WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonroad engiing modeling-compression-ignition

  1. 40 CFR 89.609 - Final admission of modification nonroad engines and test nonroad engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been placed on a currently effective EPA list of ICIs ineligible to import such modification... submittal of the ICI's application under paragraph (b) of this section. (e) EPA list of ICIs ineligible to import nonroad engines for modification/test. EPA maintains a current list of ICIs who have...

  2. MODELLING OF NON-ROAD TRANSIENT CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kotus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the modeling of NRTC (Non-Road Transient Cycle test procedure based on previously measured characteristics of fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulates (PM production. It makes possible to compare the current technical condition of an internal combustion engine of an agricultural tractor with its previous state or other tractor’s engine. Based on measured characteristics, it is also possible to model any other cycle without further measurements (NRSC test procedure, cycle for specific conditions – mountain tractor, etc.. The result may thus contribute to improving the environment by reducing the production of harmful substances emitted into the air and save money due to reduced fuel consumption.

  3. An overview of non-road equipment emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Kaishan; Di, Baofeng; Hu, Baomei

    2016-05-01

    As the vehicle population has dramatically increased in China in the past two decades, vehicle emissions have become one of the major sources to air pollution across the entire country, especially for the metropolitan cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Most of the non-road equipment are diesel-fueled and have been proved to be a key source for NOx and PM emissions, contributing significantly to the formation of haze/smog. Therefore, an accurate estimation of emission inventory from non-road equipment is essential for air quality improvement policy making, which mainly depends on the data availability of equipment population, activity, and emissions factor. Compared to on-road vehicles, less studies regarding emissions characterization have been conducted and investigated for non-road mobile sources in China. Thus, in order to identify the data gaps and future research needs, the objective of this study is to review the current status of research in non-road mobile emissions. Five types of non-road equipment were addressed in this study, including agricultural equipment, industrial equipment, river/ocean-going vessels, locomotives, and commercial airplanes, with a focus on the former two. The equipment are further classified mainly based on national standards and data availability to account for fuel type, job duties and others. This investigation has found that the research regarding emissions from non-road equipment is still at its early stage and there is a huge data gap for both activity and emissions factors. For most of the study, data used for emission inventory estimation were based on either literature with similar equipment or as-developed emissions models such as NONROAD or CORPERT. The representativeness of these data to the localities was not much discussed in those studies, which might have weakened the accuracy of the estimated emission inventory. For future study, real-world in-use measurements of activities and emissions for the non-road equipment

  4. Concepts to meet non-road stage IV / Tier 4 emission legislation; Konzepte fuer die Emissionsgesetzgebung. Non-Road Stage IV / Tier 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartus, T.; Herrmuth, H.; Stein, G. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Scherm, P. [Euromot - European Association of Internal Combustion Engine Mfrs., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    By December 2007, the EC will have to submit a new proposal for Stage IV emissions limits for Non-Road Mobile Machinery. Industry is committed to contributing to this process and has asked AVL to carry out a study as a neutral engineering company. The main topics of this study are described in this article. (orig.)

  5. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S. C.; Kalivoda, M.; Vacarro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Samaras, Z.; Lewis, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  6. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S. C.; Kalivoda, M.; Vacarro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Samaras, Z.; Lewis, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  7. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  8. Nonroad developed land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of non-road developed land in the Pacific Northwest region of the...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-IGNITION ENGINES General Pt. 89, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89—State Regulation...

  10. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this... standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or...

  11. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines...

  12. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  13. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  14. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units... Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) and TRU Generator Sets and Facilities Where TRUs Operate.'' CARB has...''), regarding its ``Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration Units...

  15. Nonroad developed land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the area of non-road developed land within each incremental watershed delineated...

  16. Energy efficient non-road hybrid electric vehicles advanced modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Johannes; Jakubek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications, which work in continuous high dynamic operation, this book gives practical insight in to how to maximize the energetic efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. The book addresses an energy management control structure, which considers all constraints of the physical powertrain and uses novel methodologies for the prediction of the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of an entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short term loads as well as for an entire load cycle by means of a cycle detection. A maximization of the energetic efficiency can so be achieved, which is simultaneously a reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Readers will gain a deep insight into the necessary topics to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles and that only a combinatio...

  17. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  18. 76 FR 77515 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in... engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (``At-Berth Regulation''). The At... airborne toxic control measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at...

  19. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  20. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  1. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  2. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  3. Particle- and gas-phase PAHs toxicity equivalency quantity emitted by a non-road diesel engine with non-thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Zhang, Yajie; Liu, Jiangquan; Feng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ, denoted by benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration) is more meaningful when evaluating the influence of non-road diesel engines PAH toxicity on environment. Particle- and gas-phase PAH BaPeq concentrations were calculated based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) results and toxic equivalency factors. A non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor was applied to a non-road diesel engine to decrease PAH TEQ content. Only the gas-phase Nap BaPeq concentration increased slightly with the action of NTP at three different generator power outputs. BaP dominated the BaPeq concentration for 15 samples with, and without NTP except in the gas-phase at 4 kW. Almost all medium molecular weight (MMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAH TEQs increased for particle- and gas-phases at 3 kW power output compared to 2 kW without the use of NTP. Particle-phase Nap, Acp, and AcPy (low molecular weight, LMW) TEQ were under detection at 3 and 4 kW, while gas-phase BkF, IND, DBA, and BghiP (HMW) concentrations were below the limits of detection. The most abundant PAH TEQ compounds were MMW and HMW PAHs for gas- and particle-phase while they were BaA, CHR, BbF, BaP, and IND for PM aggregation. The total BaPeq emission factors were 15.1, 141.4, and 46.5 μg m(-3) at three engine loads, respectively. Significant BaPeq concentration percentage reduction was obtained (more than 80 and 60 %) with the use of NTP for particle- and gas-phases. A high TEQ content was observed for PM aggregation (38.8, 98.4, and 50.0 μg kg(-1)) which may have caused secondary PAH toxicity emissions. With the action of NTP, the breakup of MMW and HMW into LMW PAHs led to reduction of some PAH concentrations.

  4. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-15

    Combustion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) with biodiesel or n-butanol on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a non-road diesel engine. The results indicated that compared to ULSD, both the blended fuels could effectively reduce the particulate mass and elemental carbon emissions, with butanol being more effective than biodiesel. The proportion of organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in particles increased for both blended fuels. However, biodiesel blended fuels showed lower total particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions. The total number emissions of particles ≤560nm in diameter decreased gradually for the butanol blended fuels, but increased significantly for the biodiesel blended fuels. Both the blended fuels indicated lower soot ignition temperature and activation energy. All the particle extracts showed a decline in cell viability with the increased dose. However, the change in cell viability among test fuels is not statistically significant different with the exception of DB-4 (biodiesel-diesel blend containing 4% oxygen) used at 75% engine load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Air Act Section 209 Proceedings In Motor and Equip. Mfrs. Assoc. v. EPA, 627 F.2d 1095 (D.C. Cir. 1979... * * *.\\16\\ \\16\\ Motor and Equip. Mfrs. Assoc. v. EPA (MEMA I), 627 F.2d 1095, 1122 (D.C. Cir. 1979). The...

  6. Performance and emissions assessment of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline blends as a fuel in spark-ignition engi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleek of using alternatives to gasoline fuel in internal combustion engines becomes a necessity as the environmental problems of fossil fuels as well as their depleted reserves. This research presents an experimental investigation into a new blended fuel; the effects of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and pollutant emissions of an SI (spark-ignition engine were examined. Four test fuels (namely 0, 3, 7 and 10 volumetric percent of n-butanol–methanol blends at equal rates, e.g., 0%, 1.5%, 3.5% and 5% for n-butanol and methanol, in gasoline were investigated in an engine speed range of 2600–3400 r/min. In addition, the dual alcohol (methanol and n-butanol–gasoline blends were compared with single alcohol (n-butanol–gasoline blends (for the first time as well as with the neat gasoline fuel in terms of performance and emissions. The experimental results showed that the addition of low content rates of n-butanol–methanol to neat gasoline adversely affects the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions as compared to the results of neat gasoline and single alcohol–gasoline blends; in particular, a reduction in engine volumetric efficiency, brake power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, exhaust gas temperature and CO2 emissions and an increase in concentrations of CO and UHC (unburned hydrocarbons emissions were observed for the dual alcohols. However, higher rates of n-butanol–methanol blended in gasoline were observed to improve the SI engine performance parameters and emission concentration. Oppositely the higher rates of single alcohol–gasoline blends were observed to provide adverse results, e.g., higher emissions and lower performance than those of lower rates of single alcohol. Finally, dual alcohol–gasoline blends could exceed (i.e. provide higher performance and lower emissions single alcohol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline at higher rates (>10 vol.% in the blend and, in turn, it is recommended to be used at high rate conditions.

  7. Practice and Experience on Teaching Reform of "Engi-neering Thermodynamics"%"工程热力学"课程教改实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊飞; 王雨; 欧阳怀瀑

    2016-01-01

    根据"工程热力学"课程的特点以及在教学实践过程中存在的主要问题,基于提高教学质量和教学效果,针对学生的知识结构、理论基础和学习能力,研究提高"工程热力学"课程教学质量的若干方法:采用推进式教学方法、经典例题深化剖析、合理优化课程学习的评价方法、布置探索型作业等,既有教学思路和方法的改革,又增加考核内容和方式的改革实践,收到了较佳的教学效果.

  8. Research on the Reform of Curriculum in Traffic Engi-neering%交通工程专业课程改革的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴景龙; 黄守刚; 孙亚丽

    2013-01-01

      Traffic engineering is a comprehensive discipline of both natural science and social science double attribute, has the characteristics of comprehensive, systematic, clear cross and so-ciety etc.. Traffic Engineering (Traffic Engineering) is a relatively young discipline derived from the road engineering, it is the number of traffic related people, vehicles, road, environment and energy aspects in road traffic the unified development of research. Traffic engineering professional course mostly belongs to applied and cross discipline which has strong practicality and operability. So this professional students' practical application ability to de-mand more and more high. In the construction of traffic engineer-ing professional course, the most important means of combining the experiment teaching and practice teaching. This article from the characteristics and research content of traffic engineering, traffic engineering course construction and teaching practice are discussed, the experimental teaching of combining the idea and system, reform curriculum construction through combining prac-tical teaching and experimental teaching to improve students' practical ability and the ability to use knowledge to solve practical problems. Through the teaching reform for experimental teaching, practice teaching running through the teaching process of the whole traffic engineering.%  交通工程学科是一门兼有自然科学与社会科学双重属性的综合性学科,具有鲜明的综合性、系统性、交叉性和社会性等特征。交通工程学(Traffic engineering)是从道路工程学中衍生出来的一门相对年轻的学科,它是把人、车、路、环境以及能源等与交通有关的几个方面综合在道路交通这一统一体中进行研究的。交通工程专业的课程大多属于应用性和交叉性的学科,学科的实践性及其操作性很强,所以对本专业学生的实践应用能力要求越来越高。在交通工程专业课程建设中,最重要的手段就是将实验教学和实践教学相结合。本文从交通工程的特点和研究内容入手,探讨了交通工程课程建设与实践教学,实验教学相结合的思路和体系,旨在通过课程建设改革将实践教学、实验教学相结合来提高学生的动手能力及运用所学知识解决实际问题的能力。通过教学改革来实现实验教学,实践教学贯穿整个交通工程专业的教学过程。

  9. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... vehicles. Second, the amendments reclassified sand cars, off-road utility vehicles and off-road sport... standard, (2) a within-the- scope determination for the reclassification of sand cars, off-road sport... standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable...

  10. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... source sector, after light-duty passenger cars and trucks. The final rule was published in the Federal... technologies (such as Rankine engines, electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles), in order to generate advanced... fuel conversion regulations to provide clarity regarding the applicability of the fuel...

  11. 78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... authorization of the Fleet Requirements as amended in 2010. The legal framework for this decision stems from the... considered under section 209(e)(2)(A). \\8\\ See, e.g., Motor and Equip. Mfrs Assoc. v. EPA, 627 F.2d 1095 (D.C...

  12. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available control... Alexander at (202) 343-9540, to learn if a hearing will be held or may check the following webpage for an... restricted by statute. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that...

  13. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graves, Ronald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orban, John [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Theiss, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  14. ENSURING THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF UREA DOSING FOR ON-ROAD AND NON-ROAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, G; Lonsdale, B

    2003-08-24

    The purpose of this presentation is to address two important issues. The first issue is nationwide availability of urea. The second is assurance by the engine maker that the engine cannot operate without urea. In regard to the first issue, North American urea production can support SCR needs for the Heavy Duty truck industry. The existing distribution methods, pathways and technology could be utilized for urea supply with no new invention required. Urea usage and storage capacity on vehicles would support long distances between tank refills, as SCR could be initially rolled out with a limited infrastructure. The price of urea should be less than diesel fuel and urea SCR should have a fuel economy advantage over competing technologies. It can be in place by 2007. In regard to the second issue, sensor technology exists to monitor urea tank level and verify that the fluid in the tank is urea. NOx sensors are available to monitor tailpipe NOx, ensuring the entire SCR system is functioning properly, and inferring that urea is in the system. The monitoring system could be used to monitor compliance, record faults, and initiate enforcement actions as necessary. The monitoring system could initiate actions to encourage compliance.

  15. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... America (``A4A''). A4A comments that California's LSI regulations as applicable to airport ground support.... Other Issues Airlines for America (``A4A'') has provided comments opposing EPA's grant of authorization for California's LSI regulations. The reasons A4A provides in its comments are outside the scope...

  16. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...\\ See 49 CFR 553.21. \\4\\ Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting an image of... that the documents submitted be scanned using the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, thus... benefits of the standards achieved during this critical initial phase of the program by providing the...

  17. 76 FR 77521 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... strategy (DECS) determined by CARB to be the greatest feasible reduction of NO X or PM. For in-use harbor..., push boats, and multipurpose harbor craft. Those harbor craft are required to meet emission limits... owners and operators may opt to meet requirements by implementing alternative emission control strategies...

  18. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Innovative Strategies Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection... strategy (DECS) determined by CARB to be the greatest feasible reduction of NO X or PM when used with the... marine engines in ferries, excursion vessels, tugboats, towboats, push boats, and multipurpose harbor...

  19. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ....regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air and Radiation Docket in the EPA Headquarters Library, EPA West... will give appropriate consideration to safety factors (including the potential increased risk of burn... proof must take account of the nature of the risk of error involved in any given decision, and...

  20. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... within a test group based on engine code, transmission type and gear ratios, final drive ratio, and other... configurations within each test group and transmission type (instead of configurations within each base level and... performed on the basis of test group and transmission type (instead of the model-type basis specified in...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 1039 - Nonroad Compression-ignition Composite Transient Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 49 924 83 37 925 83 25 926 83 17 927 83 13 928 83 10 929 83 8 930 83 7 931 83 7 932 83 6 933 83 6 934... 81 29 1005 81 28 1006 81 24 1007 81 19 1008 81 16 1009 80 16 1010 83 23 1011 83 17 1012 83 13 1013...

  2. 40 CFR 89.603 - General requirements for importation of nonconforming nonroad engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that pollutant applicable to the OP year for the appropriate power category. (3) ICIs may not generate... model year, except as allowed by paragraph (e)(5) of this section. For ICIs owned by a parent...

  3. 78 FR 38970 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) and TRU Generator Sets and Facilities... Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) and TRU Generator Sets and... Amendments to California's ``Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration...

  4. Analysis on the Measures for Reducing the Viscosity Loss Oilfield Ground Engi-neering Preparation and Injection Technology%油田地面配注工艺降低黏损的措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾黎

    2016-01-01

    针对目前地面系统配注工艺中聚合物母液黏度损失较大,影响开发注聚效果,增加生产成本等问题,研制并试验了可增强径向力从而提高混合均匀度的新型螺旋式静态混合器,可以避免常规混合单元产生的机械剪切力,有效降低黏度损失;应用锥形梭型杆阀芯低剪切母液流量调节器,实现聚合物母液的流量调节,降低了机械剪切力.此外,应用先进的微生物技术,将产抗生素微生物菌群与NRB菌群进行复配,研发聚驱黏损抑制剂,可杀灭或消耗管道内硫化物、硫酸盐还原菌等微生物,降低聚合物母液黏损2%~5%.%In view of polymer solution viscosity loss in the process of current ground injec-tion allocation system, affect the development effect of polymer injection, increase the pro-duction costs and other issues,develop and test applied the novel spiral static mixer which can improve the mixing uniformity through enhancing radial force and the multi spindle valve core low shear polymer liquid flow regulator, so can avoid mechanical shear force produced by the conventional mixing unit,and effectively reduce the viscosity loss.Implementation of polymer liquid flow control and reduce the mechanical shearing force. In addition, by the advanced microbial technology, compound with the combination of antibiotic bacteria and NRB bacteria group,develop biological inhibitors for polymer viscosity loss which can kill or consume the pipeline sulfide, sulfate reducing bacteria and other microorganisms, reduce the viscosity loss of polymer liquid for 2%~5%.

  5. 76 FR 38155 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Regulation is designed to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter from auxiliary diesel... restricted by statute. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that contains... California ports (``At-Berth Regulation'').\\1\\ The At-Berth Regulation is designed to significantly...

  6. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Diesel Particulate Matter, Oxides of Nitrogen and Other Criteria Pollutants from In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel... motor vehicles which are not the subject of this decision (such regulations are not preempted under the... subsection in the context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\8\\ \\6\\ 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994)....

  7. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an... July 20, 1994, EPA promulgated a rule that sets forth, among other things, regulations providing the... 13, California Code of Regulations, section 2025. \\6\\ The definition of yard truck is at section 2025...

  8. 77 FR 72846 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthma and fewer hospital visits caused by pneumonia and asthma-related... authority ``shall take effect after such period as the Administrator finds necessary to permit the... the technology before the standards go into effect. The latter scenario also requires...

  9. 77 FR 497 - Control of Emissions From New Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines: Approval of New Scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... catalytic converters and if the engines are at or above 130 kW then a manufacturer may not schedule the catalytic converter maintenance more frequently than 4,500 hours. In addition, should a manufacturer desire... perform during service accumulation on emission-data engines) not found under Sec. 1039.125(a)(2) and...

  10. Semi-blind channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems with VC Computer Engi-neering and Applications, 2014, 50(18):210-214%基于VC的MIMO-OFDM系统的子空间半盲信道估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉珍; 闫兴玉

    2014-01-01

    The convergence speed of traditional subspace-based blind channel estimation is slow and has a good estimating quality only by receiving a large number of signals. Therefore, this paper proposes a VC-based blind channel estimation method in MIMO-OFDM systems. The algorithm is the combination of traditional subspace algorithm and block matrix thought. It extracts a set of vectors to reduce the number of dimensions in OFDM signals and then adds pilot sequence to form a new semi-blind channel estimation method in blind channel estimation method.By computer modeling and simulation, it can be found that newly promoted blind channel estimation method and semi-blind channel estimation method work better in channel estimation and convergence.%传统的子空间盲信道估计收敛速度缓慢且需要大量接收信号才能保证估计性能良好,就此问题提出了一种新的基于虚拟载波(VC)的MIMO-OFDM系统的盲信道估计算法。该算法是传统子空间算法与块矩阵思想的结合,在每个OFDM符号中提取一组子矢量来降低维度。而后又在盲信道估计算法中加入导频序列形成新的半盲信道估计算法。通过计算机模拟仿真发现,新提出的盲信道和半盲信道估计算法在信道估计性能和收敛性方面均表现较好。

  11. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  12. Fuel use and emissions from non-road machinery in Denmark from 1985-2004 - and projections from 2005-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth [National Environmental Research Inst. (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    This report documents the updated 1985-2004 fuel use and emission inventory for non road machinery and recreational craft in Denmark. The inventory comprises the emission components of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and TSP, and in addition a fuel use and emission forecast is presented from 2005-2030. The calculated results are grouped into the sub-sectors agriculture, forestry, industry, household/gardening and inland waterways, according to the structure of the CollectER database used for all Danish sources. The report explains the existing EU emission directives for non road machinery, the actual fuel use and emission factors used, sources of background and operational data, calculation methods and the calculated fuel use and emission results. (au)

  13. DMFC Module for non-road transport and mobile applications. Final report; DMFC Modul for intern transport og mobile anlaeg. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to develop a compact fuel cell generator using methanol as fuel. The DMFC module will be tested as power generator for internal transport using a Mini Crosser electric wheelchair for elderly and disabled people. The main advantage is the potential enhanced operation time (enhanced range) and the abbreviated recharge time compared with rechargeable batteries. The project approach was to use a hybrid system comprising a DMFC and a battery. The Hybrid system enables the usage of the battery to cover the dynamic power requirements while operating the DMFC generator at a constant load charging the battery. The project result is a functioning vehicle with a 600W DMFC system installed. The DMFC system has been tested independently and together with the vehicle where test results have been gathered. It was not possible within the project to make a compact installation in the existing battery box of the vehicle, but it is illustrated that it will be possible to make the full installation of a 2nd generation system in the vehicle. On the commercial side it is concluded that there can be a potential market entry opportunity if the DMFC system can meet commercialisation targets. It is also concluded that usage of a DMFC system in a closed wheel chair would give the possibility to use the produced heat from the fuel cell and thereby eliminate the requirement for an additional heater on the vehicle. (au)

  14. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  15. 40 CFR 1060.515 - How do I test EPA Nonroad Fuel Lines and EPA Cold-Weather Fuel Lines for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 1060.810) blended with ethanol such that the blended fuel has 10.0 ± 1.0 percent ethanol by volume. (2) For EPA Cold-Weather Fuel Lines, use gasoline blended with ethanol such that the blended fuel has 10.0 ± 1.0 percent ethanol by volume. (b) Drain the fuel line and refill it immediately with...

  16. Assessment of pollutant emissions with GTL as a drop in fuel for medium and heavy-duty vehicles, inland shipping and non-road machines - Final

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Effect van Shell GTL Fuel op de uitstoot van vrachtauto’s, binnenvaartschepen en mobiele machines Paraffinische dieselbrandstoffen als GTL Fuel staan bekend om hun gunstige invloed op de uitstoot van schadelijke emissies zoals NOx en fijnstof. TNO heeft in opdracht van Shell een groot aantal onafhan

  17. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 49.130 - Rule for limiting sulfur in fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section? This section does not apply to gasoline and diesel fuel, such as automotive and marine diesel..., gaseous fuel, marine vessel, mobile sources, motor vehicle, nonroad engine, nonroad vehicle, owner...

  19. TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF ALTERNATIVES OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSONS, AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  20. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS OBTAINED BY USE OF ALTERNATIVE OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSIONS AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE DISEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report sets standards by which the emissions reduction provided by fuel and lubricant technologies can be tested and be tested in a comparable way. It is a generic protocol under the Environmental Technology Verification program.

  1. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  2. Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

  3. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge of wine, to interpret non-verbal signs and codes such as the com- ..... businesses: banking, insurance, real estate, medicine, technology and engi- neering, tourism ... Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries: Lexicog-.

  4. Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    professionals. ◆◆ innovative solutions should be increasingly used to get students engaged in science, technology, engineering, mathematics , and...not more important than, the hardware and software involved. Similarly, while science, technology, engi- neering, and mathematics (STEM) are the founda...engi- neers and mathematicians who matriculate since these and other STEM areas are the foundational fields of cyber. At the high school and college

  5. Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future (Defense Horizons, Number 72)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    professionals. ◆◆ innovative solutions should be increasingly used to get students engaged in science, technology, engineering, mathematics , and...not more important than, the hardware and software involved. Similarly, while science, technology, engi- neering, and mathematics (STEM) are the founda...engi- neers and mathematicians who matriculate since these and other STEM areas are the foundational fields of cyber. At the high school and college

  6. 40 CFR 90.118 - Certification procedure-service accumulation and usage of deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... recommended lubrication and filter changes, may be performed during service accumulation without...

  7. 40 CFR 80.501 - What fuel is subject to the provisions of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel...) Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (2) Nonroad, locomotive, or marine diesel fuel. (3) Diesel fuel additives. (4... for use as fuel in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines or is blended with diesel fuel...

  8. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer...

  9. 40 CFR 90.906 - Manufacturer-owned exemption and precertification exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer-owned exemption and... KILOWATTS Exclusion and Exemption of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.906 Manufacturer-owned exemption and precertification exemption. (a) Any manufacturer owned nonroad engine, as defined by § 90.902,...

  10. 77 FR 76883 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... standards, nonroad spark-ignition engines and recreational engines standards, large nonroad diesel engine... and includes emission reductions associated with CAIR, EPA's modeling indicates that the area would... initial matter, EPA notes that the modeling EPA conducted during the rulemaking for the CSAPR...

  11. 77 FR 50595 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut, Massachusetts, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... from mobile on- road and non-road sources, such that complete emission inventories are available to... within our September 20, 2010 proposal occurred within step 6 of Table 3d, where the detailed RFP target..., area, non-road mobile, on-road mobile and biogenic sources. The inventories were submitted as...

