WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonroad engine pollution

  1. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  2. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  3. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  4. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards... requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new nonroad engines or vehicles. Section 209(e)(2... requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50...

  5. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  6. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  7. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine Engine and Boat Regulations... emission standards; enhanced evaporative emission controls for high performance sterndrive/inboard engines... requirement relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction...

  8. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  9. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  10. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... life.\\12\\ At that time, CARB also provided for implementation flexibility for post-manufacture marinizers and optional reduced- emission standard labeling requirements for ``Blue Sky Series'' CI engines...

  11. 76 FR 38155 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9426-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... toxic control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in... control measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in...

  12. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  13. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... are applicable to fleets comprised of four or more pieces of equipment powered by LSI engines... comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov...

  14. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... immediately attempt to regulate new farm and construction equipment and that under any compliance pathway a... from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment... with section 202(a) if: (1) There is inadequate lead time to permit the development of the necessary...

  15. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...

  16. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... section 209 proceeding is to: Consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... regulations also set forth in- use performance standards applicable to non-new yard and non-yard trucks. To...

  17. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Nonroad Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 89 Protection of Environment... NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 89, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 89—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Nonroad Engines Table 1—Sampling...

  20. Fuel Effects on Emissions From Non-Road Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtonen, T.; Nylund, N.

    2003-10-15

    The objective of this project was to study how fuel quality affects the exhaust emissions from different kinds of non-road engines. The project was divided into two parts: emissions from small gasoline engines and emissions from diesel engines. The measured small engines were a 2-stroke chainsaw engine, and a 4-stroke OHV engine, which could be used in different applications. Measurements were done with three different fuels, with and without catalyst. Also a comparison between biodegradable vs. conventional lubrication oil was done with the 2-stroke engine. Measurements were done according to ISO8178 standard. The results clearly demonstrate that using a good quality fuel (e.g. low sulphur, low aromatics) and a catalyst gives the best outcome in overall emission levels from these small engines. In the second part two different diesel engines were tested with five different fuels. Two of the fuels were biodiesel blends. The engines were chosen to represent old and new engine technology. The old engine (MY 1985) was produced before EU emission regulations were in place, and the new engine fulfilled the current EU Stage 2 emission limits. These measurements were also done according to the ISO8178 standard. With the new engine comparison with and without oxidation catalyst was done using two fuels. The results in general are similar compared to the results from the small gasoline engines: fuel quality has an effect on the emissions and when combining a good quality fuel (e.g. low sulphur, low aromatics) and an oxidation catalyst the emission levels are significantly reduced. Also some unregulated emission measurements were done but those results are not included to this report.

  1. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  2. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.; Chan, N.; Campbell, K.; Preston, K.; Bolechowsky, K.

    2007-12-01

    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  3. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to adopt emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines...

  5. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  6. Effects of transient conditions on exhaust emissions from two non-road diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Growing interest in quantifying and reducing the amount of engine emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides loading the environment has led to increasingly tighter environmental regulations. However, current non-road emission standards are performed according to a steady-state test cycle, which does not include transient effects and thus underestimates the amount of emissions produced in real use of the engine. This study quantifies the effects of transients in engine speed and torque on the fuel consumption and emissions from two diesel engines intended for non-road mobile machinery. Fuel consumption and emissions from the engines were measured in an engine dynamometer during various transient load conditions. The results showed that during fast transients, the measured fuel consumption was up to twice as high as the corresponding steady-state load conditions. The effects of transients on emissions of nitrogen oxides were even greater, as were the effects of transient load increase with increasing transient conditions i. e. rate of change. The results showed that the effect of transients on fuel consumption and emissions were also dependent on the type of diesel injection pump and the engine equipment used. Furthermore, the results indicated that the air/fuel ratio was an important contributor to the emission formation process during transient loads. (Author)

  7. Legal regulations of restrictions of air pollution made by non-road mobile machinery-the case study for Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Konrad J; Warguła, Łukasz; Krawiec, Piotr; Adamiec, Jarosław M

    2018-02-01

    The high awareness of intensification and frequency of smog phenomenon all over the world in XXI age makes for detailed analyses of the reasons of its formation and prevention. The governments of the developed countries and conscious of real hazards, including many European countries, aim to restrict the emission of harmful gases. In literature, we can find the discussions on the influence of this phenomenon on the health and life of inhabitants of contaminated areas. Some elaborations of prognostic models, descriptions of pollution sources, the manner of their restriction, and the analysis of causal-consecutive correlation are also popular. The influence of pollutions resulting from the operation of vehicles, planes, and the industry are well described. However, every machine and device which is driven with a combustion engine has the effect on the general level of anthropogenic pollutions. These drives are subject of different regulations limiting their emission for service conditions and applications. One of the groups of such machines described in European and American regulations is non-road mobile machinery. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the problem of weak analysis and application of engineering and technological tools for machinery drive emission, despite of many publications on hazards and problems of emission. These machines have the influence on both the increase of global contamination and the machine users. The regulations of the European Union take into consideration the generated hazards and restrict the emission of machine exhaust gases by approval tests-these regulations are continually improved, and the effects of these works are new emission limits in 2019. However, these activities seem to be liberal as opposed to limits of the emission for passenger and goods vehicles where the technological development of the construction is greater and the regulations are the most rigorous. During the analysis of the development of non-road

  8. 75 FR 37310 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1039 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression- Ignition Engines CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1000 to End... for my engines in model year 2014 and earlier? * * * * * Table 2 of Sec. 1039.102--Interim Tier 4...

  9. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  10. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  11. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  12. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  14. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Paso, TX 223 0.9 1.1 Greater Connecticut, CT 405 0.8 2.4 Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX 3,045 1.3 3.4... by many types of pollution sources, such as highway and nonroad motor vehicles and engines, power...

  15. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  16. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... future model year in which your average CO 2 level exceeds the standard. You may trade credits to another..., Confidential business information, Environmental protection, Incorporation by reference, Labeling, Motor... Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential business...

  17. Effect of compression ratio, nozzle opening pressure, engine load, and butanol addition on nanoparticle emissions from a non-road diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Saxena, Mohit Raj; Rai, Piyush; Bhardwaj, Aashish

    2018-05-01

    Currently, diesel engines are more preferred over gasoline engines due to their higher torque output and fuel economy. However, diesel engines confront major challenge of meeting the future stringent emission norms (especially soot particle emissions) while maintaining the same fuel economy. In this study, nanosize range soot particle emission characteristics of a stationary (non-road) diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Experiments are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm for three compression ratios and nozzle opening pressures at different engine loads. In-cylinder pressure history for 2000 consecutive engine cycles is recorded and averaged data is used for analysis of combustion characteristics. An electrical mobility-based fast particle sizer is used for analyzing particle size and mass distributions of engine exhaust particles at different test conditions. Soot particle distribution from 5 to 1000 nm was recorded. Results show that total particle concentration decreases with an increase in engine operating loads. Moreover, the addition of butanol in the diesel fuel leads to the reduction in soot particle concentration. Regression analysis was also conducted to derive a correlation between combustion parameters and particle number emissions for different compression ratios. Regression analysis shows a strong correlation between cylinder pressure-based combustion parameters and particle number emission.

  18. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graves, Ronald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orban, John [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Theiss, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  19. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ..., there is nothing in the opinion to suggest that the court's analysis would not apply with equal force to... written comment on issues relevant to a full section 209(e) authorization analysis, by publication of a... have the same ``geographical and climatic conditions that, when combined with the large numbers and...

  20. 76 FR 77521 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... section 209 proceeding is to: consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... Air Basin's non-attainment status by reducing NO X and PM 2.5 levels. AWO states that there is no....5 levels is inaccurate and outdated in that it does not represent the most current operation of...

  1. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... routed into the truck's exhaust system and PM trap; (b) a level 3 verified PM control strategy; or (c) use of other procedures to demonstrate an equivalent level of emissions compliance. B. Clean Air Act... passes the threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence against a...

  2. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence... standards, the overall cost to those parties would be around $250 million.\\44\\ The PERP thus results in an...

  3. 78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... reduced the annual BACT requirements from a 28 percent turnover and retrofit requirement in the prior... Board (CARB) request for authorization of regulations designed to reduce PM and NO X emissions from in... progressively more stringent combined PM and NO X standard, or to reduce emissions through technology upgrades...

  4. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... requirements are designed to use best available control technologies to reduce public exposure to emissions of...-use yard trucks to meet BACT performance standards primarily through accelerated turnover of older...

  5. 78 FR 38970 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    .... Discussion A. Within-the-Scope Analysis We initially evaluate California's TRU amendments by application of... amendments by application of our traditional within-the-scope analysis, as CARB requested. EPA can confirm... technical feasibility of meeting the in-use performance requirements of the TRU ATCM and do not affect the...

  6. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-15

    Combustion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) with biodiesel or n-butanol on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a non-road diesel engine. The results indicated that compared to ULSD, both the blended fuels could effectively reduce the particulate mass and elemental carbon emissions, with butanol being more effective than biodiesel. The proportion of organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in particles increased for both blended fuels. However, biodiesel blended fuels showed lower total particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions. The total number emissions of particles ≤560nm in diameter decreased gradually for the butanol blended fuels, but increased significantly for the biodiesel blended fuels. Both the blended fuels indicated lower soot ignition temperature and activation energy. All the particle extracts showed a decline in cell viability with the increased dose. However, the change in cell viability among test fuels is not statistically significant different with the exception of DB-4 (biodiesel-diesel blend containing 4% oxygen) used at 75% engine load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an engine...

  8. 77 FR 497 - Control of Emissions From New Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines: Approval of New Scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... machine operating habit to fill the DEF at each fuel fill interval, and from a vehicle design standpoint... shut down or idle only (with no power) when no DEF is present in the DEF tank (or the system is no... manufacturers may also use a reduction in engine power or equipment utility to provide more dramatic notice that...

  9. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  10. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  11. 77 FR 72846 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...: consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such... Reasons for Proposed Rulemaking, Appendix G: Economic Impact Analysis Methodology,'' January 2004, EPA-HQ...

  12. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1048.301 Section 1048.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce engines...

  13. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1048.305 Section 1048.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? This...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a) of this section. See... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate...

  16. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  17. MODELLING OF NON-ROAD TRANSIENT CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kotus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the modeling of NRTC (Non-Road Transient Cycle test procedure based on previously measured characteristics of fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulates (PM production. It makes possible to compare the current technical condition of an internal combustion engine of an agricultural tractor with its previous state or other tractor’s engine. Based on measured characteristics, it is also possible to model any other cycle without further measurements (NRSC test procedure, cycle for specific conditions – mountain tractor, etc.. The result may thus contribute to improving the environment by reducing the production of harmful substances emitted into the air and save money due to reduced fuel consumption.

  18. 40 CFR 1048.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines that have gone into service? 1048.401 Section 1048.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.401 What testing requirements apply to my engines that have...

  19. 40 CFR 1048.410 - How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... my in-use engines? 1048.410 Section 1048.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.410 How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines? (a) You...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.690 - What bond requirements apply for certified engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND... paragraph (b) of this section, include the values from your most recent balance sheet for buildings, land... values For engines with displacement falling in the following ranges . . . The per-engine bond valueis...

  1. 76 FR 77515 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... direct contributors in its assignment of costs. PMSA presented each of these comments in the California... challenges overall cost-effectiveness of the regulation, how costs are allocated, and the variability of... development of the necessary technology giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within that...

  2. Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment on Soil ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... of using organic fertilizer as bioremediant for spent engine oil polluted soils.

  3. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  4. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1048.320 Section 1048.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production...

  5. 40 CFR 1048.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again? 1048.340 Section 1048.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.340 When may EPA revoke my...

  6. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  7. Concepts to meet non-road stage IV / Tier 4 emission legislation; Konzepte fuer die Emissionsgesetzgebung. Non-Road Stage IV / Tier 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartus, T.; Herrmuth, H.; Stein, G. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Scherm, P. [Euromot - European Association of Internal Combustion Engine Mfrs., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    By December 2007, the EC will have to submit a new proposal for Stage IV emissions limits for Non-Road Mobile Machinery. Industry is committed to contributing to this process and has asked AVL to carry out a study as a neutral engineering company. The main topics of this study are described in this article. (orig.)

  8. "Peer Review: Nonroad (NR) Updates to Population Growth, Compression Ignition (CI) Criteria, Toxic Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on the methodology for estimating growth in NR engine populations as used in the MOVES201X-NONROAD emission inventory model. MOVES NR growth rates start with base year engine populations and estimate growth in the populations of NR engines, while applying cons...

  9. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  10. Environmental Pollution: Sanitary Engineering and Industrial Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    and closed ecological systems which may prove beneficial to ongoing research and operations for controlling environmental pollution . Corporate Author-Monitoring Agency, Subject, Title and Personal Author are provided. (Author)

  11. POLLUTANT EMISSION NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A MARINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOREL DUMITRU VELCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energies produced by the diesel engines of strong power are largely used in marine propulsion because of their favorable reliability and their significant output. However, the increasingly constraining legislations, aimed at limiting the pollutant emissions from the exhaust gas produced by these engines, tend to call into question their supremacy. The analysis of the pollutant emissions and their reduction in the exhaust gas of the slow turbocharged marine diesel engine using ANSYS 15 constitutes the principal objective of this study. To address problems of global air pollution due to the pollutant emission from fuel oil engin e combustion, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which pollutants are produced in combustion processes. In the present work, an experimental and numerical study is carried out on a unit of real use aboard a car ferry ship. A numerical model based on a detailed chemical kinetics scheme is used to calculate the emissions of NOx, SOx and Sooth in an internal combustion engine model for the same characteristics of the real unit.

  12. Pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of CO, HC, and smoke emissions while maintaining acceptable NO(x) emissions without affecting fuel consumption, durability, maintainability, and safety was accomplished. Component combustor concept screening directed toward the demonstration of advanced combustor technology required to meet the EPA exhaust emissions standards for class P2 turboprop engines was covered. The combustion system for the Allison 501-D22A engine was used, and three combustor design concepts - reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel were evaluated.

