in physics were awarded to women, 2.5% to African Americans, and 4% to Hispanic Americans (AIP, 2012). Though physics education reform efforts supporting interactive engagement have doubled students' learning gains (Hake, 1998), gender and race gaps persist (Brewe et al., 2010; Kost, Pollock, & Finkelstein, 2009). When students' subjectivities align with presentations of physics, they are more likely to develop positive physics identities (Hughes, 2001). However, both traditional and reformed physics classrooms may present physics singularly as abstract, elite, and rational (Carlone, 2004). Drawing from feminist science, I argue that binaries including abstract / concrete, elite / accessible, and rational / emotional are hierarchal and gendered, raced and classed. The words on the left define conventional physics and are associated with middle class white masculinity, while the words on the right are associated with femininity or other, and are often missing or delegitimized in physics education, as are females and minorities. To conceptualize a feminist physics education, I deconstructed these binaries by including the words on the right as part of doing physics. I do not imply that women and men think differently, but that broadening notions of physics may allow a wider range of students to connect with the discipline. I used this conceptual framework to modify a popular reformed physics curriculum called Modeling Instruction (Hestenes, 1987). I taught this curriculum at an urban public college in an introductory physics course for non-science majors. Twenty-three students of diverse gender, race, ethnic, immigrant and class backgrounds enrolled. I conducted an ethnography of the classroom to learn how students negotiate their subjectivities to affiliate with or alienate from their perceptions of physics, and to understand how classroom experiences exacerbate or
Full Text Available On the gradual implementation of the new medical education reform and thoroughly applying the Educational Development Plan and the Health Care System Reform, the teaching mode of medical discipline will be changed gradually by following the law of medical education and meeting the need to boost the medical education reform. Meanwhile, the changing life-style prompts the traditional dispensing mode for Chinese traditional medicine to various modes. This changing put forward higher requirement for medicine- related professionals During the process of Chinese medicine teaching, the only method which can fulfill the new need for graduates of Chinese medicine and qualified medicine personals is to change the traditional teaching mode to the new ones which can arose the enthusiasm of working and learning by the traditional medicine students.
Craig, P L; Gordon, J J; Clark, R M; Langendyk, V
This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1-3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the 'USydMP'). Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be
Ross, L. E.; Kelly, M.; Springer, A. E.
In the Fall semester of 2003, Northern Arizona University will introduce the GeoWall to its introductory geology courses. This presents an opportunity to assess the impact of this new technology on students' understanding of basic topographic concepts and the spatial relationships between geology, topography, and hydrology on a field trip. Introductory Geology fulfills the Lab Science component of the Liberal Studies Program at Northern Arizona University. The class is open to all Northern Arizona University students, and is most commonly taken by non-science majors. In this class students learn to: locate their position using maps, identify common minerals and rocks, recognize the relationship between geology and geomorphology, visualize how rocks exposed at the surface continue into the subsurface, and to draw conclusions about possible geologic hazards in different settings. In this study we will report how a GeoWall 3D visualization technology was used in a field study of a graben south of Flagstaff. The goal of the field exercise is to improve students' ability to synthesize data collected at field stops into a conceptual model of the graben, linking geology, geomorphology and hydrology. We plan to present a quantitative assessment of the GeoWall learning objectives from data collected from a paired test and control group of students. Teaching assistants (TAs) with two or more lab classes have been identified; these TAs will participate in both GeoWall and non-GeoWall lab exercises. The GeoWall use will occur outside of normal lab hours to avoid disrupting the lab schedule during the eighth week of lab. This field preparation exercise includes a 3D visualization of the Lake Mary graben rendered with the ROMA software. The following week, all students attend the graben field trip; immediately following the trip, students will interviewed about their gain in understanding of the geologic features illustrated during the field trip. The results of the post
Prather, Edward E.; Brissenden, G.; Cormier, S.; Eckenrode, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
College-level general education (gen ed.) curricula in the US have many goals: exposing students to the breadth of human ideas; elevating their reading comprehension, writing abilities, critical reasoning skills; and providing an understanding of, and appreciation for, subjects outside of their chosen field of study. Unfortunately the majority of the teaching and learning for gen ed. courses takes place in large enrollment courses. In the wake of the recent US financial crisis, many institutions of higher learning face extreme budget cuts, leading many faculty to teach in substantially larger classes with increasingly fewer resources. At the University of Arizona this issue manifests itself in mega-classes with enrollments from 700-1400. We discuss key programmatic and pedagogical changes involved in successfully implementing proven collaborative learning strategies into an Astro 101 mega-class. From devising new ways to hand out and collect papers, to altering course seating, to outlawing cell phones and laptops, to implementing new ways of administering tests. We take a "what ever it takes” approach to engineering this mega-course environment so it can succeed as a learner-centered classroom. Paramount to the success of this course has been the creation of the new CAE Ambassadors program which advances the leadership role of prior non-science majors along the continuum from student, to teaching assistant, to science education researcher, to STEM minor. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Strauss, Jeff; Shope, Richard E., III; Terebey, Susan
Science literacy is a major goal of science educational reform (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1998; NCLB Act, 2001). Some believe that teaching science only requires pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Others believe doing science requires knowledge of the methodologies of scientific inquiry (NRC, 1996). With these two mindsets, the challenge for science educators is to create models that bring the two together. The common ground between those who teach science and those who do science is science communication, an interactive process that galvanizes dialogue among scientists, teachers, and learners in a rich ambience of mutual respect and a common, inclusive language of discourse . The dialogue between science and non-science is reflected in the polarization that separates those who do science and those who teach science, especially as it plays out everyday in the science classroom. You may be thinking, why is this important? It is vital because, although not all science learners become scientists, all K-12 students are expected to acquire science literacy, especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Students are expected to acquire the ability to follow the discourse of science as well as connect the world of science to the context of their everyday life if they plan on moving to the next grade level, and in some states, to graduate from high school. This paper posits that science communication is highly effective in providing the missing link for K-12 students cognition in science and their attainment of science literacy. This paper will focus on the "Science For Our Schools" (SFOS) model implemented at California State Univetsity, Los Angeles (CSULA) as a project of the National Science Foundation s GK-12 program, (NSF 2001) which has been a huge success in bridging the gap between those who "know" science and those who "teach" science. The SFOS model makes clear the distinctions that identify science, science communication, science
Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie
All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…
Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars
Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...
Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.
Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210
Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.
This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.