  12. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine imported pursuant to § 89.605 or § 89.609, ICIs must furnish with each nonroad engine a list of... admission pursuant to § 89.605(a) or § 89.609(b). (b) Warranties. (1) ICIs must submit to the Engine... required by this section prior to importing nonroad engines under this subpart. (2) ICIs must provide...

  13. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  14. 40 CFR 89.109 - Maintenance instructions and minimum allowable maintenance intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION... of idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, injector lash, timing, lubrication of...

  15. 40 CFR 89.118 - Deterioration factors and service accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission... maintenance, other than recommended lubrication and filter changes, may be performed during...

  16. 40 CFR 80.514-80.519 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.514-80.519 Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 80.528-80.529 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements §§ 80.528-80.529 Temporary...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.130 - What installation instructions must I give to equipment manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in an equivalent format. For example, you may post instructions on a publicly available Web site for... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD...

  19. 40 CFR 90.902 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... product development, production method assessment, and market promotion purposes. Testing exemption means... exporting new nonroad engines. National security exemption means an exemption granted under § 90.1004(b) for...

  20. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  1. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights for engi...

  2. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Rock Island Arsenal, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    applications and process equipment. Process equipment includes two absorption chillers , two steam- operated forge presses, immersion heaters for the...evaluate the boiler strategy at this facility. The facility is currently in the process of replacing the absorption chillers with electric chillers ...Carbonate Fuel Cells for DoD Applications: Rock Island Arsenal MCFC Engi- neer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research

  3. Evaluation of Dam Decommissioning in an Ice-Affected River: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Abdul-Mohsen 2005 and Kuby et al. 2005). Conyngham et al. (2006) provide an overview of the ecological and engi- neering aspects of dam decommissioning...2007) CRREL Ice Jam Database (http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/ierd/ijdb/), accessed March 2007. Kuby , M.J., W.F. Fagan, C.S. ReVelle, W.L. Graf (2005

  4. An Approach to Quality Assurance of Structural Adhesive Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Michaloudaki, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    With the development of advanced materials and structures, new nondestructive test techniques are being developed to evaluate material and structural integrity. Since adhesive bonding in engineering structures promises significant advantages - uniform stress distribution, enhanced fatigue properties, light weight, combination of dissimilar materials - over traditional techniques like welding and mechanical fastening, increased interest is registered in transport, construction, mechanical engi...

  5. On the Computation of the Moments of a Polygon, with some Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerjadi, R.

    1968-01-01

    A general formula for moments of a polygon is derived. The concept of 'moment' is a generalization of the statical, inertial and centrifugal moment respectively of a polygon, which as such are special moments of first and second order. Moments of higher order, however, also have applications in engi

  6. Tsunami engineering study in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    - blish tsunami engi neering study ce n tres. We need to carry out research in the fields like: (a) developing early warning system to alert coastal residen ts based on n u merical forecasting, (b) implementing and maintaining an awareness on the war...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_009133.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009133.2 chr17 THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN G-PROTEIN SUBUNIT ALPHA (GNAI3) IN COMPLEX WITH AN ENGI...NEERED REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING TYPE 2 DOMAIN (RGS2) p2v4zb_ chr17/NP_009133.2/NP_009133.2_apo_368-505.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  8. Reflection seismology systems for planetary geology: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, P.A.W.; Gill, E.K.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Foing, B.H.; Toxopeus, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study is conducted to determine whether reflection seismology systems can be used for planetary geology research. The focus is on systems with up to 20,000 seismic detectors, such as used today in Earth geological research and energy companies. The study follows a top-down systems engi

  9. Construction Technology Transfer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    44 USACERL TR 99/11 References Arditi , D., "Construction Productivity Improvement," Journal of Construction Engi- neering and Management, American...8. 12 Ichinowski, T. and Setzer, S. "Corps seeks plans to boost productivity." Engineering News Record, February 9, 1989, p. 11-12. 13 Arditi , D

  10. Integrated product development and experience of communication in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollenburg, P.A.M. van; Veenstra, H.E.V.; Schenk Brill, D. van; Ihle, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Departments at the Fontys University of Professional Education in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, offer a course which is devel-oped around the principles of Concurrent Engi-neering. Integrated Product Development (IPD) project teams are multi-disciplinary groups which develop products in

  11. Internet information on xerostomia : what should patients expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K.; Livas, C.; Spijkervet, F. K.; Vissink, A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the qualitative standards of the information distributed via the Internet regarding xerostomia. Materials and MethodsA comprehensive electronic search was performed for xerostomia' and dry mouth' separately using four search engines. The first 30 results from each search term-engi

  12. Characterization and Modeling of a Control Moment Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    The MAB interfaces with MATLAB / Simulink , a common engi- neering software package which does not require the user to posses low-level coding knowledge...gravitational disturbance torques noticeable in the gimbal angular position measurements. An analytical model of the CMG gimbal was created in MATLAB . The... MATLAB model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 28 Command history for CMG # 1 from the

  13. Internet information on xerostomia : what should patients expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K.; Livas, C.; Spijkervet, F. K.; Vissink, A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the qualitative standards of the information distributed via the Internet regarding xerostomia. Materials and MethodsA comprehensive electronic search was performed for xerostomia' and dry mouth' separately using four search engines. The first 30 results from each search term-engi

  14. Cadaverous Particles and Infection in Injured Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    reported that, by and radiographically confirmed inhalation injury and this method, the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was there has been a...tially fatal necrotizing fasciitis : The use of frozen-section burn pathogen? Antibiot Chemother 1989; 42: 103-108. biopsy. N EngI J Med 1984; 310: 1689

  15. Runtime Execution Management of Distributed Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Gaughan 2011). The EASE architecture consists of a number of components. The Software Design Description ( SDD ) captures the systems engineering...interoperate in a simulation environment. The SDD also allows the system engi- neering user to add new simulation applications (Beauchat et al. 2012). The EASE

  16. Demonstration of Electronic Capacitor-Based Water Treatment System for Application at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    an insulated electrode into a grounded pipe or vessel. Numerous papers have been presented to engi- neering conferences or published in peer-reviewed...four sites for total bacteria, yeast , and mold analyses. The slides were taken to Turner Labs where they were incubated at the proper temperature...

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neering clone MHPN192d01. 42 9.9 1 AZ781723 |AZ781723.1 2M0021H18F Mouse 10kb plasm...end partial sequence. 42 9.9 1 CR029411 |CR029411.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-BB12 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neering technology. 86 6e-13 1 U40704 |U40704.1 Candida albicans catalase (Cat) gen...l catalase, gene of said catalase and composition containing said catalase, and process for preparing catalase using the genetic engi

  19. Four Engineers...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  20. Nano-sized precipitated formations in irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, Anton V.

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the formation of radiation damage in alkali halides and in particular, in NaCl, is stimulated by the fact that rock-salt in stable geological formations is a prominent candidate medium for storage of high-level waste (HLW) of nuclear power plants. Since the 1950s, scientists and engi

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071578 Chen Song(College of Civil Engi- neering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, China);Han Xuewei Monitoring Program System for the Foundation of Large Bridge (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665,CN 11-2202/P,32(5), 2005,p.44-47,5 illus.,3 refs.) Key words:bridges,footing

  2. Biological Sciences and Bioelectromagnetics in Europe: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    ankylosing spondylitis , osteoporosis, low levels of EM energy are capable of pseudoarthrosis, and nonunions can ap- eliciting a response from a...engineering, radiation physics , Early in 1984, I reported on the radiation biology, and bioelectromagnet- International Center for Genetic Engi- ice...biomaterials in are to be considered biomaterials. therapy . There are fewer roadblocks be- First, and most importantly, the materi- tween development and

  3. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of a Position Navigation System for Armor: Soldier Performance, Training, and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Stewart, L. J., & Wotten, R. (1986). Human Engi- neerin’ Laboratory communications survey (HELCOMS) (Draft Technical Memorandum). Aberdeen Proving Ground...84). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory. Polk, P. B., & Lee, G. A. (1987). Battlefield ManaQement System (BMS): Data...critical for land navigation? PT5753 B-9 2. Now !har you nave used POSNA V during this resuing, , vnar suggestions cou/d you offer for future POSNA V

  4. Widoczność publikacji naukowych w Internecie

    OpenAIRE

    Pulikowski, Arkadiusz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The research let determine, to what extent the Internet location of scientific publications influence the visibility of those documents in general and specialist search engines. Methodology: The study involved selected publications on information science, located in repositories, digital libraries and on the websites of scientific journals and institutions. Visibility of selected documents is determined by the possibility of finding them in some general and specialized search engi...

  5. High-resolution spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography in type 1 boston keratoprosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of imaging using high-resolution, Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to evaluate patients with a type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative study of patients in whom we implanted the Boston KPro. A total of 26 eyes of 23 patients from the Cornea Service at the University of California Davis Eye Center were included. Subjects were evaluated with the Spectralis AS-OCT (Heidelberg Engi...

  6. Merging Multiple-Partial-Depth Data Time Series Using Objective Empirical Orthogonal Function Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    congratulations) from Liege University, Liege , Belgium, in 1992 and the S.M. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering sciences from Harvard University, Cam- bridge, MA...Spira Distinguished Teaching award by MIT in 2010. He is a member of the Association of Engi- neers of Liege University, Friends of the University of... Liege , the Royal Mete- orological Society, the American Geophysical Union, Oceanography Society, the American Association for the Advancement of

  7. Computer Simulation of Protein-Protein and Protein-Peptide Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-08

    protoins: plex at 2.8 A resolution. Science 233:747-753. 1986. comparison of dielectric and charge models. Protein Engi- 2. Sheriff, S., Silverton , E.W...U.S.A. 84:8075-8079, 1987. 16. Lee, F.S., Chu, Z.T., Bolger, M.B., Warshel, A. Calcula- 3. Padlan, E.A., Silverton , E.W., Sheriff, S., Cohen, G.H., tions

  8. Keeping a Competitive U.S. Military Aircraft Industry Aloft: Findings from an Analysis of the Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    studies have observed that competition for engi- neering talent from such high-tech firms as Google, Apple , and Oracle, coupled with the need to hire...simple products: drugs, iPods , consumer staples, and the like. These products are nothing like mili- tary fixed-wing aircraft in terms of complexity...teams are used like scouts, plotting the companies’ path in the innovation land- scape. Apple , for example, uses X teams to explore how new technolo

  9. Handbook for Uplift-Resisting Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Technical Safety pin in in-line/out-of-line detonator Report R-284-7: Structures in deep ocean; engi-neerii-gmanual for undervater construction, chap...Automatic-firing mode: for deep ocean use, by J. E. Smith. Port Hueneme,CA, Ju 1966. Safety pin in detonator slide Hydrostatic-pressure actuation of...Hydrostatic-pressure actuation of valve in firing mechanism Safety pin on hydrostatic pressure valve drag cone Shorting and grounding of electrical leads

  10. Analysis of Chitin in Contaminated Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    accomplished by G. Ernst, D. A. Emeric, and S. Levine under the lirection of Emil J. York, Chief, Materials Engineering Div;-on, Laboratory 4000...JSAMERDC. Technical contribution was made by Vincent J. Bagdon, Materials Engi- ieering Division. CONTENTS Section Title Page PREFACE iii I INTRODUCTION...However, chitin can be determined when mycelium is present. In order to hasten the appearance of the mycelium in the fuel if spores are present, sterile

  11. Efficiency Study of Implicit and Explicit Time Integration Operators for Finite Element Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    8217 MOORE. LIBRARY LOS ANGELES. CA D)UKE UNIV MED)ICAL CE’NrTE*R B., Mtga, D~urham NC: l)URIIAM, NC (VESIC) FL’[ORII)A ATLANTIIC UNIVE-RSITYIBOCA RAT’ONI. F... BACON & DAVIS. INC. New York (Library) IFRANCE IDr. I)utertcre, Boulogne; P1. Jensen, Boulogne GEOTECI INICA L ENGI NE ERS INC. Winchester, MA

  12. Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput pharmacological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Goss, Josue Adrian; Cho, Alexander; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a higher throughput “heart on a chip” which utilizes a semi-automated fabrication technique to process sub millimeter sized thin film cantilevers of soft elastomers. Anisotropic cardiac microtissues which recapitulate the laminar architecture of the heart ventricle are engineered on these cantilevers. Deflection of these cantilevers, termed Muscular Thin Films (MTFs), during muscle contraction allows calculation of diastolic and systolic stresses generated by the engi...

  13. Effect of Modified Design on Engine Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Siddique Sk; Nataraj T S C

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers key and representative developments in the area of high efficiency and cleans internal combustion engines. The main objective is to highlight recent efforts to improve (IC) engine fuel efficiency and combustion. Rising fuel prices and stringent emission mandates have demanded cleaner combustion and increased fuel efficiency from the IC engine. This need for increased efficiency has placed compression ignition (CI) engines in the forefront compared to spark ignition (SI) engi...

  14. Acquisition Review Quarterly (ARQ) Vol. 4, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    the tabula rasa needed to continue build- ing the aircraft, moving the program focus back to customers, managers, and engi- neers, and away from...will play an increasingly prominent role ; a smaller force must accomplish more. To support this mission, our acquisition corps must be intellectually...technology, in the form of weapon systems, informa- tion management, etc., will play ever more prominent roles , and in all cases, we in

  15. The Mathematics of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-27

    the problem of the human-like robot (D,B) as a scientific/engineering problem rather than just an engineering ( bionic ) problem. The difference is as...follows. In the case of the bionic approach, one uses biological data only as a source of inspiration for introducing different engi- neering...I. Asimov HO 2.2 An example of a primitive E-machine Figure 3 illustrates the architecture of a simple PEM. The interpretation procedure fy is

  16. Erodibility Study of Passaic River Sediments Using USACE Sedflume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Program, Dr. Todd S. Bridges, Program Manager. The report was written by Thomas D. Borrowman, Environmental Engi- neering Branch ( EEB ), Environmental...FSPD), CHL; and Larry Caviness, Field Data Collect and Analysis Branch, FSPD, CHL. Laboratory work was conducted by Richard Hudson, EEB . Cheryl M...Lloyd, EEB , assisted in the preparation of the report. This study was conducted under the direct supervision of Bruce A. Ebersole, Chief, FSPD, and

  17. Food Safety Knowledge and Decision-making Process among College Students in Lanzhou, Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Tao; Su Dan; Zhang Bing-Yun; Wang Ya

    2015-01-01

    In the study, a questionnaire survey containing three parts (general characteristics of the study sample, 15 food safety knowledge questions and 3 questions about decision-making process on food safety problems) was conducted among college students in Lanzhou City. The results indicated that food safety knowledge levels was closely related to engaged major and sex of college students. Food safety knowledge scores of students in food science major were higher than ones of liberal arts and engi...

  18. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    OpenAIRE

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali; Harun Mohamad Hafiz; Sariman M.Z.; Mat Yamin A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR) engi...

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nargessadat Emami; Björn Marteinsson; Jukka Heinonen

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as d...

  20. Evaluative Measures of Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Nath Singh; Dr. S.K. Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to search and retrieve information from the web efficiently and effectively is great challenge of search engine. Information retrieval on the Web is very different from retrieval in traditional indexed databases because it’s hyper-linked character, the heterogeneity of document types and authoring styles. Thus, since Web retrieval is substantially different from information retrieval, new or revised evaluative measures are required to assess retrieval performance using search engi...

  1. Formal Verification of Complex Systems based on SysML Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    functional, and structural modeling, etc. Those with particu- lar focus on requirements engineering are the Unified Model- ing Language ( UML ) (OMG, 2007) to...requirements through design and implementation. UML is developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) in co- operation with the International Council of...Systems Engi- neering (INCOSE). UML is an Object-oriented modeling lan- guage that allows hierarchical organization of system compo- nent models, which in

  2. DR Commission's Strategy for innovative development of offshore engineering equipment (2011-2020)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The following strategy is formulated for the purpose to implement State Council's Deci- sion on Accelerating the Fostering and De- velopment of Strategic New Emerging Industries, increase the creativity and com- petitiveness of marine engineering equipment industries, and promote the exploitation of marine resources and innovative, sustained and coordinated development of marine engi- neering equipment industries. The strategy will be put to work from 2011 to 2020.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHD671 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rd strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering...neering clone MHPP186g09. 50 0.13 1 dna update 2006. 2. 5 Homology vs Protein Score... clone MHPP142o16. 50 0.13 1 CR044130 |CR044130.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi

  4. Index and Bulk Parameters for Frequency-Direction Spectra Measured at CERC Field Research Facility, September 1991 to August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Index and Bulk Parameters for Frequency- Direction Spectra Measured at CERC Field Research Facility, September 1991 to August 1992 Accion For by...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Civil Works Research Work Unit 32484 M US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways...that affect coastal engineering pro- jects. This effort was authorized by Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps o.’ Engi- neers (HQUSACE), under Civil Works

  5. Web Engineering: A Survey%WebE研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌达; 鞠时光

    2003-01-01

    Web engineering is the establishment and use of sound scientific,engineering and management principlesand disciplined and systematic approaches to the successful development ,deployment and maintenance of high qualityWeb-based systems and applications. This paper presents the history of WebE and its relationship with software engi-neering,furthermore ,we give the popular Web development process and the areas of further study.

  6. Teritoriální rizika v internacionalizaci malých a středních podniků z odvětví strojírenství

    OpenAIRE

    Jahoda, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with key country risks associated with the internation-alization of Czech, from the engineering industry, SMEs and how can eliminate or hedge against them. The theoretical background deals with the concepts of globali-zation, internationalization, the internationalization of SMEs, on the possibility of entering foreign markets and country risks associated with foreign markets and the possibility of securing against them. In the practical part characterizes the Czech engi...

  7. Effects of Pelletization Pressure on the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Metal-Organic Frameworks Cu3(BTC)2 and UiO-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    these proper- ties, UiO-66 is essentially a molecular scaffold that can be tuned depending on the application. Another promising material, CuBTC (aka...materials were crushed to compare to virgin powder; however, it is possible to make engi- neered particles via crushing and sieving operations. 2.3. PXRD...size distribution was calculated with non-local density functional theory (NLDFT) using a slit-pore carbon kernel. Total pore volume was calculated

  8. Polymer Nanocomposites with Prescribed Morphology: Going Beyond Nanoparticle-Filled Polymers (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    protein (MW, 70 000).26 (b) Rod: 5 wt % carbon nanofibers (Applied Science, Inc) dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane .27 and (c) Plate: 3 wt...performance for many potential high- technology applications, such as dielectric underfills for electronic packaging, printed flexible electronics, engi...Percolation phase diagrams result, in which shear rate produces transitions between 3D, 2D, and 1D percolating clusters, as well as the loss of

  9. Annual Research Progress Report FY 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-11

    Andrew P.: 92/62 (0) GOG #138, A Phase II Trial of Cisplatin and Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Extraovarian Peritoneal Serous Papillary...Training Utilizing the Feline Model ................................... 141 Jesse, Steven W.: 89/92 (0) The Effect of Breastfeeding on the Enteral... infectious disease morbidity Department of Nursing among United States military personnel. N Engi J Gaubatz C: Anesthetic considerations for the Med 325

  10. Arbetsmaskiners bidrag till luftföroreningar i tätorter

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Magnus; Hansson, Per-Anders; Wetterberg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish government has decided an action plan against particulate matter (PM10) within the county of Stockholm. Among other thing, the action plan stipulate that measures shall be taken in order to increase the knowledge about emissions of PM10 from non-road mobile machinery and their contribution to the air quality within densely populated areas. Non-road mobile machinery are characterised as mobile machinery not intended for the use of passenger- or goods-transport on the road, and equi...

  11. 40 CFR 1039.701 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and..., selective enforcement audits, and other production-line testing. However, if emissions from an engine exceed an FEL or standard (for example, during a selective enforcement audit), you may use emission...

  12. 40 CFR 89.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading... emission credits among engine families within a given manufacturer's product line. Banking means the... these credits may be revoked if EPA review of the end-of-year reports or any subsequent audit...

  13. 40 CFR 90.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking, and... between engine families within a given manufacturer's product line. Banking means the retention of... revoked if EPA review of the end-of-year reports or any subsequent audit action(s) reveals problems...

  14. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.409 Data logging. (a) A computer or...

  15. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.412 Data logging. (a) A computer...

  16. 40 CFR 89.607 - Maintenance of independent commercial importer's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importer's records. 89.607 Section 89.607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... importer's records. (a) The Independent Commercial Importer (ICI) subject to any of the provisions of this... original manufacture of the nonroad engine. The importer may substitute an alternate date in lieu of...

  17. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 89.3...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.3 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 89. AECD Auxiliary emission control device...

  18. 40 CFR 90.5 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 90.5...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.5 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 90. AECD—Auxiliary emission...

  19. 40 CFR 89.1006 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for later years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 89.612 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation...

  1. 75 FR 29671 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Florida; Approval of Section 110(a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...) sources and updated growth and control data for non-EGU sources. EPA's Emissions Growth Analysis System...) Nonroad Diesel Rule, (5) Industrial Boiler/Process Heater/RICE maximum available control technology (MACT... installed or are continuing with plans to install emission controls that may benefit the Jacksonville,...

  2. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 90.7 Section 90.7... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.7 Reference materials... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  3. 40 CFR 80.615 - What penalties apply under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... person liable under § 80.612(a)(2) for causing motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine... separate day of violation for each and every day the motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel...

  4. 40 CFR 80.587-80.589 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 80.587-80.589 Section 80.587-80.589 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and...

  5. 40 CFR 80.503-80.509 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 80.503-80.509 Section 80.503-80.509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and...

  6. 40 CFR 80.536 - How are NRLM diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.536 How... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are NRLM diesel fuel credits...

  7. 40 CFR 80.574 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA.... EPA, Attn: Diesel Sulfur Alternative Label Request, 6406J, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460. (2) For overnight or courier services: U.S. EPA, Attn: Diesel Sulfur Alternative...

  8. 40 CFR 80.616 - What are the enforcement exemptions for California diesel distributed within the State of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation Provisions § 80.616 What are the enforcement exemptions for California diesel distributed within... for California diesel distributed within the State of California? 80.616 Section 80.616 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 80.535 - How are NRLM diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the standards of § 80.510(a) or (b). V520 = The total volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced or... generated by both a foreign refiner and by an importer for the same motor vehicle diesel fuel. (iii)...

  10. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the...

  11. 40 CFR 80.555 - What provisions are available to a large refiner that acquires a small refiner or one or more of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... May 31, 2010 for a refinery acquired from a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or beyond the... motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or beyond the dates specified in § 80.554(a) or (b),...

  12. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle...

  13. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5)...

  14. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  15. 40 CFR 80.561 - How can a refiner or importer seek temporary relief from the requirements of this subpart in case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine... brief period, to distribute motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel which does not meet the... importer can show how the requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel will...

  16. 40 CFR 80.606 - What national security exemption applies to fuels covered under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The exempt fuel must meet any of the following: (1) The motor vehicle diesel fuel standards of... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Exemptions § 80.606...

  17. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel produced by the refinery for United States use will comply with the 15 ppm sulfur standard under § 80.520(a)(1), and that the volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements § 80.572 What labeling requirements... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June...

  19. 40 CFR 80.603 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for NRLM diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for NRLM diesel fuel? 80.603 Section 80.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and...

  20. 40 CFR 80.611 - What evidence may be used to determine compliance with the prohibitions and requirements of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation Provisions § 80.611 What evidence may be used to... additive, or motor oil to be used in diesel fuel, if the evidence or information is relevant to...

  1. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements § 80.573 What labeling requirements apply to... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012?...

  2. 40 CFR 80.512 - May an importer treat diesel fuel as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel under §§ 80.593, 80.601, and 80.604. (4) If previously designated motor vehicle diesel fuel having... redesignate all the diesel fuel as 500 ppm sulfur motor vehicle diesel fuel for purposes of the...

  3. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel...

  4. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  5. 40 CFR 80.525 - What requirements apply to kerosene blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80... means any refiner who produces NRLM or motor vehicle diesel fuel by adding kerosene to NRLM or...

  6. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel...

  7. 40 CFR 80.560 - How can a refiner seek temporary relief from the requirements of this subpart in case of extreme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... motor vehicle diesel fuel and § 80.554 for NRLM diesel fuel. EPA may grant such relief provided that the... with the requirements of this subpart. (b)(1) For motor vehicle diesel fuel, applications must...

  8. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.511 What are the per-gallon and... requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner...

  9. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.553 - Under what conditions may the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small refiner of motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.553... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine... small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small refiner of motor vehicle diesel fuel?...

  11. 40 CFR 80.570 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA..., motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(a)(1), must affix the... dispensing, motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(c), must...

  12. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine...