  13. Combustion engine. [for air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

  14. Physical and engineering aspects of thermal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Krenkel, P.A.

    1970-01-01

    The problems of the thermal pollution of our water ways by central electricity generating stations are discussed under the following headings: physical, biological, and chemical effects on water quality; effects of heated discharges on waste assimilation; beneficial effects of heat additions; prediction of heat dissipation; mechanism of heated water discharges; modeling of heated discharges; cooling ponds and run of the river cooling; cooling towers; cooling tower problems; and comparison of cooling methods

  15. Environmental pollution as engine of industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Sordi, Serena

    2018-05-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of a small open economy with two sectors (a farming sector and an industrial one), heterogeneous agents (workers and entrepreneurs) and free inter-sectoral labor mobility. Labor productivity in the first sector is negatively affected by environmental pollution generated by both sectors, whereas in the second sector it is positively affected by physical capital accumulated by entrepreneurs. Through a global analysis of the non-linear three-dimensional dynamic system of the model we derive conditions under which industrialization generates a decline in workers' revenues in both sectors.

  16. Modelling pollutant emissions in diesel engines, influence of biofuel on pollutant formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranović, Zvonimir; Bešenić, Tibor; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation. Presented numerical model, implemented in proprietary software FIRE ® , is able to capture chemical phenomena and to predict pollutant emission concentration trends. Using the presented model, numerical simulations of the diesel fuelled internal combustion engine have been performed, with the results validated against the experimental data. Additionally, biodiesel has been used as fuel and the levels of pollutant emissions have been compared to the diesel case. Results have shown that the biodiesel blends release lower nitrogen oxide emissions than the engines powered with the regular diesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  18. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  19. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  20. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop manufactured by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 501-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  1. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S C; Kalivoda, M; Vacarro, R; Trozzi, C; Samaras, Z; Lewis, C A

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  2. Pollution Reduction Technology Program, Turboprop Engines, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; Herman, A. S.; Tomlinson, J. G.; Vaught, J. M.; Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust pollutant emissions were measured from a 501-D22A turboprop engine combustor and three low emission combustor types -- reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel, operating over a fuel-air ratio range of .0096 to .020. The EPAP LTO cycle data were obtained for a total of nineteen configurations. Hydrocarbon emissions were reduced from 15.0 to .3 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle, CO from 31.5 to 4.6 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle with an increase in NOx of 17 percent, which is still 25% below the program goal. The smoke number was reduced from 59 to 17. Emissions given here are for the reverse flow Mod. IV combustor which is the best candidate for further development into eventual use with the 501-D22A turboprop engine. Even lower emissions were obtained with the advanced technology combustors.

  3. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  4. Pollution technology program, can-annular combustor engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1976-01-01

    A Pollution Reduction Technology Program to develop and demonstrate the combustor technology necessary to reduce exhaust emissions for aircraft engines using can-annular combustors is described. The program consisted of design, fabrication, experimental rig testing and assessment of results and was conducted in three program elements. The combustor configurations of each program element represented increasing potential for meeting the 1979 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards, while also representing increasing complexity and difficulty of development and adaptation to an operational engine. Experimental test rig results indicate that significant reductions were made to the emission levels of the baseline JT8D-17 combustor by concepts in all three program elements. One of the Element I single-stage combustors reduced carbon monoxide to a level near, and total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) and smoke to levels below the 1979 EPA standards with little or no improvement in oxides of nitrogen. The Element II two-stage advanced Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) concept met the standard for THC and achieved significant reductions in CO and NOx relative to the baseline. Although the Element III prevaporized-premixed concept reduced high power NOx below the Element II results, there was no improvement to the integrated EPA parameter relative to the Vorbix combustor.

  5. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter, carbon and ...

  6. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with. 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter ...

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH ONGOING - EPA'S RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  8. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  9. Handbook of air pollution from internal combustion engines: pollutant formation and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sher, Eran

    1998-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix PART I OVERViEW . 1. Motor Vehicle Emissions Control: Achievements, Future Prospects Past 3 John B. Heywood Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering...

  10. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Various techniques and test results are briefly described and referenced for detail. The effort arises from the increasing concern for the measurement and control of emissions from gas turbine engines. The greater part of this research is focused on reducing the oxides of nitrogen formed during takeoff and cruise in both advanced CTOL, high pressure ratio engines, and advanced supersonic aircraft engines. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell time, fuel-air premixing, air atomization, fuel prevaporization, water injection, and gaseous fuels. In the experiments conducted to date, some of these techniques were more successful than others in reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions. Tests are being conducted on full-annular combustors at pressures up to 6 atmospheres and on combustor segments at pressures up to 30 atmospheres.

  11. Simulation of air pollution due to marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, L. C.

    2017-08-01

    This paperwork tried to simulate the combustion inside the marine engines using the newest computer methods and technologies with the result of a diverse and rich palette of solutions, extremely useful for the study and prediction of complex phenomena of the fuel combustion. The paperwork is contributing to the theoretical systematization of the area of interest bringing into attention a thoroughly inventory of the thermodynamic description of the phenomena which take place in the combustion process into the marine diesel engines; to the in depth multidimensional combustion models description along with the interdisciplinary phenomenology taking place in the combustion models; to the FEA (Finite Elements Method) modelling for the combustion chemistry in the nonpremixed mixtures approach considered too; the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model was issued for the combustion area and a rich palette of results interesting for any researcher of the process.

  12. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  13. Low pollution combustor designs for CTOL engines - Results of the Experimental Clean Combustor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Experimental Clean Combustor Program is a multi-year, major contract effort. Primary program objectives are the generation of combustor technology for development of advanced commercial CTOL engines with lower exhaust emissions than current aircraft and demonstration of this technology in a full-scale JT9D engine in 1976. This paper describes the pollution and performance goals, Phase I and II test results, and the Phase III combustor hardware, pollution sampling techniques, and test plans. Best results were obtained with the Vorbix concept which employs multiple burning zones and improved fuel preparation and distribution. Substantial reductions were achieved in all pollutant categories, meeting the 1979 EPA standards for NOx, THC, and smoke when extrapolated to JT9D cycle conditions. The Vorbix concept additionally demonstrated the capability for acceptable altitude relight and did not appear to have unsolvable durability or exit temperature distribution problems.

  14. [An object-oriented intelligent engineering design approach for lake pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping-Jian; Guo, Huai-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 microg x L(-1) in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs.

  15. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  16. The new MTU series 4000 rail engines certified for EU IIIB; Die neuen Bahnmotoren der MTU-Baureihe 4000 fuer die Emissionsstufe EU IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo; Buecheler, Otto; Rall, Helmut; Zitzler, Guenter [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    As of 2012, diesel locomotives in Europe must comply with the emission requirements laid down in EU Non-Road Mobile Machinery Directive 97 / 68 / EC Stage IIIB. Compared to the Stage IIIA in effect today, this will require a significant reduction of air pollutants. MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH has developed new engines for rail applications based on the 4000 series which will comply with future emissions standards due to optimisation inside the engine and the use of a diesel particulate filter. (orig.)

  17. The model for calculation of emission and imisson of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1994-01-01

    The model for calculation of emission and immision of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine on the crossroads in urban environments, with substitution of a great number of exhaust-pipes with one chimney in the centre of the crossroad has been made. The whole calculation of the pollution sources mentioned above is, in the fact, the calculation of the emission and imisson of pollutants from point sources of pollution. (author)

  18. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  19. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  20. Lean mixture engine testing and evaluation program. [for automobile engine pollution and fuel performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Hoehn, F. W.; Griffin, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results for fuel consumption and emissions are presented for a 350 CID (5.7 liter) Chevrolet V-8 engine modified for lean operation with gasoline. The lean burn engine achieved peak thermal efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 and a spark advance of 60 deg BTDC. At this condition the lean burn engine demonstrated a 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the stock engine; however, NOx and hydrocarbon emissions were higher. With the use of spark retard and/or slightly lower equivalence ratios, the NOx emissions performance of the stock engine was matched while showing a 6% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon emissions exceeded the stock values in all cases. Diagnostic data indicate that lean performance in the engine configuration tested is limited by ignition delay, cycle-to-cycle pressure variations, and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  3. Effects of oxygen enriched combustion on pollution and performance characteristics of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen enriched combustion is one of the attractive combustion technologies to control pollution and improve combustion in diesel engines. An experimental test was conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine to study the impact of oxygen enrichment on pollution and performance parameters by increasing the oxygen concentration of intake air from 21 to 27% by volume. The tests results show that the combustion process was improved as there is an increase in thermal efficiency of 4 to 8 percent and decrease in brake specific fuel consumption of 5 to 12 percent. There is also a substantial decrease in unburned hydro carbon, carbon mono-oxide and smoke density levels to the maximum of 40, 55 and 60 percent respectively. However, there is a considerable increase in nitrogen oxide emissions due to increased combustion temperature and extra oxygen available which needs to be addressed.

  4. Urban traffic pollution reduction for sedan cars using petrol engines by hydro-oxide gas inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Ammar A; Alkheder, Sharaf; Musmar, Sa'ed A

    2015-12-01

    Petrol cars, in particular nonhybrid cars, contribute significantly to the pollution problem as compared with other types of cars. The originality of this article falls in the direction of using hydro-oxy gas to reduce pollution from petrol car engines. Experiments were performed in city areas at low real speeds, with constant engine speeds in the average of 2500 rpm and at variable velocity ratios (first speed was 10-20 km/hr, second speed was 20-35 km/hr, and third speed was 35-50 km/hr). Results indicated that through using hydro-oxy gas, a noticeable reduction in pollution was recorded. Oxygen (O2) percentage has increased by about 2.5%, and nitric oxide (NO) level has been reduced by about 500 ppm. Carbon monoxide (CO) has decreased by about 2.2%, and also CO2 has decreased by 2.1%. It's worth mentioning that for hybrid system in cars at speeds between 10 and 50 km/hr, the emission percentage change is zero. However, hybrid cars are less abundant than petrol cars. The originality of this paper falls in the direction of using hydro-oxy gas to reduce pollution from petrol car engines. Experiments were performed in city areas at low real speeds, with constant engine speeds in the average of 2500 rpm and at variable velocity ratios (first speed was 10-20 km/hr, second speed was 20-35 km/hr, and third speed was 35-50 km/h).

  5. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by the tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Singer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenipekun, Clementina O; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy of an indigenous white rot fungus Lentinus squarrosulus in degrading engine oil in soil. Flasks containing sterilized garden soil (100 g) moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were contaminated with engine oil 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w concentrations, inoculated with L. squarrosulus and incubated at room temperature for 90 days. Levels of organic matter, pH, total hydrocarbon and elemental content (C, Cu, Fe, K, N, Ni, Zn and available P) were determined post-fungal treatment. Results indicate that contaminated soils inoculated with L. squarrosulus had increased organic matter, carbon and available phosphorus, while the nitrogen and available potassium was reduced. A relatively high percentage degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed at 1% engine oil concentration (94.46%), which decreased to 64.05% TPH degradation at 40% engine oil contaminated soil after 90 days of incubation. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni recovered from straw/fungal biomass complex increased with the increase of engine-oil contamination and bio-accumulation by the white-rot fungus. The improvement of nutrient content values as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of engine oil concentrations tested through inoculations with L. squarrosulus is of importance for the bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soils.

  6. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  7. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  9. Bioremediation 3.0: Engineering pollutant-removing bacteria in the times of systemic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvořák, Pavel; Nikel, Pablo Ivan; Damborskýc, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents. The complexity of this endeavour and the lack...... of fundamental knowledge nonetheless led to the virtual abandonment of such a recombinant DNA-based bioremediation only a decade later. In a twist of events, the last few years have witnessed the emergence of new systemic fields (including systems and synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering) that allow....... In this article, we analyze how contemporary systemic biology is helping to take the design of bioremediation agents back to the core of environmental biotechnology. We inspect a number of recent strategies for catabolic pathway construction and optimization and we bring them together by proposing an engineering...

  10. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  11. The pollution reduction technology program for can-annular combustor engines - Description and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutant reduction and performance characteristics were determined for three successively more advanced combustor concepts. Program Element I consisted of minor modifications to the current production JT8D combustor and fuel system to evaluate means of improved fuel preparation and changes to the basic airflow distribution. Element II addressed versions of the two-staged Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and represented a moderate increase in hardware complexity and difficulty of development. The concept selected for Element III employed vaporized fuel as a means of achieving minimum emission levels and represented the greatest difficulty of development and adaptation to the JT8D engine. Test results indicate that the Element I single-stage combustors were capable of dramatic improvement in idle pollutants. The multistage combustors evaluated in Program Elements II and III simultaneously reduced CO, THC and NOx emissions, but were unable to satisfy the current 1979 EPA standards.

  12. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Molina, S.; Novella, R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle

  13. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  14. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  15. Strategies for the engineered phytoremediation of toxic element pollution: mercury and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B; Heaton, Andrew C P

    2005-12-01

    Plants have many natural properties that make them ideally suited to clean up polluted soil, water, and air, in a process called phytoremediation. We are in the early stages of testing genetic engineering-based phytoremediation strategies for elemental pollutants like mercury and arsenic using the model plant Arabidopsis. The long-term goal is to develop and test vigorous, field-adapted plant species that can prevent elemental pollutants from entering the food-chain by extracting them to aboveground tissues, where they can be managed. To achieve this goal for arsenic and mercury, and pave the way for the remediation of other challenging elemental pollutants like lead or radionucleides, research and development on native hyperaccumulators and engineered model plants needs to proceed in at least eight focus areas: (1) Plant tolerance to toxic elementals is essential if plant roots are to penetrate and extract pollutants efficiently from heterogeneous contaminated soils. Only the roots of mercury- and arsenic-tolerant plants efficiently contact substrates heavily contaminated with these elements. (2) Plants alter their rhizosphere by secreting various enzymes and small molecules, and by adjusting pH in order to enhance extraction of both essential nutrients and toxic elements. Acidification favors greater mobility and uptake of mercury and arsenic. (3) Short distance transport systems for nutrients in roots and root hairs requires numerous endogenous transporters. It is likely that root plasma membrane transporters for iron, copper, zinc, and phosphate take up ionic mercuric ions and arsenate. (4) The electrochemical state and chemical speciation of elemental pollutants can enhance their mobility from roots up to shoots. Initial data suggest that elemental and ionic mercury and the oxyanion arsenate will be the most mobile species of these two toxic elements. (5) The long-distance transport of nutrients requires efficient xylem loading in roots, movement through the

  16. Bioremediation 3.0: Engineering pollutant-removing bacteria in the times of systemic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Pavel; Nikel, Pablo I; Damborský, Jiří; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2017-11-15

    Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents. The complexity of this endeavour and the lack of fundamental knowledge nonetheless led to the virtual abandonment of such a recombinant DNA-based bioremediation only a decade later. In a twist of events, the last few years have witnessed the emergence of new systemic fields (including systems and synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering) that allow revisiting the same environmental pollution challenges through fresh and far more powerful approaches. The focus on contaminated sites and chemicals has been broadened by the phenomenal problems of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and the accumulation of plastic waste on a global scale. In this article, we analyze how contemporary systemic biology is helping to take the design of bioremediation agents back to the core of environmental biotechnology. We inspect a number of recent strategies for catabolic pathway construction and optimization and we bring them together by proposing an engineering workflow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, M. I.; Rodríguez, C. G.; Rodríguez, J. D.; Telmo, J.