Davis, Consuella Artiemese
This study investigated predictors that influence the science achievement of African-American non-science majors in a Physical Science class. The population consisted of male and female college students enrolled in Physical Science courses at a historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern portion of the United States. A personal data information sheet was administered to 120 participants during the Fall of 2008. The personal data information sheet consisted of questions pertaining to the high school courses, students took in math, language arts and science. It also consisted of basic background information. Students also gave written consent for their midterm and final grades earned in Physical Science to be used in the study as part of the analyses. A t-Test including chi-square tests revealed that there was not a significant difference in the raw scores of African-American females and African American males on the American College Test. A significant difference was not observed between the females and males on the ACT math subtest, t (118) = -.78, p = .43; reading comprehension subtest, t (118) = -1.44, .15 or on the science reasoning subtest, t (118) = -1.46, p = .15. A significant difference was not found between the final grades of African American females and the final grades of African American males. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine goodness of fit, X2 = 6.11, df = 1, p = .191. Although the grades of females were higher than males, results were not significant. The correlation between math ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .131, N = 120, p = .155, reading comprehension ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .072, N = 120, p = .434 and science reasoning ACT and final grades were found not to be significant, r = .109, N = 120, p = .237. Being that the majority of students who participated in the study were from one state, had similar high school backgrounds, had similar majors and were similar in
This thesis argues that college-level science education is in need of explicit moral focuses centered on society's use of scientific knowledge. Many benefits come with scientific advancements but unfortunately the misuse of scientific knowledge has led to planetary crises that should be a concern for all who inhabit the Earth (e.g., climate change). The teaching of the misuses of science is often left out of college science classrooms and the purpose of this thesis is to see what effect college science students' education has had on their moral perception of these pressing issues. To evaluate how college science students morally perceive these global issues within their educational experiences, two focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed. Students converged on three themes when thinking of society's misuse of science: 1) there is something wrong with the way science is communicated between science and non-science groups; 2) misusing science for private benefit is not right, and 3) it is important for people to comprehend sustainability along different scales of understanding and action. This thesis concludes that although to some extent students were familiar with moral features that stem from society's misuse of science, they did not attribute their learning of those features from any of their required coursework within their programs of study.
Szu, Evan; Osborne, Jonathan; Patterson, Alexis D
Popular media influences ideas about science constructed by the public. To sway media productions, public policy organizations have increasingly promoted use of science consultants. This study contributes to understanding the connection from science consultants to popular media to public outcomes. A science-based television series was examined for intended messages of the creator and consulting scientist, and received messages among middle school and non-science university students. The results suggest the consulting scientist missed an opportunity to influence the portrayal of the cultural contexts of science and that middle school students may be reading these aspects uncritically-a deficiency educators could potentially address. In contrast, all groups discussed the science content and practices of the show, indicating that scientific facts were salient to both media makers and audiences. This suggests popular media may influence the public knowledge of science, supporting concerns of scientists about the accuracy of fictional television and film.
Cox, I. V.; Quirk, M.; Culbert, K. N.; Whitesides, A. S.; Sun, H.; Black, C. J.; Cao, W.; Zhang, T.; Paterson, S. R.; Memeti, V.; Anderson, J. L.
In 2006, USC Earth Sciences professors Paterson and Anderson created the Undergraduate Team Research (UTR) program, a year-long, multidisciplinary, learner-centered, student research experience. This program is open to all USC undergraduate students, but has also involved a few outstanding undergraduate students from other universities. Since its inception the 47 participants have been a diverse group: 53% women, ~17% minorities, and 43% non-Earth Science majors. To date, 15 abstracts written by UTR participants have been presented at national GSA and AGU meetings and several research papers for publication are in preparation. 12 presentations have been produced at University-sponsored research symposia and culminated in a number of senior theses. The central component of this program is a field-based research experience which involves several weeks of geologic mapping in various locations around the world. During the summer expedition, participants organize themselves into 3-4 person mapping teams consisting of a mix of undergraduate geology majors, non-majors, and mentors (professors and graduate students). At the end of each day, student researchers (with limited mentoring) work together to draft a geologic map while discussing their findings, formulating hypotheses about possible geologic histories, and planning research goals and organizing mapping teams for the next day. Throughout the following academic year, the student researchers continue to work in teams to digitize their geologic map, decide which analyses need to be done, and prepare collected rock samples for various structural, geochemical, and geochronologic studies. Most student researchers agree that they learned more in a few weeks than they often did in an entire semester course. What aspects of the UTR program elicit these high-yield results, even for non-majors that can be applied to other learning environments? We speculate that three critical elements are important: (1) The most notable is
Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.
Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…
Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong
The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…
Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer
Keller, John Michael
This work presents two research efforts, one involving planetary science education research and a second involving the surface composition of Mars. In the former, student beliefs and reasoning difficulties associated with the greenhouse effect were elicited through student interviews and written survey responses from >900 US undergraduate non-science majors. This guided the development of the Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory (GECI), an educational research tool designed to assess pre- and post-instruction conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect. Three versions of this multiple-choice instrument were administered to >2,500 undergraduates as part of the development and validation process. In contrast to previous research efforts regarding causes, consequences, and solutions to the enhanced greenhouse effect, the GECI focuses primarily on the physics of energy flow through Earth's atmosphere. The GECI is offered to the science education community as a research tool for assessing instructional strategies on this topic. It was confirmed that the study population subscribes to several previously identified beliefs. These include correct understandings that carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas and the greenhouse effect increases planetary surface temperatures. Students also commonly associate the greenhouse effect with increased penetration of sunlight into and trapping of solar energy in the atmosphere. Students intermix concepts associated with the greenhouse effect, global warming, and ozone depletion. Reinforcing the latter concept, a majority believe that the Sun radiates most of its energy as ultraviolet light. Students also describe inaccurate and incomplete trapping models, which include permanent trapping, trapping through reflection, and trapping of gases and pollution. Another reasoning difficulty involves the idea that Earth's surface radiates energy primarily during the nighttime. The second research effort describes the distribution of
Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N
To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.
Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.
This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…
Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...
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Kao, Lancelot L.; Umurhan, O. M.; Summer, T. J.
So-called "ASTRO 101” survey courses in general astronomy are offered to non-science majors in colleges and universities across the United States, to fulfill general-education requirements in the physical sciences. At least two of the common Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) for these courses are critical thinking and understanding astronomy as a scientific discipline. We argue that a comprehensive lower-division astronomy program surpassing ASTRO 101 would increase science literacy for non-science majors, STEM students, and the general public. The program would include diverse astronomy course offerings, interdisciplinary science courses (e.g. astrobiology), service-learning and peer-mentoring activities, and internship opportunities.
Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909
Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students
Grundstein, Andrew; Durkee, Joshua; Frye, John; Andersen, Theresa; Lieberman, Jordan
This paper describes a new severe weather laboratory exercise for an Introductory Weather and Climate class, appropriate for first and second year college students (including nonscience majors), that incorporates inquiry-based learning techniques. In the lab, students play the role of meteorologists making forecasts for severe weather. The…
At Appalachian State University students have to take just two semesters of a physical or biological science to satisfy the general education requirements. Most non-science major students have little time in their crowded schedules to take additional science courses, whether they want to or not, and in fact face a surcharge when taking more…
Lea, P. D.; Urquhart, J.