  13. 40 CFR 80.604 - What are the annual reporting requirements for refiners and importers of NRLM diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... requirements for refiners and importers of NRLM diesel fuel? 80.604 Section 80.604 Protection of Environment... importers of NRLM diesel fuel? Beginning with the annual compliance period that begins June 1, 2007, or...

  14. 40 CFR 80.618-80.619 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation Provisions §§ 80.618-80.619 Provisions for Foreign Refiners and Importers for Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Subject to a Temporary Compliance Option or Hardship Provision...

  15. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than...

  16. 40 CFR 80.571 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine... June 1, 2007, and beyond, for pumps dispensing non-motor vehicle diesel fuel for use other than in... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel or heating oil beginning June 1, 2007?...

  17. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose...

  18. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine...

  19. 40 CFR 80.607 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for diesel fuel or ECA marine fuel used for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel will be segregated from motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel, as... documents associated with research and development motor vehicle diesel fuel must comply with...

  20. 40 CFR 80.597 - What are the registration requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.597 What are...) Registration for motor vehicle diesel fuel. Refiners having any refinery that is subject to a sulfur...

  1. 40 CFR 80.585 - What is the process for approval of a test method for determining the sulfur content of diesel or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... test method for determining the sulfur content of diesel or ECA marine fuel? 80.585 Section 80.585... determining the sulfur content of diesel or ECA marine fuel? (a) Approval of test methods approved...

  2. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle...

  3. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject...

  4. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  5. 40 CFR 80.608 - What requirements apply to diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel for use in the Territories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Exemptions... sulfur standards of § 80.520(a)(1) and (c) related to motor vehicle diesel fuel, of § 80.510(a), (b), and... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to diesel...

  6. 40 CFR 80.598 - What are the designation requirements for refiners, importers, and distributors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... shall accurately and clearly designate all fuel it produces or imports for use in diesel motor vehicles as either motor vehicle diesel fuel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard under § 80.520(a)(1) or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SI engines in 40 CFR part 90 or 1054, as follows: If engine replacement is . . . and manufacturing... part 90. (4) at or above 225 cc January 1, 2011 or later 40 CFR part 1054. (b) Stationary SI internal... standards and other requirements for new nonroad SI engines in 40 CFR part 1048. Stationary SI...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certify their stationary SI ICE using the certification procedures required in 40 CFR part 1048, subpart C... other requirements for new nonroad SI engines in 40 CFR part 90 or 40 CFR part 1054, and manufacturers... stationary SI ICE using the certification procedures required in 40 CFR part 90, subpart B, or 40 CFR...

  9. 40 CFR 89.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 89.205 Section 89.205... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.205 Banking. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A manufacturer...

  10. 40 CFR 90.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 90.205 Section 90.205... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 90.205 Banking. (a)(1) Beginning August 1, 2007, a manufacturer of a Class I engine...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I test my production-line...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce...

  12. 40 CFR 1054.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I test my production-line...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you...

  13. 40 CFR 91.607 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weekends or holidays. (iii) If the manufacturer's service or target is less than the minimum rate specified... target. (3) Service accumulation must be completed on a sufficient number of test engines during... nonroad engine sales for the United States market for the applicable year of 7,500 or greater must...

  14. 40 CFR 90.508 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service or target is less than the minimum rate specified (12 hours per day), then the minimum daily accumulation rate shall be equal to the manufacturer's service target. (3) Service accumulation shall be... nonroad engine sales for the United States market for the applicable year of 7,500 or greater shall...

  15. 40 CFR 89.508 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rate does not apply on weekends or holidays. (iii) If the manufacturer's service or target is less than... the manufacturer's service target. (3) Service accumulation must be completed on a sufficient number... the Administrator. (1) A manufacturer with projected nonroad engine sales for the United States market...

  16. 40 CFR 89.906 - Manufacturer-owned exemption and precertification exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer-owned exemption and... ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.906 Manufacturer-owned exemption and precertification exemption. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any manufacturer-owned nonroad engine, as defined...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser that the new nonroad engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate... emission-related warranty covers all your components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of...

  18. 40 CFR 1039.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser that the new nonroad engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate... all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any regulated pollutant...

  19. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  20. 40 CFR 247.17 - Miscellaneous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or plastic. (e) Mats containing recovered rubber and/or plastic. (f)(1) Non-road signs containing recovered plastic or aluminum and road signs containing recovered aluminum. (2) Sign supports and posts... Miscellaneous products. (a) Pallets containing recovered wood, plastic, or paperboard. (b) Sorbents...

  1. 76 FR 80253 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... increase their emissions by purchasing emission credits. Response 2b. Contrary to the Commenter's statement... gasoline and diesel highway vehicle standards, nonroad spark-ignition engines and recreational engines... purchasing credits at a price equivalent to that capital already spent. In short, any utility in a state...

  2. 78 FR 17161 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia, Maryland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Mobile 1.49 0.04 for Gasoline-Powered Non-Road Utility Engines. Emissions Standards for Diesel-Powered... demonstration be for 2009. As a result, the modeling demonstration needed to use projected 2009 emissions... 110(a)(2)(K) of the CAA requires states to prepare air quality modeling to show how they will...

  3. 77 FR 65151 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... program. part 86. Heavy Duty Diesel Engines (On- federal rule..... Promulgated at 40 CFR road). part 86. Federal Non-road Heavy Duty federal rule..... Promulgated at 40 CFR diesel engines. part 89. Federal Non..., monitoring, and reporting; include provisions for air quality modeling; and provide for public and...

  4. 40 CFR 89.123 - Amending the application and certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 89.123 Section 89.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... of conformity. (a) The manufacturer of nonroad compression-ignition engines must notify the... be made to a product line covered by a certificate of conformity. This notification must include...

  5. 40 CFR 89.105 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 89.105... and Certification Provisions § 89.105 Certificate of conformity. Every manufacturer of a new nonroad compression-ignition engine must obtain a certificate of conformity covering the engine family, as...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6604 - What fuel requirements must I meet if I own or operate an existing stationary CI RICE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that meets the requirements in 40 CFR 80.510(b) for nonroad diesel fuel. Existing non-emergency CI... I own or operate an existing stationary CI RICE? 63.6604 Section 63.6604 Protection of Environment....6604 What fuel requirements must I meet if I own or operate an existing stationary CI RICE? If you...

  7. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light or heavy duty motor vehicle equipped with an engine certified to the nonroad provision of 40 CFR... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a)(1) Every new motor vehicle (or new motor vehicle... with respect to any Otto-cycle or diesel heavy-duty vehicle which uses an engine which has not...

  8. 76 FR 12587 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... vessels, locomotives and aircraft emissions from other non-road emission sources. See 75 FR 62039. EPA... Cocke County. MLA = Commercial Marine Vessels, Locomotives and Aircraft. Table 4--Knoxville Area VOC... volatile organic compounds (VOC). This action also approves the emissions inventory submitted with...

  9. 40 CFR 90.405 - Recorded information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement is a volume measurement system, record the fuel temperature in the measurement system for fuel...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test..., where applicable. (b) Test data; general. (1) Engine identification number. (2) Engine emission...

  10. Environmental Technology Verification: Test Report of Mobile Source Selective Catalytic Reduction--Nett Technologies, Inc., BlueMAX 100 version A urea-based selective catalytic reduction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett Technologies’ BlueMAX 100 version A Urea-Based SCR System utilizes a zeolite catalyst coating on a cordierite honeycomb substrate for heavy-duty diesel nonroad engines for use with commercial ultra-low–sulfur diesel fuel. This environmental technology verification (ETV) repo...

  11. 75 FR 62354 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee: Approval of Section 110(a)(1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Management District (SQAMD) v. EPA, 472 F.3d 882 (D.C. Cir. 2006). The Court vacated those portions of the... compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions from area, point, on-road mobile, non-road mobile, and... sources on an annual basis. On-road mobile emissions of VOC and NO X were estimated using MOBILE6.2...

  12. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19... analytical systems used for analyzing CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since various... components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide...

  13. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust... for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various configurations can... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional...

  14. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families...

  15. 40 CFR 90.1101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 90.1101 Section 90.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Warranty and Maintenance Instructions § 90.1101...

  16. 75 FR 57221 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut, Massachusetts, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... run the MOBILE model accurately for their mix of vehicles, fuel types, and control programs and used... types. The non-road model does not estimate emissions from aircraft, locomotives, or commercial marine... rule, an architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings rule, and an asphalt paving...

  17. 78 FR 38247 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... livestock emissions. Non-road mobile source emissions were generated using the NMIM2008 emissions model... rule (73 FR 28321, May 16, 2008). 706 F.3d 428 (D.C. Cir. 2013). In a supplemental submission to EPA on... PM 2.5 Implementation Rule''). 706 F.3d 428 (D.C. Cir. 2013). The Court found that EPA erred...

  18. 77 FR 37842 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; United States Virgin Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... make progress toward the Reasonable Progress Goal (RPG) for 2018, as determined by EPA. RPGs are... schedules for compliance to achieve the RPG; (4) source retirement and replacement schedules; (5) smoke... (With Source sector Baseline 2002 measures for RPG) Point 43.11 43.11 Area 0.05 0.05 Non-Road Mobile 17...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1054.730 What ABT reports must I send to EPA? (a) If any...-data engine or the appropriate internal surface area of the fuel tank. (6) Useful life. (7)...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.706 - How do I generate and calculate evaporative emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1054.706 How do I generate and..., as described in paragraph (b) of this section. Total Area = The combined internal surface area of...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.901 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). Certification means the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an engine family that complies with.... Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6403-J), U.S.... Gaseous fuel means a fuel which is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. This includes both...

  2. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other... other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose... disabled are no longer constant-speed engines. Constant-speed operation has the meaning given in 40...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4219 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology that reduces PM emissions by trapping the particles in a flow filter substrate and... turbines, that converts heat energy into mechanical work and is not mobile. Stationary ICE differ from mobile ICE in that a stationary internal combustion engine is not a nonroad engine as defined at 40...

  5. 40 CFR 89.122 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 89.122 Section 89.122... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.122 Certification. (a) If, after a review of the manufacturer's application, request...

  6. 40 CFR 90.208 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 90.208 Section 90.208... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 90.208 Certification. (a) In the application for certification a manufacturer...

  7. 40 CFR 90.108 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 90.108 Section 90.108... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.108 Certification. (a) If, after a review of the manufacturer's submitted...

  8. 锅炉房水泵的选型计算及注意事项%Lectotype Calculation of Feed Pump in Boiler Plant and Matters Needing Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懿君

    2009-01-01

    介绍了蒸汽锅炉房给水泵和热水锅炉房循环泵的选型计算方法及注意事项.结合工程实例,探讨了蒸汽锅炉房给水泵选型过程.%The calculation method for lectotype of feed pump in steam boiler plant and circulation pump in hot water boiler plant and the matters needing attention are introduced. Combined with an engi- neering example,the lectotype process of feed pump in steam boiler plant is discussed.

  9. Studying civil engineering alumni from a Mexican university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómel G Solís Carcaño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at knowing the opinion of graduates from a Mexican university’s Civil Engineering department about several aspects related to their first years as professionals. The study explored aspects such as graduation index, the difficulty of inserting themselves into the labour market, their opinion about the civil engi- neering programme and their interest in continuing their studies. A questionnaire was prepared for gathering the information based on various international, national and local criteria. The results revealed that the graduates had experienced little difficulty in becoming inserting into the local labour market; however, their professional performance had not been as satisfactory as they had expected.

  10. An autocorrelation analysis approach to detecting land cover change using hyper-temporal time-series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Kleynhans2_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16869 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Kleynhans2_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 AN AUTOCORRELATION... ANALYSIS APPROACH TO DETECTING LAND COVER CHANGE USING HYPER-TEMPORAL TIME-SERIES DATA ??W. Kleynhans,, ??B.P. Salmon, ?J.C. Olivier, ?K.J. Wessels, ?F. van den Bergh ? Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engi- neering University of Pretoria, South...

  11. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Echo Lake Dam (CT 00124), Naugatuck River Basin, Watertown, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    areas was reported, most damage to the homes was confined to flooded cellars, washed-out yards and undermined foundations. No injuries were reported as...during had been approved by engi- - aMrs. Mango got her hushand At e break were of no avail, the height of the flash flood, but neers representing the...height of 14 feet, but there were the town-owned dam. no injuries reported. Police said. Echo Lake Is used for recrea- all residents were account edn

  12. Impacts, risks, and governance of climate engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhe; CHEN Ying

    2015-01-01

    Climate engineering is a potential alternative method to curb global warming, and this discipline has garnered considerable attention from the international scientific community including the Chinese scientists. This manuscript provides an overview of several aspects of climate engi-neering, including its definition, its potential impacts and risk, and its governance status. The overall conclusion is that China is not yet ready to implement climate engineering. However, it is important for China to continue conducting research on climate engineering, particularly with respect to its feasible application within China, its potential social, economic, and environmental impacts, and possible international governance structures and governing principles, with regard to both experimentation and implementation.

  13. Recent progress in molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The research into heavy ion beam biology started in the 1960s, and so far it has become an important interdisciplinary study. Heavy ion beam is more suitable for molecule modification than other sorts of radiation, for it has many superiorities such as the energy transfer effect and the mass deposition effect. Molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation can be applied to developing new medicines and their precursors, genetic engineering, protein engi neering, outer space radiobiology, etc. Retrospect and prospect of the research and development of molecule modifica tion with heavy ion beam irradiation are given.

  14. Historical Turning Points in the German Air Force War Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-06-01

    ed i n Qtiar Lermas t er’ • Qeneral recorde t or 19l 0 are bal anced by l , 283 Hri t i ah ai ngl e- engi nefighterss a ratio of nearly 1:2, As f ar...Luf txaf f e , been i nf oYmed of t he f act t hat a l arge F ss i an f orce was gat heri ng east of t he Don , River ? What did he order in the way

  15. Development of the Enhanced Load-Tree Apparatus for Structural Resistance Measurement of Modern Load-Bearing Construction Techniques (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Antiterrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) applications are defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- neers (COE). Levels of Protection ( LOP ) are specified for...these damage levels are associated with building LOP . A primary structural component is defined by the PDC-TR 06-08 [6] criteria as “members whose...the building in the area of loss.” Therefore, any load-bearing structural component would be considered primary. When determining the building LOP

  16. Progress of continuously rotating detonation engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui; Wu Dan; Wang Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Continuously rotating detonation engine (CRDE) is a focus for concern in the field of aerospace propulsion. It has several advantages, including one-initiation, high thermal efficiency and simple structure. Due to these characteristics, it is expected to bring revolutionary advance-ments to aviation and aerospace propulsion systems and now has drawn much attention throughout the world. In this paper, an overview of the development of CRDE is given from several aspects:basic concepts, applications, experimental studies, numerical simulations, and so on. Representative results and outstanding contributions are summarized and the unresolved issues for further engi-neering applications of CRDE are provided.

  17. Generación de historias centradas en el usuario en entornos 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Guerrero, Alejandro; Julca Bedón, Frank Vito

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad, los videojuegos han ido adquiriendo cada vez más protagonismo en el sector de la tecnología, considerándose un arte para muchos y más que un entretenimiento para otros. Ha supuesto una de las principales fuentes de ingresos en las últimos años superando incluso al cine. A día de hoy, hay muchas herramientas que permiten y facilitan su implementación. Concretamente encontramos programas software que ejercen de motores de desarrollo de videojuegos, como por ejemplo Unreal Engi...

  18. Intra-Prostate Cancer Vaccine Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    positive/Ii-suppressed tumor cells.13–15 The gene for hen egg lysozyme (HEL) was engi- neered with leader sequences targeting to the ER. MHC class II...times with wash buffer and avidin horseradish peroxidase ( avidin - HRP) was added, at a 1 : 100 dilution, followed by a 1-hr incubation at RT. Avidin -HRP...have demonstrated that MHC class II+/Ii– tumour cells present cytosolic or ER-retained hem egg lysozyme (HEL) through MHC class II molecules to acti

  19. Zero Length Intrastation Fiber Optics Links Test and Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    WOirCS (Continue on, ev- icb. it r .~53r’Od Idern~f b’ lock r-urmher) Fiber Optics Digital Transmissic-, Analoo Transmission 20. AtiSTRACT (Cowfou. am...typified Defcnse Communications Systems (DCS) transmission node between DCS digital multir!exers and radios. The intent being to evaluate fiber optics...1920 under the technical dircction of the US Army Comunication Electronics Engi’-Vring In*’allation h\\keN)J (USACJEIA). Supplei.,ental testing ’.ws

  20. A brief introduction of Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Traffic and Transportat Evaluating Branch of Learning on Traffic Degree Committee of China. Its responsi sponsor is Chang'an University, which is transportation engineering in Ch Traffic and Transportation Engi ina. Its neering ion Engineering was started in 2001 by the suggestion of and Transportation Engineering of State Council Academic ble department is the Ministry of Education of PRC. Its famous with the education and study about road traffic and associate sponsors are Evaluating Branch of Learning on of State Council Academic Degree Committee of China,

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHC138 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CR044130 |CR044130.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering... Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clone MHPP47e19. 5...neering clone MHPP142o16. 50 0.13 1 CR034434 |CR034434.1... clone MHPP186g09. 50 0.13 1 CR103667 |CR103667.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi

  2. For Our founding father of ABRC,Prof. Ray Wu (1928—2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Ray Wu, the Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Mo-lecular Biology and Genetics at Cornell University, passed away on Sunday, February 10, 2008, at the age of 79. Dr. Wu was a pioneer in DNA sequencing and recombinant DNA technology, a renowned scientist in rice genetic engi-neering, a strong and long time advocate for scientific re-search and education in Chinese Taipei and Chinese Mainland, and most of all, a genuine mentor and true friend to many of us, worldwide and at ABRC.

  3. Department of Defense. Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States and Selected Areas, Fiscal Year 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    AFOST CARSON OR« Ä PUEBLO ARMY 1 DEPOT ACTIVITY ® STATE CAPITAL A ARMY INSTALLATION ■ NAVY INSTALLATION • AF INSTALLATION...Aurora Buckley AGB Colorado Springs Pueblo Rocky Mountain Ars 16,053 8,794 4,678 4,223 2,722 2,660 808 808 182 167 13,959 6,700 3,151...Description Amount 1. COMPANIA ESPANOLA DE PETROLEOS 2. SOCIEDAD ESTATAL DE PARTICIPAC 3. PACIFIC ARCHITECTS & ENGI 4. NEWIMAR, S.A. 5. CONSTRUCCIONES

  4. The Using Condition of Interactive Reading Strategy in Reading Scientif-ic and Technological English Literature of Postgraduates of Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong; CUI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the reading process and after reading of the scientific and technological English literature for postgraduates of engi-neering, there are several barriers like the understanding of the vocabulary, the analyzing the complex sentences and the grasping the whole texts. This paper tries to investigate the using condition of interactive reading strategy in reading scientific and techno-logical English literature of postgraduates of engineering. The study reveals that postgraduates of engineering frequently using some of strategies of the interactive reading strategy, but the overall using condition is only in the average level, and is not so flexi-ble.

  5. Quantifying Cyber-Resilience Against Resource-Exhaustion Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Griswold, Richard L.; Beech, Zachary W.

    2014-07-11

    Resilience in the information sciences is notoriously difficult to define much less to measure. But in mechanical engi- neering, the resilience of a substance is mathematically defined as the area under the stress vs. strain curve. We took inspiration from mechanics in an attempt to define resilience precisely for information systems. We first examine the meaning of resilience in language and engineering terms and then translate these definitions to information sciences. Then we tested our definitions of resilience for a very simple problem in networked queuing systems. We discuss lessons learned and make recommendations for using this approach in future work.

  6. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering, analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering, and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis, proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engi-neering. Characteristics of uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO. Therefore, the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration, which need some deep research.

  7. Development of a Visual System Interface to Support a Domain-Oriented Application Composition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-23

    Spencer. "Coming to Terms with Software Reuse: A Model-based Approach," ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 16:45-51 (April 1991). 36. Prieto ...Dfaz, Ruben. "Domain Analysis: An Introduction," ACM SIGSOFT Software Engi- neering Notes, 15:47-54 (April 1990). 37. Prieto -Daz, RubGn. "Domain Analysis...and Cybernetics, 18:61-79 (January/February 1988). 48. Teague, Alan H. and Henson Graves. lhe Graphi,-4l System Description Language and De- velopment

  8. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 89.6 Section 89.6... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.6 Reference materials. (a... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  9. Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Multiple Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images has been considered to be a significant but very difficult task.Especially the spectrum of some buildings is similar with that of roads,which makes the surfaces being connect with each other after classification and difficult to be distinguished.Based on the cooperation between road surfaces and edges,this paper presents an approach to purify roads from high-resolution remote sensing images.Firstly,we try to improve the extraction accuracy of road surfaces and edges respectively.The logic cooperation between these two binary images is used to separate road and non-road objects.Then the road objects are confirmed by the cooperation between surfaces and edges.And the effective shape indices(e.g.polar moment of inertia and narrow extent index are applied to eliminate non-road objects.So the road information is refined.The experiments indicate that the proposed approach is efficient for eliminating non-road information and extracting road information from high-resolution remote sensing image.

  10. Study on Marine Hydrology of Offshore Wind Energy Development and Tidal Power Plant%海上风电及潮汐电站海洋水文设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊

    2015-01-01

    海洋水文为海洋工程规划、设计、施工、管理、运行、决策提供水文依据。海洋水文设计有关参数影响到建筑物类型的选择和结构计算,也影响工程的安全、运行、投资和效益。结合海上风电及潮汐电站水文设计方面的实践,对有关水文设计内涵和水文设计参数对工程的影响,以及设计需要注意的问题进行了分析和总结。%Absrta ct:The marine hydrology is the basis of plan, design, construction, management,operation and decision-making of ocean engi-neering .The design parameters of the ocean engineeringimpacts not only structural type selection and structural calculation but also engi-neering safety,operation, investment and benefit.With practice of the hydrological design of offshore wind energy development and tidal power plant, impacts on projects by contents and parameters of the hydrological design as well as the hydrological design tips are analyzed and concluded.

  11. 在高职学生中开发创新思维教育漫谈%Discussion on the Development of Innovative Thinking E-ducation among Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾兴吉

    2015-01-01

    本文分别从在高职学生中开发创新思维教育的重要性,创新思维的几种常见类型和突破思维障碍的途经方法,课堂教学手段,有机结合学院的创新工程师班开展创新思维的实践性教学等几个方面进行阐述。%This paper elaborates from the following aspects: the importance of developing innovative thinking education among higher vocational college students, several common types of inno-vative thinking, ways to break thinking obstacles, classroom teaching means, the implementation of innovative thinking prac-tical teaching through organically combining the innovation engi-neers class of our college.

  12. Large-eddy simulation:Past, present and the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhiyin

    2015-01-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) was originally proposed for simulating atmospheric flows in the 1960s and has become one of the most promising and successful methodology for simulating turbulent flows with the improvement of computing power. It is now feasible to simulate complex engineering flows using LES. However, apart from the computing power, significant challenges still remain for LES to reach a level of maturity that brings this approach to the mainstream of engi-neering and industrial computations. This paper will describe briefly LES formalism first, present a quick glance at its history, review its current state focusing mainly on its applications in transi-tional flows and gas turbine combustor flows, discuss some major modelling and numerical chal-lenges/issues that we are facing now and in the near future, and finish with the concluding remarks.

  13. EEG INTERFACE MODULE FOR COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT THROUGH NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Lal Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive signal processing is one of the important interdisciplinary field came from areas of life sciences, psychology, psychiatry, engi-neering, mathematics, physics, statistics and many other fields of research. Neurophysiologic tests are utilized to assess and treat brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, and useful to investigate psychological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents an ongoing research work on development of EEG interface device based on the principles of cognitive assessments and instrumentation. The method proposed engineering and science of cogni-tive signal processing in case of brain computer in-terface based neurophysiologic tests. The future scope of this study is to build a low cost EEG device for various clinical and pre-clinical applications with specific emphasis to measure the effect of cognitive action on human brain.

  14. Censorship on the Budget of Construction Drawing of Water Conservancy Engineering%论水利工程施工图预算的审查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海军

    2013-01-01

      水利工程施工图预算审查是合理确定工程造价的必要程序和重要手段。加强对水利工程施工图预算的审查,及时纠正存在的错误和问题,对提高预算的准确性,降低水利工程造价具有重要的现实意义。%Censorship on the budget of construction drawing of water conservancy engineering refers to a necessary process and an important means to confirm engineering costs reasonably. In this case, it is realistic and meaningful for reducing engi-neering costs and improving the accuracy of budget to improve this censorship and timely correct the existing mistakes and problems.