    2013-12-01

    Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 oC. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons) and consumption.

  18. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Lamas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 °C. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide, HC (hydrocarbons and consumption.

  19. Large eddy simulation of air pollution produced by aircraft engine emissions inside the airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synylo, Kateryna [National Aviation University (Ukraine)], email: synylo@nau.edu.ua

    2011-07-01

    With the increase of air traffic movement, air pollution from airport emissions has become an important concern. In the past, various research has been undertaken on the impact of aircraft engines on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, however the impact that emissions have on airports themselves is not taken into account by the most frequently used monitoring software programs. The aim of this paper is to present the use of a CFD simulation to determine the dynamic and fluid mechanics characteristics of aircraft emissions near the ground. The CFD simulation was carried out using Fluent 6.3 software and the effects of counter-rotating vortices and wind conditions on fulfilled gases jet. It was found that numerical simulation is able to resolve difficult equations and provide realistic results. This study demonstrated that the use of CFD computation could be used to improve local air quality modeling and assessment of the impact of aircraft emissions at airports.

  20. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  1. Impact of Emissions of Marine Diesel Engines to Air Pollution on the Example of the Yugoslav River Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Ljevaja

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the impact which marine diesel engines have on air pollution. The combustion of fossil fuels for marine diesel engines produces emission of various greenhouse gases; including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Gas emission calculation is shown on the example of the Yugoslav river shipping with two methods for calculati...

  2. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  3. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  4. Measurement and Simulation of Pollutant Emissions from Marine Diesel Combustion Engine and Their Reduction by Ammonia Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Larbi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity and cost of a direct experimental approach, the recourse to a tool of simulation, which can also predict inaccessible information by measurement, offers an effective and fast alternative to apprehend the problem of pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines. An analytical model based on detailed chemical kinetics employed to calculate the pollutant emissions of a marine diesel engine gave satisfactory results, in general, compared to experimentally measured results. Especially the NO emission values are found to be higher than the limiting values tolerated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO. Thus, this study is undertaken in order to reduce these emissions to the maximum level. The reduction of pollutant emissions is apprehended with ammonia injection.

  5. Energy efficient non-road hybrid electric vehicles advanced modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Johannes; Jakubek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications, which work in continuous high dynamic operation, this book gives practical insight in to how to maximize the energetic efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. The book addresses an energy management control structure, which considers all constraints of the physical powertrain and uses novel methodologies for the prediction of the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of an entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short term loads as well as for an entire load cycle by means of a cycle detection. A maximization of the energetic efficiency can so be achieved, which is simultaneously a reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Readers will gain a deep insight into the necessary topics to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles and that only a combinatio...

  6. The injection equipment of future high-speed DI diesel engines with respect to power and pollution requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, A. (Monobloc Dieselmotoren GmbH, Vienna (AT))

    1990-01-01

    The development of high specific output DI diesel engines started at the low-speed end some 50 years ago primarily for marine and traction applications. Movement towards the high-speed end has been slow but steady with the majority of truck engines being very conservatively rated. There has been recent major effort on the automotive car and light commercial vehicle diesel application leading to lightweight DI diesel engines with an engine speed of 4000-5000 r/min and a rated power of 50 kW/litre displacement. These are expected to be on the market in a short period of time. The key point of this development has been the injection equipment including combustion control. In this area the use of modulated injection has the possibility of solving power and pollution requirements. (author).

  7. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  8. Viability of LPG use in low-power outboard engines for reduction in consumption and pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, S.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the viability of the use of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) dosage systems in order to solve the fuel supply in four-stroke outboard engines in compliance with regulations concerning emissions of immediate application pollutants. Results obtained show an important decrease in specific fuel consumption (nearly 20%) provoking a small power loss (about 5%), with an extra saving when making use of bottled fuel, which does not suffer spills in the bunkers and maintenance operations. Laboratory tests have been carried out on 8 and 15 HP Yamaha outboard engines, obtaining reductions in pollutants (CO, HC and NO x ) of 60% and of 95% for each power, respectively. These trials have been contrasted with tests carried out in the Vigo estuary and the river Milno waterways, both located in the South of Galicia (Spain). (Author)

  9. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  10. Developing the STS sound pollution unit for enhancing students' applying knowledge among science technology engineering and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpatong, Sutthaya; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    STEM education suggested that students should be enhanced to learn science with integration between Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. To help Thai students make sense of relationship between Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, this paper presents learning activities of STS Sound Pollution. The developing of STS Sound Pollution is a part of research that aimed to enhance students' perception of the relationship between Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics. This paper will discuss how to develop Sound Pollution through STS approach in framework of Yuenyong (2006) where learning activities were provided based on 5 stages. These included (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decisionmaking, and (5) socialization stage. The learning activities could be highlighted as following. First stage, we use video clip of `Problem of people about Sound Pollution'. Second stage, students will need to identification of potential solutions by design Home/Factory without noisy. The need of scientific and other knowledge will be proposed for various alternative solutions. Third stage, students will gain their scientific knowledge through laboratory and demonstration of sound wave. Fourth stage, students have to make decision for the best solution of designing safety Home/Factory based on their scientific knowledge and others (e.g. mathematics, economics, art, value, and so on). Finally, students will present and share their Design Safety Home/Factory in society (e.g. social media or exhibition) in order to validate their ideas and redesigning. The paper, then, will discuss how those activities would allow students' applying knowledge of science technology engineering, mathematics and others (art, culture and value) for their possible solution of the STS issues.

  11. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  12. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo; John Chi-Wei Lan; Wen-Chang Lu; Yong-Yuan Ku

    2007-01-01

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO x , particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h -1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h -1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  13. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo [Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Management; John Chi-Wei Lan [Yuan Ze University (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Wen-Chang Lu [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China). New Energy Div.; Yong-Yuan Ku [Automotive Research and Testing Center, Chunhwa (China). Diesel Vehicle Section

    2007-11-15

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO{sub x}, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  14. The analysis of results received from the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of results and influence of specified factors on the concentration of pollutants on the crossroads with chosen characteristic conditions has been made, on the basis of the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments. (author)

  15. Combustion performance and pollutant emissions analysis using diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Mingrui; Li, Song; Xiao, Helin; Guo, Guanlun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends were investigated in a CI engine. • Blend with gasoline or iso-butanol produce higher HC emission. • CO increase at low loads and decrease at medium and high loads with blend fuels. • Gasoline or iso-butanol decrease large particles but increase small particles. • Blend fuels reduce total PM number and mass concentrations. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends, including pure diesel (D100), diesel (70%)/gasoline (30%) (D70G30, by mass), diesel (70%)/iso-butanol (30%) (D70B30) and diesel (70%)/gasoline (15%)/iso-butanol (15%) (D70G15B15), on combustion and exhaust pollutant emissions characteristics in a four-cylinder diesel engine were experimentally investigated under various engine load conditions with a constant speed of 1800 rpm. The results indicated that D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 delayed the ignition timing and shortened the combustion duration compared to D100. Additionally, CA50 was retarded when engine fuelled with D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 at low engine load conditions, but it was advanced at medium and high engine loads. The maximum pressure rise rates (MPRRs) of D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 were increased compared with D100 except for at engine load of 0.13 MPa BMEP (brake mean effective pressure). Meanwhile, D70G15B15 and D70B30 produced higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than that of D100. The effects of diesel blend with gasoline or iso-butanol on exhaust pollutant emissions were varied with loads. CO emissions were increased obviously and NOx emissions were decreased under low engine loads. However, CO emissions were decreased and NOx emissions were slightly increased under the medium and high engine load conditions. However, D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 leaded to higher HC emissions than D100 regardless the variation of engine load. Moreover, the particulate matter (PM) (diameter, number and mass concentrations) emissions by using

  16. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  17. Turboprop Engine Nacelle Optimization for Flight Increased Safety and Pollution Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian DOROBAT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Commuter airplanes defined in CS-23 as being propeller driven, twin-engine, nineteen seats and maximum certified take-off weight of 8618 Kg had lately a special development due to advantages of turboprop engine compared with piston or jet engines. Nacelle optimization implies a sound and vibrations proof engine frame, engine fuel consumption reduction (through smaller nacelle drag and weight, better lift, better pressure recovery in air induction system, smaller drag of exhaust nozzles, engine cooling and nacelle ventilation more efficient, composite nacelle fairings with noise reduction properties, etc.. Nacelle aerodynamic experimental model, air induction experimental model and other nacelle experimental systems tested independently allow construction efficiency due to minimizing modifications on nacelle assembly and more safety in operation [1].

  18. 40 CFR 90.114 - Requirement of certification-engine information label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nomenclature and abbreviations provided in the Society of Automotive Engineers procedure J1930, “Electrical... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement of certification-engine...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...

  19. U.S. Coast Guard pollution abatement program - Two-stroke cycle outboard engine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    This report documents the results of emissions tests performed on three old and two new outboard engines. Tests of the emissions were made before and after water contact. Older engines were tested in as-received condition, tuned to factory specificat...

  20. Application of the Open Cycle Stirling Engine Driven with Liquid Nitrogen for the Non-Polluting Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Kravchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Progress on advancing technology of using liquid nitrogen for the non-polluting automobiles is reported. It is shown that the low exergy efficiency of the known engines fueled with liquid nitrogen has discredited the very idea of a cryomobile. The design of the open-cycle cryogenic Stirling engine is proposed. This engine allows extracting up to 57% of the exergy accumulated in liquid nitrogen. The method used to calculate of such open-cycle Stirling engine is described and the calculation results and discussion are presented. It is shown that 200 liters of liquid nitrogen is sufficient for 180 km range of cryomobile at speed of 55 km/h, while a full charge of the 300-kilogram battery of Nissan LEAF electric vehicle is sufficient for a range of 160 km. Use of liquid nitrogen or liquid air as an energy vector in a transport will not require scarce materials, and, in comparison with using of lithium-ion batteries or hydrogen, this will require less capital investment.

  1. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  2. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  3. Pollution Reduction Technology Program for Small Jet Aircraft Engines, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of iterative combustor pressure rig tests were conducted on two combustor concepts applied to the AiResearch TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of optimizing combustor performance and operating characteristics consistant with low emissions. The two concepts were an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection configuration with variable-geometry air swirlers and a staged premix/prevaporization configuration. The iterative rig testing and modification sequence on both concepts was intended to provide operational compatibility with the engine and determine one concept for further evaluation in a TFE731-2 engine.

  4. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... model year compliance, better align testing procedures to market realities, and reduce unnecessary...: www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Email: a-and-r-docket..., U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building, Ground Floor, Rm. W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  5. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Docket Center (EPA/DC), EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC, Attention Docket..., Assessment and Standards Division, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105; telephone number: 734... further divided into subsections related to specific parts of the Code of Federal Regulations. B. Proposed...

  6. Treatment of highway runoff : engineered filter media for pollutant removal through enhanced sorption : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The work performed in this study focused on the investigation of the use of engineered biofiltration layers to enhance the removal of roadway stormwater runoff contaminants (specifically nutrients, solids, heavy metals, and pH). Six Georgia native gr...

  7. The NASA Pollution-Reduction Technology Program for small jet aircraft engines - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A three-phase experimental program is described which has the objective of enabling EPA Class T1 jet engines to meet the 1979 EPA emissions standards. In Phase I, three advanced combustor concepts, designed for the AiResearch TFE 731-2 turbofan engine, were evaluated in screening tests. Goals for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were met or closely approached with two of the concepts with relatively modest departures from conventional combustor design practices. A more advanced premixing/prevaporizing combustor, while appearing to have the potential for meeting the oxides of nitrogen goal as well, will require extensive development to make it a practical combustion system. Smoke numbers for the two combustor concepts which will be carried forward into Phase II of the program were well within the EPA smoke standard. Phase II, Combustor-Engine Compatibility Testing, which is in its early stages, and planned Phase III, Combustor-Engine Demonstration Testing, are also described.

  8. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  9. Environmental engineering and pollution prevention. European network of excellence and partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, J.; Halang, W.A.; Kraemer, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss the main goals, contents, projects, partners, and implications of a proposed non-profit European Research Network, which aims at establishing research nodes at key locations in European NATO and CP countries. All projects are directed to solutions for the heavily polluted 'Black Triangle' Bohemia, Saxony, and Silesia, which was selected as a nucleus for the network because of its geographical location and cross-border environmental problems. Papers are presented under the following subject headings: disarmament; environment; human resources; high technology; and health. They include papers on soil remediation at manufactured gas plants, and power generation in the Czech Republic and its contribution to air pollution prevention in Central Europe

  10. Analysis of Catalitic Reactors Usefulness to Reduce Pollution Generated by Piston Combustion Engines with Regard to Ship Main Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results which indicate that the use of catalytic reactors to reduce emissions of harmful compunds contained in the exhaust gas is important in the operation of vehicle motors operation. Efforts of the shipbuilding industry to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gas emitted by the main engines have been indicated and pointed to the desirability of the use of these catalysts in maritime transport. It has been pointed out that studies of the harmful substances in exhaust gases performer at vehicle inspection stations have an impact on increasing the safety of drivers and other road users and contribute to preserving the natural environment by reducing the danger coming from cars operating on Polish roads. An opinion has been expressed that the most serious threats to the environment are emitted by car transport exhaust fumes, which are characterized by significant emission of toxic compounds excreted into the atmosphere from tailpipe emissions.

  11. Pollution provoquée par le moteur Diesel. Niveaux d'émission. Comparaison avec le moteur à allumage commandé Pollution Caused by Diesel Engines. Emission Levels. Comparison with Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degobert P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'analyse des différences de modes de combustion allumage commandé et Diesel , cet article compare et explique la nature et les niveaux des différents polluants émis en fonction de leurs mécanismes de formation. Les facteurs d'action au niveau moteur sont examinés, ainsi que l'influence du carburant utilisé. Based on an analysis of the difference between spark-ignition and diesel combustion modes, this article compares and explains the nature and levels of different pollutants emitted as a function of their formation mechanisms. The action factors at the engine> level are examined together with the influence of the fuel used.