The title quote, from a senior geoscience major, illustrates one of the important aspects of service learning. The associated authentic research experiences benefit not only learning of geoscience concepts, but also students’ perceptions of the role of science in society. For the past two years, a wide-ranging study of water-quality dynamics in the Androscoggin Lake watershed of Maine has engaged (1) introductory students and non-science majors in spring-semester courses, (2) upper-level geoscience majors in fall-semester courses, and (3) seniors undertaking independent summer research. The overall focus of the research is to understand nutrient loading to Androscoggin Lake, which receives back-flooded water from the industrialized Androscoggin River, as well as from agricultural lands in the connecting Dead River valley. Stakeholders include the local lake association, the state DEP, pulp-mill and wastewater-plant operators, and local farmers. A key element in the project is the role adopted by the student researchers vis-à-vis policy options. Following the taxonomy of Pielke (2007, The Honest Broker: Cambridge University Press), students doing service learning may serve as issue advocates, seeking to provide scientific support for the policy positions of community partners. In contrast, we have adopted explicitly the position of honest brokers who seek to understand and communicate the workings of this complex system without advocating specific policy solutions. This approach has facilitated buy-in from a larger range of stakeholders, and encouraged students to address choices in the roles and responsibilities of scientists in policy decisions—a valuable perspective for future scientists and non-scientists alike. In service-learning courses, groups of 3 to 5 students engage in a variety of sub-projects, such as lake-bottom sediment studies, nutrient sampling in streams and lakes, developing rating curves for streamflow, and calculating phosphorus fluxes
Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat
The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at a large Midwestern state university. Cluster analysis identified five profiles: (1) a strategic profile of a highly motivated by-any-means good strategy user; (2) a knowledge-building profile of an intrinsically motivated autonomous, mastery-oriented student; (3) a surface learning profile of a utility motivated minimally engaged student; (4) an apathetic profile of an amotivational disengaged student; and (5) a learned helpless profile of a motivated but unable to effectively self-regulate student. Among CS majors and students in courses in their major field, the strategic and knowledge-building profiles were the most prevalent. Among non-CS majors and students in required non-major courses, the learned helpless, surface learning, and apathetic profiles were the most prevalent. Students in the strategic and knowledge-building profiles had significantly higher retention of computational thinking knowledge than students in other profiles. Students in the apathetic and surface learning profiles saw little instrumentality of the course for their future academic and career objectives. Findings show that students in STEM fields taking required computer science courses exhibit the same constellation of motivated strategic self-regulation profiles found in other post-secondary and K-12 settings.
Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.
This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…
Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In
Deering, Thomas S.; And Others
Results of the administration of Forsyth's Ethics Position Questionnaire to 20 student teachers, 20 experienced teachers, and 24 business majors were as follows: education majors and teachers were more idealistic and less relativistic than business majors; business majors showed significant disparity among themselves. Implications for the…
Brown, Jill; Akers, Michael D.; Giacomino, Don E.
Narcissism is a personality trait that varies in individuals much like other characteristics. Accordingly, narcissism can positively or negatively impact the leadership style and career of business leaders. While personality research has examined the level of narcissism in college-aged students over the past 30 years, only recently has limited…
It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.
It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental
Sell, K. S.; Heather, M. R.; Herbert, B. E.
Exposing earth system science (ESS) concepts into introductory geoscience courses may present new and unique cognitive learning issues for students including understanding the role of positive and negative feedbacks in system responses to perturbations, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal dynamics, especially when systems exhibit complex behavior. Implicit learning goals of typical introductory undergraduate geoscience courses are more focused on building skill-sets and didactic knowledge in learners than developing a deeper understanding of the dynamics and processes of complex earth systems through authentic inquiry. Didactic teaching coupled with summative assessment of factual knowledge tends to limit student¡¦s understanding of the nature of science, their belief in the relevancy of science to their lives, and encourages memorization and regurgitation; this is especially true among the non-science majors who compose the majority of students in introductory courses within the large university setting. Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about earth systems by manipulating internally constructed mental models. This pilot study focuses on characterizing the impact of inquiry-based learning with multiple representations to foster critical thinking and mental model development about authentic environmental issues of coastal systems in an introductory geoscience course. The research was conducted in nine introductory physical geology laboratory sections (N ˜ 150) at Texas A&M University as part of research connected with the Information Technology in Science (ITS) Center. Participants were randomly placed into experimental and control groups. Experimental groups were exposed to multiple representations including both web-based learning materials (i.e. technology-supported visualizations and analysis of multiple datasets) and physical models, whereas control groups were provided with the traditional ¡workbook style¡" laboratory assignments
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.
A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development
Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.
The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
Stodt, Martha McGinty; Thielens, Wagner, Jr.
An exploratory study of students entering four elite fields found that most sought both credentials and competence. Stiff competition within chosen occupations led the majority of students to seek every advantage that graduate education could provide. (Author/MLW)
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...
This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).
Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.
We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...
Rebecca L. Warner Henning
Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.
In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…
Dass, Pradeep Maxwell
Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…
Palow, William P.
This paper describes a modular program at a community college for instructing non-science majors in college algebra. The two-course sequence is comprised of four modules each and successful completion of a module is required before a student proceeds to the next. Placement, grading policies, and scheduling are all discussed. A formative evaluation…
Navari, Rudolph M.
Describes a five-week introductory medical science course designed for both science and nonscience majors through integration of physiology, organic chemistry, anatomy, and biochemistry. Suggests its use as a quarter-semester, a tri-semester, or a regular semester course for students including premed and medical technicians. (CC)
Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.
The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students develop essential understanding of basic statistics, significant figures, and the idea that…
Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely
Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…
In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…
Dinan, Frank J.; Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Carnaham, Melinda; Colvin, Michael T.
The analysis of a Murder case study can be used in general chemistry or nonscience major chemistry courses to teach data handling and analysis in a non-laboratory context. This case study will help students to respond more enthusiastically and with more interest to a set of material placed before them related to a real case rather than…
Smith, Tamara Floyd; Baah, David; Bradley, James; Sidler, Michelle; Hall, Rosine; Daughtrey, Terrell; Curtis, Christine
A Synchronous Distance Education (SDE) course, jointly offered by Auburn University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University at Montgomery, introduced non-science majors to the concepts of nanoscience. Lectures originated from each of the three campuses during the semester, and video conferencing equipment allowed students at all three campuses…
Arons, A. B.
Describes special factors and procedures which are utilized in an introductory physical science course for nonscience majors. It is designed to enable students who are at a concrete or transitional stage to attain the formal operational level of development. (Author/SL)
Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.