  15. Dynamic aspects of segmented mirror position control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Hans J.

    2006-02-01

    Extreme large optical telescopes will operate in an open environment and may be excited by wind effects. The position control of the mirror segments may need fast control, and the position actuators and the related control loops may be separated in a conventional slow, iso-static and a fast reaction-mass type system. There exists some experience with wind excitations of airborne telescopes, e.g. the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA. The pointing control system of that telescope is equipped with several dedicated design features, as a vibration isolations system, a flexible body control system and an active mass damper system to handle excitations in different frequency ranges. These features may be transferred to the position control systems of segmented mirrors. The paper will give some system engi-neers recommendations for designing those systems.

  16. The application of static drainage consolidation method in soft soil foundation treatment%静压排水固结法在软土地基处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红芳

    2014-01-01

    结合软土地基处理工程实例,依据工程的特点,对排水固结的方案进行了探讨,并对静压排水固结法的技术要求与施工要点作了详细说明,通过工程施工效果表明:静压排水固结工艺在该工程中取得了较好的经济效益。%Combining with the engineering practice of soft soil foundation treatment, according to the engineering characteristics, discussed the drainage consolidation scheme, explained in detail the technical requirements and construction key points of static drainage consolidation technol-ogy, through the engineering construction results showed that: static drainage consolidation process had achieve good economic benefits in engi-neering.

  17. Ideas of Constructing Digital Aviation Maintenance System%数字化航空维修体系构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 蔡海鹏

    2012-01-01

    Digital maintenance is a general need and trend for aviation maintenance system, and to construct a net - centralized digital aviation maintenance system is a system engineering, value engi- neering and strategy engineering. There are some ideas on how to construct a digital aviation mainte- nance system after discussing its necessity and significance.%数字化维修对航空修理系统是大势所需、大势所趋。构建“网络中心化”的数字化航空维修体系,是一项系统工程、价值工程和战略工程。从数字化维修的必要性和意义,设想如何构建数字化航空维修体系。

  18. 工程量清单计价的理解%On understanding of engineering bill pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振文

    2012-01-01

    阐述了工程量清单的定义及编制内容,归纳了工程量清单编制的原则及过程,并提出了实施工程量清单后对造价编制人员的要求,从而完善工程价格管理体制,实现工程造价的有效控制。%The paper illustrates the definition and compilation contents for the engineering bill, sums up the principle and process for the engi- neering bill compilation, and points out the requirements for the cost compiling personnel after implementing the engineering bill, so as to im- prove the management system for the engineering price and realize the effective control for the engineering cost.

  19. Application of coral reef sand in construction works of high seas islets%珊瑚礁砂在远海岛礁工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍栋; 贾宾

    2015-01-01

    珊瑚礁砂在国内外作为工程材料的研究还较少。文章通过珊瑚礁砂在远海岛礁工程中的综合利用,总结了应用效果,进行了经济、环保及社会效益分析,对岛礁工程建设具有重要的借鉴与指导意义。%Since the study of coral reef sand as a construction material is rare, by means of the study of the integrated utiliza-tion of coral reef sand in some high seas construction project, we summarized the various application of coral reef sand in engi-neering, and carried the analysis on the economic, environmental and social benefits as well. It has important reference and guidance significance for islet construction.

  20. How revealing rankings affects student attitude and rerformance in a peer review learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    findings, students’ performance between the groups were comparable, however, the Ranking group revealed differences in the resulted behavior among its members. Specifically, awareness of ranking information mostly benefited students which were relatively in favor of ranking, motivating them to further......This paper investigates the possible benefits as well as the overall impact on the behaviour of students within a learning environment, which is based on double-blinding reviewing of freely selected peer works. Fifty-six sophomore students majoring in Informatics and Telecommunications Engi......-neering volunteered to participate in the study. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment, according to which students were divided into three groups of different conditions: control, usage data, usage and ranking data. No additional information was made available to students in the control condition...

  1. 双支点顶式螺杆启闭机在水利工程中的应用%Application of double protection type screw hoist in the water conservancy project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金可

    2015-01-01

    水利工程中螺杆式启闭机是启闭闸门的常用设备,为满足蓄水、防洪和城市景观的要求,双支点顶式螺杆启闭机满足工程布局要求,在发挥自身功能的基础上,与周边环境相适应,对有景观要求的工程提供一种参照模式。%Screw hoist in water conservancy project is a commonly used equipment to open and close of the gate to meet the requirements of water storage, flood control and urban landscape. The double protection type screw hoist meet the engi-neering layout, and adapted to the surrounding environment based on the function, it provides a reference model for the landscape requirements engineering.

  2. Cultivating Practical Food Talents Relying on Region Industry Economy---Taking the “Topic Learning Method ”as an Example%依托区域产业经济,培养应用型食品人才--以“课题学习法”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢淑婕; 刘开华

    2015-01-01

    Investigating and analyzing the status of talent demand of Henan Province food business ,discussing the application of “topic learning method ” in characteristic talent and innovative talents cultivation of food specialty and combining the characteristic and talent training of food specialty of Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry , all this provides a new way of how to train practical food engi-neering talents .%调查分析了河南省食品企业人才需求现状,结合信阳农林学院食品专业特点与人才培养的现状,探讨了“课题学习法”在食品专业特色人才、创新人才培养中的应用,为应用型食品工程人才的培养提供了新途径。

  3. Certificação integrada de microempresa: sistema de gestão da qualidade (SGQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Dircelene Roseane do Rosário de

    2010-01-01

    Neste documento é relatado o estágio de um ano numa pequena empresa de índole tecnológica onde se desenvolveu um Sistema de Gestão da Qualidade. A ENGi3 é uma startup do Instituto Politécnico de Bragança que desenvolve sistemas de monitorização no apoio a projectos e planos de racionalização energética e, aplica tecnologias renováveis em indústrias e edifícios. Para desenvolver o SGQ efectuou-se uma abordagem por processos. Para isso foi definido o processo de gestão, os processos de su...

  4. Program Manager: the Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 14, Number 3, May-June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Month/Year L11-L Send Subscription to: Enclosed is $,_______ check Name-First, Last 0 money order, or charge to my I I I I II I II1I I II I I III I...indi% idll11Y, and in relad- istm -r-i a etensi\\ve management ett orts are tonr tl) each other, to permit eciient siifican t Jo telithal oico avt iii ...8217 re’vie’w is an exani naticon of c ngi- tailing Levt’l On(’ undergo a mlort’ de- %,iio Iilragc’t8\\ri Iot I’i tailed examination involving an engi 2 eo O epiig

  5. 电力工程总承包中的风险管理研究%Research on risk management of overall contract for electric power projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟

    2014-01-01

    通过论述加强电力建设工程风险管理的必要性,对工程合同存在的风险、设计风险、政策法律风险、质量风险、财务风险等进行了分析,并提出了合理的管理对策,以有效降低电力总承包中的风险。%According to the necessity for enhancing the risk management of the electric power construction,the paper analyzes the risks in engi-neering contracts,design risk,policy and law risk,quality risk,and financial risk,and points out reasonable management strategies,so as to lower the risks in the overall contract of the electric power projects.

  6. Analysis on comprehensive treatment of Erhua drainage ditch in Weinan city%渭南市二华排水干沟综合治理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小刚; 党学忠

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the status quo of Erhua drainage ditch,researched and analyzed the existing problems of the drainage ditch,and put forward the restoration of Erhua drainage ditch,through its dredging,as the return water outlet for internal flood construction engi-neering,for reference.%简要介绍了二华排水干沟的现状,对该排水沟存在问题进行了分析研究,并提出了修复改造二华排水干沟,通过对其疏浚清淤,作为区内蓄洪建湖工程的退水出路,以供参考。

  7. Civic and Citizenship Education Pattern:Basic System Construction%公民教育模式:基础、系统建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席文

    2013-01-01

    文从分析国际公民教育模式的现有理论基础入手,从系统工程角度构建公民教育的目标体系、环境体系、工程体系、执行体系、测评体系,形成完整公民教育模式。%Based on the analysis of present condition of the civic and citizenship education, the paper formed five basic patterns:engi-neering system, environment system, target system, execution system, evaluation system. From the perspective of systems engineering, basic pat-terns formed a complete life cycle of citizen education . The basic mode is a shortcut for exploration and for the improvement of efficiency. The basic mode is, at the same time, benefit to the conduction of local mode.

  8. Risk Analysis and Assessment of Overtopping Concerning Sea Dikes in the Case of Storm Surge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉萍; 黄桂玲; 陈正寿; 梁丙臣; 刘桂林

    2014-01-01

    Risk-analysis-and-assessment-relating-coastal-structures-has-been-one-of-the-hot-topics-in-the-area-of-coastal-protection-recently.-In-this-paper,-from-three-aspects-of-joint-return-period-of-multiple-loads,-dike-failure-rate-and-dike-continuous-risk-prevention-respectively,-three-new-risk-analysis-methods-concerning-overtopping-of-sea-dikes-are-developed.-It-is-worth-noting-that-the-factors-of-storm-surge-which-leads-to-overtopping-are-also-considered-in-the-three-methods.-In-order-to-verify-and-estimate-the-effectiveness-and-reliability-of-the-newly-developed-methods,-quantified-mutual-information-is-adopted.-By-means-of-case-testing,-it-can-be-found-that-different-prior-variables-might-be-selected-dividedly,-according-to-the-requirement-of-special-engineering-application-or-the-dominance-of-loads.-Based-on-the-selection-of-prior-variables,-the-correlating-risk-analysis-method-can-be-successfully-applied-to-practical-engineering.

  9. The Contribution of Human Factors in Military System Development: Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    STD-1472 WDT Exhibit 57-8 1 Aug 57 WDT Exhibit 57-8 1 Ma 58 AFEM Exhibit 57-SA 1 Nov 58 ASMA OD 844 25 Mar 60SMIL-STD-03 5 o 58EFK Nov , [ASMASTD434...1Oct6 1 ASMA STD-434A 24 Apr 63 MIL-sTD-803A1 27 Jan 64 MILORD-1248 20JAn6 6 MIL-STD-803A2 1Dec64 L= -1248 NI 30Aug66 MIL-STD-803A3 19 May 67 MIL-STD...I USA wESEARCH OFC/ I NAFEc HUMAN ENGI4IERINO UNANC" I RAFTh-LLE-COLUMUUS LABORATORIES TACTICAL TECHNICAL OFC 1 USA oRCTIC TESI CEN AlrNI AMSTL-PL-TS

  10. Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress%Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 朱墨桃; 李敬源

    2012-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, there are growing concerns about biological effects and biosafety of engineered nanomaterials. On the other hand, nanoparticles are widely used in medical fields based on their novel interactions with biological entities. However, there are still a lot of challenges to establish systematic knowledge about nanotoxicology and develop biologically safer biomedical materials due to the variety of factors determining their biomedical effects and nanotoxicity. Understanding the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with the bio- logical entities becomes crucial to the further development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the past decade, colleagues in our laboratory intensively studied the toxic properties of various kinds of nanomaterials and their chemical mechanisms. In this paper we review the recent advance in the research on the biological effects of engi- neered nanomaterials and nanosafety issue, by focusing on the studies about representative nanomaterials in our la- boratory.

  11. 交通工程设计界面划分探讨%Discussion on Division Interface Principles for Traffic Engineering Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梓城

    2014-01-01

    As the affiliated projects of expressway construction, the traffic engineering, including building engi-neering, electro-mechanical engineering, traffic safety facilities and other matching engineering, is an indispen-sable functional part for highway engineering. Based on engineering practice, experience from construction has been summed up, with solutions and attentions being suggested.%交通工程是高速公路的附属工程,主要包括房建、机电、交通安全设施以及其他配套工程,是高速公路不可或缺的功能性工程。根据工程实践,总结了交通工程实施过程中的经验,提出了解决方法和注意事项。

  12. 浅析输变电工程施工中的物资管理%Analysis of the Materials Management in the Engineering Construction of Power Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      物资管理,是现代企业管理的一项重要内容。输变电工程施工中,物资管理具有重要的意义,它有利于降低电力企业的生产成本,从根本上保证了工程施工质量。%The materials management is an important part of modern business management. In the engineering construction of power transmission, the materials management is of great significance, which is conducive to reducing electricity prod-uction costs, and fundamental y guarantees the quality of engi-neering construction.

  13. Review of permeability evolution model for fractured porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Ma

    2015-01-01

    The ability to capture permeability of fractured porous media plays a significant role in several engi-neering applications, including reservoir, mining, petroleum and geotechnical engineering. In order to solve fluid flow and coupled flow-deformation problems encountered in these engineering applications, both empirical and theoretical models had been proposed in the past few decades. Some of them are simple but still work in certain circumstances;others are complex but also need some modifications to be applicable. Thus, the understanding of state-of-the-art permeability evolution model would help researchers and engineers solve engineering problems through an appropriate approach. This paper summarizes permeability evolution models proposed by earlier and recent researchers with emphasis on their characteristics and limitations.

  14. Development of SOM combustion model for Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulation of turbulent combustion and its validation by DNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The derivation and closure methods of the second-order moment (SOM) combus- tion model are proposed. The application of this model to Reynolds averaged (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent swirling diffusion combustion, jet diffusion combustion, and bluff-body stabilized premixed combustion is sum- marized. It is indicated that the SOM model is much better than the eddy-beak-up (EBU) and presumed PDF models widely used in commercial software and engi- neering. The SOM modeling results are close to those obtained using the most accurate but much more complex PDF equation model. Moreover, it can save much more computation time than the PDF equation model. Finally, the SOM model is validated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent reacting channel flows.

  15. Research on Digital Periodical Engineering in China%论期刊的数字化工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建勋; 程少锋

    2000-01-01

    文章阐明了因特网环境下,期刊媒体发展的趋向以及实施数字化工程的意义,介绍了期刊的数字化工程的目标、内容、步骤和方式,描绘了中国数字化期刊工程的社会效益和市场前景。%Internet that influenced our life is changing the future of journal. Now a new media—digital periodical has arisen. The author considers that digital periodical engineering should be put into ef-fect by the department responsible for the work. This paper describes the features, target, content andstep of digital periodical engineering in China. The author prospects the future of digital periodical engi-neering in China.

  16. 基于马斯洛需求理论的工科院校学生思想政治教育研究%Study on Maslow’ s Need-hierarchy Theory Applied in Engineering College Student’ s Ideological and Political Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红玲

    2015-01-01

    Engineering College Students have their own thoughts and behavior characteristics. An important approach to improve the effectiveness of the ideological and political education is to adopt Maslow’ s need-hierarchy theory in the requirement of the engi-neering college students,and carry out specific ideological and political education practice.%运用马斯洛需求层次理论,结合工科院校学生自身特点和需求,阐述工科院校学生各层次的需求概况。针对学生的需求开展思想政治教育工作,提升工科院校学生思想政治教育工作的有效性。

  17. Filozofia i humanistyka w edukacji inżynieryjno-technicznej na przykładzie nanotechnologii. Metody i zagadnienia [Philosophy and humanities in engineering education with example of nanotechnology. Methods and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stępień

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development and mass-dissemination of new technologies have also changed the didactics’ patterns of higher education. This concerns especially engi- neers’ higher education with underlying significance of philosophy and humanities in the study programmes. Concerning methods the article presents on the base of ongo- ing projects the implementation of new didactic forms including ICT (e-learning and its enlargement by the didactic in foreign language by using the CLIL method. As far the programmes and contents the article focuses on nanotechnology with the conception of technology assessment, technoscience and converging technologies which are at the same time the objective of didactics as well as research works on the point of junction between humanities and engineering sciences.

  18. Non-uniform Mutation Rates for Problems with Unknown Solution Lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathabard, Stephan; Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    that flips each bit with a probability that is inversely proportional to the bit position, rather than the bitstring length. The runtime of the (1+1) EA using this mutation operator is analysed rigorously on standard example func- tions. Furthermore, the behaviour of the new mutation op- erator......Many practical optimisation problems allow candidate solu- tions of varying lengths, and where the length of the opti- mal solution is thereby a priori unknown. We suggest that non-uniform mutation rates can be beneficial when solving such problems. In particular, we consider a mutation oper- ator...... distribution, and show that the new operator can yield exponentially faster runtimes for some parameters of this distribution. The experimental results show that the new mutation operator leads to dramatically shorter runtimes on a class of instances of the software engi- neering problem that is conjectured...

  19. Business plan basics for engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Riber Hansen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    -driven business environments which are typical the business playground for engineering professionals, the chapter focuses on describing the two key components of the business planning process: the articulation and the development of a viable business model, and managing the scaling up and the growth......This chapter focuses on the nature of business planning activities from an engineering entre-/intra-preneurial perspective. It is therefore not limited to technology start-ups or newly created engineering firms but equally relevant for established firms investing in projects that assemble...... of the business. The de-scription does not pretend to exhaust the topic and continuously refers to several excellent recent publications that could complement the learning process of young and advanced engi-neering professionals interested in knowing more about the business planning process....

  20. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  1. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

  2. Case Analysis of Overseas Engineering Claim Caused by the State Legal Alterations---Mendi Highway Project in Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea%国际工程因所在国法律改变引起的索赔案例分析--以巴布亚新几内亚高地Mendi公路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长有; 刘平

    2015-01-01

    this article takes Mendi Highway Project in Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea as the study object, researches on the ways of solving claims caused by legal alterations through “Variations and Adjustments” clause of FIDIC, to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of contrac-tors, and benefit the construction enterprises of overseas engi-neering.%本文以巴布亚新几内亚高地Mendi公路为研究对象,运用FIDIC对变更与调整条款,探讨解决因法律改变引起的索赔的方法,以期维护承包商的合法权益,进而对国际工程施工企业有所帮助。

  3. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. Intelligent control is a class of control techniques, that use various AI computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms. Intelligent control can be divided into the following major sub-domains: Neural network control Bayesian control Fuzzy (logic) control Neuro-fuzzy control Expert Systems Genetic control Intelligent agents (Cognitive/Conscious control) New control techniques are created continuously as new models of intelligent behavior are created and computational methods developed to support them. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, organizational scope, etc. ICCE 2011 Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engi...

  4. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  5. Long-term monitoring of airborne nickel (Ni) pollution in association with some potential source processes in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Mauulida, Puteri T; Song, Sang-Keun

    2014-09-01

    The environmental behavior and pollution status of nickel (Ni) were investigated in seven major cities in Korea over a 13-year time span (1998-2010). The mean concentrations of Ni measured during the whole study period fell within the range of 3.71 (Gwangju: GJ) to 12.6ngm(-3) (Incheon: IC). Although Ni values showed a good comparability in a relatively large spatial scale, its values in most cities (6 out of 7) were subject to moderate reductions over the study period. To assess the effect of major sources on the long-term distribution of Ni, the relationship between their concentrations and the potent source processes like non-road transportation sources (e.g., ship and aircraft emissions) were examined from some cities with port and airport facilities. The potential impact of long-range transport of Asian dust particles in controlling Ni levels was also evaluated. The overall results suggest that the Ni levels were subject to gradual reductions over the study period irrespective of changes in such localized non-road source activities. The pollution of Ni at all the study sites was maintained well below the international threshold (Directive 2004/107/EC) value of 20ngm(-3).

  6. The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

    2008-09-23

    Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

  7. Development of highway constructing technology in the permafrost region on the Qinshai-Tibet plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShuangJie; CHEN JianBing; ZHANG JinZhao; LI ZhuLong

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Highway passes through the Qinghai-Tibet plateau hinterland from north to south, from Kunlun Mountain to Tanggula Mountain. The average altitude is above 4500 m and permafrost covers more than 700 km length of area with high elevation and high temperature. The climate of the plateau is capricious and the surroundings along the road are bad, where the mean annual atmosphere temperature is -2 to -7℃ and the oxygen content is inadequate, which is less than 50% of the sea level, while the solar radiation is higher than 3600 kJ/m2. The basic characteristics of the plateau surround-ings are the permafrost, coldness with litter oxygen, and fragile ecosystem. As the air temperature warms all over the world, the permafrost on the plateau responds quickly. The average temperature of permafrost is up by 0.2-0.3℃ in recent 20 years, and the island-permafrost dwindles with a high rate,and the high temperature permafrost degrades quickly, and the temperature of the low temperature permafrost increases remarkably. These gradually cause the highway engineering diseases in the permafrost region. The Qinghai-Tibet highway has experienced much maintenance and rebuilding for 50 years after it was built, and the continual observation and investigation have been made for more than 30 years. This road is the longest test engineering for permafrost research work in China. It is no doubt that it is also the greatest engineering project in plateau permafrost region. The Ministry of Communication in China initiated the research project "Research on a series of technologies for highway constructing in the permafrost regions" in 2002, which was to meet the challenges from the effect of climatic warming on the permafrost. The project systematically studied the permafrost engi- neering theories, methods for survey and design, engineering stabilization measures, preventing of the road disasters and maintaining, environment protection and the techniques to prolong the road

  8. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  9. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  10. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  11. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2. We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0–4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101–138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO, 44–54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx, 14–18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC, and 3.6–4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010–2030, because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  12. Premature deaths attributed to source-specific BC emissions in six urban US regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew D.; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Stanier, Charles O.; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios; Pinder, Rob W.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Bash, Jesse O.; Percell, Peter B.; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to particulate black carbon (BC) has significant adverse health effects and may be more detrimental to human health than exposure to PM2.5 as a whole. Mobile source BC emission controls, mostly on diesel-burning vehicles, have successfully decreased mobile source BC emissions to less than half of what they were 30 years ago. Quantification of the benefits of previous emissions controls conveys the value of these regulatory actions and provides a method by which future control alternatives could be evaluated. In this study we use the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate highly-resolved spatial distributions of benefits related to emission reductions for six urban regions within the continental US. Emissions from outside each of the six chosen regions account for between 7% and 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. While we estimate that nonroad mobile and onroad diesel emissions account for the largest number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to BC, onroad gasoline is shown to have more than double the benefit per unit emission relative to that of nonroad mobile and onroad diesel. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia, reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission relative to reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While onroad mobile emissions have been decreasing in the past 30 years and a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions.

  13. From knowledge based software engineering to knowware based software engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU RuQian; JIN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this paper reviews our efforts on knowledge-based software engi-neering, namely PROMIS, started from 1990s. The key point of PROMIS is to gen-erate applications automatically based on domain knowledge as well as software knowledge. That is featured by separating the development of domain knowledge from the development of software. But in PROMIS, we did not find an appropriate representation for the domain knowledge. Fortunately, in our recent work, we found such a carrier for knowledge modules, i.e. knowware. Knowware is a commercial-ized form of domain knowledge. This paper briefly introduces the basic definitions of knowware, knowledge middleware and knowware engineering. Three life circle models of knowware engineering and the design of corresponding knowware im-plementations are given. Finally we discuss application system automatic genera-tion and domain knowledge modeling on the J2EE platform, which combines the techniques of PROMIS, knowware and J2EE, and the development and deployment framework, i.e.PROMIS/KW**.

  14. CFG地基处理套筒钻施工工法浅析%On CFG Sleeve Drilling Construction Method of Foundation Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵显涛; 于淑艳

    2014-01-01

    CFG水泥粉煤灰碎石桩作为一种地基处理方法,在工程中得到越来越多的应用。桩和桩间土一起,通过褥垫层形成复合地基共同工作,可有效提高地基承载力。本文针对抚顺某工地 CFG 地基处理采用的套筒螺旋钻的施工工艺,浅析这种工艺在处理节理裂隙发育及断裂带岩体中的实际应用,为实际工程提供指导和参考。%CFG cement fly ash gravel pile as a foundation tre-atment method, obtained more and more applications in eng-ineering. Pile and soil between piles composite foundation for-med together, work together through the cushion, which can e-ffectively improve the bearing capacity of the foundation. Ai-ming at the construction site in Fushun CFG foundation treat-ment sleeve screw with dril construction process, analyze this process in the application in joint rock fracture and fracture treatment, to provide guidance and reference for practical engi-neering.

  15. Analysis on Construction Key Points of the Building Decoration Engineering%建筑装饰装修工程施工要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      在建筑主修过程中,工程装饰的效果与工程质量的优劣息息相关,同时工程质量的好坏也关乎一个企业的名誉。因此,如何确保装修工程的施工质量显得特别重要。本文结合多年来的工作经验,现就确保装修工程的工程质量,施工要点等方面进行了探讨。%In the process of construction, the effect of engine-ering decoration closely related to its quality, at the same time, the project quality is also about a company's reputation. There-fore, how to ensure the quality of construction decoration engi-neering is particularly important. In this paper, combined with years of experience, we wil discuss the construction key poi-nts to ensure that the decoration project quality.