  12. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  13. The NASA pollution-reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Three advanced combustor concepts, designed for the AiResearch TFE 731-2 turbofan engine, were evaluated in screening tests. Goals for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were met or closely approached with two of the concepts with relatively modest departures from conventional combustor design practices. A more advanced premixing/prevaporizing combustor, while appearing to have the potential for meeting the oxides of nitrogen goal as well, will require extensive development to make it a practical combustion system. Smoke numbers for the two combustor concepts were well within the EPA smoke standard. Phase 2, Combustor-Engine Compatibility Testing, which is in its early stages, and planned Phase 3, Combustor-Engine Demonstration Testing, are also described.

  14. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  15. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  16. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... piston-engine aircraft as well as certain high performance engines such as race cars. \\33\\ See http://www... for all remaining uses, including use as fuel in aircraft, racing cars, and nonroad engines such as.... These include the voluntary partnership between EPA and the National Association for Stock Car Auto...

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  18. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  19. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas and Methanol – Dimethyl Ether. 6.3.1 Biodiesel An extensive review across many transportation sectors of the emissions of...33 6.3.1 Biodiesel ...problems. SOx emissions from shipping represent about 60% of global transport SOx emissions. 2.4 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) The amount of NOx in engines

  20. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of combustor pressure rig screening tests was conducted on three combustor concepts applied to the TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of evaluating their relative emissions reduction potential consistent with prescribed performance, durability, and envelope contraints. The three concepts and their modifications represented increasing potential for reducing emission levels with the penalty of increased hardware complexity and operational risk. Concept 1 entailed advanced modifications to the present production TFE731-2 combustion system. Concept 2 was based on the incorporation of an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection system. Concept 3 was a staged premix/prevaporizing combustion system. Significant emissions reductions were achieved in all three concepts, consistent with acceptable combustion system performance. Concepts 2 and 3 were identified as having the greatest achievable emissions reduction potential, and were selected to undergo refinement to prepare for ultimate incorporation within an engine.

  1. Computer-assisted engineering of the synthetic pathway for biodegradation of a toxic persistent pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumbang, Nagendra Prasad; Dvorak, Pavel; Bendl, Jaroslav; Brezovsky, Jan; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2014-03-21

    Anthropogenic halogenated compounds were unknown to nature until the industrial revolution, and microorganisms have not had sufficient time to evolve enzymes for their degradation. The lack of efficient enzymes and natural pathways can be addressed through a combination of protein and metabolic engineering. We have assembled a synthetic route for conversion of the highly toxic and recalcitrant 1,2,3-trichloropropane to glycerol in Escherichia coli, and used it for a systematic study of pathway bottlenecks. Optimal ratios of enzymes for the maximal production of glycerol, and minimal toxicity of metabolites were predicted using a mathematical model. The strains containing the expected optimal ratios of enzymes were constructed and characterized for their viability and degradation efficiency. Excellent agreement between predicted and experimental data was observed. The validated model was used to quantitatively describe the kinetic limitations of currently available enzyme variants and predict improvements required for further pathway optimization. This highlights the potential of forward engineering of microorganisms for the degradation of toxic anthropogenic compounds.

  2. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  3. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  4. Present day engines pollutant emissions: proposed model for refinery bases impact; Emissions de polluants des moteurs actuels: modelisation de l'impact des bases de raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochart, N.; Jeuland, N.; Montagne, X. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Raux, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, Centre d' Etudes et de Developpement Industriel, Rene Navarre, 69 - Vernaison (France); Belot, G.; Cahill, B. [PSA-Peugiot-Citroen, 92 - La Garenne-Colombes (France); Faucon, R.; Petit, A. [Renault, 91 - Lardy (France); Michon, S. [Renault Trucks Powertrain, 69 - Saint Priest (France)

    2003-07-01

    Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns for the coming years. For this reason, car manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and refiners have explored development issues to comply with increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. In such a context, the identification of the most promising improvement options is essential. A research program, carried out by IFP (Institut francais du petrole), and supported by the French Ministry of Industry, PSA-Peugeot-Citroen, Renault and RVI (Renault Vehicules Industriels), has been built to study this point. It is based on a 4-year program with different steps focused on new engine technologies which will be available in the next 20 years in order to answer to more and more severe pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions regulations. This program is divided into three main parts: the first one for Diesel car engines, the second for Diesel truck engines and the third for spark ignition engines. The aim of the work reported here is to characterize the effect of fuel formulation on pollutant emissions and engine tuning for different engine technologies. The originality of this study is to use refinery bases as parameters and not conventional physical or chemical parameters. The tested fuels have been chosen in order to represent the major refinery bases expected to be produced in the near future. These results, expressed with linear correlations between fuel composition and pollutant emissions, will help to give a new orientation to refinery tool. The engines presented in this publication are, for spark ignition engines, an EuroII lean-burn engine (Honda VTEC which equips the Honda Civic) and an EuroIII 1.8 l stoichiometric-running Renault engine which equips the Laguna vehicles, and, for diesel engines, an EuroII Renault Laguna 2.2 l indirect injection diesel engine and an EuroII RVI truck engine. For the fuel formulation, an original approach is proposed: while the classical studies are based

  5. Improved source apportionment of organic aerosols in complex urban air pollution using the multilinear engine (ME-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Wei, Lin-Tong; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan; Elser, Miriam; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay G.; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Organic aerosols (OAs), which consist of thousands of complex compounds emitted from various sources, constitute one of the major components of fine particulate matter. The traditional positive matrix factorization (PMF) method often apportions aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) organic datasets into less meaningful or mixed factors, especially in complex urban cases. In this study, an improved source apportionment method using a bilinear model of the multilinear engine (ME-2) was applied to OAs collected during the heavily polluted season from two Chinese megacities located in the north and south with an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). We applied a rather novel procedure for utilization of prior information and selecting optimal solutions, which does not necessarily depend on other studies. Ultimately, six reasonable factors were clearly resolved and quantified for both sites by constraining one or more factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion (CCOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA). In comparison, the traditional PMF method could not effectively resolve the appropriate factors, e.g., BBOA and CCOA, in the solutions. Moreover, coal combustion and traffic emissions were determined to be primarily responsible for the concentrations of PAHs and BC, respectively, through the regression analyses of the ME-2 results.

  6. An Insight into the Effect of Advanced Injection Strategies on Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical investigation has been carried out in order to study the effect of multiple injection strategies on Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Both different injected fuel percentages for each pulse and several dwells between main and post phase were investigated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD and large eddy simulation (LES. Two sets of simulations were taken into account for 10% and 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR fractions. In the first one, the main injection was split into two identical phases, while in the second one into three pulses. Within each set, three strategies were considered, increasing the amount of fuel injected during the main and concurrently decreasing the post pulse. Overall, 48 simulations were employed, since four different dwells between the last phase of the main and post injection were considered. Results show that the pollutant emissions minimization has been obtained for the Schemes injecting 65% and 70% of fuel for both two and three split strategies, but for different values of dwell. In fact, emissions very close to each other for NOx and particulate matter have been reached for these cases. Reductions of about −30% and −71% were respectively obtained for NOx and soot in comparison with experimental emissions related to the single injection case.

  7. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  8. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations during their useful life, we may require you to recall them under 40 CFR part 85, 89, 92, or 1068... regard to which company manufactures the vessel or equipment. Show this as follows: (i) If you are the... test data on the appropriate marine duty cycles. You can include the data in your application for...

  9. A prediction study of the effect of hydrogen blending on the performance and pollutants emission of a four stroke spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Kadim Shahad Al-Janabi, H.; Abdul-Resul Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, M. [Babylon Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work a quasi-dimensional model was developed to study the effect of hydrogen blending on fuel consumption and pollutant concentrations. The results of the study show that the maximum improvement in engine thermal efficiency occurs at 8% hydrogen blending. The results also show that 10% hydrogen blending reduces CO concentration by 73.8% but the NO concentration increases by 100%. However the problem of increasing NO concentration was solved by operating the engine with lean mixture. Hydrogen blending also reduces the specific fuel consumption until about 6% blending, then the effect becomes marginal. (Author)

  10. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  11. U.S. Coast Guard Pollution Abatement Program : A Preliminary Report on the Emissions Testing of Boat Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The exhaust emission concentrations from three GM6-71's and a Cummins VT-350 diesel engines were measured on a dynamometer as a function of engine load. The GM6-71 engines were newly rebuilt by the Coast Guard; the Cummins Engine was in used conditio...

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS AND DAMS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes work conducted at the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Reduction...

  13. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  14. Biofiltration of volatile pollutants: Engineering mechanisms for improved design, long-term operation, prediction, and implementation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.W.; Davison, B.H.; Klasson, K.T.

    1997-01-01

    'Biofiltration systems can be used to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are currently operated as black boxes. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make biofilters ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation is to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity and the ability to regenerate biofilter activity. As part of this effort, the authors will provide a deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and will extend this engineering approach and developed mathematical models to two additional systems of high-priority environmental management (EM) relevance-direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and TCE (trichioroethylene), respectively. Preliminary results indicate that the author can control overgrowth of the biofilm while sustaining high degradation rates and develop basic predictive models that elucidate mass transfer and kinetic limitations in this system for alkanes. The alkanes are degraded into CO, and waterwith minimal biomass (due to the methodology proposed). This system will be used to test and model additional supplemental nutrient feeding strategies as well as methods to increase the fundamental driving forces by modification of the system. Models will be extended to non-steady-state, long-term operation. The author will examine the nature of the mixed microbial community in the VOC-degrading biofilm and test for new degradative activities. He will use cosolvents with surfactant properties to enhance hydrocarbon solubility in the biofilm and evaluate their impact on mass transfer and reaction rate in an

  15. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  17. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  18. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emission of a four stroke spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-gasoline fuel mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq; Al-Janabi, Haroun Abdul-Kadim Shahad [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emissions of a four stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. A detailed model to simulate a four stroke cycle of a spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-ethyl alcohol-gasoline has been used to study the effect of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol blending on the thermodynamic cycle of the engine. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline S.I.E. with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. It has been found that 4% of hydrogen and 30% of ethyl alcohol blending causes a 49% reduction in CO emission, a 39% reduction in NO{sub x} emission, a 49% reduction in specific fuel consumption and increases in the thermal efficiency and output power by 5 and 4%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporised, and this causes a reduction in both the brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  19. Modelling of Combustion and Pollutant Formation in a Large, Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine using Integrated CFD-Skeletal Chemical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Schramm, Jesper

    In this reported work, simulation studies of in-cylinder diesel combustion and pollutant formation processesin a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine are presented. Numerical computation is performed by integrating chemical kinetics into CFD computations. In order...... to minimize the computational runtime, an in-house skeletal n-heptane chemical mechanism is coupled with the CFD model. This surrogate fuel model comprises 89 reactions with 32 species essential to diesel ignition/combustion processes as well as the formation of soot precursors and nitrogen monoxide (NO......). Prior to the marine engine simulation,coupling of the newly developed surrogate fuel model and a revised multi-step soot model [1] is validated on the basis of optical diagnostics measurement obtained at varying ambient pressure levels [2]. It is demonstrated that the variation of ignition delay times...

  20. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  1. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  2. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  3. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  4. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  5. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  6. Near-term nuclear as the nemesis of the age of pollution: re-engineering the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.; Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    The world's carefree Age of Pollution is ending and energy technologies are scrambling for schemes that either capture their wastes or claim corresponding offsets with reductions elsewhere. Not before time. But the transition offers boundless opportunities for political and subsidies, fudges, and deceptions. Now is the time for nuclear fission, as the only technology already providing large-scale, pollution-free energy supplies, to claim proper recognition for its demonstrated pollution-free pedigree. Our industry knows that nuclear fission really is an intrinsically superior solution over those offered by the latter-day converts to sequestration and environmental cleanliness. Our singular strength is the availability of our technology. But we must inspire society with nuclear's capacity to provide a comprehensive and affordable route to secure energy supplies with vigorous growth in its deployment, starting immediately. We must include hydrogen fuelling for vehicles to make our solution comprehensive. This paper outlines the economics. We could, however, so easily dissipate the advantage of nuclear's availability. Programs to evolve advanced reactors should be a natural adjunct to a vigorous near-term program but it would be folly to compete for leadership in energy supply based on the promise of reactor designs that cannot be deployed until after 2020. What is needed is a transition strategy. Several countries with emerging economies are showing near-term leadership in commitment of new reactors but the developed world also needs much expanded deployment of nuclear. Without that, the transition to advanced designs after 2020 could be jeopardized. (authors)

  7. Instruments to reduce pollutant emissions of the existing inland vessel fleet. Position paper for international workshop 'Emissions from the Legacy Fleet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.