This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…
Rash, Agnes M.; Fillebrown, Sandra
This article describes various courses designed to incorporate mathematical proofs into courses for non-math and non-science majors. These courses, nicknamed "math beauty" courses, are designed to discuss one topic in-depth rather than to introduce many topics at a superficial level. A variety of courses, each requiring students to…
This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…
An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)
Levy Nahum, Tami; Ben-Chaim, David; Azaiza, Ibtesam; Herskovitz, Orit; Zoller, Uri
Today's society is continuously coping with sustainability-related complex issues in the Science-Technology-Environment-Society (STES) interfaces. In those contexts, the need and relevance of the development of students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as question-asking, critical-thinking, problem-solving and decision-making capabilities within science teaching have been argued by several science educators for decades. Three main objectives guided this study: (1) to establish "base lines" for HOCS capabilities of 10th grade students (n = 264) in the Israeli educational system; (2) to delineate within this population, two different groups with respect to their decision-making capability, science-oriented (n = 142) and non-science (n = 122) students, Groups A and B, respectively; and (3) to assess the pre-post development/change of students' decision-making capabilities via STES-oriented HOCS-promoting curricular modules entitled Science, Technology and Environment in Modern Society (STEMS). A specially developed and validated decision-making questionnaire was used for obtaining a research-based response to the guiding research questions. Our findings suggest that a long-term persistent application of purposed decision-making, promoting teaching strategies, is needed in order to succeed in affecting, positively, high-school students' decision-making ability. The need for science teachers' involvement in the development of their students' HOCS capabilities is thus apparent.
Petrova, Gergana G; Popov, Teodor N
Organisation and management are factors of paramount importance in higher education for achieving higher quality of training, better professional adaptation, and more effective career pursuance of the students. The present study analyses the use of various teaching methods for the students in the major of Healthcare Management as they are employed in two medical universities. We conducted a detailed questionnaire survey which included the students in the Healthcare Management major in the Faculty of Public Health (FPH) at Sofia Medical University (SMU) and the Medical Faculty of Plovdiv Medical University (PMU). The students were surveyed for two consecutive academic years (2004/2005 and 2005/2006). The logical units of study were 198 students completing their baccalaureate programs in Healthcare Management: 145 (73.23+/-3.15%) in the FPH, SMU and 53 (26.77+/-3.15%) in the PMU (the greater number of students from the SMU was due to the greater number of students admitted into the Sofia Medical University). The technical units of study were the Faculty of Public Health in the Medical University in Sofia and the Medical faculty in the Medical University in Plovdiv. The survey was carried out using our own questionnaire form comprising 51 questions (open and closed), some of them allowing more than one answer. The collected sociological data were analysed using SPSS v. 13.0, and the diagrams were made using Microsoft Excel' 97. We used the alternative, non-parametric and graphic analyses to illustrate the processes and events at a level of significance P PMU and 26.32+/-1.91% for SMU). This format of teaching is also considered to be the easiest with regard to learning the study material by 22.75+/-3.25% of the PMU graduates and 27.56+/-2.38% of the SMU graduates. The PMU students regard seminars, individual work and discussions as the format that afford the easiest way to acquire knowledge (22.16+/-3.21%, 21.56+/-3.18%, (18.56+/-3.01%, respectively). The most
When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said
Given the diminishing number of Management Information Systems (MIS) majors, an understanding of the factors which influence student choice of major is crucial. It has been noted in many previous studies that interest in a major and career significantly influences the student's choice of college major; indeed, in most studies, it is the strongest…
Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;(ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;(iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;(iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;(v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;(vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7
de Dreu, C.K.W.; van de Vliert, E.
Tested the hypothesis that majority (MAJ) influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change (AC) on focal issues (FISs), whereas minority (MIN) influence produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Ss were 86 high school students. Results
Wilson, Christopher James
We describe specific curricular decisions employed at Butler University that have resulted in student achievement in the actuarial science major. The paper includes a discussion of how these decisions might be applied in the context of a new actuarial program.
Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William
The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual ability,…
Karlen, Janice M.
Identified intervention protocols that could help reduce the attrition of women business majors at an urban community college. Review of academic progress data and data from student surveys which examined students' reasons for leaving the institution indicated that there was a need for support mechanisms throughout the freshman year and extending…
Farmer, Steven C.
The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…
April H. Reed
Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.
Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H
This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.
Teasley, Marilee L.; Buchanan, Erin M.
Bringing their personalities and experiences to their relationships with students, academic advisors engage with a diverse population of students every semester. However, they meet with many students who display cynicism and exhaustion, known as burnout, toward their major. Over 300 music majors across the country were surveyed on their perceived…
This study, undertaken 100 students majoring in electronics in a polytechnic in TianJin, examines the characteristics of learning motivations in students: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Analysis of data acquired from a questionnaire suggests that the majority of polytechnic students are driven by extrinsic motivation.
Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.
Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…
Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Carlson, Lynn; Finn, Jennifer; MacIntosh, David L; Suh, Helen H; Wellenius, Gregory A
Long-term exposure to traffic pollution has been associated with adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. A significant number of schools may be located near major roadways, potentially exposing millions of children to high levels of traffic pollution, but this hypothesis has not been evaluated nationally. We obtained data on the location and characteristics of 114,644 US public and private schools, grades prekindergarten through 12, and calculated their distance to the nearest major roadway. In 2005-2006, 3.2 million students (6.2%) attended 8,424 schools (7.3%) located within 100 m of a major roadway, and an additional 3.2 million (6.3%) students attended 8,555 (7.5%) schools located 100-250 m from a major roadway. Schools serving predominantly Black students were 18% (95% CI, 13-23%) more likely to be located within 250 m of a major roadway. Public schools eligible for Title I programs and those with a majority of students eligible for free/reduced price meals were also more likely to be near major roadways. In conclusion, 6.4 million US children attended schools within 250 m of a major roadway and were likely exposed to high levels of traffic pollution. Minority and underprivileged children were disproportionately affected, although some results varied regionally.
Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold
The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…
Halonen, Jane S.; Dunn, Dana S.
Despite the popularity of the psychology major, complaints regularly arise about the value of majoring in psychology. This article reviews the workforce advantages that accrue to successful psychology students and encourages new strategies for emphasizing the professional development goal in the American Psychological Association's…
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit
This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer
Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…
As práticas educativas e seus personagens na visão de estudantes recém-ingressados nos cursos de Química e Biologia Educational practices and their characters in freshman Chemistry and Biology major' students view
Ana Luiza de Quadros
Full Text Available Desenvolvemos o presente trabalho com o objetivo de identificar concepções sobre as relações em sala de aula apresentadas por alunos recém-ingressados nos cursos de Química e Biologia. Baseados em Bruner, usamos a narrativa como instrumento investigativo dessas concepções, solicitando aos alunos que se imaginassem professores e relatassem como seria um dia de suas vidas. Pela análise dos relatos, percebemos que o professor é aquele que estuda e se prepara para as aulas, transmite conhecimentos, motiva, contextualiza, tem uma boa relação com os alunos e é admirado por eles. Além disso, esse professor é considerado um profissional em tempo integral, trabalhando, sobretudo, no Ensino Médio, com alunos interessados e atenciosos. Entender como essas concepções se formaram e problematizá-las na formação inicial é importante.We developed the present work aiming to identify conceptions about the relationships in classroom presented by freshman Chemistry and Biology major' students. Based on Bruner, we have used narrative as investigative instrument of these conceptions, requesting the students to imagine themselves as teachers and to report how it would be one day of their lives. By the analysis of the stories we have perceived that the teacher is the one who studies and prepares the classes, transmits knowledge, motivates, contextualizes, has a good relationship with students and is admired by them. Moreover, this teacher is a full time professional, working mainly at High School with interested and considerate students. The understanding of how these conceptions were formed and discussing them among pre-service teachers is important.