  16. Enhanced atrazine removal using membrane bioreactor bioaugmented with genetically engineered microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun LIU; Xia HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Bioaugmentation with genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for enhanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants was explored. An atrazine-degrading genetically engi-neered microorganism (GEM) with green fluorescent pro-tein was inoculated into an MBR and the effects of such a bioaugmentation strategy on atrazine removal were inves-tigated. The results show that atrazine removal was improved greatly in the bioaugmented MBR compared with a control system. After a start-up period of 6 days, average 94.7% of atrazine was removed in bioaugmented MBR when atrazine concentration of influent was 14.5 mg/L. The volu-metric removal rates increased linearly followed by atrazine loading increase and the maximum was 65.5 mg/(L·d). No negative effects were found on COD removal although carbon oxidation activity of bioaugmented sludge was lower than that of common sludge. After inoculation, adsorption to sludge flocs was favorable for GEM sur-vival. The GEM population size initially decreased shortly and then was kept constant at about 104-105 CFU/mL. Predation of micro-organisms played an important role in the decay of the GEM population. GEM leakage from MBR was less than 102 CFU/mL initially and was then undetectable. In contrast, in a conventionally activated sludge bioreactor (CAS), sludge bulking occurred possibly due to atrazine exposure, resulting in bioaugmentation failure and serious GEM leakage. So MBR was superior to CAS in atrazine bioaugmentation treatment using GEM.

  17. Demolition technique of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower by directional controlled blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Cui Xiaorong; Lu Hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on blasting demolition of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower,by virtue of engi-neering practice of blasting the tube concrete structures,the analysis and research were made on the mechanism of cool tower collapse through selecting blasting parameters and selecting gap form,gap size and gap angle.The cool tower was twisted,collapsed directionally and broken weU according to the design requirements.The expected results and purpo-ses of blasting were obtained with no back blow,total blasted pile approximates to 4 ~ 5 m,no occurrence of flying stones and no damage to fixed buildings and equipment,the large-sized hyperbolic thin-wall reinforced concrete cool towers are twisted during blasting and it collapses well with good breaking.The test and measurement of blasting vibra-ting velocity was carried out during blasting and the measuring results are much less than critical values specified by Safety Regulations for Blasting.The study shows that gap form,gap size and gap angle are the key factors to cool tower collapse and will give beneficial references to related theoretical study and field application.

  18. 关于管道预制的质量控制%About the Quality Control of Piping Prefabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆寒

    2014-01-01

    管道安装工程是电力、化工等行业建设中的一项重要工程,而管道预制是安装的重要基础和配套工程,质量问题直接关系到能否达到安装工程建设目的。本文从工程的事先、事中、事后几方面,对车间管道预制的质量控制进行了探讨。%Pipe instal ation engineering is an important engi-neering in electric power and chemical industry construction. And the piping prefabrication is an important basis and sup-porting project of instal ation, the quality problem directly relates to achieve the purpose of instal ation project constru-ction. This paper from the aspects of beforehand, several approaches and after-hand of engineering to discuss the quality control of workshop piping prefabrication.

  19. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engi-neering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  20. Developing a press for static and dynamic testing of orthopedic devices and biological tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlex Leyton Virgen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes designing and constructing a test machine having a 1,800 N capacity and maximum 3 Hz frequency which will be used in static and dynamic testing of biological tissues and orthopedic devices such as external fixers. It consists of an oc-tagonal base with 500 mm distance between faces and a crosshead which slides between two columns (useful 350 mm opening thus allowing changing the height (maximum 600 mm according to the size of the specimen to be tested. A ball screw actuator is mounted over the crosshead which transforms a servomotor’s rotating movement into a lineal movement (maximum 150 mm stroke. First validations indicated that the machine performed within the design parameters. This project shows that the techno-logy required for supporting research is possible in developing countries thereby avoiding dependence on foreign companies for supporting, maintaining and updating equipment. Some conditions were also produced for the evolution of mechanical engi-neering in Colombia.

  1. Research and Exploration on Remote Online Practice of Electrics and Electronics%电工电子远程在线实践的研究与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 胡仁杰; 堵国睴

    2016-01-01

    In order to share quality education resource and practice environment of university with society,a remote online prac-tice system is researched and studied by electrical and electronic experimental center of Southeast University.This system is open to col-lege students,teenage science enthusiasts,engineer and amateur,and it provides a technology platform for independent research,engi-neering practice,innovation and entrepreneurship.The implementation technology and management method of the remote online practice system is introduced in this paper.%为社会共享高校优质教学资源与实践环境条件,东南大学电工电子实验中心研究探索了构建远程在线实践的实现技术与管理方法,为高校学生、中小学科技爱好者、工程技术人员、社会兴趣爱好者搭建了自主研学、工程实践、创新创业的技术平台。

  2. 谈市政工程进度结算的审计工作%Discussion on the audit work of municipal engineering schedule settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced several commonly used calculation method of auditing municipal engineering schedule,summarized the engi-neering quantity review,unit price audit,measures fees,cost,tax calculation and other schedule calculation key points,and described the audit strategies of municipal engineering schedule settlement,had vital significance to improve the management level of civil engineering construction.%介绍了几种审核市政工程进度结算常用的方法,对工程量复核、单价审核、措施费、规费、税金计取等进度结算要点进行了归纳总结,并对市政工程进度结算审计的策略作了阐述,对提高市政工程建设的管理水平具有重要意义。

  3. 印度比莱BSP项目设备监造难点与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谦; 张亮

    2016-01-01

    The made in India Bhilai BSP project equipment supervision as an example, introduces the Indian metallurgical equipment project supervision difficulty, namely:project organiza-tion structure is complex and strict examination system, a unique quality control system; combined with the characteristics of engi-neering company in China and puts forward some countermea-sures, namely:to establish the equipment supervision organization, establish and perfect the QAP quality control process, construction equipment supervision information management system (IMS), strengthen equipment quality contro.%本文以印度比莱BSP项目设备监造为例,介绍了印度冶金项目设备监造的难点,即:项目组织结构复杂、严格的审核制度、独特的质量控制体系;结合我国工程公司的特点提出了对策,即:建立合理的设备监造组织机构,建立与完善QAP质量控制流程,构建设备监造信息化管理体系(IMS),加强设备质量的控制。

  4. The application of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction%旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永胜

    2016-01-01

    以某跨河桥梁段施工为例,分析了该工程的施工技术难点,从测量放样、埋设护筒、泥浆制备等方面,介绍了旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的工艺流程,并探讨了施工中的注意事项,指出旋挖钻机与冲击钻机联合使用,缩短了工期,提高了工程效益。%Taking a across river bridge segment construction as an example,this paper analyzed the construction technical difficulties of the engi-neering,from the measuring lofting,embedding liners,slurry preparation and other aspects,introduced the process ofrotary drilling rig and per-cussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction,and discussed the matters needing attention in construction,pointed out that the combination use of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill,shortened the time limit for a project,improved the engineering benefit.

  5. Influence of Low Temperature Stress on Physiological Characteristics of Phy salis alkekengi%低温胁迫对酸浆生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 殷奎德

    2013-01-01

    为探明酸浆耐冷机理,以红果酸浆为材料,研究低温胁迫对酸浆幼苗叶片生理特性的影响。结果表明:随着低温胁迫时间的延长,酸浆幼苗叶片伤害度和相对电导率呈上升趋势,POD、SOD和CAT的酶活性呈先升高后降低的趋势。且当恢复室温24 h后,电导率、叶片伤害度、POD、SOD和CAT活性均高于对照。%In order to prove chilling tolerant mechanism of Physalis alkekengi ,taking red fruit Physalis alkek-engi as test materials ,the effect of low temperature stress on physiological characteristics of Physalis alkeken-gi seedling leaves was studied .The results showed that the injury and conductivity of Physalis alkekengi seed-ling leaves were on the rise with the increasing of low temperature stress time ,the POD ,SOD and CAT activity of Physalis alkekengi increased firstly ,then decreased .After recovering room temperature for 24 hours ,the conductivity ,injury ,POD ,SOD and CAT activity were higher than control .

  6. Rapid prototyping drill guide template for lumbar pedicle screw placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng; XU Yong-qing; ZHANG Yuan-zhi; LI Yan-bing; SHI Ji-hong; CHEN Guo-ping; CHEN Yu-bing

    2009-01-01

    To develop a novel method of spinal pedical stereotaxy by reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques, and to validate its accuracy by experimental and clinical studies. Methods: A 3D reconstruction model for the desired lumbar vertebra was generated by using the Mimics 10.11 software, and the optimal screw size and orientation were determined using the reverse engineering software. Afterwards, a drill template was created by reverse engi-neering principle, whose surface was the antitemplate of the vertebral surface. The drill template and its correspond-ing vertebra were manufactured using the rapid prototyping technique. Results: The accuracy of the drill template was con-firmed by drilling screw trajectory into the vertebral biomodel preoperatively. This method also showed its ability to cus-tomize the placement and size of each screw based on the unique morphology of the lumbar vertebra.The drill tem-plate fits the postural surface of the vertebra very well in the cadaver experiment. Postoperative CT scans for controlling the pedicle bore showed that the personalized template had a high precision in cadaver experiment and clinical application. No misplacement occurred by using the per-sonalized template. During surgery, no additional computer assistance was needed.Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel drill template for lumbar pedicle screw placement with good applicability and high accuracy. The potential use of drill templates to place lumbar pedicle screws is promising. Our methodology appears to provide an accurate technique and trajectory for pedicle screw placement in the lumbar spine.

  7. 中央空调冷冻水系统的水力平衡调试%Hydraulic balance debugging of central air-conditioning chilled water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赛华

    2014-01-01

    在管道系统中增设静态、动态水力平衡设备是解决管路的水力失调的常用方法,而系统的水力平衡调试也成为空调系统调试的重要内容之一。本文介绍了空调水系统水力平衡的调试方法,并结合工程实例,着重说明通过流量比例调节法进行静态水力平衡的原理及过程。%Addition of static and dynamic hydraulic balance equipment in the pipeline system is the common method to solve the imbalance of hydraulic pipeline , and the hydraulic balance system debugging has become one of the important contents of the air conditioning system debugging .This paper introduces the debugging method of hydraulic balance of air conditioning water system , and combined with the engi-neering practice , emphasizes the principle and process of static hydraulic balancing by the flow ratio control method .

  8. A State-of-the-Art Review of Mixing in Microfluidic Mixers%微混合器内流体混合的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elmabruk A. Mansur; 叶明星; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2008-01-01

    Microreaction technology is one of the most innovative and rapid developing fields in chemical engi-neering,synthesis and process technology.Many expectations toward enhanced product selectivity,yield and purity, improved safety,and access to new products and processes are directed tO the microreaction technology.Microflu-idic mixer is the most important component in microfluidic devices.Based on various principles,active and passive micromixers have been designed and investigated.This review is focused on the recent developments in microflu-idic mixers.An overview of the flow phenomena and mixing characteristics in active and passive micromixers ispresented,including the types of physical phenomena and their utilization in micromixers.Due to the simple fabri-cation technology and the easy implementation in a complex microfiuidic system,T-micromixer is highlighted as anexample to illustrate the effect of design and operating parameters on mixing efficiency and fluid flow inside mi-crofluidic mixers.

  9. 移动模架法在高速公路涵洞施工中的应用%Application of Mobile Scaffolding Method in Construction of Expressway Culvert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于盛彬

    2014-01-01

    Mobile scaffolding method has the characteristics of fast construction, simple process, low engi-neering cost, good quality of engineering, which is widely used in expressway construction. The article ex-pounds the advantages and disadvantages of the mobile scaffolding method. Combined with the engineer-ing example of the concrete culvert, it briefly discusses the application of mobile scaffolding method in the construction of expressway culvert, which can provide a reference for similar projects.%移动模架法具有施工快速、工艺简单、工程成本低、工程质量良好的特点,在高速公路施工中广泛应用。介绍移动模架法的优缺点,并结合具体的涵洞工程实例,简要探讨移动模架法在高速公路涵洞施工中的应用技术,可为类似工程提供参考。

  10. 营业线枢纽建设管理实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2012-01-01

    Shenyang terminal project is the important component of HaDa passenger dedicated line. In the process of construction, it faced with high construction standard, high safety risk, construction of existing line and many other problems. Armed at the project characteristics of Shenyang Terminal, Shenyang Station and Shenyangbei Station, through science organization, strengthening management and process control, we takes targeted measures in engi- neering management, transport organization, construction safety and quality control, making the project quality and construction safety be orderly and controllable.%沈阳枢纽工程是哈大铁路客运专线的重要组成部分,建设过程中面临建设标准高、安全风险大、既有线施工等诸多难题。针对沈阳枢纽、沈阳站及沈阳北站的工程特点,探讨如何通过科学组织,强化管理,加强过程控制,在工程管理、运输组织、施工安全保障、质量控制等方面采取针对性的措施,实现工程质量和施工安全有序可控。

  11. Combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process used for pharmacy wastewater treatment%生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜家绪; 买文宁; 王敏; 唐启

    2016-01-01

    采用生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水,介绍了制药废水处理工程的工艺流程、工艺设计、调试方法、处理效果和工程效益.运行结果表明,该系统处理效果好且运行稳定,出水水质满足《混装制剂类制药工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 21908—2008)表2标准.%The combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process has been designed for the treatment of pharmacy wastewater. The process flow,process design,debugging methods,treatment effect and engi-neering benefit of the pharmacy wastewater treatment project are introduced. The running results show that the treat-ment effect of the system is good,it runs steadily,and the effluent quality meets the requirements specified in Tab. 2 of the Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry Mixing/Compounding and Formulati on Category(GB 21908—2008).

  12. On application and extension of premixed dry-mixed mortar in architectural projects%预拌干混砂浆在建筑工程中的应用与推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超越

    2015-01-01

    介绍了预拌干混砂浆的含义,分析了其发展前景和市场导向,比较了传统自拌砂浆与预拌干混砂浆的优缺点,阐述了干混砂浆在工程实体中的应用效果,指出其具有产品种类多、质量稳定、使用方便、节约成本等优越性。%The paper introduces the definition of the premixed dry-mixed mortar,analyzes its development and market orientation,compares the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional self-mixed mortar and the premixed dry-mixed mortar,illustrates its application effect in the engi-neering,and points out it has various product types,stable quality and convenient to use with cost-saving.

  13. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  14. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  15. 关于施工企业投标报价几个问题的探讨%Discussion on Several Problems of Construction Enterprises Bidding Quotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小群

    2013-01-01

      随着我国经济体制转轨步伐的加快,工程造价改革成效显著,实现了由定额计价模式转向工程量清单计价模式的转变。本文对我国目前施工企业投标报价与企业成本价的界定作了阐述,强调施工企业投标报价不能低于成本价以及低于成本价报价的严重后果,使企业走向规范的、良性发展的道路。%Along with the pace of China's economic system tr-ansition is speeding up, the effectiveness of the reform of engi-neering cost is significant, achieved by the quota valuation mode to change the mode of valuation with bill of quantities. This thesis expounds the definition of China's current tender of er of construction enterprise and enterprise cost, emphasi-zing the bidding in construction enterprises should not be lo-wer than the cost price and the serious consequences of a price lower than the cost price, to enable enterprises went standa-rdize road and benign development.

  16. Numerical simulation of influence of Langmuir adsorption constant on gas drainage radius of drilling in coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Haifei; Huang Meng; Li Shugang; Zhang Chao; Cheng Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    To determine reasonable distance of gas pre-drainage drillings in coal seams, a solid–gas coupling model that takes gas adsorption effect into account was constructed. In view of different adsorption constants, the paper conducted the numerical simulation of pre-drainage gas in drillings along coal seam, studied the relationship of adsorption constants and permeability, gas pressure, and effective drainage radius of coal seams, and applied the approach to the layout of pre-drainage gas drillings in coal seams. The results show that the permeability of coal seams is on the gradual increase with time, which is divided into three sections according to the increase rate:the drainage time 0–30 d is the sharp increase section;30–220 d is the gradual increase section;and the time above 200 d is the stable section. The permeability of coal seams is in negative linear and positive exponent relation with volume adsorption constant VL and pressure adsorption constant PL, respectively. The effective drainage radius is in negative linear relation with VL and in positive exponent relation with PL. Compared with the former design scheme, the engi-neering quantity of drilling could be reduced by 25%.

  17. Cloud-based Virtual Organization Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we may notice that SOA arrived to its maturity stage and Cloud Computing brings the next paradigm-shift regarding the software delivery business model. In such a context, we consider that there is a need for frameworks to guide the creation, execution and management of virtual organizations (VO based on services from different Clouds. This paper will introduce the main components of such a framework that will innovatively combine the principles of event-driven SOA, REST and ISO/IEC 42010:2007 multiple views and viewpoints in order to provide the required methodology for Cloud-based virtual organization (Cloud-VO engi-neering. The framework will consider the resource concept found in software architectures like REST or RDF as the basic building block of Cloud-VO. and will make use of resources’ URIs to create the Cloud-VO’s resource allocation matrix. While the matrix is used to declare activity-resources relationships, the resource catalogue concept will be introduced as a way to describe the resource in one place, using as many viewpoints as needed, and then to reuse that description for the creation or simulation of different VOs.

  18. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  19. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  20. 支架式教学在“建筑工程装饰预算”课程中的应用与思考%Application and Thinking of Scaffolding Teaching in the"Architecture Decoration Engineering Budget" Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁

    2014-01-01

    Secondary vocational curriculum teaching reform re-quires that the teaching should be student-centered, focusing on cultivating students' abilities of analyzing problems,solving prob-lems, and autonomous learning."Architecture Decoration Engi-neering Budget" is a highly comprehensive technical course for the specialty of engineering cost. Through scaffolding teaching,the learning situation is constructed,and paying attention to the organ-ic combination of drawing reading and budget, centered by learn-ing, this paper explores the problems encountered in the teaching and the solutions.%中职课程教学改革要求教学要以学生为中心,把培养学生分析问题、解决问题的能力和自主学习的能力摆在核心位置。“建筑工程装饰预算”作为工程造价专业的一门综合性较强的方向技能课,通过“支架式”教学创设学习情境,在教学中注重识图与预算的有机结合,“教”以“学”为中心,探讨教学过程中遇到的问题及解决措施。

  1. Survey of locomotion control of legged robots inspired by biological concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiDi; LIU ChengJu; ZHANG JiaQi; CHEN QiJun

    2009-01-01

    Compared with wheeled mobile robots, legged robots can easily step over obstacles and walk through rugged ground. They have more flexible bodies and therefore, can deal with complex environment. Nev-ertheless, some other issues make the locomotion control of legged robots a much complicated task, such as the redundant degree of freedoms and balance keeping. From literatures, locomotion control has been solved mainly based on programming mechanism. To use this method, walking trajectories for each leg and the gaits have to be designed, and the adaptability to an unknown environment cannot be guaranteed. From another aspect, studying and simulating animals' walking mechanism for engi-neering application is an efficient way to break the bottleneck of locomotion control for legged robots. This has attracted more and more attentions. Inspired by central pattern generator (CPG), a control method has been proved to be a successful attempt within this scope. In this paper, we will review the biological mechanism, the existence evidences, and the network properties of CPG. From the en-gineering perspective, we will introduce the engineering simulation of CPG, the property analysis, and the research progress of CPG inspired control method in locomotion control of legged robots. Then, in our research, we will further discuss on existing problems, hot issues, and future research directions in this field.

  2. 病毒样颗粒及其疫苗研究%The virus-like particles and its vaccine research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童彦军(综述); 谢溱; 蒋琳(审校)

    2015-01-01

    With the upgrading of traditional vaccines, the vaccine development increasingly depends on the genetic engi-neering techniques, where the virus-like particles (VLPs) has become a hot spot for today’s vaccine research, especially for the viruses which could not be achieved at present by way of large-scale cultivation in vitro.VLPs has become a break-through in the development of such vaccines.This article will look at the following aspects for a summary, including the as-sembly theory of spherical virus, the VLPs assembly mechanism of several viruses, the VLP vaccine design and the VLP vaccines.%随着传统疫苗的升级换代,疫苗的研制越来越多的借助于基因工程手段,其中病毒样颗粒(VLPs)成为了当今病毒性疫苗研究的热点,尤其对于不易在体外大规模培养的病毒,VLPs是研发其疫苗的突破口。关于VLPs及其疫苗的研究,从球状病毒的组装理论、病毒的VLPs组装、VLP疫苗设计和VLP疫苗等几个方面予以综述。

  3. Technical framework for Internetware:An architecture centric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG FuQing; L(ü) Jian; MEI Hong

    2008-01-01

    Being a new software paradigm evolved by the Internet, Internetware brings many challenges to the traditional software methods and techniques. Sponsored by the national basic research program (973), researchers in China have developed an architecture centric technical framework for the definition, incarnation and engi-neering of Internetware. First of all, a software model for Internetware is defined for what to be, including that Internetware entities should be packaged as components, behaving as agents, interoperating as services, collaborating in a structured and on demand manner, etc. Secondly, a middleware for Internetware is designed and im-plemented for how to be, including that Internetware entities are incarnated by runtime containers, structured collaborations are enabled by runtime software ar-chitecture, Internetware can be managed in a reflective and autonomic manner, etc. Thirdly, an engineering methodology for Internetware is proposed for how to do, including the way to develop Internetware entities and their collaborations by transforming and refining a set of software architectures which cover all the phases of software lifecycle, the way to identify and organize the disordered software as-sets by domain modeling, etc.

  4. The design and construction of foundation pit supporting in subway station underground parking%地铁车站地下停车场基坑支护设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白峰

    2015-01-01

    对地铁车站地下停车场水文地质情况进行了分析,提出了采用放坡+土钉墙、灌注桩+内支撑、双排桩对基坑分段进行支护的方案,并阐述了各环节的施工要点,经工程实践,基坑支护结构安全稳定,达到了基坑支护效果,为类似工程积累了经验。%To the subway station underground parking lot hydrogeology conditions are analyzed,and proposed use of the grading+soil nail wall, bored piles+inner support,double pile segments performed excavation methods,and expounds the construction points of each link. The engi-neering practice,the security and stability of foundation pit supporting structure,achieve the effect of foundation pit supporting,accumulated ex-perience for similar projects.

  5. Application of Microsoft Excel Algorithm in Design of Open Channel%基于 Microsoft Excel 试算法在明渠工程设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建春; 何茜

    2015-01-01

    在水利工程明渠的设计中,高阶方程需要通过试算法求解,用传统的计算器人工计算,计算参数多、工作量大,且精确度不够。用Microsoft Excel工具进行试算则方便、快捷、计算精确度高,可为工程设计提供便捷准确的计算结果。以渠道水深计算案例,通过对Microsoft Excel单元格公式的编辑,探讨Microsoft Excel试算的具体方法。%In the design of open channel in water conservancy project , the high order equation should be solved by algorithm because it is difficult to solve directly by traditional manual calculation due to its multi -parameter calculation , heavy work-load and low precision .The algorithm by Microsoft Excel provides convenient , fast and accurate calculating results for engi-neering design .The trial method based on Microsoft Excel is illustrated in the paper to calculate channel depth by spread -sheet formula editing of Microsoft Excel .

  6. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T

    2003-01-01

    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  7. Development and application of an efficient gas extraction model for low-rank high-gas coal beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiquan Lin; He Li; Desheng Yuan; Ziwen Li

    2015-01-01

    To promote gas extraction in low-rank high-gas coal beds, the pore structure characteristics of the coal and their effect on gas desorption were studied. The results show that micropores are relatively rare in low-rank coal;mesopores are usually semi-open and inkpot-shaped whereas macropores are usually slit-shaped. Gas desorption is relatively easy at high-pressure stages, whereas it is difficult at low-pressure stages because of the‘bottleneck effect’ of the semi-open inkpot-shaped mesopores. A ‘two-three-two’ gas extraction model was established following experimental analysis and engi-neering practice applied in the Binchang mining area. In this model, gas extraction is divided into three periods:a planning period, a transitional period and a production period. In each period, surface extraction and underground extraction are performed simultaneously, and pressure-relief extraction and conventional extraction are coupled to each other. After applying this model, the gas extraction rate rose to 78.8%.

  8. ACCESS TO LEP POINT 5, CESSY (FRANCE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    At the public environmental impact enquiry for the LHC project, the municipal authorities at Cessy suggested creating a new approach road to the civil engineering site (Point5) to ensure that materials deliveries by road are kept well away from housing along the Route de la Plaine.Following this recommendation, a track called the Chemin du Milieu has been upgraded into a road, and has been made available for the sole use of construction firms involved in building work at Point 5.The 'Dragados-Seli' consortium will be in charge of site surveillance for the new approach road.With effect from 29 March 1999, the present entrance will be closed to civil engineering firms and reserved for LEP installations maintenance services under the SL Division site managers, Mr. R. Spigato (tel. 160374) and P. Rey (tel. 160375).For obvious security reasons, those needing to use Point 5 are requested to keep the gate locked, even while they are on site, so as to prevent unauthorised persons from gaining access to the civil engi...