    2011-11-15

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) has a key performance on the GHG emissions per tonne kilometre shipped. Due to its potential to limit climate change, the recent EU Transport White Paper has set high goals for the non-road modes. The Ports of Rotterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE) and others strive to increase the use of IWT in their hinterland transport. The Port of Rotterdam authority has imposed a modal split on the newly built container terminals, thus increasing the use of rail and IWT. The growth is estimated to result in a quadrupling of inland barge container traffic on the Rhine corridor in the timeframe 2010-2035. Local air quality is another environmental issue, however, that plays a key role. Due to reasons of long ship engine lifetimes and progress made in road transport emissions, IWT needs to improve its air pollution profile. To turn the potential of IWT into real growth, it is important to: improve the air pollutant profile of inland shipping; take responsibility to maintain the air quality levels along inland waterway corridors over Europe, especially in urban areas where road transport, industry and IWT contribute to levels that will need to be in accordance with the EU air quality directive 2008/51. A new set of standards for new engines will shortly be proposed by the European Commission to be introduced in 2016. However, these will probably not be as tight as the Euro-VI standards for road transport. In addition, the long lifetime of inland barge engines (30,000 to over 200,000 hours, depending on the engine type) will result in a slow uptake of the phase-IV engines in the fleet. The German and Dutch authorities have the opinion that not only the air pollutant emissions of new engines need to be curbed, but deliberate over the development of instruments that will reduce the pollutant emissions of the existing fleet (legacy fleet), in addition to the limitedly effective subsidy schemes applied in recent years. This paper demonstrates the need for measures

  8. Pollution odorante par les moteurs Diesel. Mesure des odeurs d'échappement Odorous Pollution by Diesel Engines. Measuring Exhaust Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degobert P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études de mesure d'odeur Diesel ont commencé en 1956 aux États-Unis, en particulier pour réduire le niveau odorant des autobus. Cet article expose d'abord les mécanismes de formation des odorants puis les études américaines, qui ont abouti en 1973 à l'odorimètre Arthur D. Little, basé sur l'analyse par chromatographie liquide de l'échappement, et ses corrélations avec les données sensorielles recueillies dans des conditions particulières. Les économies d'énergie dans les villes européennes entraînent un accroissement du nombre de véhicules Diesel, ce qui peut amener un niveau odorant incompatible avec le bien-être. C'est pourquoi l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP étudie actuellement les odeurs Diesel, pour mettre au point des méthodes de mesure fiables, partant de la chromatographie liquide type Arthur D. Little (ADL et de l'évaluation sensorielle. Les résultats actuels montrent qu'à moins de progrès importants en analyse chimique, l'évaluation sensorielle reste la méthode la plus fiable. Les perspectives futures basées sur l'olfactomètre différentiel Mac Leod sont présentées. Research was beg un in the United States in 1956 on the medsurementof diesel engine odors, and especially on reducing the odor from diesel city buses. This article begins by describing the mechanisms of odor formation and then goes on ta, review US research which resulted in the Arthur D. Little odormeter in 1973, based on a liquid chromatography analysis of exhaust and its corrélations with sensory data gathered under specific conditions. Energy conservation in European cities is tending ta, increase the number of diesel vehicles and possibly ta, create an odor level that is incompatible with humal well-being. This is why Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is now investigating diesel eng ine odors for the purpose of developing reliable measuring methods based on liquid chromatography of the Arthur D. Little (ADl type and on

  9. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  10. Analysis the effect of advanced injection strategies on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine by CFD modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheri, Raouf; Peng, Zhijun; Mirsalim, Seyed Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Explore the effects of advanced multiple injection strategies in a DI-diesel engine. ► Achieving good agreement between the predicted results and experimental values. ► Analyzing three factors for optimization including pilot, main and post-injection. ► Injecting adequate fuel in each pulse accompanied with an appropriate EGR rate. ► Beneficial effects for significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate. - Abstract: An Advanced CFD simulation has been carried out in order to explore the combined effects of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies and EGR on engine performance and emission formation in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine. An improved version of the ECFM-3Z combustion model has been applied coupled with advanced models for NOx and soot formation. The model was validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 DI diesel engine and good agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, NOx and soot emissions was obtained. The optimizations were conducted separately for different split injection cases without pilot injection and then, for various multiple injection cases. Totally, three factors were considered for the injection optimization, which included EGR rate, the separation between main injection and post-injection and the amount of injected fuel in each pulse. For the multiple injection cases, two more factors (including double and triple injections during main injection) were also added. Results show that using pilot injection accompanied with an optimized main injection has a significant beneficial effect on combustion process so that it could form a separate 2nd stage of heat release which could reduce the maximum combustion temperature, which leads to the reduction of the NOx formation. In addition, it has found that injecting adequate fuel in post-injection at an appropriate EGR allows significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate.

  11. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  12. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  13. Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blend of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Yi-Cheng; Mwangi, Francis Kimani; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liao, Chao-Ning; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (5-30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5-30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable blends after 30 days standing. BD1041 blend of fuel, which composed of 10 v% biodiesel, 4 v% of water-containing ethanol and 1 v% butanol demonstrated -0.45 to 1.6% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW -1 h -1 ) as compared to conventional diesel. The better engine performance of BD1041 was as a result of complete combustion, and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions to 2.8-6.0% for NO x , 12.6-23.7% particulate matter (PM), 20.4-23.8% total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 30.8-42.9% total BaPeq between idle mode and 3.2 kW power output of the diesel engine generator. The study indicated that blending diesel with water-containing ethanol could achieve the goal of more green sustainability. -- Highlights: → Water-containing ethanol was mixed with diesel using biodiesel and butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent, respectively. → Fuel blends with 4 v% water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol, 5-30 v% biodiesel and conventional diesel yielded a stable blended fuel after more than 30 days. → Due to more complete combustion and water quench effect, target fuel BD1041 was gave good energy performance and significant reduction of PM, NO x , total PAH and total BaPeq emissions.

  14. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  15. Energy-saving engines reduce operating cost and environmental pollution; Energiesparmotoren senken die Betriebskosten und schonen die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletz, H.; Stengel, S. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Automatisierungs- und Antriebstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Reduction of the energy cost will make production more economical and, in consequence, gain a competitive advantage. In view of high energy cost, new international legislation and increasing energy-awareness, the new generation of energy-saving engines is gaining increasing acceptance. [German] Hohe Energiekosten schlagen im Rahmen der Betriebskosten voll zu Buche. Gelingt es, sie spuerbar zu senken, wird die Produktion letzten Endes wirtschaftlicher und wettbewerbsfaehiger. Vor dem Hintergrund hoher Energiepreise, der neuen internationalen Gesetzgebung und zunehmenden Energiebewusstseins, gewinnen Energiesparmotoren der neuen Generation zunehmend an Bedeutung. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Operating Conditions on Pollutants Concentration Emitted from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline Bioethanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A. K. Shahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an experimental investigation of the effect of bioethanol gasoline blending on exhaust emissions in terms of carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, unburnt hydrocarbons UHC, and nitric oxide NOx of a spark ignition engine. Tests are conducted at controlled throttle and variable speed condition over the range of 1200 to 2000 rpm with intervals 400 rpm. Different compression ratios are tested for each speed, namely (7,8,10, and 11. Pure gasoline and bioethanol gasoline blends are used. The bioethanol used is produced from Iraqi date crop (Zehdi. Blending is done on energy replacement bases. Ethanol energy ratio (EER used is 5%, 10%, and 15%. At each of the three designated engine speeds, the torque is set as 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 N·m. It is found that ethanol blending reduces CO and UHC concentration in the exhaust gases by about 45% and 40.15%, respectively, and increases NOx and CO2 concentrations in the exhaust gases by about 16.18% and 7.5%, respectively. It is found also that load and speed increase causes an increase in CO2 and NOx concentrations and reduces CO and UHC concentrations. It is also found that increasing the compression ratio causes the emissions of CO2 and NOx to decrease and those of CO and UHC to increase.

  17. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  18. 40 CFR 1039.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION...-related components that were not in widespread use with nonroad compression-ignition engines before 2011... franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may...

  19. Is Googlizing polluting? The difficult emergence of stewards for low-carbon transition on the search engine market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianutti, Julie; Chamaret, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    The value proposition of ecological search engines is based on conducting online research that is respectful of the environment. Our study highlights two contrasting models. On the one hand, some agents promise to reduce energy consumption or CO_2 emissions directly as a result of having to more effective technology. On the other hand, there are agents who propose to compensate CO_2 emissions due to online research by supporting reforestation associations or by buying Carbon Credits. We show that the multiplication of initiatives and legitimacy issues have led to difficulties. Generating networks effects and an ability to legitimate an ecological positioning in the eyes of partners and users appear to be key success factors for these initiatives

  20. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions

  1. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  2. Emissions from marine engines. An exploratory study of pollutants from engines in the ocean shipping sector, inland shipping transport and pleasure boats; Emissies uit scheepsmotoren. Een verkennende studie van verontreinigingen uit motoren in de zeescheepvaart, beroepsbinnenvaart en recreatievaart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Diffuse sources are an increasingly serious contributor to water pollution. To tackle the problem one must understand it fully and be able to trace pollutants back to their source or sources. Unfortunately, the map for diffuse sources is incomplete. One significant gap, and the focus of this study, is emissions from ship and small craft engines. For the purpose of this study shipping has been split into three categories: seagoing vessels, the inland carrying trade, and recreational craft. The type of fuel used by ships and small craft varies considerable, from heavy fuel oil to petrol. Emissions from combustion include COx, SOx, NOx, carbon compounds, PAHs and other micropollutants. The most important factors determining the content of exhaust emissions are fuel type, engine type, engine use and engine tuning. The quantities of the different engine emissions are calculated for each shipping sector by multiplying its energy consumption by `emission factors`. Emission factors indicate how much will be released during the combustion of one kilogram of fuel. However, the use of emission factors is fraught with difficulty. Differing engine types and uses mean that emission factors give only a rough indication of emission contents. Indeed, emission factors are unavailable for some engines and substances, and in these cases estimates have been made. An estimate of the energy consumption of a particular shipping sector can be arrived at by studying ship movements and rates of fuel consumption. For seagoing vessels and the inland carrying trade, ship movements are recorded and known. For smaller recreational craft an estimate has been made. On the Dutch continental shelf seagoing vessels consume around 920,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil each year, producing 62,600 tonnes NOx, 36,000 tonnes SOx, 4,300 tonnes soot and 2,500 tonnes carbon compounds. Other emissions include, but may not be limited to, microcontaminants, e.g. nitro-PAHs and dioxins. The quantity of

  3. Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in the number of both non-road and on-road diesel vehicles, the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM and its constituents on air quality and human health have attracted increasing attentions. However, studies on the characteristics of PM and its composition emitted from diesel vehicles are still scarce, especially under real-world driving conditions. In this study, six excavators and five trucks that provided a wide range of emission standards and operation modes were tested, and PM emissions and their constituents – including organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, water-soluble ions (WSIs, elements, and organic species like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, n-alkanes, and hopanes – as well as steranes were analyzed and characterized. The average emission factors for PM (EFPM from excavator and truck emissions were 829 ± 806 and 498 ± 234 mg kg−1 fuel, respectively. EFPM and PM constituents were significantly affected by fuel quality, operational mode, and emission standards. A significant correlation (R2 = 0. 79, p < 0. 01 was found between EFPM for excavators and the sulfur contents in fuel. The highest average EFPM for working excavators was 904 ± 979 mg kg−1 fuel as a higher engine load required in this mode. From pre-stage 1 to stage 2, the average EFPM for excavators decreased by 58 %. For trucks, the average non-highway EFPM at 548 ± 311 mg kg−1 fuel was higher than the highway EFPM at 497 ± 231 mg kg−1 fuel. Moreover, the reduction rates were 63.5 and 65.6 % when switched from China II and III to China IV standards, respectively. Generally, the PM composition emitted from excavators was dominated by OC (39. 2 ± 21. 0 % and EC (33. 3 ± 25. 9 %; PM from trucks was dominated by EC (26. 9 ± 20. 8 %, OC (9. 89 ± 12 %, and WSIs (4. 67 ± 5. 74 %. The average OC ∕ EC ratios for

  4. Hybridization of powertrain and downsizing of IC engine - A way to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this two part paper is to present the results of extensive simulation and analytical analysis of the energy conversion efficiency in parallel hybrid powertrains. The simulation approach is based on an accurate and fast forward facing simulation model of a parallel hybrid powertrain and a conventional internal combustion engine powertrain. The model of the ICE is based on a verified dynamic model that provides sufficiently small time steps to model adequately the dynamics of electric systems during transient test cycles. Models of the electrical devices enable computation of the instantaneous energy consumption, production and storage as well as computation of the instantaneous energy losses and component efficiencies. Moreover, the paper offers an analytical approach based on the energy balance in order to analyze and predict the energy conversion efficiency of hybrid powertrains. The analysis covers a broad range of parallel hybrid powertrain configurations from mild to full hybrids. Combined simulation and analytical analysis enables deep insight into the energy conversion phenomena in hybrid powertrains. The paper reveals the conditions and influences that lead to improved fuel economy of hybrid powertrains with the emphasis on determining the optimum hybridization ratio. The theoretical background, simulation program and brief analysis of one test cycle are presented in Part 1, whereas the extensive analysis and parametric study is presented in the companion paper, Part 2

  5. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  6. Development of the re-engineered European decision support system for off-site nuclear and radiological emergencies - JRODOS. Application to air pollution transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ievdin, I.; Treebushny, D.; Raskob, W.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The European decision support system for nuclear and radiological emergencies RODOS includes a set of numerical models simulating the transport of radionuclides in the environment, estimating potential doses to the public and simulating and evaluating the efficiency of countermeasures. The re-engineering of the RODOS system using the Java technology has started recently which will allow to apply the new system called JRODOS on nearly any computational platform running Java virtual machine. Modern software development approaches were used for the JRODOS system architecture and implementation: distributed system design (client, management server, computational server), geo-database utilization, plug-in model structure and OpenMI-like compatibility to support seamless model inter-connection. Stable open source components such as an ORM solution (Hibernate), an OpenGIS component (Geotools) and a charting/reporting component (JFree, Pentaho) were utilized to optimize the development effort and allow a fast completion of the project. The architecture of the system is presented and illustrated for the atmospheric dispersion module ALSMC (Atmospheric Local Scale Model Chain) performing calculations of atmospheric pollution transport and the corresponding acute doses and dose rates. The example application is based on a synthetic scenario of a release from a nuclear power plant located in Europe. (author)

  7. Localized indoor air quality monitoring for indoor pollutants' healthy risk assessment using sub-principal component analysis driven model and engineering big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Honglan; Kim, MinJeong; Lee, SeungChul; Pyo, SeHee; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in subway systems shows periodic dynamics due to the number of passengers, train schedules, and air pollutants accumulated in the system, which are considered as an engineering big data. We developed a new IAQ monitoring model using a sub-principal component analysis (sub-PCA) method to account for the periodic dynamics of the IAQ big data. In addition, the IAQ data in subway systems are different on the weekdays and weekend due to weekly effect, since the patterns of the number of passengers and their access time on the weekdays and weekend are different. Sub-PCA-based local monitoring was developed for separating the weekday and weekend environmental IAQ big data, respectively. The monitoring results for the test data at the Y-subway station clearly showed that the proposed method could analyze an environmental IAQ big data, improve the monitoring efficiency and greatly reduce the false alarm rate of the local on-line monitoring by comparison with the multi-way PCA.

  8. Localized indoor air quality monitoring for indoor pollutants' healthy risk assessment using sub-principal component analysis driven model and engineering big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Honglan; Kim, MinJeong; Lee, SeungChul; Pyo, SeHee; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in subway systems shows periodic dynamics due to the number of passengers, train schedules, and air pollutants accumulated in the system, which are considered as an engineering big data. We developed a new IAQ monitoring model using a sub-principal component analysis (sub-PCA) method to account for the periodic dynamics of the IAQ big data. In addition, the IAQ data in subway systems are different on the weekdays and weekend due to weekly effect, since the patterns of the number of passengers and their access time on the weekdays and weekend are different. Sub-PCA-based local monitoring was developed for separating the weekday and weekend environmental IAQ big data, respectively. The monitoring results for the test data at the Y-subway station clearly showed that the proposed method could analyze an environmental IAQ big data, improve the monitoring efficiency and greatly reduce the false alarm rate of the local on-line monitoring by comparison with the multi-way PCA.