Auger, Giselle A.
Students cheat. For the field of public relations, which continually struggles for credibility, the issue of student cheating should be paramount, as the unethical students of today become tomorrow's practitioners. Through a survey of 170 public relations majors, this study examined the importance students place on the Public Relations Society of…
The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…
Jiwa Permana Agus Aan
Full Text Available President of Indonesia, Jokowi reoriented vocational school graduate toward demand driven graduates that is graduates who have certificate and skill required by industry. The initial stage of the new student on vocational school is choosing a major. At first step, students often confuse in choosing the majors they want. The mistake of choosing a department will be a set beck to the motivation of learning and skill, later will impade students future career. Thus competence test is needed to helping them in choosing the majors according to their competence. The solution to this problem is to conduct online competency tests for new students. The Results of research with 60 responden, 78% corresponds stated that the majors they were in match with their interests. Then the remaining 22% did not match. But the result of the competency assessment of students in match with the majors of is 40% and 60% of students need counseling for selection majors.
Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe K.
The Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) have been associated with the desire for power, status, and social dominance in the workplace, and these desires have been hypothesized to draw Dark Triad individuals towards occupations affording such outcomes. Following...... this reasoning, the Dark Triad may also influence educational choices. Research in other personality traits has shown that Big Five traits impact educational choices: Students in different academic majors differ on Big Five traits at enrollment. The aim of the present study was to explore whether there are also...
Bolderman, J. W.
This paper will describe four schemes which have been established to permit Australian researchers access to some of the most advanced overseas research facilities. These include, access to Major Research Facilities Program, the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory, the Australian Synchrotron Research Program and the ISIS Agreement. The details of each of these programs is discussed and the statistics on the scientific output provided. All programs are managed on behalf of the Department of Industry, Science and Tourism by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. One hundred and thirteen senior scientists plus forty, one postgraduate, students were supported through these schemes during the 1996-1997 financial year
Maram S. Jaradat
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that change. Through this correlational study, the researchers explored students’ perceptions about the academic advising they received and the relationship of its absence on students’ major change. The participants were 1725 undergraduate students from all year levels. The survey used to collect the data for this study is: the Influences on Choice of Major survey. Based on the findings, it was found that university advisors have a very poor effect on students’ decisions to select their majors as 45.6% of the 1725 participants indicated no influence of advising in their survey answers. Whereas career advancement opportunities, students’ interests, and job opportunities indicate a strong effect on their majors’ selections, as they score the highest means of 3.76, 3.73, and 3.64, respectively. In addition, findings show that students are most likely changing their majors in their second year, and specifically in the second semester. Second year major change scored 36.9% in the second semester and 30.9% in the first semester. More importantly, results indicate that there is a positive significant correlation between college advisors and major change in the second year (p = 0.000. It is to researchers’ understanding based on the findings that when students receive enough academic advising in the first year of study, and this advising continues steadily into the next year, the probability of students changing their majors decreases greatly.
Welsh, Michael J.
The recognition and identification of organic functional groups, while essential for chemistry and biology majors, is also very useful for non-science majors in the study of molecules in art and life. In order to make this task more palatable for the non-science major (art and communications students), the images of a traditional playing deck of cards (heart, spade, diamond, and club) have been replaced with four representations of common organic functional groups. The hierarchy rules for naming two groups in a molecule is loosely incorporated to represent the sequence (King, Queen, Jack, ?, Ace) of the deck. Students practice recognizing and identifying organic groups by playing simple card games of "Old Maid" and "Go Fish". To play games like "Poker" or "Gin", a student must not only recognize the functional groups, but also master a naming hierarchy for the organic groups.
This research reports on a qualitative investigation into what shaped and sustained the motivation of L1-Chinese learners of English. Motivation was not constrained to L2 learning but extended to what the participants considered as the dynamic interplay of personal and contextual factors. What makes this research unique is its choice of the subjects, which are L1-English CFL learners. Furthermore, this research is aiming at address three gaps in the existing literature, which are the need...
Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences ... The data was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. ... in Jimma University experience social adjustment problems than educational and personalpsychological, ...
Chung, Ya-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Cheng
Hospitality is not a new industry in Asia, but high quality hospitality industry has become more and more important in the trend of questing service-based economy and the increasing number of tourists in Asia. Thus there are more universities opened hospitality degree programs in Asia, Taiwan is no exception. In this context, why high school…
Abortion, contraceptive use, and adolescent pregnancy among first-year medical students at a major public university in Mexico City El aborto, el uso de anticonceptivos y el embarazo en la adolescencia en estudiantes de medicina de una importante universidad pública en México, D.F.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: If properly trained, medical students could become future opinion leaders in health policy and could help the public to understand the consequences of unwanted pregnancies and of abortions. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions that had occurred among women who were first-year medical students at a major public university in Mexico City and to compare the experiences of those women with the experiences of the general population of Mexican females aged 15 to 24. METHODS: In 1998 we administered a cross-sectional survey to all the first-year medical students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, which is the largest university in Latin America. For this study we analyzed 549 surveys completed by female students. RESULTS: Out of the 549 women, 120 of them (22% had been sexually active at some point. Among those 120 sexually active students, 100 of them (83% had used a contraceptive method at some time, and 19 of the 120 (16% had been pregnant. Of those 19 women who had been pregnant, 10 of them had had an illegal induced abortion (in Mexico, abortions are illegal except under a small number of extenuating circumstances. The reported abortion rate among the female medical students, 2%, was very low in comparison with the 11% rate for women of similar ages in the Mexican general population. CONCLUSIONS: The lower incidence of abortion among the female medical students indicates that when young Mexican women have access to medical information and are highly motivated to avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, they can do so.OBJETIVO: Con entrenamiento adecuado, los estudiantes de medicina pueden convertirse en líderes de opinión con futura injerencia sobre las políticas de salud, así como ayudar al público a entender las consecuencias de los embarazos indeseados y del aborto. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido examinar la frecuencia del embarazo
Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Leng, L.
Following a brief review on the history and the current development of fiber optics, the significance of teaching fiber optics for science and non-science major college students is addressed. Several experimental demonstrations designed to aid the teaching and learning process in fiber optics lectures are presented. Sample laboratory projects are also proposed to help the students to understand the physical principles of fiber optics.
Most students entering our introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors arrive not merely lacking scientific facts-they also have misconceptions about the nature of science, and many have a handicapping ``science anxiety'' (in addition to math anxiety). So I have added a ``current science'' requirement to our introductory course. Each student must compile a file of five astronomy news articles taken from readily available sources.