  9. Research on Construction and Management of the Modern Military Barracks%现代营房建设管理评估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡信布; 刘捷; 潘洁

    2012-01-01

    The Construction and Management of the Modern Military Barracks is a complex system engi- neering project. The traditional methods, for example AHP etc, hardly satisfy the need for evaluating the Con- struction and Management of the Modern Military Barracks because it is of strong certainty and uncertainty. The paper first draws a graph of the relations among indexes and designs the evaluation model based Set Pairs according to actual criterion, at the same time, it provides rules of calculation and judgement. Then, the pa- per obtains an effective and objective result by emulating one genuine project which provides some scientific daa for making decision with varied organizations.%现代营房建设管理是一项复杂的系统工程,具有很强的不确定性,采用传统的评估方法很难满足评估实践需求。依据现行有关规定标准,在给出现代营房建设管理递阶结构图的基础上,构建出基于集对分析的评估模型,以便为建设单位和上级业务部门进行决策提供科学依据。

  10. 应该是、是、怎么做--计算思维的理性离析%Ought,Being,Doing:The Rational Segregation of Computational Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊子牛; 牟琴; 王华

    2016-01-01

    The rational dominates the history of human development. In the rational dimension,the essential question of computational thinking is what can be proceeded effectively and automatically,through the questions and answers of thinking movements from the three levels including philosophy,science and practice. In the process of the questions and answers,the paper has showed characteristics in the abstract thinking way,the mathematical thinking way and the engi-neering thinking way of computational thinking,formed the philosophical foundation,the scientific theory and the knowledge system of practice construction,and segregated three implications of computational thinking.%理性主导着人类认识发展史。在理性的维度中,计算思维的根本问题“什么能被有效地自动进行”,经历了哲学、科学和实践三个层面的思维运动的问答。在问答过程中,显现了计算思维的抽象思维方式、数学思维方式和工程思维方式的特点,形成了计算学科的哲学基础、科学理论和实践构造的知识体系,离析出计算思维的三层含义。

  11. [Land use change dynamics and driving forces of the vulnerable ecological region in northwestern Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Li-Min; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Zhao, Tong-Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xue-Fen; Zhou, Yong-Bin

    2014-10-01

    By using remote sensing and GIS technology, this paper collected land use information of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and the relevant statistical data, and analyzed the characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in northwestern Shanxi Province, the typical ecological fragile area. The results showed that there were significant changes in land use patterns in the past 30 years. During 1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 periods, the area of farmland decreased continuously, while the areas of grassland and woodland experienced increase-decrease-increase and decrease-increase-decrease patterns of change, respectively. The areas of industrial and resident lands increased continuously, but the water body and unused land decreased. The farmland was mainly transformed to grassland and woodland, and the areas of industrial and resident lands increased from the farmland. The lost area of water body was transformed to grassland and farmland. The decrease of unused land was due to the implementation of ecological engineering and urban ex-panding. In general, the changes of land use types were significantly higher before 2000 than after 2000. The industrial and resident lands, unused land and grassland changed drastically. The relationships between land use types and driving forces indicated that population pressure and economic development led to the changes of industrial land and farmland; policy of forestry ecological engi- neering drove the changes of woodland and grassland; the drought-characterized climate was the major cause inducing the decrease of water area and hindering the restoration of forest.

  12. “卓越工程师教育培养计划”下的高等数学教学模式探索%Exploration of Teaching Mode for Advanced Mathematics under the Plan for Educating and Training Outstanding Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 韦俊

    2013-01-01

    The plan for educating and training outstanding engi-neers is a new reform of personal training model. Under the ex-cellence program, the objective of university mathematics teach-ing is to develop the students' mathematical quality. Based on re-quirements of excellence program and features of advanced mathematics, the application of modularization teaching in ad-vanced mathematics will promote the effective implementation of the excellence program.%  “卓越工程师教育培养计划”是一个全新的人才培养模式改革工程,而培养学生的“数学素质”是“卓越计划”下的大学数学教学的目标。根据“卓越计划”的要求和高等数学的特点,对高等数学的模块化教学,将会促进“卓越计划”的有效实施。

  13. 3D integrated modeling approach to geo-engineering objects of hydraulic and hydroelectric projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at 3D modeling and analyzing problems of hydraulic and hydroelectric en-gineering geology,a complete scheme of solution is presented. The first basis was NURBS-TIN-BRep hybrid data structure. Then,according to the classified thought of the object-oriented technique,the different 3D models of geological and engi-neering objects were realized based on the data structure,including terrain class,strata class,fault class,and limit class;and the modeling mechanism was alterna-tive. Finally,the 3D integrated model was established by Boolean operations be-tween 3D geological objects and engineering objects. On the basis of the 3D model,a series of applied analysis techniques of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering geology were illustrated. They include the visual modeling of rock-mass quality classification,the arbitrary slicing analysis of the 3D model,the geological analysis of the dam,and underground engineering. They provide powerful theoretical prin-ciples and technical measures for analyzing the geological problems encountered in hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering under complex geological conditions.

  14. Permeability Test of Asphalt Pavement and countermeasures%沥青路面渗水试验检测与防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2015-01-01

    〗沥青路面渗水的原因主要包括水力冲刷、置换作用等。工程运营前要严格按照规范要求进行渗水试验,计算并整理渗水系数。同时还要合理选择面层结构、重视施工质量控制、提高沥青与集料的结合性能、改善排水设施,对渗水路面也要及时采取措施处理。从而实现对渗水现象的有效预防,确保沥青路面工程质量。%The reasons of asphalt pavement seepage mainly include the hydraulic erosion and replace-ment effect.Before the engineering operations,asphalt pavement should be strictly tested in accord-ance with the requirements of the specification of Permeability test.It is necessary to select the struc-ture of the surface,pay attention to the construction quality control,improve the combination of as-phalt and aggregate,improve the drainage facilities,as well as the seepage pavement,so as to realize the effective prevention of the seepage phenomenon and ensure the quality of asphalt pavement engi-neering.

  15. X-ray computed tomography and aggregate image system (AIMS for studying hot mix asphalt and aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex E. Álvarez Lugo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving reliable pavement design, durable roadway structures and effective maintenance and rehabilitation plans requires the suitable characterisation of the materials used in pavement construction. This paper describes two non-destructive techniques based on image acquisition and analysis and their successful application in pavement engi-neering: X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT and aggregate imaging system (AIMS. The former has been used for characterising the internal structure of asphalt mixes to analyse and model their performance; it has been particu-larly used for studying the content, size, distribution and connectivity of air-voids and these variables’ relationship with moisture damage susceptibility, capillarity and permeability within the mixes. AIMS was intended for characterri-sing aggregates’ morphological properties (i.e., form, angularity and texture. This technique provides important ad-vantages regarding the standard methods used for obtaining the same aggregate properties: it is objective, reliable, reproducible and can be carried out quickly. This paper was aimed at describing these two techniques’ theoretical backgrounds, mention some recent applications and provide insight into how existing characterisation of materials used in pavement construction can be improved.

  16. 海外工程建设项目管理工程实践——设计文档管理篇%Overseas Engineering Construction Project Manangment Practice——Design Work Manangment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏德

    2013-01-01

    按照国家“走出去”战略要求,中国石化工程建设公司不断拓展海外市场,先后承接各种类型的海外工程建设项目,如工程总承包项目(EPC-Engineering,Procurement and Construction)、工程设计项目(E-Engineering)、工程设计加采购服务(EP-Engi neeri ng and Procurement)等.在海外项目运营中,我们以国际项目管理方法论为基础,结合项目管理信息系统应用,不断积累项目管理工程实践和经验.本篇是海外工程建设项目工程实践系列中设计文档管理篇,主要针对海外项目设计文档管理,结合国际文档管理软件EMCDocumentum的应用,简要介绍我们的工程实践,共同提高我国工程建设行业开拓国际市场的项目管理水平.

  17. Exploration and Practice of Experimental Teaching Re-form of Harbor and Channel Engineering under Out-standing Plan%卓越计划下港航专业实验教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小超; 贺晖; 程永舟; 张戈

    2016-01-01

    实验教学是学生在实践锻炼中最基础的部分和非常重要的环节,为适应"卓越工程师教育培养计划"的要求,结合多年实践教学经验对港口航道与海岸工程专业实验教学体系、实验室开放模式和教学方法进行改革,强化学生工程能力和创新能力的培养,以达到提高学生解决实际问题和创新的能力,培养学生团队协作精神的目的.%Experimental teaching is a very important teaching link of the practice teaching for engineering students. In order to meet the demands of the "Excellent Engineer Plan", the reform of experimental teaching system, opening experimental teaching mode and teaching methodology for harbor and channel engi-neering specialty is carried out with many years of practice teaching experience. Cultivation of students' engineering ability and creative spirit is strengthened to reach the goal of enhancing the creative and practical ability and team work cooperation spirit of university students.

  18. 平遥县木家庄煤矿滑坡成因分析与稳定性评价%The landslide causes analysis and stability evaluation in Pingyao Mujiazhuang coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奋清

    2015-01-01

    分析了平遥木家庄煤矿滑坡区的自然条件及工程地质条件,通过对该滑坡成因分析和稳定性评价,指出地形地貌、岩土体结构、地质构造等是坡体发生滑动的主要内在因素,为内因;前缘人工挖方削坡及人工填沟等人类工程活动、连续强降雨是诱发坡体滑动的主要因素,为诱因。%This paper analyzed the natural conditions and engineering geological condition of Pingyao Muiiazhuang coal mine landslide area,and through the landslide causes analysis and stability evaluation,pointed out that the topography,rock mass structure,geological structure was the main internal factors of slope activities,as the internal cause,front artificial excavation cutting slope and artificial fill ditch and other human engi-neering activities,continuous heavy rainfall was the main factor inducing slope sliding,as triggers.

  19. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  20. Lean Management Strategy of Library Based on Industrial Engineering Idea%基于工业工程理念的图书馆精益管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凌翔; 刘虎沉

    2014-01-01

    In view of management problems in current libraries,such as management idea backward;service level low;the information service efficiency and the user satisfaction not high,the paper introduces industrial engi-neering concepts into library management,constructs the lean house for library lean management.Some measure such as 5 S activity,5 W1 H technology,JIT,human factors engineering,standardization and the continuous improvement are put forwards,to realize the library lean management,which can improve the operational efficiency of the library and information service ability.%针对当前图书馆存在的管理理念落后、服务层次较低、信息服务效率和用户满意度不高等问题,将工业工程理念引入图书馆管理中,构建了图书馆精益管理的精益屋。并提出5 S活动、5 W1 H技术、JIT、人因工程、标准化与持续改善等具体措施,实现对图书馆的精益管理策略,提高图书馆的运作效率和信息服务能力。

  1. 复杂环境条件下深厚砂层基坑支护方案设计及监测%Design of Foundation Pit Supporting Scheme for Deep and Thick Sand Layer under Complex Conditions and the Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全礼; 王荣彦; 张志敏

    2012-01-01

      Pile-anchor retaining and compound soil nailing support are the common schemes for the foundation pit support-ing.In the view of the economy and deformation control, each scheme has its advantages and disadvantages.With the engi-neering case, the discussion was made on the safe and economical supporting scheme by composition of soil nailing wall with vertical micro-pile and pre-stressed anchor, and the supporting effect was verified by the deformation monitoring data.%  桩锚支护和复合土钉墙支护等是基坑支护的常用方案,从经济性和控制变形效果来看二者各有优缺点。通过工程实例,探讨了深厚砂层等复杂环境条件下既安全又经济的土钉墙与竖向微型桩、预应力锚杆等结合组成的基坑支护方案,并通过变形监测数据验证其支护效果

  2. Modeling waves and longshore transport potential in Half Moon Bay, Grays Harbor, Washington, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; PHILIP D Osborne

    2008-01-01

    A local-scale phase-resolving wave transformation model with CGWAVE is established in connection with a regional-scale coupled STWAVE-ADCIRC wave-current model for its application in the Half Moon Bay, Grays Harbor. Wave transformation from offshore to the harbor entrance is simulated by the STWAVE model which includes wave-current interaction. The STWAVE results provide incident wave conditions for the local-scale CGWAVE model at its outer boundary. A simple method is developed to take into ac- count the lateral variation of wave height in constructing the model's wave boundary conditions. The model was validated for three wave condition cases which yielded good agreement with field data. The validated model was applied to predicting nearshore waves in the Half Moon Bay and longshore transport parameters along the wave breaking line for the existing condition and three engi- neering alternatives. A comparative analysis indicated that storm waves that have a combination of long period and large height are the most destructive to the crenulate shoreline in the Half Moon Bay; both 152 m jetty extension (Alt. 2) and diffraction mound enlargement ( Alt. 3) would significantly reduce breaking wave height and longshore transport potential in the southwest comer of Half Moon Bay.

  3. 覆盖件冲压CAE分析材料模型的工程应用与发展%The engineering application and development of material model in CAE analysis of automotive panel forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉强; 王勇; 董剑安; 郭水军; 须俊华; 崔永生

    2009-01-01

    Material model was a crucial factor that could severely influence the simulation ac-curacy of automotive panel forming. Through combining the theoretic researches and engi-neering applications home and aboard, theories, applications and experiments related to material models in the mainstream CAE softwares were compared in this paper. According to the new developments and applications in the automotive panel die enterprises, some sug-gestions were presented about the application of material model in CAE analysis.%材料模型是影响汽车覆盖件冲压CAE分析精确度的重要因素.将国内外理论研究和工程应用相结合,分析了目前主流CAE软件中的所应用的材料模型,并给出了相关的理论、应用状况以及与试验的对比.同时通过结合国内外最新技术发展和汽车覆盖件模具企业的实际应用情况,对冲压CAE分析中材料模型在企业中的应用给出了经验指导和建议.

  4. Site management of engineering survey in long-distance pipeline%浅谈长输管道工程勘察现场管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继超; 桑有明

    2014-01-01

    现场管理是长输管道工程勘察的重要环节。针对如何做好长输管道工程勘察现场管理,提出从项目策划入手,加强勘察技术质量管理和HSE管理,突出团队协作意识、制度的执行力和科学合理的动态管理,重视勘察过程每一细节,确保按时保质地完成勘察任务。%Site management is an important part of long-distance pipeline engineering survey. How to do the site management of engi-neering survey in long-distance pipeline,this paper proposes that the first step is to project planning,the next is to strengthen the sur-vey quality management and HSE (Health,Safe,Environment)management,outstand team cooperation consciousness,the execution of system,scientific and reasonable dynamic management.Pay attention to every detail in survey process,to ensure the timely completion with good quality.

  5. Underworld-GT Applied to Guangdong, a Tool to Explore the Geothermal Potential of the Crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steve Quenette; Yufei Xi; John Mansour; Louis Moresi; David Abramson

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal energy potential is usually discussed in the context of conventional or engi-neered systems and at the scale of an individual reservoir. Whereas exploration for conventional reser-voirs has been relatively easy, with expressions of resource found close to or even at the surface, explora-tion for non-conventional systems relies on temperature inherently increasing with depth and searching for favourable geological environments that maximise this increase. To utilitise the information we do have, we often assimilate available exploration data with models that capture the physics of the domi-nant underlying processes. Here, we discuss computational modelling approaches to exploration at a re-gional or crust scale, with application to geothermal reservoirs within basins or systems of basins. Tar-get reservoirs have (at least) appropriate temperature, permeability and are at accessible depths. We discuss the software development approach that leads to effective use of the tool Underworld. We ex-plore its role in the process of modelling, understanding computational error, importing and exporting geological knowledge as applied to the geological system underpinning the Guangdong Province, China.

  6. 广西资源县某萤石矿矿山地质灾害危险性评估及防治对策%Geology disaster risk assessment and Prevention countermeasures about a fluorite ore mine in Ziyuan county of Guangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋剑; 郑剑锋; 陈雪源

    2015-01-01

    Taking a fluorite mine in Ziyuan county of Guangxi as an example, with emphasis on the analysis of the mine geological disaster risk evaluation thoughts and basic methods, and the effective prevention and control coun-termeasures are put forward. In understanding mine basic situation and find out the mine geological environment background, on the basis of On the basis of comprehensive mining area topography and the characteristics of engi-neering activities of situation assessment and forecast of mine geology hazard assessment, and put forward the corre-sponding countermeasures.%以广西资源县某萤石矿山为例,重点介绍矿山地质灾害危险性评估的分析思路及基本方法,并提出有效的防控对策。在了解矿山基本情况和查明矿山地质环境背景的基础上,综合采矿场地形及工程活动特征,对矿山地质灾害进行现状评估和预测评估,并提出了相应的防治对策。

  7. 污水处理厂施工项目成本管理探讨%On exploration for cost management of construction program at sewage treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纪恩

    2012-01-01

    针对污水处理厂施工项目成本管理进行了探讨,分析了污水处理厂施工成本管理的波动性,结合污水处理厂施工成本管理的具体内容,阐述了成本管理过程中应注意事项,并提出了提高工程效率和员工积极性的具体措施,以期更好地进行污水处理厂成本管理。%The paper analyzes the cost management in the construction programs at sewage treatment plants, analyzes the volatility of the cost management at the construction of the sewage treatment plants, illustrates some precautions in the cost management process by combining with the factual contents for the cost management of the construction at sewage treatment plants, and points out some measures to enhance the engi- neering efficiency and staff enthusiasm, so as to have better cost management at sewage plants.

  8. Investigation on the mechanism and applications of the reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2 has been carefully investigated with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level. A series of three-centred and four-cen- tred transition states have been obtained. The activation energy (138.96 and 147.24 kJ/mol, re-spectively) of two bimolecular elementary reactions Cl2+HBr→HCl+BrCl and BrCl+HBr→HCl+Br2 is smaller than the dissociation energy of Cl2, HBr and BrCl, indicating that it is favorable for the title reaction occurring in the bimolecular form. The reaction has been applied to the chemical engi-neering process of recycling Br2 from HBr. Gaseous Cl2 directly reacts with HBr gas, which pro-duces gaseous mixtures containing Br2, and liquid Br2 and HCl are obtained by cooling the mixtures and further separated by absorption with CCl4. The recovery percentage of Br2 is more than 96%, and the Cl2 remaining in liquid Br2 is less than 3.0%. The paper provides a good example of solving the difficult problem in chemical engineering with basic theory.

  9. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  10. Study on Neural Network Method in Power System Based on DEM Height Differential Equation%基于神经网络动力系统DEM高程微分方程内插方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珣

    2013-01-01

    分析了DEM神经网络的基本问题,对神经网络动力系统进行多层感知,形成DEM高程微分方程内插算法,从而能够在图像修复、语音识别、控制工程领域得到应用。通过高程微分方程的动态对象分析,可以对数据聚类,形成系统模型优化方案,保证网络性能得到优化。%The basic problems in DEM neural network are analyzed,and multilayer perception is made in the neural network dynamic system.The interpolation algorithm for height differential e-quation is formed,and is applied into image restoration,speech recognition,and control engi-neering.Data clustering can be realized by an analysis to the dynamic objects of height differential equation,and the optimized scheme for system model can be formed to guarantee the optimization of the network performance.

  11. 石化建设离不开设备监理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原荣婷; 曲吉堂

    2013-01-01

    This article summarized the development of plant engineering service in engi-neering projects in petrochemical industry. It introduced effective equipment management measures adopted in Sinopec Group China and raised key problems faced by Sinopec at the development of the industry.Through elaborating with cases, this article advocated the importance of plant engineering consulting service in petrochemical industry as well as the necessity and urgency for the national legislation.%  本文阐述了石油化工行业在工程建设项目中实施设备监理的发展历史,介绍了中国石油化工集团公司实施设备监理的有效管理措施及目前行业发展面临的主要问题,并通过案例详细说明设备监理在石油化工行业项目建设中的重要作用和国家立法的紧迫性及必要性。

  12. Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities.......This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer......-cise is to determine the degree to which the concepts of discourse commu-nity and community of practice are suitable for investigating the social and organizational context of text and knowledge production. Finally, the paper examines the explanatory value of the two concepts for analyzing text and knowledge...

  13. Highlights in Planning for Urban Drainage and Waterlogging-A Case Study of Changzhou%城市排水防涝规划编制要点探讨--以常州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国荣; 李正兆; 杨宇栋

    2014-01-01

    Taking Changzhou as an example,this paper outlined major points of comprehensive water-logging planning for plain water network of urban drainage (rainwater).And it proposed that the planning should be strengthened in aspects from waterlogging risk assessment,planning standards,waterlogging engi-neering system,etc.The planning should build up an urban waterlogging engineering system by focusing on clearing the river network and water systems,building up drainage facilities,planning for municipal stormwa-ter channel,rectifying easily flooded and waterlogged areas and low impact development to ensure the safety of urban drainage.%以常州为例,探讨了平原水网城市排水(雨水)防涝综合规划编制要点,提出了从内涝风险评估、规划标准制定、防涝工程体系完善等方面加强规划研究,着重从河网水系梳理、排涝设施建设、市政雨水通道安排、易淹易涝片区整治、低影响开发等方面构建城市防涝工程体系,保障城市排水安全。

  14. Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmao He; Zhengfan Zhu; Chao Peng; Jian Ma; Xiaolong Zhu; Yang Gao

    2016-01-01

    In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajec-tory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engi-neering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selec-tion, escape from and capture by the Earth–Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital res-onance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid explo-ration.

  15. 探讨水利水电工程钻探与灌浆技术%Discussion on Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering Drilling and Grouting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉洁

    2013-01-01

    Along with the technology and construction engin-eering of our country's water conservancy and hydropower has made great development and progress, the infrastructure cons-truction has entered a new stage. However, the dril ing and gr-outing technology of water conservancy and hydropower engi-neering construction has become a complex and systematic te-chnology, how to bet er ensure the quality of water conservan-cy and hydropower projects, wil become an important subject in front of us.%随着我国的水利水电技术与工程建设取得巨大发展和进步,基础设施的建设也迈进了一个新的阶段。然而,水利水电工程建设中的钻探和灌浆技术却成为一项复杂而系统的技术,如何能够更好地保证水利水电工程的质量,就成为摆在我们面前的一个重要课题。

  16. “推拉理论”视域下的地方本科院校师资队伍建设%Construction of Teaching Staff in Local Undergraduate Colleges and Universities from the Perspective of "Push- Pull Theory"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任奇; 冯东

    2012-01-01

    "推拉理论"是社会学领域研究人口流动的重要理论,剖析推拉作用力系统中的方向、形式、主体等构成要素,有利于优化高校师资队伍结构。高校师资队伍结构是一个系统工程,它涉及多个参与主体,要实现高校教师队伍的合理流动,就要在主体间建立畅通的反馈机制,真正发挥他们在推拉理论中的主体作用。%" Push - Pull Theory" is an important theory which is used for the study of population mobility in the field of sociology. The analysis of the direction, form, main body and other elements in the push and pull force system, is conducive to optimizing the structure of college teachers. The structure of college teachers belongs to system engi- neering, involving a number of participants, in order to realize the reasonable flow of teachers in colleges and uni- versities, the feedback mechanism between the main bodies should be established so that they can play their princi- pal role in the "Push -Pull Theory".

  17. 大面积钢纤维混凝土地坪裂缝控制技术%Large Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Floor Crack Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜丙波

    2015-01-01

    钢纤维混凝土是一种性能优良的新型建筑材料,它能显著提高混凝土的抗拉、抗剪、抗折强度等多项性能。本文以某工程为例,对钢纤维混凝土地坪不同原因产生的裂缝进行了统计,并提出了针对性的施工控制技术,实践证明效果良好,可为同类工程设计提供参考。%Steel fiber reinforced concrete is a kind of new building materials with excellent properties; it can significantly improve the concrete tensile, shear and flexural strength per-formance. Taking a project as an example, the steel fiber rein-forced concrete floor cracks of different causes, and put forward the corresponding construction control technology, the practice shows that good effect can provide a reference for similar engi-neering design.

  18. Dynamic Task Scheduling on Multicore Automotive ECUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetishree Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile manufacturers are controlled by stringen t govt. regulations for safety and fuel emissions a nd motivated towards adding more advanced features and sophisticated applications to the existing electro nic system. Ever increasing customer’s demands for high level of comfort also necessitate providing even m ore sophistication in vehicle electronics system. All t hese, directly make the vehicle software system mor e complex and computationally more intensive. In turn , this demands very high computational capability o f the microprocessor used in electronic control unit (ECU. In this regard, multicore processors have already been implemented in some of the task rigoro us ECUs like, power train, image processing and infotainment. To achieve greater performance from t hese multicore processors, parallelized ECU softwar e needs to be efficiently scheduled by the underlayin g operating system for execution to utilize all the computational cores to the maximum extent possible and meet the real time constraint. In this paper, w e propose a dynamic task scheduler for multicore engi ne control ECU that provides maximum CPU utilization, minimized preemption overhead, minimum average waiting time and all the tasks meet their real time deadlines while compared to the static pr iority scheduling suggested by Automotive Open Syst ems Architecture (AUTOSAR.

  19. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Fault Currents of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. The size of wind power plants (WPPs) keeps getting bigger and bigger. The number of wind plants in the U.S. has increased very rapidly in the past 10 years. It is projected that in the U.S., the total wind power generation will reach 330 GW by 2030. As the importance of WPPs increases, planning engi-neers must perform impact studies used to evaluate short-circuit current (SCC) contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This information is needed to size the circuit breakers, to establish the proper sys-tem protection, and to choose the transient suppressor in the circuits within the WPP. This task can be challenging to protec-tion engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. Three different soft-ware packages are utilized to develop this paper. Time domain simulations and steady-state calculations are used to perform the analysis.