  9. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  10. Assistance to a car heat engine by a self-controlled synchronous machine: engine energy control enhancement and pollutant emission reduction; Assistance d`un moteur thermique d`automobile par une machine synchrone autopilotee: amelioration de la gestion energetique et reduction des polluants du groupe moto-propulseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.

    1996-12-12

    A new method for spark-ignition engine control, more especially in idle conditions, has been developed to prevent engine stalling and improve its idling performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions: the car synchronous machine, traditionally operating as an alternator, is used in certain phases to provide an external supplementary torque on the engine shaft. Methods are proposed for optimising the synchronous machine operation as a generator and as an engine, then the main engine control parameters are presented and a linear signal model is established around a nominal idling point, which is used for simulations. Experimental results show evident reductions of fuel consumption and a significant robustness improvement in the engine dynamics

  11. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. pollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  14. Development and application of multi-zone model for combustion and pollutants formation in direct injection diesel engine running with vegetable oil or its bio-diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine is presented and applied for the interesting case of its operation with vegetable oil (cottonseed) or its derived bio-diesel (methyl ester) as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives (bio-fuels) to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these fuels. The model is two dimensional, multi-zone with the issuing jets (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection and across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment (forming the non-burning zone) of the combustion chamber, before and after wall impingement. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to yield local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of 11 species considered, together with the chemical rate equations for the calculation of nitric oxide (NO). A model for evaluation of soot formation and oxidation rates is included. The results from the relevant computer program for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust nitric oxide concentration (NO) and soot density are compared favorably with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI Diesel engine installed at the authors' laboratory. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the combustion chamber at various instants of time when using these

  15. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emissions of a four-stroke spark ignition engine fuelled with a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bagdhadi, M.A.-R.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Owing to the energy crisis and pollution problems of today, investigations have concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products by using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable and non-polluting fuels. While conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal are non-renewable, hydrogen and alcohol can be coupled to renewable and sustainable energy sources. The usage of a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to an alcohol-air mixture for spark ignition engines results in a considerable improvement in engine performance and in the reduction of the toxic components in exhaust gases in comparison with the conventional spark ignition gasoline engine. In tests, the gas comprising 40 per cent H, and 60 per cent CH{sub 4} by volume was added to alcohol as 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per cent by mass. Operating test results for a range of compression ratio (CR) and equivalent ratio are presented. Gasoline fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The important improvement in methane addition reduced the specific fuel consumption (s.f.c.) and CO emission of alcohol engines. The performance of the engine is enhanced when relatively small amounts of hydrogen are present with methane. This improvement in performance, which is especially pronounced at operational equivalence ratios that are much leaner than the stoichiometric value, can be attributed largely to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison with methane or alcohol. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen decreases the s.f.c. of the engine. The possibility of an engine power quality adjustment has also been studied. (author)

  16. The use of biodiesel blends on a non-road generator and its impacts on ozone formation potentials based on carbonyl emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Ming; Lu, Mingming; Liang, Fuyan; Tzillah, Aisha; Dendramis, Nancy; Watson, Libya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, emissions of carbonyl compounds from the use B50 and B100 were measured with a non-road diesel generator. A total of 25 carbonyl compounds were identified in the exhaust, including 10 with laboratory-synthesized standards. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein were found as the most abundant carbonyl compounds emitted for both diesel and biodiesel. The sulphur content of diesel fuels and the source of biodiesel fuels were not found to have a significant impact on the emission of carbonyl compounds. The overall maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) was the highest at 0 kW and slightly increased from 25 to 75 kW. The MIR of B100 was the highest, followed by diesel and B50, which is consistent with the emission rates of total carbonyl compounds. This suggests that the use of biodiesel blends may be more beneficial to the environment than using pure biodiesel. -- Highlights: •Carbonyl compound emission from biodiesel blends combustion on a non-road generator. •25 compounds were identified, including 10 by laboratory-synthesized standards. •Sources of biodiesel have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •Sulphur contents have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •MIR of emitted carbonyls decreases in the following order: B100, diesel, B50. -- The study found that B50 resulted in lower total carbonyl emission rates and ozone formation potential resultant from these compounds, whereas both increased with B100

  17. Combining Off-the-Job Productivity Regression Model with EPA’s NONROAD Model in Estimating CO2 Emissions from Bulldozer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apif M. Hajji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty diesel (HDD construction equipment which includes bulldozer is important in infrastructure development. This equipment consumes large amount of diesel fuel and emits high level of carbon dioxide (CO2. The total emissions are dependent upon the fuel use, and the fuel use is dependent upon the productivity of the equipment. This paper proposes a methodology and tool for estimating CO2 emissions from bulldozer based on the productivity rate. The methodology is formulated by using the result of multiple linear regressions (MLR of CAT’s data for obtaining the productivity model and combined with the EPA’s NONROAD model. The emission factors from NONROAD model were used to quantify the CO2 emissions. To display the function of the model, a case study and sensitivity analysis for a bulldozer’s activity is also presented. MLR results indicate that the productivity model generated from CAT’s data can be used as the basis for quantifying the total CO2 emissions for an earthwork activity.

  18. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  19. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  20. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  1. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  2. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  3. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  4. Assessment of pollutant emissions with GTL as a drop in fuel for medium and heavy-duty vehicles, inland shipping and non-road machines - Final

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Effect van Shell GTL Fuel op de uitstoot van vrachtauto’s, binnenvaartschepen en mobiele machines Paraffinische dieselbrandstoffen als GTL Fuel staan bekend om hun gunstige invloed op de uitstoot van schadelijke emissies zoals NOx en fijnstof. TNO heeft in opdracht van Shell een groot aantal

  5. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  6. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  7. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  8. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  9. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  10. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  11. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arsie Ivan; Di Leo Rocco; Pianese Cesare; De Cesare Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS) is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer ...

  12. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  13. Production of an environmentally friendly fuel with the aid of ultrasonic waves from a new plant source, and the investigation of its effect on pollutants reduction in a CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraee, Hossein Soukht; Jafarmadar, Samad; Kheyrollahi, Javad; Hosseinpour, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, methyl ester of Sisymbrium plant seed oil with the chemical formula of C 18 H 34 O 2 is produced for the first time, with the aid of ultrasonic waves and in the presence of a nanocatalyst. After measuring its characteristics and comparing with ASTM standard, it is tested and evaluated with different ratios of diesel fuel in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The reactions are accomplished in a flask by an ultrasonic processor unit and in the presence of CaO-MgO nanocatalyst. The engine tests were conducted based on the engine short time experiment. The results showed that with the increment of biodiesel ratio in the fuel blend, pollutants level of CO, HC, and smoke opacity are decreased comparing diesel fuel due to the improvement of the combustion process, and the amount of NOx emission is increased owing to high pressure and temperature of the combustion chamber. Also, produced biodiesel fuel causes an increment in the fuel consumption and exhaust gasses temperature. Overall, with regard to its effects on the engine and also being a native and easy cultivation plant, it can be resulted that Sisymbrium oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel can be applied as an alternative fuel.

  14. Engineering Related Technology: A Laboratory and Curriculum Design for the Newly Emerging Technology of Pollution-Corrosion Measurement and Control. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, F. K.; And Others

    In order to meet the educational needs for a separate curriculum at the secondary level for technological training related to pollution and corrosion measurement and control, a 3-year, 1080-hour vocational program was developed for use in an area vocational high school. As one of four programs in the technology careers area, this curriculum design…

  15. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  16. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  17. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  18. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  19. Impact of high soot-loaded and regenerated diesel particulate filters on the emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil-based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Yang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Young, Li-Hao; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Mwangi, John Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WCO-based biodiesel blends cannot stimulate POPs formation in uncatalyzed DPF. • Formation mechanism of POPs in diesel engines is homogeneous gas-phase formation. • The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant in the raw exhausts of diesel engines. • The regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. - Abstract: This study evaluated the impact on persistent organic pollutant (POP) emissions from a diesel engine when deploying a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) combined with an uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), as well as fueling with conventional diesel (B2) and waste cooking oil-based (WCO-based) biodiesel blends (B10 and B20). When the engine was fueled with WCO-based biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) in combination with deploying DOC+A-DPF, their levels of the chlorine and potassium contents could not stimulate the formation of chlorinated POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs), although previous studies had warned that happened on diesel engines fueled with biodiesel and deployed with iron-catalyzed DPFs. In contrast, the WCO-based biodiesel with a lower aromatic content reduced the precursors for POP formation, and its higher oxygen content compared to diesel promoted more complete combustion, and thus using WCO-based biodiesel could reduce both PM_2_._5 and POP emissions from diesel engines. This study also evaluated the impact of DPF conditions on the POP emissions from a diesel engine; that is, the difference in POP emissions before and just after the regeneration of the DPF. In comparison to the high soot-loaded DPF scenario, the regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. An approach was developed to correct the effects of sampling artifacts on the partitioning of gas- and particle-phase POPs in the exhaust. The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant (89.7–100%) in the raw exhausts of diesel engines, indicating that the formation mechanism of POPs in diesel

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  1. Role of snow and cold environment in the fate and effects of nanoparticles and select organic pollutants from gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Kurien, Uday; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo B; Ariya, Parisa A

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to vehicle exhaust can drive up to 70 % of excess lifetime cancer incidences due to air pollution in urban environments. Little is known about how exhaust-derived particles and organic pollutants, implicated in adverse health effects, are affected by freezing ambient temperatures and the presence of snow. Airborne particles and (semi)volatile organic constituents in dilute exhaust were studied in a novel low-temperature environmental chamber system containing natural urban snow under controlled cold environmental conditions. The presence of snow altered the aerosol size distributions of dilute exhaust in the 10 nm to 10 μm range and decreased the number density of the nanoparticulate (snow from 0.218 ± 0.014 to 0.539 ± 0.009 mg L(-1), and over 40 additional (semi)volatile organic compounds and a large number of exhaust-derived carbonaceous and likely organic particles were identified. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) increased from near the detection limit to 52.48, 379.5, 242.7, and 238.1 μg kg(-1) (± 10 %), respectively, indicating the absorption of exhaust-derived toxic organic compounds by snow. The alteration of exhaust aerosol size distributions at freezing temperatures and in the presence of snow, accompanied by changes of the organic pollutant content in snow, has potential to alter health effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  2. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  3. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  4. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  5. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  7. Study of mechanisms of the formation of specific pollutants emitted by internal combustion engines; Etude des mecanismes de formation des polluants specifiques emis par les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervas, E

    1996-06-26

    Methods for the analysis on sulfur dioxide, alcohols and organic acids have been developed. The first one includes the capture of the sulfur dioxide in a solution of oxygenated water and the analysis bu ionic chromatography with a conductometric detector. The second one includes the capture in pure water and an analysis bu gas chromatography/flame ionisation detector. The third one uses the capture in pure water and the analysis of the formic acid by an ionic chromatography and of the other acids by gas chromatography. These methods have been applied in the case of vehicles` non-regulated pollutants research. An experiment design, combined specified fuels and analysis of the exhaust gazes, has been applied on a spark ignition engine. These tests proved several qualitative and quantitative correlations between the composition of the fuel and the emitted pollutants. Precursors of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and organic acids have been found. These results show that aromatics and cyclohexane contribute for the benzene`s formation, 1-hexene and cyclohexane for the 1,3 butadiene`s, aromatics, are the precursors of the propionic acid and 0-xylene of the butyric acid. (author)

  8. Heterogeneous activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by defect-engineered TiO{sub 2−x} single crystals for refractory pollutants degradation: A Fenton-like mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ai-Yong, E-mail: ayzhang@hfut.edu.cn; Lin, Tan; He, Yuan-Yi; Mou, Yu-Xuan

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Facet- and defect-engineered TiO{sub 2} is proposed for water treatment as Fenton-like catalyst. • The =Ti(III) center serves as lattice shuttle for electron transfer in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activation. • TiO{sub 2} is promising due to low cost, high abundance, no toxicity and stable performance. - Abstract: The heterogeneous catalyst plays a key role in Fenton-like reaction for advanced oxidation of refractory pollutants in water treatment. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a typical semiconductor with high industrial importance due to its earth abundance, low cost and no toxicity. In this work, it is found that TiO{sub 2} can heterogeneously activate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, E° = 1.78 eV), a common chemical oxidant, to efficiently generate highly-powerful hydroxyl radical, ·OH (E{sup 0} = 2.80 eV), for advanced water treatment, when its crystal shape, exposed facet and oxygen-stoichiometry are finely tuned. The defect-engineered TiO{sub 2} single crystals exposed by high-energy {0 0 1} facets exhibited an excellent Fenton-like activity and stability for degrading typical refractory organic pollutants such as methyl orange and p-nitrophenol. Its defect-centered Fenton-like superiority is mainly attributed to the crystal oxygen-vacancy, single-crystalline structure and exposed polar {0 0 1} facet. Our findings could provide new chance to utilize TiO{sub 2} for Fenton-like technology, and develop novel heterogeneous catalyst for advanced water treatment.

  9. Heterogeneous activation of H_2O_2 by defect-engineered TiO_2_−_x single crystals for refractory pollutants degradation: A Fenton-like mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ai-Yong; Lin, Tan; He, Yuan-Yi; Mou, Yu-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Facet- and defect-engineered TiO_2 is proposed for water treatment as Fenton-like catalyst. • The =Ti(III) center serves as lattice shuttle for electron transfer in H_2O_2 activation. • TiO_2 is promising due to low cost, high abundance, no toxicity and stable performance. - Abstract: The heterogeneous catalyst plays a key role in Fenton-like reaction for advanced oxidation of refractory pollutants in water treatment. Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) is a typical semiconductor with high industrial importance due to its earth abundance, low cost and no toxicity. In this work, it is found that TiO_2 can heterogeneously activate hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2, E° = 1.78 eV), a common chemical oxidant, to efficiently generate highly-powerful hydroxyl radical, ·OH (E"0 = 2.80 eV), for advanced water treatment, when its crystal shape, exposed facet and oxygen-stoichiometry are finely tuned. The defect-engineered TiO_2 single crystals exposed by high-energy {0 0 1} facets exhibited an excellent Fenton-like activity and stability for degrading typical refractory organic pollutants such as methyl orange and p-nitrophenol. Its defect-centered Fenton-like superiority is mainly attributed to the crystal oxygen-vacancy, single-crystalline structure and exposed polar {0 0 1} facet. Our findings could provide new chance to utilize TiO_2 for Fenton-like technology, and develop novel heterogeneous catalyst for advanced water treatment.