Otto, Don H.
After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…
This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer
Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca
Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study…
The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.
Anderson, Lorin W.
Mastery learning can be described as a set of group-based, individualized, teaching and learning strategies based on the premise that virtually all students can and will, in time, learn what the school has to teach. Inherent in this description are assumptions concerning the nature of schools, classroom instruction, and learners. According to the…
Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures
This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)
Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector
We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics
Smith, Gerald F.
The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…
Ewing, Maureen; Jagesic, Sanja; Wyatt, Jeff
Students who double major have higher earnings and are more satisfied with their educational experience in college than those who graduate with a single major. In this study, the authors examine the extent to which a student's experience with academic acceleration programs in high school, specifically successful participation in the Advanced…
Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy
Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…
Park, Seung Won; Huynh, Niem Tu
University students who do not declare geography as their major are at risk of poor motivation to learn in an introductory geography class. However, research exploring the role of non-majors' motivation is lacking. This study examines motivational factors impacting non-geography students' engagement and performance. The findings suggest that…
Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo
Determining when and why students become interested in careers in information systems is a critical step in filling the pipeline of majors to become information systems workers. Although students who have chosen a particular major may find it difficult to indicate or even understand all of the reasons for their choice, it is possible to tease out…
Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not
Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…
Brown, Susan Wightman
Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.
Bolderman, J. W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
This paper will describe four schemes which have been established to permit Australian researchers access to some of the most advanced overseas research facilities. These include, access to Major Research Facilities Program, the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory, the Australian Synchrotron Research Program and the ISIS Agreement. The details of each of these programs is discussed and the statistics on the scientific output provided. All programs are managed on behalf of the Department of Industry, Science and Tourism by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. One hundred and thirteen senior scientists plus forty, one postgraduate, students were supported through these schemes during the 1996-1997 financial year. 1 fig.
Gregory S. BLACK; Angelica BAHL
For the first time in American history, the current generation of college-age students may be destined for diminished financial opportunities than their parents. However, they may not realize that and may continue to have expectations higher than reality. Marketing students appear to be the least optimistic about their futures than students with other majors. This study utilizes a sample of 334 undergraduate students enrolled in marketing classes to find that dependent variables in three cate...
Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki
The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)
The findings therefore suggest that the policies adopted by the Ministry of Education concerning qualifications and subject majors of teachers that are employed make important difference in the students academic achievement in mathematics in Lesotho. African Journal of Cross-Cultural psychology and sport facilitation ...
Jung, Laura; Clark, Ulku; Patterson, Laurie; Pence, Toni
Technology makes up our daily lives and is a part of everything we do. The tech job market is expanding with more and more jobs needing to be filled by those with the necessary qualifications. Students are realizing the vast opportunities a career in technology can offer them and many are making the conscience decision to major in a technical…
Ferderer, J. Peter; Krueger, Gary
Economics majors at Macalester College have won numerous awards for their research papers, and this success has helped them land jobs in finance, consulting, and the nonprofit sector, as well as gain admission to top graduate programs. This article describes how the Economics Department at Macalester promotes economic research among its students.
Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…
Dietrich, Suzanne W.; Goelman, Don; Borror, Connie M.; Crook, Sharon M.
Database technology affects many disciplines beyond computer science and business. This paper describes two animations developed with images and color that visually and dynamically introduce fundamental relational database concepts and querying to students of many majors. The goal is for educators in diverse academic disciplines to incorporate the…
Mumford, Kevin J.; Ohland, Matthew W.
Using undergraduate student records from six large public universities from 1990 to 2003, the authors analyze the characteristics and performance of students by major in two economics courses: Principles of Microeconomics and Intermediate Microeconomics. This article documents important differences across students by major in the principles course…
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian
Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...
Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.
Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue
Buckner, Reginald T.
Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)
Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.
Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.
Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan
The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…
Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah
Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)
James, L. B.
Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.
Walsh, Ann D.; Woosley, Sherry A.
This study examined the perceptions of high performing undergraduate students in marketing and advertising majors. Specifically, it examined the relationships among three levels of student performance and student satisfaction with their business programs and learning outcomes. High performing students were more satisfied with their programs and…
Inggrit Swastini Dewi
Full Text Available Today's development requires people to have higher education and expertise in a particular field. Because of that, many universities or colleges are beginning to open new majors to suit the increasingly growing and diverse interests. However, the increasing number of majors could make it difficult for many high school students in determining the university or colleges and department they should take. A lack of understanding of their own personal interests and talents, as well as information about said universities or colleges and majors also add to the difficulty of choosing. Therefore, an interesting and simple media to help students to know their potential, provide information about the majors according to their interests, and help them determine the right path is needed. The concept of this major introducing game is based on sources such as interviews with interviewees and questionnaires. In the game, players can find out their interests, talents and appropriate majors, as well as courses and professions related to those majors. Aptitude test in this game is based on Holland’s Theory.
Razak Mohammed Gyasi
Full Text Available Research on unconventional medical practices among students has proliferated lately in the global space, hitherto, little is known explicitly in Ghana. This paper teases out insights for recent utilisation patterns of traditional medical therapies at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST, Ghana. A sample of 754, randomly selected undergraduates were involved in a retrospective cross-sectional survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression and Pearson's χ2 test with p < 0.05 as significant. Overall prevalence of traditional therapies consumption was 89.1% in the last 12 months. Herbal-based products (67%, prayer healing (15% and body-mind therapies (11% were principally used and, accessed through purchases from pharmacy shops (29% and encounter with faith healers (26%. Although students' knowledge on traditional therapies was acquired through family members (50% and media (23%, literary materials remained significant information routes for Science related students compared to the Non-science related counterparts (p < 0.001. Pursuing Non-science-related programme [odds ratio (OR 6.154 (95% confidence interval (CI 3.745–10.111; p < 0.001] and having Christian faith [OR 2.450 (95% CI 1.359–4.415; p = 0.003] were strongly associated with students' traditional therapies use. Although students exhibited positive attitude towards unconventional therapies, there is an urgent need to validate the quality of traditional therapies through randomised clinical trials and regulatory practices to ensure quality control. Health forces should intensify efforts towards intercultural health care system in Ghana.
During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…
Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri
While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…
Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…
Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret
A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…
Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth
The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.
Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.
Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne
Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.
This talk will describe a course offered to Harvard undergraduates as a general education science course, meant to intrduce freshman-level science for non-science majors. The course was a collaboration between world-class chefs and science professors. The chefs introduced concepts of cooking and the professors used these to motivate scientific concepts. The lectures were designed to provide a coherent introduction to freshman physics, primarily through soft matter science. The lectures were supplemented by a lab experiments, designed by a team of very talented graduate students and post docs, that supplemented the science taught in lecture. The course was very successful in motivating non-science students to learn, and even enjoy, basic science concepts. This course depended on contributions from Michael Brenner, Otger Campas, Amy Rowat and a team of talented graduate student teaching fellows.