  20. A CSCW SYSTEM FOR BUILDING REVIEWING BY INTEGRATING GIS WITH OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The process of urban building reviewing is a collaborative work by a group of urban planning staffs and land managers who are working with different departments of a or ganization. There are three ingredients for improving the work efficiency, i. e., agile commu nication and interactive mechanisms, good information, effective processing and visualizing tools. In order to build a computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) system in Urban Planning and Land Administration Bureau in Changzhou Municipality, GIS was integrated with office automation (OA). The workflow and organizational structure had been re-engi neered to meet the requirement of application of the new technology. Federated databases were constructed by assembling disparate sources of heterogeneous spatial and attribute data. Easy access to the data by contents was developed for promoting information sharing within the organization. Specific desktop spatial data handling tools were provided for delineating land lots or building layouts on large-scale digital maps. Office automation functions, includ ing applications registering, reasonableness checking, opinions giving and exchanging, were developed and they permit printing and documents filing. The work efficiency in the organi zation has been improved by introducing the computer-based collaborative building reviewing system.

  1. NC Material Management Module Development%NC系统物料管理模块开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁卫东

    2012-01-01

    介绍如何系统化地进行有线电视的物料管理,并通过对NC供应链系统物料管理模块的开发,利用财务结算的材料费用和仓库管理的材料数量,应用到规划建设的物料管理上,从而实现有线电视工程预算与财务结算数据的对接,更有效地把控工程材料用量,提高了工程物料管理工作的效率。%This paper introduces how to systematically cable material management, and through the NC supply chain system material management module development, the financial settlement of material cost and ware- house management quantity of material, applied to the planning and construction material management. In or- der to achieve CATV project budget and financial settlement data docking, more effectively to control the engi- neering material, for complicated engineering materials management to improve efficiency.

  2. Influence of fines content on the anti-frost properties of coarse-grained soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianLiang Wang; ZuRun Yue; TieCheng Sun; JinChuang Hua

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the optimal fines content of coarse-grained soil required to simultaneously achieve weaker frost susceptibility and better bearing capacity. We studied the frost susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil by means of frost heaving tests and static triaxial tests, and the results are as follows: (1) the freezing temperature of coarse-grained soil decreased gradually and then leveled off with incremental increases in the percent content of fines; (2) the fines content proved to be an important factor influencing the frost heave susceptibility and strength properties of coarse-grained soil. With incremental increases in the percent content of fines, the frost heave ratio increased gradually and the cohesion function of fines effectively enhanced the shear strength of coarse-grained soil before freeze-thaw, but the frost susceptibility of fines weakened the shear strength of coarse-grained soil after freeze-thaw; (3) with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles, the shear strength of coarse-grained soil decreased and then stabilized after the ninth freeze-thaw cycle, and therefore the mechanical indexes of the ninth freeze-thaw cycle are recommended for the engi-neering design values; and (4) considering frost susceptibility and strength properties as a whole, the optimal fines content of 5% is recommended for railway subgrade coarse-grained soil fillings in frozen regions.

  3. 基于 GeoStudio的沟后水库渗流有限元分析%The Finite Element Analysis of Seepage of Gouhou Reservoir Based on GeoStudio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国柱

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of Dam break is heavy , and the influence is profound .In order to fur-ther clarify the causes of the dam break of Gouhou reservoir ,the paper through GeoStudio ,used the fi-nite element method and on the basis of previous studies ,established the finite element model of the dam.The paper started from the different degree of damage of the panel , and analyzed the seepage state under different conditions of the dam before it break , and also put forward corresponding engi-neering measures that set the vertical drainage body ,better results were obtained .%为了进一步明晰沟后水库的溃坝原因,通过GeoStudio ,利用有限元分析手段,在前人研究的基础上,建立了坝体的有限元模型。从面板的不同损坏程度入手,对溃坝前不同工况下坝体的渗流状态进行了模拟分析,并提出了相应的设置竖向排水体的工程措施,得到了较好的效果。

  4. Images ottomanes dans la littérature croate : Marulic (1450-1524, Gundulic (1589-1638, Mazuranic (1814-1891 Ottoman figures in Croatian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sineva Bene-Katunarić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les représentations des Ottomans dans la littérature croate chez Marko Marulić (XVIe s., Ivan Djivo Gundulić (XVIIe s., Ivan Mažuranić (XIXe s. et Miroslav Krleža (XXe s.. Pendant trois siècles, certaines régions croates se trouvaient dans une position géopolitique très fragile, entre « le marteau et l’enclume », en l’occurrence entre la Sérénissime et la Sublime Porte. Dans la littérature, l’occupation ottomane est un très fécond filon thématique, l’un des topoï de l’histoire littéraire croate. Pour examiner les représentations des Ottomans dans la littérature, notre corpus comprend quatre écrivains majeurs : Marko Marulić, Ivan Djivo Gundulić , Ivan Mažuranić et Miroslav Krleža. Notre communication se propose d’étudier les déplacements, les écarts et les glissements entre les données de l’histoire événementielle et le processus de leur esthétisation. Pourquoi la transposition littéraire n’est-elle contemporaine aux événements qui l’inspirent que dans le cas de Marulić, et, dans une moindre mesure, de Gundulić ? Pourquoi Gundulić et Mažuranić devaient-ils déplacer loin des contrées croates le lieu de l’action de leurs épopées Osman et La mort de Smail-Aga Čengić  ? Pourquoi Krleža a-t-il abordé le sujet sous forme de ballades ? Quel est le rôle attribué à l’Occident chrétien dans les quatre œuvres étudiées ? La transcription littéraire de la lutte contre les Ottomans devait-elle prendre part dans la construction de l’imaginaire identitaire national ?Over three centuries, some Croatian regions were in the geopolitical situation which could be qualified as between “the devil and the deep sea”, as far as they were under Venetian and Ottoman domination. In literature, the Ottoman occupation was a very fertile thematic field. Four major Croatian writers: Marko Marulić (16th century, Ivan Djivo Gundulić (17th, Ivan Mažuranić (19th and Miroslav Krle

  5. Plasma test on industrial diamond powder in hydrogen and air for fracture strength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Rohit Asuri Sudharshana

    Diamonds are the most precious material all over the world. Ever since their discovery, the desire for natural diamonds has been great; recently, the demand has steeply increased, leading to scarcity. For example, in 2010, diamonds worth $50 billion were marketed. This increased demand has led to discovering alternative sources to replace diamonds. The diamond, being the hardest material on earth, could be replaced with no other material except another diamond. Thus, the industrial or synthetic diamond was invented. Because of extreme hardness is one of diamond's properties, diamonds are used in cutting operations. The fracture strength of diamond is one of the crucial factors that determine its life time as a cutting tool. Glow discharge is one of the techniques used for plasma formation. The glow discharge process is conducted in a vacuum chamber by ionizing gas atoms. Ions penetrate into the atomic structure, ejecting a secondary electron. The objective of this study is to determine the change in fracture strength of industrial diamond powder before and after plasma treatment. This study focuses mainly on the change in crystal defects and crushing strength (CS) of industrial diamond powder after the penetration of hydrogen gas, air and hydrogen-air mixture ions into the sample powder. For this study, an industrial diamond powder sample of 100 carats weight, along with its average fracture strength value was received from Engis Corporation, Illinois. The sample was divided into parts, each weighing 10-12 carats. At the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), a plasma test was conducted on six sample parts for a total of 16 hours on each part. The three gas types mentioned above were used during plasma tests, with the pressure in vacuum chamber between 200 mTorr and 2 Torr. The plasma test on four sample parts was in the presence of hydrogen-air mixture. The first sample had chamber pressures between 200 mTorr and 400 mTorr. The remaining three samples had chamber

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  7. 地方工科高校招生宣传工作及评价指标研究%Research on the Enrollment Propaganda and Evaluation Indices of Local Engineering Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦刚; 杨峰

    2016-01-01

    生源质量对高校的人才培养质量至关重要.在高校生源数量趋于下降的大前提下,高校招生竞争将愈加激烈,招生宣传在招生工作中的地位变得更加举足轻重.本文通过研究当前地方工科高校招生宣传工作存在的问题,分析其弊端,提出现阶段招生宣传应采取的主要途径,并对评价指标进行分析,从而为现有招生宣传工作提出合理的建议,为进一步提高地方工科高校招生宣传水平提供帮助与指导.%The quality of source of students is very important for the talent training quality of the colleges and universities. In the case of continuous decrease of source of students, enrollment competition of the colleges and universities will be increasingly fierce. Thus the status of the enrollment propaganda becomes more important for the enrollment work. Through putting forward the current problems in the enrollment propaganda of local engi-neering colleges and universities, the shortcomings are analyzed and the main ways which should be taken at the present stage of enrollment propaganda are proposed. The evaluation indices are also studied. Therefore, reasonable suggestions for enrollment propaganda work at present are put forward and further assis-tance and guidance are provided for improving the enrollment propaganda of the colleges and universities.

  8. Research on Design of Engineering Distance Course System for Lifelong Education%面向终身学习需求的工科远程课程体系设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志娟; 李志香; 戴京涛

    2016-01-01

    Course system for lifelong education is the path and cornerstone of learning society .Design of course system includes course se-lection ,course organization ,course path plan .Based on the principle of flexibility ,openness and convergence ,combining with mechanical engi-neering specialty of The Open University of China ,the relationship among curriculum ,specialty and courses is studied ,and the engineering dis-tance course system for lifelong learning and the corresponding learning path are designed .The course system embodies modular design ,multiple entry ,multiple outlet ,multiple level ,multiple channel ,and the corresponding certificate rules and course registration rules are always formed . The course system and the corresponding learning path could adapt to various learning needs of engineering talents ,and also could provide use-ful reference for building national lifelong learning system .%面向终身教育的课程体系是通向学习型社会的路径和基石。课程体系设计包括:课程选择、课程组织、学习路径规划。文章基于灵活性、开放性和衔接性的设计原则,结合国家开放大学的工学科机械类专业建设,研究学科、专业和课程之间的关系,设计模块化、多入口、多出口、多层次、多通道的工科远程课程体系和学习路径,并形成与之配套的证书规则和选课规则,适应工程技术人才多样化的学习需求,为构建国家终身学习体系提供有益经验。

  9. A Clustering Graph Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH DESIGN METHODS FOR SPACECRAFTS IN RANDOM VIBRATION ENVIRONMENT%随机振动环境下航天器结构强度设计方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉梅; 韩增尧; 邹元杰

    2012-01-01

    Random vibration is an important part of spacecraft structure design. Now, the main method used in the structural strength design of spacecrafts is equivalent static design method. Its equivalent princi- ples include equivalent acceleration response, equivalent displacement response and equivalent stress response. Respective theories, methods, domestic and overseas research status, advantages and disadvantages and engi- neering applications are presented. The design method based on the peak values of displacement and stress response is recommended. And the problems in need of further research are finally suggested.%随机振动环境是航天器结构强度设计重点考虑的因素之一.目前,在随机振动环境条件下,航天器结构强度设计采取的方法主要为等效的准静态设计方法,其等效原则可分为加速度响应等效、位移响应等效以及应力响应等效.本文重点介绍了3种等效原则的基本原理、处理方法、国内外发展现状及工程应用情况,并在综合分析的基础上推荐使用基于位移和应力峰值响应等效的设计方法.最后针对需进一步开展的研究工作提出了建议.

  11. 惠州东江水利枢纽工程闸坝振冲碎石桩复合地基载荷试验分析%Analysis of Static Load Test on Composite Foundation with Vibro Replacement Stone Column of Sluice Dam of the East River Hydro-Junction Project in Huizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘亨永; 李秋萍

    2016-01-01

    The sluice dam foundation composed with sand and gravel of the East River Hydro-Junction Project in Huizhou is treated by vibro replacement stone column and obvious economic effect is achieved .The characteristic value of bearing capacity and deformation modulus of the composite foundation are obtained by static load test to provide a basis for engi -neering design .The static load test shows that the characteristic value of bearing capacity of the composite foundation is 300 kPa meeting design requirements .In the paper ,the static load test results are analyzed for similar project reference .%惠州东江水利枢纽工程闸坝砂砾卵石地基采用振冲碎石桩加固处理,取得了较好的经济效益。对振冲碎石桩复合地基承载力采用载荷试验检测,得出复合地基承载力特征值,并计算出变形模量,为工程设计提供了可靠依据。试验表明:振冲碎石桩复合地基的承载力特征值为300 kPa,满足设计要求。就复合地基静载荷试验检测结果进行分析,为同类工程试验检测分析提供了参考。

  12. Research on application of functional lactic acid bacteria%功能性乳酸菌的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛剑龙; 胡萍; 陈韵; 李立郎; 朱秋劲; 王晓宇; 谢和

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are gram-positive, non-spore, anaerobic, a class of bacteria using carbohy-drates to produce lactic acid, which are valuable resource of microorganisms, and are closely related to our health. This paper described the function of lactic acid bacteria on improving immune, antioxidant, decreasing cholesterol, antihypertensive, antibacterial, and improving the flavor functions, which were currently being used in food and medicines. Some applications were also described such as lactic acid bacteria, genetic engi-neering lactic acid, lactic acid producing enzyme, lactobacillus, lactobacillus starch entrapped and Se lactic acid, so as to provide a reference for the further development and utilization.%乳酸菌是革兰氏阳性,无芽孢,厌氧,利用碳水化合物产生乳酸的一类细菌,是一种宝贵的微生物资源,和我们的健康息息相关。本文介绍了乳酸菌的增强免疫、抗氧化、降胆固醇、抗高血压、抗菌、改善风味等功能,这些功能目前主要被应用于食品和医疗上;还介绍了乳酸菌的一些应用技术,基因工程乳酸菌,乳酸菌产酶,乳酸菌制剂,乳酸菌淀粉包埋以及富硒乳酸菌,为功能性乳酸菌进一步的开发利用提供参考。

  13. Research Progress of Sand Reinforcement Technique Based on Biochemistry Theory%基于生化原理的砂土加固技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 符平; 黄立维; 杨晓东

    2016-01-01

    基于生化原理的砂土灌浆加固技术是一种新兴的地基加固技术 ,具有投资少、维护费用低以及环境友好等优点 ,具有广泛的应用前景和显著的工程技术与经济价值.对基于生化原理的砂土加固技术在地基处理学科中的发展趋势进行了分析 ,总结了不同微生物在砂土中的生化反应机理、基于生化原理的砂土加固方法及效果评价和工程应用情况等 ,探讨了基于生化原理的砂土加固技术在地基处理工程中的应用前景及亟待解决的问题.%Sand grouting and reinforcement technique based on biochemistry theory is a new foundation reinforcement technique ,which has many advantages such as less investment ,low maintenance cost and environmental friendliness etc , promising application prospects ,significant engineering and economic value .The development trends of sand reinforce-ment technique based on biochemistry theory in foundation treatment subject were analyzed .The biochemical reaction mechanism of microbe in sand soil ,sand reinforcement method based on biochemistry theory ,effect evaluation and engi-neering application etc were summarized .The application prospects and the remaining problems of sand reinforcement technique based on biochemistry theory in foundation treatment engineering were also discussed .

  14. Discussion of Urban Rail Transit Engineering Cost Management Measures%城市轨道交通工程造价管理措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志年

    2012-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通建设的快速发展,其投资占基础设施建设的比例不断增加,为进一步做好工程投资控制、质量控制、工期控制和合同管理,以及安全管理等方面的工作,充分发挥投资的经济效益和社会效益,对目前工程造价管理中存在的主要问题进行分析,对各阶段工程造价管理方法进行论述和探讨。通过分析与探讨提出进一步加强和完善工程造价管理的措施与建议。%With the rapid development of urban rail transit construction, the proportion of its investment accounts in infrastructure construction increases constantly. In order to promote engineering investment control, qual- ity control, time limit control, contract management, and safety management work, give full play to the investment's economic efficiency and the social efficiency, the main problems existing in the current engi- neering cost management are analyzed, and engineering cost management method in each stage is de- scribed and discussed. Through the analysis and studies, measures and suggestions on further strengthe- ning and perfecting engineering cost management are put forward.

  15. Modified Technology of Phenolic Foam Insulation Fire-Prevention Board%酚醛泡沫保温防火板改良技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭定忠

    2015-01-01

    The traditional phenolic foam insulation materials with light weight, small coefficient of thermal conductivity and good flame retardancy, as the preferred material, could substitute EPS and XPS board for thin plastering exterior insulation heat preservation system in building energy conservation engi-neering, but its faults such as brittle, poor toughness and low intensity and easy dregs, also restricts its ap-plication in building energy conservation project. Aimed at the shortcoming of traditional phenolic foam board, the performance of phenolic foam insulation materials is improved through experiment of adjusting ingredients, providing reference for the research and application of phenolic foam insulation materials from the experiment results analysis on the performance and characteristics.%传统的酚醛泡沫保温材料具有自重轻、导热系数小、阻燃性好的特点,成为取替EPS板或XPS板用于建筑节能工程外墙外保温薄抹灰保温体系中的首选材料,但是其质脆、韧性差、强度低、易掉渣的缺点也制约着其在建筑节能工程中的应用。针对传统酚醛泡沫板的缺点展开研究,通过实验调整酚醛泡沫保温材料的配料,来改进其各项性能。从实验检测结果分析其性能和特点,为研究和应用酚醛泡沫保温材料提供借鉴。

  16. Importance of International Project Bidding Management and Planning%国际工程投标管理规划的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传海

    2012-01-01

    In the fierce competition in the international construction market, the construction enterprise how to face the complicated and volatile international situation and environment influence factors to compile and sub- mit a bidding documents with advanced technology, reasonable economy and competitiveness bidding is a key research content of management unit or departments in project bidding, is also an important compre- hensive subject of keeping sustainable development. This combination combines the international engi- neering bidding practice and related engineering experience in recent years to discuss the control meas- ures of compiling bidding documents in the project bidding management and eonstruction management ac- cording to the importance of making international project bidding management and planning.%在国际建筑市场的激烈竞争中,施工企业如何面对复杂多变的国际形势和环境影响因素,针对招标项目编制提交一份完全符合招标文件要求,且技术先进、经济合理又富有竞争力的投标文件,是经营管理单位或部门在工程投标阶段需要研究的重点工作内容,也是企业保持可持续发展的一个重要综合性课题。此文结合近年来国际工程投标实践及相关工程经验,从制订国际工程投标管理规划的重要性入手,论述工程投标管理与施工管理有效结合编制投标文件和报价应采取的控制措施。

  17. Research and Practice on the Teaching Reform of "Wine Chemistry and Analysis"%“葡萄酒化学与分析”课程教学改革的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建强; 屈慧鸽; 栾丽英; 程仕伟

    2016-01-01

    “葡萄酒化学与分析”是葡萄与葡萄酒工程及相关专业的核心课程,是一门理论和实践并重的课程。提高该门课程的教学质量对提高学生的操作能力和科技创新能力具有重要的意义。本文通过分析“葡萄酒化学与分析”教学过程中存在的主要问题,从教学内容、现代化教学手段的应用及教学过程控制等方面进行课程改革的探索和实践,实现了课程教学质量、学生的创新和实践操作能力等的显著提高。%"Wine Chemistry and Analysis", a theoretical and practical course, is the core course of the grape and wine engi-neering and its related specialties. It is of great significance to the improvement of students' ability of operation and the ability of scientific and technological innovation through improving the teaching quality. In this paper, the main problems existing in the teaching process of "Wine Chemistry and Analysis" were ana-lyzed, and a series of reform were carried out, such as bettering teaching content, the application of modern teaching means and teaching process control. As a result, curriculum teaching quality, and students' creativity as well as practical ability were improved significantly.

  18. Exploration on the design of low-temperature heating cable radiant heating system%加热电缆低温辐射供暖系统设计问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 周爽

    2016-01-01

    根据现行国家相关节能减排政策,黄金矿山冬季供暖以小吨位锅炉为主要能源供应方式的已不可取,迫切需要探索新的能源供应方式或新的冬季供暖系统形式.较详细地介绍了加热电缆低温辐射供暖系统在工程设计中使用的条件、应用范围及具体的施工方法.采用加热电缆低温辐射供暖系统具有布置灵活,初投资小,运行费用低,施工简单,运行调节方便,是一种新的较好的供暖方式,值得在黄金矿山中推广应用.%According to current national policies about energy conservation and emission reduction ,the mode that small boilers play as the main heat providers in gold mines in winters has become out of date and a new heat supply means or a new form of heating system is in urgent need .The paper in detail introduces the application conditions ,the application range and a specific construction method of low-temperature heating cable radiant heating system in engi-neering design .The heating system has the advantages such as flexible installation ,low early investment ,low operation costs,simple construction and convenient regulation ,which indicate it to be a new form of good heating system and worth promoting in gold mines .

  19. 地下防水工程设计探讨%Discussion on the Design of Underground Waterproof Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秉亮

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of the urban construction and a reducing number of resi-dential land,the longitudinal development of underground space has become the direction of the development of modern architectures,and the design of the underground parking garage becomes indispensable to residential district.Meanwhile,the waterproof design of underground engineering is more outstanding,and it has become a vital part of the whole project.The quality of the water-proof engineering is related to the safety and durability of buildings directly.Based on the design of underground parking garage,points for attention of the design of underground waterproof engi-neering and the selection of materials as well as technologies have been expounded emphatically in this paper.%随着城市建设的不断发展及住宅用地资源的日益紧张,地下空间的纵向发展已成为现代建筑的发展方向,相应的地下停车库的设计成为居住小区必不可少的配套设施。而地下工程防水设计比较突出,成为整个项目的重要部分。本文以地下停车库的设计为依托,着重阐述地下工程防水设计中应注意的事项以及对材料、技术构造的选择。地下防水工程的优劣,直接关系到建筑本身的安全性、耐久性。

  20. 基于简化CKF/降维CKF混合滤波的非线性对准技术研究∗%Research on Nonlinear Alignment Technology with Mixed Filter Based on SCKF/RDCKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄湘远; 汤霞清; 武萌; 高军强

    2015-01-01

    为了降低非线性对准的计算量而不损失对准精度,针对容积卡尔曼滤波( CKF)采样点数与状态维数成正比、计算量较大的问题,提出了基于简化CKF/降维CKF混合滤波的非线性对准方法。利用大失准角模型和基于线性观测方程的简化CKF算法进行水平对准;使用大方位失准角模型和降维CKF完成精对准。仿真结果表明,该方法摆脱了CKF算法的“维数灾难”和降维CKF对准应用条件限制,能够完成任意失准角下的初始对准并获得较高对准精度,具有重要的工程应用价值。%In order to reduce calculation amount and keep alignment precision of nonlinear alignment, the problems that the sample points are directly proportional to state dimension and the calculation amount is large in cubature Kalman filter ( CKF) , a new alignment algorithm with mixed filter based on simplified CKF(SCKF) and reduced dimension CKF(RDCKF) proposed. The level alignment finished by a large misalignment angle model and SCKF without coarse alignment; the fine alignment fulfilled by a large azimuth misalignment angle model and RDCKF based on the level alignment. The simulation result shows that this way two disadvantages that CKF’ s“dimension prob-lem” and RDCKF’ s application limitation. It is available on any misalignment angle and has higher precision, and with important engi-neering application value.