  10. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  11. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  12. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  13. 40 CFR 1054.230 - How do I select emission families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT... control for engine operation, other than governing (mechanical or electronic). (9) The numerical level of... family. You may include dedicated-fuel versions of this same engine model in the same engine family, as...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  15. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  16. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  17. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  18. Pollution and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhoja, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    If no body can dispute the fact that technological progress favours production, comfort and the economy of time, nobody can deny either that the same progress is at the origin of a pollution that puts earth's natural resources in jeopardy. Pollution is physical, but it has a moral aspect as well. In the first case, it spoils water, the soil, the sea, the air and the vegetation. In the second case, it deals a hard blow to man's intelectual and spiritual life. Pollution is natural and biological and, in this case, it is not the result of man's activity, but that of bacteria and viruses which are responsible for various illnesses and epidemics. It could also be the result of toxicity due to volcanic eruptions, solar explosions, or electric charges liberated by clouds. Pollution can also result from harmful waste of chemical and other industries, from the various usages of chemical products, from cars and engines' exhaust, from thermal activities or radioactive spills. Today, it is radioactivity which constitutes the most serious threat to human life.(author)

  19. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  20. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  1. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  2. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  4. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  5. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  6. 40 CFR 1048.405 - How does this program work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1048.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.405 How does this program work? (a) You must test in-use engines, for exhaust emissions, from the...

  7. Interface engineered construction of porous g-C3N4/TiO2 heterostructure for enhanced photocatalysis of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Nan; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Min-Qiang; Zhang, Long-zhen; Bao, Shu-Juan

    2018-05-01

    A porous g-C3N4/TiO2 with hierarchical heterostructure has been successfully fabricated through a in situ assembling of small needle-like TiO2 on the surface of ultrathin g-C3N4 sheets. The ultrathin g-C3N4 sheets with carbon vacancies and rich hydroxyl groups were found to facilitate the nucleation and in situ growth of TiO2 and also to modulate the surface chemical activity of the g-C3N4/TiO2 hierarchical heterostructure. The as-designed photocatalytic heterojunction degraded Acid Orange with 82% efficiency after 10 min under simulated solar light, and possessed excellent cycle stability. Relative physical characterizations and photochemical experiments reveal that engineering the interface/surface of g-C3N4 plays a vital role in effectively constructing heterostructures of g-C3N4/TiO2, thus realizing efficient photoinduced electron-hole separation during photocatalytic process.

  8. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  9. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  10. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  12. The viewpoints of chemical air pollution caused by traffic subsystems and presented by the example of emission measurements of trucks' exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaric, D. [Vocational College of Traffic and Transport Maribor (Slovenia)

    2011-07-01

    For a long time, experts have been emphasizing that we are in an era in which dangerous climatic changes are getting more and more notable. We have been witnessing large climatic changes caused by greenhouse gases for several years. The use of different ways of transport has a bad influence on the environment in which we daily live and work, and on human health and nature, too. For that reason, we cannot treat the safety of the transportation means only through the technical impeccability of the devices which make possible direct execution of particular technological phases in different traffic subsystems. Ecological impacts of particular traffic subsystems are very complex, and have a long-term impact on our everyday existence. Despite this we still do not devote enough attention to this. We have been aware that traffic, especially road and air traffic, is one of the largest sources of emissions of harmful exhaust gases of combustion engines and particles into the environment. The environmental impact of traffic is especially large due to greenhouse gases, which are part of exhaust gases being produced by internal combustion engines. In addition to that, there are many more toxic components in exhausted gases. For effective reduction of harmful emissions in transport, a wide spectrum of analysis and measurements must be carried out. In 2007, the first realistic freight vehicle measurements in the Republic of Slovenia were published. The TRAENVIA project precisely evaluated some types of transportation emissions, especially on long freight distances and reached some comprehensive goals: measure and compare real emissions caused by different transport means in real terms of traffic flow, to evaluate the influence of those emissions on the environment and air quality, to evaluate the contribution of the transport sector in urban areas to air pollution, to evaluate the influence on the air quality for several means of transport, to evaluate potential possibilities and

  13. Environmental Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Suk Pyo; Kim, Won Man; Ra, Sang Gi

    1986-02-01

    This book deals with water pollution and the measures, which indicates phenomenon of water pollution, properties of physical chemistry on pollution, measure of water quality and analysis, property of water, water supply and a source of water supply, water supply sewerage control and pump station, wastewater disposal treatment and process, and safety of water quality. It also deals with air pollution and measures, ocean pollution and the measures and noise pollution, vibration pollution waste pollution and industrial pollution.

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  16. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  17. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  18. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  19. 40 CFR 1054.115 - What other requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT... § 1054.145(c), engines must meet applicable emission standards at all specified atmospheric pressures, except that for atmospheric pressures below 94.0 kPa you may rely on an altitude kit for all testing if...

  20. 40 CFR 1039.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... CFR 89.112 are considered to rely on established technology for gaseous emission control, except that... factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of testing...

  1. Multi-pollutant interactions in hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Weatherill, J.; Bonet, B.; Blaen, P.; Khamis, K.; Cassidy, N. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Rivett, M. O.; Lynch, I.; Ullah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic zones represent hotspots of biogeochemical reactivity, with the potential to attenuate pollutants and ameliorate their impact on ecosystem functioning. Sources and types of pollutants in streambed environments are manifold, with legacy industry contaminants, agricultural pollution and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals or engineered nanoparticles entering hyporheic zones along different flow paths where they mix and potentially react with each other. Current conceptualizations of drivers and controls of biogeochemical turnover in hyporheic zones highlight primarily the role of transport and reaction times but do not account for potential interactions between different pollutants. This study presents two case studies of multi-pollutant interactions to illustrate the need to consider interferences between different pollutants, their transport and reaction pathways for adequate impact assessment. We discuss in the first instance how the natural attenuation of a Trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume in an agricultural catchment is limited by high riparian and hyporheic nitrate concentrations. As nitrate outcompeted TCE in its reaction with organic carbon as electron donor, TCE attenuation was in this case limited to hyporheic denitrification hotspots. Hence any pollution control measures to reduce the impact of this TCE plume require a reduction of agricultural nitrate loads, highlighting the connectedness of legacy (TCE) and more recent (nitrate) pollution problems. In the second case, we investigate how the labile organic carbon content of streambed sediments as main control of hyporheic respiration is overridden by exposure to different silver nanoparticle concentrations, representing emerging pollutants in many of our rivers. Also in this case, the impacts of different stressors (nanoparticle exposure) and drivers (availability of organic matter, water temperature) are interacting in their impacts on hyporheic zone functioning. We argue that

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  4. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  5. National Port Strategy Assessment: Reducing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases at U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment finds that air pollution at the Nation's ports can be significantly reduced by implementing currently available strategies and technologies to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants from diesel vehicles and engines.

  6. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  7. Strategy to Reduce Pollution from Serbian Pushboats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Moving a cargo by ships from one point to another point is a fuel efficient method and certainly presents the lowest pollutant emission mode of transport of all transport systems if we consider long distance movement per tonne basis. Diesel engines are already efficient and while highly efficient, ships are not an insignificant source of carbon emissions at a global level. A strategy for overall decrease in pollution from ships through fuel consumption was presented in this paper. Combining s...

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methylmercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Meagher

    2006-01-20

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species.

  9. Thermal noise engines

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, Laszlo B.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical heat engines driven by the Johnson-Nyquist noise of resistors are introduced. They utilize Coulomb's law and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of statistical physics that is the reverse phenomenon of heat dissipation in a resistor. No steams, gases, liquids, photons, combustion, phase transition, or exhaust/pollution are present here. In these engines, instead of heat reservoirs, cylinders, pistons and valves, resistors, capacitors and switches are the building elements. For the ...

  10. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  11. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  12. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  13. Oil pollution identification and dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muet, B.; L'Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P.

    2005-01-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  14. Oil pollution identification and dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muet, B.; L' Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P. [Gallia Sana, 59 - Lille (France)

    2005-07-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  15. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  16. Introduction to environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalić, Anita; Zelić, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays we can easily say that environmental engineering is truly an interdisciplinary science. Combining biology, ecology, geology, geography, mathematics, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, economy, etc. environmental engineering strives to use environmental understanding and advancements in technology to serve mankind by decreasing production of environmental hazards and the effects of those hazards already present in the soil, water, and air. Major activities of environmental engineer involve water supply, waste water and solid management, air and noise pollution control, environmental sustainability, environmental impact assessment, climate changes, etc. And all this with only one main goal - to prevent or reduce undesirable impacts of human activities on the environment. To ensure we all have tomorrow.

  17. Origin and monitoring of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigier, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of the origin of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames. Burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of air pollution and significant reductions in levels of environmental pollution can be achieved by more effective control of combustion systems. The chemical kinetics of formation of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and particulate matter are described, as well as the reactions which can lead to oxidation and destruction of these pollutants within the flame. The important influence of mixing and aerodynamics is discussed, together with methods of mathematical modelling and prediction methods. Practical problems arising in gas turbine engines, spark ignition engines and diesel engines are investigated in order to minimize the emission of pollutants while preserving fuel economy. (author)

  18. TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF ALTERNATIVES OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSONS, AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.330 May I sell engines from an...

  20. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  1. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  2. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-01-01

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics

  3. The roles of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rise worldwide with a growing suspicion of association between environmental pollutants and diabetes. This paper reviewed the roles of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and increasing incidence of diabetes. Relevant information was retrieved from reliable sources in the internet using Google search engine.

  4. Pollution of living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Eržen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on cancer causation has come from investigation of the patterns of cancer in human populations and the induction of tumours in experimental animals following treatment with cancer-causing agents. It has been proven that genetic susceptibility may significantly alter the risk from environmental exposures. The most important human carcinogens include tobacco, asbestos, aflatoxins and ultraviolet light. Almost 20 % of cancers are associated with chronic infections, the most significant ones being hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV, papillomaviruses (HPV and Helicobacter pylori. Pollution of air, water and soil is estimated to account for 4–7 % of all cancers in developed world. A small proportion of lung cancer (< 5 % is attributable to outdoor air pollution by industrial effluent, engine exhaust products and other toxins. Chlorofluorocarbons cause destruction of the ozone layer and enhance the risk of skin cancer through increased ultraviolet radiation. Contamination of drinking water is not a general carcinogenic hazard, but high levels of arsenic and chlorination by-products in some communities carry a risk. Food may be contaminated by natural or man-made toxins, including substances shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals and, in some cases, in humans. Naturallyoccurring carcinogens include mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, which contribute to causation of liver cancer. Food can be contaminated by residual pesticides.Conclusions: Means to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate risk of cancer include elimination of carcinogenic factor (asbestos enforced by regulation and reduction of exposure or use of preventive and prophylactic measures (Hepatitis B, HPV vaccination, avoiding of sun.

  5. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  6. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.510 - Engine mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... the atmospheric pressure near the engine's air inlet is not within ± 5 kPa of the atmospheric pressure recorded at the time of the last engine map. (3) If the engine or emission-control system has undergone...

  8. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  9. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  10. Catalysis and automotive pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucq, A.; Frennet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In these proceedings seven lectures are presented dealing with the effects of exhaust gas on human health and the environment, with the economical and legislative problems associated with the new EEC standards and with the points of view of the oil and motor industries. Three papers deal with catalytic converters and problems such as specific pollution control of diesel engines, synthesis of adequate fuels and additives adapted to catalytic converters. Twentyfour papers are devoted to fundamental and applied studies on catalytic converters, support preparation and base metal catalysts. refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  12. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  13. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  14. 40 CFR 1054.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... schedule cleaning or changing air filters or changing spark plugs at the least frequent interval described... aftertreatment devices, pulse-air valves, fuel injectors, oxygen sensors, electronic control units, superchargers... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  15. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  16. 40 CFR 1048.105 - What evaporative emission standards and requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... specified in § 1048.501. Diurnal emission controls must continue to function during engine operation. (d... 62 kPa (9 psi) begins to boil at about 53 °C at atmospheric pressure, and at about 60 °C for fuel...

  17. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  18. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  19. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  20. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  2. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  3. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  4. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  5. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  6. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  7. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  8. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  9. 40 CFR 1065.405 - Test engine preparation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has undergone a stabilization step (or in-use operation). If the engine has not already been... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test engine preparation and...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Selection, Preparation, and Maintenance § 1065...

  10. Fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel engine combustion & emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Duty Diesel or compression ignition (CI) engine plays an important economical role in societies all over the world. Although it is a fuel efficient internal combustion engine design, CI engine emissions are an important contributor to global pollution. To further reduce engine emissions

  11. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  12. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  13. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  14. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massin, J.M.; Hertz, O.

    1993-01-01

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO 2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO 2 emissions. In addition, NO x emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO 2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NO x emissions for about 10% and CO 2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  15. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  16. Assessing Potential Air Pollutant Emissions from Agricultural Feedstock Production using MOVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter Petri, Alberta C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-29

    Biomass feedstock production is expected to grow as demand for biofuels and bioenergy increases. The change in air pollutant emissions that may result from large-scale biomass supply has implications for local air quality and human health. We developed spatially explicit emissions inventories for corn grain and six cellulosic feedstocks through the extension of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Feedstock Production Emissions to Air Model (FPEAM). These inventories include emissions of seven pollutants (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide) generated from biomass establishment, maintenance, harvest, transportation, and biofuel preprocessing activities. By integrating the EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) into FPEAM, we created a scalable framework to execute county-level runs of the MOVES-Onroad model for representative counties (i.e., those counties with the largest amount of cellulosic feedstock production in each state) on a national scale. We used these results to estimate emissions from the on-road transportation of biomass and combined them with county-level runs of the MOVES-Nonroad model to estimate emissions from agricultural equipment. We also incorporated documented emission factors to estimate emissions from chemical application and the operation of drying equipment for feedstock processing, and used methods developed by the EPA and the California Air Resources Board to estimate fugitive dust emissions. The model developed here could be applied to custom equipment budgets and is extensible to accommodate additional feedstocks and pollutants. Future work will also extend this model to analyze spatial boundaries beyond the county-scale (e.g., regional or sub-county levels).