Pierce, David; Wanless, Elizabeth; Johnson, James
This paper assessed the outcomes of a field experience assignment (FEA) in an introductory sport management course designed as a realistic major preview. Student learning outcomes assessed were commitment to the major, intent to pursue the major, expectation of a career in sports, and perceived preparation for a career in sports. A…
Riggs, E. M.; Sexton, J. M.; Pugh, K.; Bergstrom, C.; Parmley, R.; Phillips, M.
The proportion of women earning undergraduate geoscience degrees has remained about 40% for over a decade. Little research has investigated why women select and persist in a geoscience major. This study addresses why students major in the geosciences and why some programs are more successful at recruiting and retaining female students. We collected interview and survey data from faculty and students at six public US universities. Four sites had a low proportion of female degree recipients ( 48%). 408 students (64% female) completed surveys. Interviews were conducted with 49 faculty members and 151 students. Survey data analysis showed that interest/identity and transformative experiences were significant predictors of students' decision to major in geoscience. Institutional barriers and supports were significant predictors of confidence in the major while connection to instructor predicted students' intent to major. Analysis of pre- and post-course surveys show that students with a greater connection to instructors and students whose instructors expressed more passion for the content also reported higher levels of transformative experiences. This effect was especially pronounced for women and was a significant predictor of persistence in the major. Qualitative data show differences in departmental practices and climate between low and high female graduation sites. High sites used many student-centered approaches to teaching, had extensive opportunities for and a high number of undergraduate students involved in research, and had many opportunities for faculty-student interaction outside of class. Low sites had few of these practices. Qualitative data also showed differences in the gendered equity climate between high and low sites. High sites had more positive gender equity climates and low sites had more negative gender equity climates. At this time, we do not fully understand the causal relationships among all of these findings and higher female graduation rates
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...
This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project
The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.
We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin
A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)
Richardson, R. M.; Eyles, C.; Ormand, C. J.
One characteristic of strong geoscience departments is that they recruit and retain quality students. In a survey to over 900 geoscience departments in the US and Canada several years ago nearly 90% of respondents indicated that recruiting and retaining students was important. Two years ago we offered a pre-GSA workshop on recruiting and retaining students that attracted over 30 participants from over 20 different institutions, from liberal arts colleges to state universities to research intensive universities. Since then we have sought additional feedback from a presentation to the AGU Heads & Chairs at a Fall AGU meeting, and most recently from a workshop on strengthening geoscience programs in June 2009. In all of these settings, a number of themes and concrete strategies have emerged. Key themes included strategies internal to the department/institution; strategies that reach beyond the department/institution; determining how scalable/transferable strategies that work in one setting are to your own setting; identifying measures of success; and developing or improving on an existing action plan specific to your departmental/institutional setting. The full results of all of these efforts to distill best practices in recruiting students will be shared at the Fall AGU meeting, but some of the best practices for strategies local to the department/institution include: 1) focusing on introductory classes (having the faculty who are most successful in that setting teach them, having one faculty member make a common presentation to all classes about what one can do with a geoscience major, offering topical seminars, etc.); 2) informing students of career opportunities (inviting alumni back to talk to students, using AGI resources, etc.,); 3) creating common space for students to work, study, and be a community; 4) inviting all students earning an ‘A’ (or ‘B’) in introductory classes to a departmental event just for them; and 5) creating a field trip for incoming
As an English teacher for non-English majors in a college in Wuhan,I find that most of my students are not interested in learning English.Thus.I am concerned about how to stimulate my students' motivation in learning English.This paper discusses some effective strategies to stimulate college non-English majors' motivation for learning English.such as creating a comfortable atmosphere,buiIding students' confidence,promoting cooperative learning.and incorporating the multiple intelligences concept in the classroom.These strategies do have practical application in my classroom and have motivated my students' interest in English learning.
Morrow, C. A.; Zawaski, M.
This paper will report on a significant upgrade to the first in a series of innovative, experiential lessons we call Kinesthetic Astronomy. The Sky Time lesson reconnects students with the astronomical meaning of the day, year, and seasons. Like all Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons, it teaches basic astronomical concepts through choreographed bodily movements and positions that provide educational sensory experiences. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. They emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Kinesthetic Astronomy lesson plans are fully aligned with national science education standards, both in content and instructional practice. Our lessons offer a complete learning cycle with written assessment opportunities now embedded throughout the lesson. We have substantially strengthened the written assessment options for the Sky Time lesson to help students translate their kinesthetic and visual learning into the verbal-linguistic and mathematical-logical realms of expression. Field testing with non-science undergraduates, middle school science teachers and students, Junior Girl Scouts, museum education staff, and outdoor educators has been providing evidence that Kinesthetic Astronomy techniques allow learners to achieve a good grasp of concepts that are much more difficult to learn in more conventional ways such as via textbooks or even computer animation. Field testing of the Sky Time lesson has also led us to significant changes from the previous version to support student learning. We will report on the nature of these changes.
St Louis, Kenneth O; Przepiorka, Aneta M; Beste-Guldborg, Ann; Williams, Mandy J; Blachnio, Agata; Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Reichel, Isabella K; Ware, Mercedes B
The study sought to identify major-specific, training, and cultural factors affecting attitudes toward stuttering of speech-language pathology (SLP) students. Eight convenience samples of 50 students each from universities in the USA and Poland filled out the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in English or Polish, respectively. USA samples included undergraduate and graduate students in SLP majors or non-SLP majors as well as a sample of non-SLP students who were Native Americans. Polish samples included SLP (logopedics), psychology, and mixed majors. SLP students held more positive attitudes than non-SLP students in both countries. Graduate students held more positive attitudes than undergraduate students in the USA, and this effect was stronger for SLP than for non-SLP students. Native American students' stuttering attitudes were similar to other American non-SLP students' attitudes. Polish student attitudes were less positive overall than those of their American student counterparts. SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering are affected by a "halo effect" of being in that major, by specific training in fluency disorders, and by various cultural factors, yet to be clearly understood. The reader will be able to: (a) describe major factors affecting SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering; (b) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of students from the USA and Poland; (c) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of Native American students from the USA and non-Native American students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann
Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner.
Choi, Hong Jin [Ministry Of Environment, Kwachon (Korea)
As a new millennium has started, there are active movements developing a basic paradigm of vision and policy over a nation-wide to prepare changes actively. For the environmental sector, it is possible to live in a pleasant environment if everyone prepare and work together like dealing with Y2K problem. With a goal of being an environmentally advanced country in the early new millennium, it is planned to improve a basic life environment such as water and air and to promote an advanced environmental management policy for showing results of its reform in 2000. Therefore, it examines environmental management circumstances and a direction of environmental policy first and it discusses more about major environmental policy related to petroleum industry. 7 tabs.
Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel
not been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...
Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk
Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.