  17. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  18. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Perspective of environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, B.B.; Thompson, D. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Spears, D.A. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This article aims to stimulate interest in pollution problems that are associated with the minerals industries. Because this subject is so broad, this study has concentrated on a limited number of topics that have been studied by the authors. After a brief survey indicating major sources of pollution through gaseous emissions, contamination of waterways and land fill sites, attention is focused on some of the methods of predicting, monitoring and limiting emissions together with remediation of polluted sites. (Author)

  20. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  1. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education » Light Pollution Light Pollution Preserving Dark Skies: Efforts to measure light pollution and work with the local

  2. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  3. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  4. Pollution prevention constraints within DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The signing of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, has marked a new environmental era. The 1990s environmental movement is shifting from ''end of the pipe'' treatment towards a philosophy of source reduction (predicated by the Pollution Prevention Act), where engineering solutions and materials substitution are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste. This change comes after 20 years of treatment legislation, where in many cases the location or media in which our pollution is deposited was merely changed. This problem is exemplified by the enormous environmental problems created by waste sites. Our inability to deal with the substantial waste generated has produced the environmental legacy on the Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a legacy that will cost billions of dollars to remediate. How then do we solve our waste problems and avoid future legacies? This paper outlines some of the obstacles to pollution prevention within the DOE system and explores opportunities to remove these barriers. Industry, whose foundation is economics, has found it attractive to reduce their wastes, particularly in the wake of escalating waste disposal costs. However, within federal facilities where basic economic principles do not prevail, incentives towards pollution prevention need to be evaluated. Our current system of segregated DOE programs creates obstacles for waste generators to work productively with other programs. Certain policies and practices also limit the generators' responsibility and costs for their waste, which is counter productive to waste minimization and pollution prevention. To meet new environmental challenges and to be proactive in pollution prevention we must evaluate our systems and remove barriers that impede progress toward pollution prevention

  5. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  6. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  7. An experimental investigation of performance of diesel to CNG engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Gupta, Ayush; Garg, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, diesel engines are widely used in automobiles which is responsible for hazardous increase in pollution. Around the world, many countries are trying to reduce it by replacing diesel with CNG as a fuel which is more economical and leads to pollution free environment. Engineers came up with an idea to convert diesel engine to CNG engine. This conversion is possible by doing some alteration of engine components and it also include adding some extra components to the system which includes spark plug, valves etc. and by decreasing the compression ratio of the engine. It is used worldwide today and many countries have many programs to convert older, polluting diesel vehicles to CNG enable vehicles so that they can run on clean, economical natural gas. This is, an excellent way to reduce fuel cost, reduce pollution, reduce noise with minimum possible capital costs.first, second, and third level headings.

  8. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  9. Engineering proteins for environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Schanstra, Joost P.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, significant new insight has been obtained into the structure and catalytic mechanism of enzymes that convert environmental pollutants. Recent advances in protein engineering make it possible to use this information for improving the catalytic performance of such enzymes to achieve

  10. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  11. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  12. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  13. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  14. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  15. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  16. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, J.E.; Summers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  17. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  18. Assessment of Methane Emissions – Impact of Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Johnson, Derek [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Heltzel, Robert [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Oliver, Dakota [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2018-04-08

    Researchers at the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions (CAFEE) completed a multi-year program under DE-FE0013689 entitled, “Assessing Fugitive Methane Emissions Impact Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development.” When drilling activity was high and industry sought to lower operating costs and reduce emissions they began investing in dual fuel and dedicated natural gas engines to power unconventional well equipment. From a review of literature we determined that the prime-movers (or major fuel consumers) of unconventional well development were the service trucks (trucking), horizontal drilling rig (drilling) engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump (fracturing) engines. Based on early findings from on-road studies we assessed that conversion of prime movers to operate on natural gas could contribute to methane emissions associated with unconventional wells. As such, we collected significant in-use activity data from service trucks and in-use activity, fuel consumption, and gaseous emissions data from drilling and fracturing engines. Our findings confirmed that conversion of the prime movers to operate as dual fuel or dedicated natural gas – created an additional source of methane emissions. While some gaseous emissions were decreased from implementation of these technologies – methane and CO2 equivalent emissions tended to increase, especially for non-road engines. The increases were highest for dual fuel engines due to methane slip from the exhaust and engine crankcase. Dedicated natural gas engines tended to have lower exhaust methane emissions but higher CO2 emissions due to lower efficiency. Therefore, investing in currently available natural gas technologies for prime movers will increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the unconventional well development industry.

  19. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  20. 40 CFR 1045.230 - How do I select engine families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying... control for engine operation, other than governing (i.e., mechanical or electronic). (6) The numerical... engine family. You may include dedicated-fuel versions of this same engine model in the same engine...

  1. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  2. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  3. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  4. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  5. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  6. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  7. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  8. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  9. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  10. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  11. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  12. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  13. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  15. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  16. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  17. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  18. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  20. Fate of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides

  1. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  2. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  3. HCCI Engine Optimization and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf D. Reitz

    2005-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop methods to optimize and control Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, with emphasis on diesel-fueled engines. HCCI offers the potential of nearly eliminating IC engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines (CIDI) by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The project was initiated in January, 2002, and the present report is the final report for work conducted on the project through December 31, 2004. Periodic progress has also been reported at bi-annual working group meetings held at USCAR, Detroit, MI, and at the Sandia National Laboratories. Copies of these presentation materials are available on CD-ROM, as distributed by the Sandia National Labs. In addition, progress has been documented in DOE Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Progress Reports for FY 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports are included as the Appendices in this Final report.

  4. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  5. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  7. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  8. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  9. Environmental pollution and allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, H; Inoue, K

    2017-01-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to wor...

  10. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Environmental engineering. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstner, U.

    1992-01-01

    This introductory textbook has been written in response to the demand for information on environmentally sound techniques and methods. On the basis of the knowledge taught in traditional engineering sciences, and referring to it, the author explains the specific problems encountered in the various environmental sectors, and reviews and discusses the technical solutions available or possible. In this process, there is, of course, opportunity or reason enough to refer to ecologic, economic, ethical or legal aspects, too. The book takes pollutants in a very general sense, their origin (sources), dispersion or transport, and their effects on the environment, as a red thread leading to the relevant technical equipment or engineering methods for problem solution in the various environmental sectors. An extensive and detailed bibliography points to literature for further reading. This third edition under review focusses on environmental problems in the eastern states of the Federal Republic: an account of the situation there refers to 'water' (catchment area of the Elbe river), 'soil' (long-standing pollution due to the mining industry in Thueringen and Sachsen), and 'air' (dispersion of pollutants, radon in uranium mines). The chapter 'Pollutants' now contains references to the handling of noxious chemical in accordance with the Ordinance on transport and handling of dangerous goods, explains the (mis)-development in the chlorine industry, shows the different dispersion processes of organic chemicals, etc. The chapters 'waste' and 'recycling' now part more emphasis on showing the significance of short- or medium-termed measures for prevention or rentilization of waste. (orig.) With 116 figs [de

  12. Environmental engineering. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstner, U.

    1991-01-01

    This introductory textbook has been written in response to the demand for information on environmentally sound techniques and methods. On the basis of the knowledge taught in traditional engineering sciences, and referring to it, the author explains the specific problems encountered in the various environmental sectors, and reviews and discusses the technical solutions available or possible. In this process, there is, of course, opportunity or reason enough to refer to ecologic, economic, ethical or legal aspects, too. The book takes pollutants in a very general sense, their origin (sources), dispersion or transport, and their effects on the environment, as a red thread leading to the relevant technical equipment or engineering methods for problem solution in the various environmental sectors. An extensive and detailed bibliography points to literature for further reading. This second edition under review focusses on environmental problems in the eastern states of the Federal Republic: an account of the situation there refers to 'water' (catchment area of the Elbe river), 'soil' (long-standing pollution due to the mining industry in Thueringen and Sachsen), and 'air' (dispersion of pollutants, radon in uranium mines). The chapter 'Pollutants' now contains references to the handling of noxious chemical in accordance with the Ordinance on transport and handling of dangerous goods, explains the (mis)-development in the chlorine industry, shows the different dispersion processes of organic chemicals, etc. The chapters 'waste' and 'recycling' now part more emphasis on showing the significance of short- or medium-termed measures for prevention or rentilization of waste. (orig./HSCH) With 116 figs [de

  13. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  14. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  15. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  16. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  17. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  18. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2014-09-01

    An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol.

  19. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  20. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  1. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  3. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  4. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  5. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  6. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  7. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air

  8. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor ai...

  9. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND COMMUNICATING SCIENCE: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry (MS) - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies definitive data that environmental scientists and engineers...

  10. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  11. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lichens as pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.

  13. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  14. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  15. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  16. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  17. The price of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  18. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise

  19. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  20. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  1. The Interdisciplinary Course in the Legal Aspects of Noise Pollution at Columbia University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cyril M.; Rosenthal, Albert J.

    1981-01-01

    A course in the legal aspects of noise pollution, cross-listed for students in Columbia University's Law and Engineering Schools, is described. Although noise is used as the major source of environmental pollution in this course, the principles and methodology discussed apply to other forms of environmental law. (MLW)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  3. 78 FR 15010 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request: Information Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Abstract: EPA is required under Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act to regulate Volatile Organic Compound... marine engines, locomotives, non-road recreational vehicles, and many non-road compression-ignition and...

  4. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  5. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  7. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    landing site in Uganda. N. Banadda. Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: banadda@agric.mak.ac.ug. Fax: +256-414-53.16.41. Accepted 5 January, 2011. The aim of this research is to characterize non point pollutants and their dispersion in ...

  8. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  9. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  10. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Christensen, G.M.; Tucker, J.H.; Benoit, D.A.; Lewis, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

  11. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  12. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lianjun; Maruya, Keith A.; Snyder, Shane A.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. - Highlights: ► Levels of POPs in China's aquatic systems were generally at the high end of the global range. ► New inputs of DDTs, likely related to the use of dicofol and anti-fouling paints, were found. ► Occurrence of PCBs and DDTs in some water bodies pay pose potential human health risk. ► Long-term monitoring of POPs in China's waters is needed to fill data gaps. - Occurrence, potential sources and ecological and human health risk of persistent organic pollutants in China's waters are reviewed.

  13. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  14. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines...

  15. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.301 Section 1051.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.301 When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines? (a...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce...

  17. EMISSIONS FROM TWO OUTBOARD ENGINES OPERATING ON REFORMULATED GASOLINE CONTAINING MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air and water pollutant emissions were measured from two 9.9 HP outboard engines: a two-stroke Evinrude and its four-stroke Honda counterpart. In addition to the measurement of regulated air pollutants, speciated organic pollutants and particulate matter emissions were determi...

  18. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  19. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  20. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  1. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  2. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  3. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  5. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  6. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  7. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  8. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  9. Noise pollution resources compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  10. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  11. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  12. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  13. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  14. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  15. Thermodynamic modelling of a pistons engine: Calculation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internal combustion engines are under development remarkable these last decades, but they represent, currently, a very important source of polluting gas emissions. The nitrogen oxides (NOx) form part of these polluting emissions, and have a harmful effect on human health, as well as the environment. Considering the ...

  16. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  17. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  18. What is causing the pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Elshout, S.; Ameling, M.; Wester, B.; Molenaar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is usually the most important source of air pollution in the Netherlands, but may be different for local air pollution. This article offers a spatial analysis of all NO2 sources in the Dutch Rijnmond area. [nl

  19. Air pollution and tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1960-01-01

    The problem of air pollution is reviewed with emphasis on its origin and its effects on trees and shrubs. These effects are described from two points of view: the effects of general air pollution, and also the effects of specific pollutants. The considerable mixing, dilution and interaction that pollutants undergo in the air often renders it exceedingly difficult to assign pollution damage to any specific chemical or physical entity. Moreover, it is often impossible to assign responsibility for damage to any particular source. The constituents of general air pollution may be subdivided into those potentially incapable, and those potentially capable, of entering the plant either through the leaf stomata or indirectly by way of the soil. Specific pollutants cause damage directly, as well as indirectly from the chemical reactions that occur in the polluted atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is discussed in detail in relation to tree and shrub damage, with numerous examples of plant injuries.

  20. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  1. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  2. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  3. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  4. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of oil pollution problems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Written by outstanding experts in the fields of marine engineering, atmospheric physics and chemistry, fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, the contributions in this book cover a wide range of subjects, from pure mathematics to real-world applications in the oil spill engineering business. Offering a truly interdisciplinary approach, the authors present both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the partial differential equations involved, as well as highly practical experiments involving actual cases of ocean oil pollution. It is indispensable that different disciplines of mathematics, like analysis and numerics,  together with physics, biology, fluid dynamics, environmental engineering and marine science, join forces to solve today’s oil pollution problems.   The book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students in the environmental sciences, mathematics and physics, showing the broad range of techniques needed in order to solve these poll...

  5. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  6. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  7. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  8. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  9. Subsidies to Increase Remote Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestikova, Jana; Krizanova, Anna; Corejova, Tatiana; Kral, Pavol; Spuchlakova, Erika

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles (and related infrastructure) from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today's electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions (i.e. global warming potential) remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions.

  10. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  11. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  12. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  13. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  14. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  15. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  16. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  17. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  18. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  19. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  20. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  2. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  3. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  4. Understanding metals pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, H.; Bollinger, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Either from natural or anthropic origin, be it normal or accidental (Tchernobyl), metallic elements are found everywhere in our environment. After a presentation of their repartition and mobility in water, sediments or soils, the mechanisms allowing their dispersion or their concentration are shown. Finally, transfers between environmental compartments are presented, before evoking the case of polluted sites: diagnostic, remediation and long-time management. (authors)

  5. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  6. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  7. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  8. The polluted globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.; Kohout, F.; Malunat, B.M.; Merk, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is but a sweeping and determined both national and international environmental policy taking account of all socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-political concerns, which is able to thwart a further increasing pollution. The publication discusses the political conditions, implications and consequences of an efficient international environmental policy both complying with and setting the standards of national environmental policies. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  10. Pollution! Find a STEM solution!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career

  11. Environmental pollution and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes.

  12. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  13. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  14. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  15. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  16. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  17. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  18. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  19. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  20. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...