J. Malcolm Walker
Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co
Hershkovzt, Arnon; Forkosh-Baruch, Alona
Student-teacher relationships are vital to successful learning and teaching. Today, communication between students and teachers, a major component through which these relationships are facilitated, is taking place via social networking sites (SNS). In this study, we examined the associations between student-teacher relationship and student-teacher…
Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others
Research on attrition of university students has recently examined "dropping out" as the culmination of a complex interactive process. In order to examine differences between successful students (persisters) and students who officially withdrew from a major university, and to examine the accuracy of faculty and staff perceptions of students'…
During the past decades, a number of studies have explored personality group differences in the Big Five personality traits among students in different academic majors. To date, though, this research has not been reviewed systematically. This was the aim of the present review. A systematic...... literature search identified twelve eligible studies yielding an aggregated sample size of 13,389. Eleven studies reported significant group differences in one or multiple Big Five personality traits. Consistent findings across studies were that students of arts/humanities and psychology scored high...... on Conscientiousness. Effect sizes were calculated to estimate the magnitude of the personality group differences. These effect sizes were consistent across studies comparing similar pairs of academic majors. For all Big Five personality traits medium effect sizes were found frequently, and for Openness even large...
Jarchow, Meghann E.; Formisano, Paul; Nordyke, Shane; Sayre, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the student learning outcomes (SLOs) for a sustainability major, evaluate faculty incorporation of the SLOs into the courses in the sustainability major curriculum and measure student performance on the SLOs from entry into the major to the senior capstone course. Design/methodology/approach:…
Full Text Available Personalized education has drawn increasing attention in universities these years. With the purpose of improving the studentss’ comprehensive ability and developing teaching strategies to ensure students’ education is tailored to their needs, we proposed Three-Stage Approach (TSA to enhance personalized education for chemical engineering and relevant majors: professional tutorial system--equipping with professional guidance teachers for freshman students to guide their learning activities and provide professional guidance; open experimental project--setting up open experimental projects for sophomore and junior students to choose freely; individualized education module--setting up 10 different individualized education modules for senior students to select. After years of practice, the personalized education model is improved day by day and proved effective and fruitful.
Turney, Michael L.
Describes a program in which students are specifically trained in corporate communication. Lists courses required for completion of the program and tells about students' involvement in operating a communication agency simulation. (TJ)
Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...
Horodyskyj, L.; Ben-Naim, D.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.
The field of astrobiology, through its breadth of scope and high level of public interest, offers a unique prospect for introductory science curricula, particularly at the undergraduate level. Traditional university-level science instruction consists of lectures and accompanying lab courses that are highly scripted to emphasize correct replication of results rather than inquiry-driven exploration. These methodologies give students the impression that science is an authoritative list of abstract concepts and experimental results requiring memorization, rather than a methodology for narrowing uncertainties in our knowledge. Additionally, this particular class structure does not take advantage of many new and emerging online multimedia technologies. To address the shortcomings of current pedagogical approaches, we adapted the Arizona State University introductory-level course "Habitable Worlds" for online delivery in the fall semester of 2011. This course is built around the Drake Equation, which allows us to introduce non-science students to the basics of scientific thought and methodology while exploring disciplines as diverse as astronomy, geology, biology, and sustainability in an integrated manner. The online version of this course is structured around a habitable-worlds-hunting quest, where each student is provided with an individualized universe and tasked with finding scientifically realistic computer-generated inhabited planets around realistic stars. In order to successfully complete this mission, students work their way through the course curriculum via interactive exercises that focus on the discovery of basic scientific concepts followed by the mathematics and models that explain them, hence inverting the lecture-lab paradigm. The "Habitable Worlds" course is built on the Adaptive eLearning Platform (AeLP), an innovative educational technology that provides a "tutor over the shoulder" learning experience for students. Our focus is on engaging students
Hail, Henry Chiu
Prior research on international education suggests that host country students' lack of interest in talking to international students is a major cause of international student segregation. Some Chinese international students, however, complain that although host students want to talk with them about China, they often exhibit misinformed, prejudiced…
To work productively with all students, teachers need to examine four major determinants of human learning: neural equipment; learning history; learning strategies, such as imaging, paraphrasing, summarizing, and generating examples; and quality of teaching. (JDD)
Hufnagel, Beth; Deming, Grace L.; Landato, Janet M.; Hodari, Apriel K.
This quantitative study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates taking an introductory astronomy class for nonscience majors are susceptible to stereotype threat (ST). The Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT), a conceptual survey designed for introductory astronomy classes, was administered pre- and postcourse to two pairs (control and threatened) of the same class taught by the same professors, one pair at a public, suburban community college and the other pair at a large, state research university. One class of each pair was threatened postcourse by telling the students that their gender mattered on the ADT. The results showed no ST effect on the women in the university class. The college women underperformed and the men overperformed at a low statistical significance. The authors infer that Steele's requirement for domain identification as a condition is also required to strongly invoke ST for this sample of nonscience students.
Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie
A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…
A large number of non-English majors seldom consider what strategies of learning English they are using to regulate their motivation and how their motivation is related to achievement. Data were collected from 4000 college non-English-majors at Guizhou University using a questionnaire. This paper contrasts students' motivation and strategies of learning English. Some teaching approaches are offered to motivate students to do their best in attaining higher achievement.
Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Y. C.; Martinez, L. C.
We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: ...
Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita
Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.
Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.
New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.
Reed, D. E.; Lyford, M.; Schmidt, L. O.; Bowles-Terry, M.
Climate change education presents many challenges to college educators due to the interdisciplinary nature of the issue as well as the social and political context and implications. This presents multiple barriers to learning for the student, both because it is difficult to address all scientific components in one course, and because many students have strong preconceived feelings or beliefs about climate change. A further barrier to learning for non-science majors is that very often the number of required science courses is low and a highly complex issue such as climate change is difficult to address in introductory science courses. To attempt to address these issues a course for non-science majors, Life Science 1002, Discovering Science, at the University of Wyoming was created as an interdisciplinary and integrated science course that includes a lecture component as well as weekly lab and discussion sections. Our previous work has shown a clear change in the reference sources used by non-science majors when referring to complex topics; namely, students increase their use of scientific journals when they are shown how to use scientific journals and students also report a correlated decrease in non-peer reviewed sources (ie, radio, newspapers, TV). We seek to expand on this work by using pre- and post-topic student surveys in the course at the University of Wyoming to directly measure student performance in different components of the course. The course has enrollment between 120 and 130 students, with nearly equal distribution between grade levels and a wide sampling of non-science majors or undeclared majors. For this work we will use a non-quantitative survey of students to find out which part of the course (lecture, lab or discussion) is most effective for student learning. Further, quantitative analysis of which factors of the student body (class standing, major, gender, background and personal beliefs) will be correlated to help predict who achieved the best
Siver, Christi; Greenfest, Seth W.; Haeg, G. Claire
While the literature emphasizes the importance of teaching political science students methods skills, there currently exists little guidance for how to assess student learning over the course of their time in the major. To address this gap, we develop a model set of assessment tools that may be adopted and adapted by political science departments…