  1. Application of the Combined Supporting Technique of the Primary Sedimentation Tank and Slag Ditch of a Steel Mill%基坑联合支护在某钢厂一次铁皮沉淀池与冲渣沟的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志文; 杨国巍

    2016-01-01

    The excavation depths of the foundation ditch of the primary sedimentation tank and slag ditch of a steel mill are large,besides that,the geological conditions is complex,based on the above engi-neering background,based on conducting the protection of the adjacent surrounding tubular piles of the foundation ditch,the combined supporting scheme of shotcrete rockbolt mesh support,waterproof curtain of deep mixing pile,bored pile and inner support.The application results of the combined supporting scheme show that the foundation ditch displacement can be controlled effectively during the period of construc-tion,the successful construction of the deep foundation ditch and the safety of the adjacent surrounding buildings and underground pipeline are guaranteed,the engineering costs is reduced,and the construction period is shortened,therefore,the favorable economic benefits is obtained.%针对某钢厂一次铁皮沉淀池与冲渣沟基坑开挖深度大、地质条件较复杂的工程背景,在考虑对基坑邻近周边管桩进行保护的基础上,提出了喷锚网防护、深层搅拌桩止水帷幕、钻孔灌注桩和内支撑的联合支护方案。实践表明:该方案的实施可有效控制施工期间的基坑位移,保证深基坑施工与周围建筑物及地下管线的安全,降低工程成本,缩短工期,经济效益显著。

  2. Model and analysis on electromagnetic radiation of flyback power supply by FDTD simulation%反激式变换器电磁辐射的FDTD仿真与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全斌; 付琦; 和军平

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emission from a switched mode power supply is easily exceeding EMC standard limits and this phenomenon is difficult to debug for many switched mode power supply designers. It is very necessa ry to study electromagnetic radiation mechanism, characteristics and prediction method for industrial community and academia. After analyzing and modeling of some active and reactive components, such as capacitor, transformer, diode, MOSFET, PCB traces, input/output cords, a FDTD model of a flyback SMPS is set up. The distribution pattern and magnitude characteristics of far-field electromagnetic radiation are simulated and analyzed based on X FDTD software. Using simulation tool, it is found that input and output cables have a significant influence on the far-field electromagnetic radiation distribution of the flyback power supply in 30MHz-300MHz. The capability of a common mode EMI choke to inhibit radiation is verified by using simulation. This paper is useful for SMPS engi neers to design and decrease far-field electromagnetic radiation.%开关电源电磁辐射发射容易超出EMC标准限值,有必要对其形成机理、特性和预测进行研究.本文在建立电容、变压器、PCB引线、半导体开关等元器件模型基础上,对Flyback开关电源进行了时域有限差分(FDTD)建模,仿真研究了其在开放空间中远场电磁辐射的分布和规律.仿真结果表明开关电源输入/输出电缆是电磁辐射的主要影响因素,并验证了共模电感对远场电磁辐射的抑制作用.

  3. Correction of bone defects by tissue Engineering Corrección de defectos óseos en el área de Ingeniería tisular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Yobanny Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, bone defects cases represent a major impact on health due to how often they oc­cur because of trauma, fractures, congenital or degenerative diseases. Now, bone implants to large volume are severely restricted because of the diffusion limitations in the interaction with the environment of the host for nutrients, gas exchange and waste disposal. That is why the correction of bone defects has become very important in the field of tissue engi­neering looking to improve clinical strategies for treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration, showing the progress made in the in vitro and in vivo in recent decadesHoy en día, los defectos óseos representan uno de los casos de mayor impacto en la salud debido a la frecuencia con que éstos ocurren a causa de traumatismos, fracturas, enferme­dades congénitas o degenerativas. En la actualidad, los implantes de tejido óseo de gran volumen se encuentran severamente restringidos a causa de las limitaciones de difusión en la interacción con el ambiente del huésped para los nutrientes, intercambio gaseoso y eliminación de desechos. Es por ello que la corrección de los defectos óseos ha cobrado gran importancia en el área de Ingeniería tisular buscando mejorar las estrategias clínicas para su tratamiento. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un panorama general del desarrollo de andamios para la regeneración de tejido óseo, mostrando los avances logrados en los ensayos in vitro e in vivo en la última década.

  4. Analysis of a permeable interface crack in elastic dielectric/piezoelectric bimaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Li; Yiheng Chen

    2007-01-01

    A permeable interface crack between elastic dielectric material and piezoelectric material is studied based on the extended Stroh's formalism. Motivated by strong engi-neering demands to design new composite materials, the authors perform numerical analysis of interface crack tip sin-gularities and the crack tip energy release rates for 35 types of dissimilar bimaterials, respectively, which are constructed by five kinds of elastic dielectric materials: Epoxy, Poly-mer, A1203, SiC, and Si3N4 and seven kinds of practical piezoelectric ceramics: PZT-4, BaTiO3, PZT-5H, PZT-6B,PZT-7A, P-7, and PZT-PIC 151, respectively. The elastic dielectric material with much smaller permittivity than com-mercial piezoelectric ceramics is treated as a special trans-versely isotropic piezoelectric material with extremely small piezoelectricity. The present investigation shows that the structure of the singular field near the permeable interface crack tip consists of three singularities: r-1/2±iε and r-1/2,which is quite different from that in the impermeable inter-face crack. It can be concluded that different far field load-ing cases have significant influence on the near-tip fracture behaviors of the permeable interface crack. Based on the present theoretical treatment and numerical analysis, the elec-tric field induced crack growth is well explained, which pro-vides a better understanding of the failure mechanism induced from interface crack growth in elastic dielectric/piezoelectric bimaterials.

  5. 由广东茂名PX事件引发的思考%On the PX Event of Guangdong Maoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红英; 颜雪明

    2016-01-01

    PX事件发生的直接诱因是民众担心 PX 及 PX项目会对环境带来系列有毒污染。PX 事件也折射出民众与社会对化学缺乏正确的认识,化学的不利一面被无限放大,而化学的有利一面被全然忽视。重塑化工行业良好社会形象,一方面要求政府加大安全生产与环境保护的监管力度,逐步建立起牢固的官民互信体系;另一方面要依靠化学本身的技术革命,大力发展环境友好的绿色化学与化工,以利从源头消除化学污染。%The direct cause of the PX event was that the public worried that PX and PX proj ects would contaminate the environment.PX event reflects the public unfamiliarity with chemistry, the exaggeration of negativity chemistry and the ignorance of its positivity.To re-creat a good so-cial image of chemical industry,it is vital for the government to increase the supervision of pro-duction safety and environmental protection,and gradually establish a firm trust system between the government officials and the public.It is also imperative to rely on chemical technological rev-olution,and vigorously develop the environmental friendly green chemistry and chemical engi-neering,in order to eliminating chemical pollution from the very beginning.

  6. Deepening Research on the Mode of University-enterprise Cooperation to Cultivate Engineering Postgraduates%深化专业硕士研究生校企联合培养模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉瑛; 邹学军; 刘长宏; 白日霞

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effective approaches for the cultivation mode of school-enterprise cooperation for the engineering postgraduates are discussed through training program of engineer-ing graduate, implementing dual tutorial, finishing the courses and practice teaching, writing the paper basic on the research projects and establishing the base of school-enterprise coopera-tion. The deepening research about the training mode of school-enterprise cooperation for engi-neering graduate is not only training the needing talents in order to enhance technology innova-tion and competitiveness of enterprise but also enhancing and improving the teacher' s quality, promoting the teaching and research for the teacher in order to resolve the practical problems from enterprise and inject unlimited vitality for the development of school.%从如何制定专业硕士研究生的培养计划、实行双导师制、完成课程学习和实践教学环节、依托横纵向科研联合项目完成论文工作、创建校企联合培养基地等环节探讨了工程专业硕士研究生校企联合培养模式的有效实施途径. 随着工程专业硕士研究生校企联合培养模式的深入研究和实践,可为企业培养急需的人才,增强企业技术创新和竞争能力;同时也可提高和改善高校教师队伍的素质,促进高校教师更直接地面对企业遇到的实际问题来开展教学和科研工作.

  7. The premaxilla in Neandertal and early modern children: ontogeny and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureille, B; Bar, D

    1999-08-01

    This comparative study of maxillae in Neandertals, Qafzeh, and extant children examines two specific traits: the premaxillary suture (sutura incisiva) and the interincisive sinuses, proposing a new hypothesis about some features of the Neandertal mid-face. Morphologic study of the premaxillary suture at its different borders (i.e. the nasal aspect of the frontal process, nasal and palatal aspects of the palatal process of the maxilla) indicates a persistence of the suture among very young Neandertal children in comparison to the condition in extant ones. This suggests a longer independence of some parts of the premaxilla in Neandertals. To further examine this possibility, CT scans of two Neandertal children were analyzed: Roc de Marsal, estimated to be about 3 years, and Engis 2, estimated to be about 5-6 years. The results are quite different between the fossils. In the older, the premaxillary suture is represented only by a deep groove. In the younger it extends deep to the surface of the nasal process reaching the Parinaud's canal. Synostosis of the premaxillary suture was found to occur later in Neandertal children than in modern ones. Moreover, we observed the existence of two interincisive sinuses in the fossil children, whereas this is rare in modern children (present on only 2% of our sample of 0-6 year-old infants, n = 247). Persistence of an open premaxillary suture represents the potential for an extended period of growth of the Neandertal mid-face. Although no trace of the premaxillary suture remains in adult Neandertals, Neandertals present many features classically considered as consequences of this persistence. The two interincisive sinuses could be a consequence of the labio-lingual diameter of the incisors. The results presented here can be further investigated by additional studies on the cranial sutural system and by precise morphologic observations and CT scans of the mid-face of a larger sample of fossil children.

  8. PDCA思想在工程造价管理中的应用实践%PDCA Thoughts in the Application of Engineering Cost Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁进国

    2015-01-01

    Major policies of the entire process construction cost management in our country have been established in 1997,and due to various reasons,it is still confined to a certain stage management,lack of systematic,especially lack of PDCA closed-loop management.According to current situation of the management,focus on 20 kV and below power engi-neering.Through some simple statistical methods,carry out the proj ect cost management analysis application practice,and the regional distribution network engineering cost database is formated.The purpose is to further enrich the whole process cost management thinking,and to supply some practical implications to grid.%我国全过程工程造价管理的大政方针自1997年确立以来,由于种种原因,仍局限于某个阶段管理,缺乏系统性,尤其缺乏PDCA闭环管理。针对该管理现状,着眼于20 kV 及以下配电网工程,旨在通过一些简易的统计方法的应用,开展工程造价管理分析应用实践,形成区域配电网工程造价数据库。目的在于进一步丰富全过程造价管理思想,给电网投资者提供实用的启示。

  9. Exploration on the Teaching Model that Enhances the Cultivation of Linear Algebra Computing Ability%加强线性代数计算能力培养的教学模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓娟; 王利东

    2015-01-01

    针对目前高校工科线性代数教学中出现的重理论轻应用,忽视培养学生应用能力等问题,本文提出将线性代数知识与现实问题相结合,提高计算能力的教学模式。借助设定应用背景等形式引导学生逐步地认识线性代数的应用性,提高学生应用线性代数知识解决实际问题的能力,从而使线性代数真正发挥培养学生计算能力和作为基础课为后续课程服务的作用。%In view of the problems in the current university engi-neering linear algebra teaching that theories are emphasized and practice and the cultivation of students' application ability are ig-nored. This paper proposes a teaching model to improve comput-ing ability through combining linear algebra knowledge with practical problems. Such forms such as setting application back-ground are used to guide students to gradually learn about the application of linear algebra and improve their ability to use lin-ear algebra knowledge to solve practical problems, thus giving play to the role of linear algebra as a foundation course in culti-vating students' computing ability and serving subsequent cours-es.

  10. Dajing River Basin Flood Control Planning in Yueqing%乐清市大荆溪流域防洪规划编制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳

    2013-01-01

      Dajing River Basin, one of the well-known fold-ravaged areas in Yueqing, suffers frequent flood disaster and serious urban water-logging because of its poor flood control capacity and weak infrastructure .According to the specific cause anal-ysis on flood disaster, hydro meteorology, geographical conditions and flood control engineering in Dajing River , the comprehensive flood control planning formulation is talked about in the article based on the factors as reservoir project , dyke building, stream dredging, pump-station construction, etc.And the total train of thought of flood control in Dajing River is also displayed, including planning target , planning standards, planning principles, engineering measures and non-engi-neering measures, which helps to improve the flood control capacity effectively in Dajing River Basin and to solve urban water-logging to a great extent.%  乐清市大荆溪流域洪涝灾害频繁,而基础设施防洪能力薄弱,城镇内涝严重,是乐清市有名的洪灾区。根据大荆溪洪涝灾害水文气象、地理环境、防洪工程等方面的具体成因,对大荆溪防洪规划的规划目标、规划标准、规划原则、规划工程措施及非工程措施提出了水库工程、堤防工程、溪流疏溪、泵站建设等具体的防洪规划编制思路,可有效提高大荆溪流域防洪能力及解决城镇内涝问题。

  11. Prediction of Diesel Engine Performance under Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Signal of Cylinder Head%基于缸盖振动信号的柴油机多工况性能预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓名华

    2001-01-01

    The cylinder pressure was determined from the vibration signal of a diesel engi ne c ylinder head by means of the wavelet analysis and time-series methods.The heat release r ate was calculated by analyzing the indicated pressure diagram.With t he he lp of a dual Wiebe functions fitting model on heat release rate,a set of form ulas was established about the dual Wiebe parameter variation under variable op erating conditions of the engine,and thus a satisfactory result was obtained in predi cting the heat release rates under variable operating conditions.This paper comb ines the cycle simulating calculation of the engine working process with the above rese arch on heat release rate,thus accomplishing the research on predicting the perf o rmance of a diesel engine under variable operating conditions according to the v ibration signal of the diesel engine cylinder head.%采用小波分析法和时间序列分析法从柴油机缸盖表面振动信号识别气缸压力,通过对示功图进行分析计算得到了相应的放热规律;采用双韦柏函数对放热规律进行拟合,建立了双韦柏参数的多工况变化关系式,实现了放热规律的多工况计算,并与工作过程数值计算相结合,从柴油机缸盖振动信号预测多工况性能。

  12. Effect of non-uniform magnetic field on crystal growth by floating-Zone method in microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Kai(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Markov, E. V., Antropov, V. Yu, Biryukov, V. M. et al., Space materials for microelectronics, in Proceedings of the Joint Xth European and VIth Russian Symposium on Physical Sciences in Microgravity, St. Petersburg, Russia (eds. Av-duyevsky, V. S., Polezhaev, V. I.), Moscow: RAS, 1997, Vol. 2, 11-20.[2]Croll, A., Dold, P., Benz, K. W., Segregation in Si floating-zone crystals grown under microgravity and in a magnetic field, J. Crystal Growth, 1994, 137: 95-101.[3]Leon de, N., Guldberg, J., Sailing, J. , Growth of homogeneous high resistivity FZ silicon crystals under magnetic field bias, J. Crystal Growth, 1981, 55: 406-408.[4]Robertson, D. G., O' connor Jr., D. J., Magnetic field effects on float-zone Si crystal growth: strong axial fields, J. Crystal Growth, 1986, 76: 111-122.[5]Series, R. W., Hurle, D. T. J., The use of magnetic field in semiconductor crystal growth, J. Crystal Growth, 1991, 113:305-328.[6]Lan, C. W. , Effect of axisymmetric magnetic fields on radial dopant segregation of floating-zone silicon growth in a mirror fur-nace, J. Crystal Growth, 1996, 169: 269-278.[7]Li, K., Hu, W. R. , Numerical simulation of magnetic field design for damping thermocapillary convection in a floating half zone, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 222: 677-684.[8]Li. K., Hu, W. R., Magnetic design for crystal growth, 3rd International Workshop on Modeling in Crystal Growth, New York, USA, 2000, to be published in J. Crystal Growth.[9]Patankar, S. V., Advanced Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Graduate Student Course 8352 of Mechanical Engi-neering Department at Univ. of Minnesota, USA.

  13. 模块化实验平台对学生电子综合能力培养的探索研究%Exploration and Research on the Cultivation of Electronic Comprehensive Capacity of Students through Modular Experiment Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼

    2015-01-01

    本文从模块化设计思想到模块化平台的搭建阐述了模块化实验平台对学生综合能力培养的探索与研究,并以温度报警系统设计实验为例充分体现了模块化实验平台的综合设计优势,使用同学调查反馈结果表明,该平台能提高实验效率并激发学生兴趣,更好地建立系统观、工程观和实践观,将学生实践与教学有机结合,提高学生的综合能力,实现培养适合社会发展需求的高质量应用型人才的目的。%Exploration and research on the cultivation of students' comprehensive capacity through modular experiment platform is expounded in this thesis. Platform's advantage of integrated de-sign is fully reflected through modular design concept and the setup of the platform, with design of temperature alarm system as an example. Feedback from students indicates that through mod-ular experiment platform, efficiency of experiment is improved, interest of students is stimulated, and concepts of system, engi-neering and practice iare better established. Practice of students and lectures given by teachers will be combined organically and students' comprehensive capacity will be improved to achieve the purpose of the cultivation of practical talents with high quality which are suitable for social development needs.

  14. On engineering management methodology%工程管理方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何继善; 徐长山; 王青娥; 郭峰

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the framework system of engineering management methodology has been constructed on the three levels:philosophical methodology,general methodology and spe-cific methodology. The main methods of philosophical methodology of engineering manage-ment include seeking truth from facts,contradiction analysis,unity of knowledge and practice, unity of truth and value and dialectical thinking. The general methodology of engineering man-agement is represented by system science,information science and mathematical methods. The main methods of the specific methodology of engineering management are composed of case study and other nine methods. This framework is not absolute as the methods of system engi-neering and project management are extended to all the three levels.%本文按三个层次构建工程管理方法论的框架体系:工程管理哲学方法论、工程管理一般方法论和工程管理具体方法论。将实事求是方法、矛盾分析方法、知行统一方法、真理尺度和价值尺度统一方法和辩证思维方法作为工程管理哲学方法论的主要方法。工程管理一般方法论以系统科学方法、信息科学方法和数学方法为代表。案例研究方法等九种方法则是工程管理具体方法论的主要方法。这种框架不是绝对的,如系统工程方法和项目管理方法都向三个层次延伸。

  15. C语言在工程实践中的应用%C Language Application in Engineering Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫星君

    2013-01-01

    C Language has strong functions on processing data and graphics. It can draw function curves graphics needed by engi?neering according to the data in relation with the function, showing them on screens, saving them for outputting. The character mode of C Language can be transferred into graphic pattern with needed resolution and color value. Using C Language to ex?press function corresponding rules correctly and work out engineering value accurately. In accordance with the library function of C Language, we can draw the point of the function value on coordinate, making the graphics drawn accurately. With the method above, the multiple superimposed amplitude characteristic curve in the principle of seismic exploration can be worked out.%C语言具有较强的数据和图形处理功能,能将所得数据依据函数对应关系绘制出工程所需函数曲线实现图形屏幕显示,并保存图形用于输出.将C语言的字符模式转换为所需分辨率和颜色值的图形模式,正确使用C语言表达函数对应法则,准确计算出工程数值,通过调用C语言库函数画出对应函数值在坐标上的点,从而实现图形的精确绘制.用以上方法对地震勘探原理中的多次叠加振幅特性曲线进行了成功绘制.

  16. SIMPP analysis on learning diligence level of students%学生学业勤奋度的SIMPP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪素芬; 张璐; 陶欧; 颜素容; 王耘

    2015-01-01

    Academic diligence level can not only directly affect the academic performance of students, but also affect the individual's emotional and physical health. In this study, through a question-naire survey of university students, with the method of SIMPP and the concept of the micro system engi-neering in higher education teaching reform, the related factors of diligence and the college students' behavior mode with respect to diligence are systematically analyzed. Analysis shows that, students' diligence level is affected not only by inherent factors such as clear learning objectives, learning state and after-school learning time, but also by the school ethos, the influence factors of the curriculum and parents' re-quirements.%学业勤奋度不仅能直接影响学生的学业成绩,而且还会影响其个体情绪和身体健康。为了分析大学生学业勤奋度的影响因素,本研究通过学生问卷调查,利用高等教育教学改革微观系统工程的理念及SIMPP方法,对学业勤奋度相关因素以及与勤奋度相应的大学生行为模式进行了较为系统的分析。结果表明,学生的学业勤奋度除了受学习目标明确度、自认学习状态和课余学习时间等自身因素影响,还受学校学风、课程设置以及家长对学生的要求程度等因素影响。

  17. 高职和本科院校应用技能型人才联合培养策略研究%The Research on Joint Training Strategy for Vocational®ular College in Applications&Skilled Professional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Higher vocational college is the inevitable trend of modern education popularization and the realistic choice of sustain-able development, the higher vocational college students' employment skills and innovation orientation of undergraduate engi-neering, bring the modern education to new problems and opportunities and challenges. Focus on China's regional industrial eco-nomic growth and industry 4 times to jump to the high end application of skilled human resources sustainable growth demands, relying on Higher Vocational and undergraduate colleges"3+2"training mode to explore the integration path of educational ele-ments, and then give and implement a comprehensive ecosystem concept and business leadership model framework of higher vo-cational undergraduate application skills training.%高职本科是现代教育大众化的必然趋势和可持续发展的现实选择,其高职就业技能要求和本科工程创新导向,带给现代教育以全新的问题差距和机遇挑战.聚焦我国区域产业经济提速和工业4.0时代跃升对中高端应用技能型人力资源的持续增长诉求,依托高职和本科院校"3+2"培养模式规划探索教育要素整合路径,进而给出和实施一种综合生态系统理念和业务领导力模型框架的高职本科应用技能型人才联合培养策略.

  18. Analysis on Thermal Resistance Test of Radiant Floor%辐射地板热阻实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜; 苏炳珲; 匡细细

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for calculating the theoretical thermal resistance of radiant floor based on the structure and thermal resistance of radiant floor, and sets up test beds to measure thermal resistance of radiant floor samples according to the standard, GB/TB13475-2008, Thermal insulation-Determination of steady-state thermal transmission Properties-Calibrated and guard hot box. And then some radiant floor samples have been tested by test beds. By comparing the results of experiment and theoretical calculation of thermal resistance and analyzing the fea-sibility of theoretical calculation and key factors of thermal resistance, this paper have provided data support for engi-neering calculation of thermal resistance of radiant floor, and engineering improving direction for extensive use of low temperature hot water.%本文根据辐射地板的结构和热阻理论给出了辐射地板热阻的理论计算公式,并根据《绝热稳态传热性质的测定-标定和防护热箱法》(GB/T 13475-2008)搭建了辐射地板样件的热阻测试实验台,对部分典型样件进行了实验。通过实验结果与理论热阻计算结果的对比,分析了理论计算的可行性,和影响热阻的关键因素。为辐射地板的工程计算提供理论支持,并为低温热水的广泛应用提供了工程改进的方向。

  19. 精益六西格玛方法在产品生产过程中的改进研究%Study on improvement of lean six sigma method in product manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 刘海东; 曾富洪

    2015-01-01

    针对转子在生产过程中所出现的生产线平衡率低、交货周期长等问题,运用精益六西格玛方法进行了研究。首先,对转子在加工过程中存在的问题进行定义,并测量相关数据绘制出价值流现状图;然后,运用因果矩阵法、失效模式和影响分析( Failure Mode and Effect Analysis,FMEA)法等进行分析,找出了引起问题的重要因素;最后,运用工业工程的相关方法进行了相应的改进设计。通过精益生产和六西格玛管理的有机结合,使转子生产过程中出现的各种问题得到了很好地解决。%Aiming at the low balance ratio of production line of rotator during the production process and the prolonged delivery cycle,the lean six sigma method is used to research. Firstly,it defines the issues encountered by the rotator during the process and draws a value flow graph according to relevant data measured;then it finds out the important factor that causes the problem with causality matrix and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis( FMEA) method;finally,it makes improvement design with industrial engi-neering method. By combination of the lean thinking and six sigma management method,the issues of rotator during production are well addressed.

  20. Management of Rural Road Marking Signs%农村公路标志标线管理初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 陈敏

    2014-01-01

    Our rural road signs and markings management has been weak road safety management. Due to the complexity of rural highway road conditions are generally motor vehicles, non-road hybrid vehicle and pedestrian traffic, and its signs and markings distribution point, a wide range, so bring a lot of inspection and maintenance issues. From rural road signs marking the status quo management, discusses the existing problems and corresponding solutions.%我国的农村公路标志、标线管理一直是公路安全管理中的弱项。由于农村公路的路况复杂,一般都是机动车、非机动车和行人的混合交通道路,而且其标志和标线分布点多、范围广,因此带来了很多巡检和检修方面的问题。从农村公路标志、标线管理的现状出发,探讨了其中存在的问题和相应的解决对策。

  1. A Multi-stage Method to Extract Road from High Resolution Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijian, Huang; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Fanjiang

    2014-03-01

    Extracting road information from high-resolution satellite images is complex and hardly achieves by exploiting only one or two modules. This paper presents a multi-stage method, consisting of automatic information extraction and semi-automatic post-processing. The Multi-scale Enhancement algorithm enlarges the contrast of human-made structures with the background. The Statistical Region Merging segments images into regions, whose skeletons are extracted and pruned according to geometry shape information. Setting the start and the end skeleton points, the shortest skeleton path is constructed as a road centre line. The Bidirectional Adaptive Smoothing technique smoothens the road centre line and adjusts it to right position. With the smoothed line and its average width, a Buffer algorithm reconstructs the road region easily. Seen from the last results, the proposed method eliminates redundant non-road regions, repairs incomplete occlusions, jumps over complete occlusions, and reserves accurate road centre lines and neat road regions. During the whole process, only a few interactions are needed.

  2. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  3. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  4. Bridge-based sensing of NOx and SO2 emissions from ocean-going ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Bria, Carmen R. M.

    2016-07-01

    As emissions from nonroad mobile sources face increased regulatory scrutiny, a surprisingly few number of real-world, in-use measurements exist for these sources. This paper reports the first use of an open-path Remote Sensing Device (RSD) to measure emissions from ocean-going ships, including cruise ships. This noninvasive technique measured NOx and SO2 emission factors from 16 individually identified ocean-going ships as they passed under the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, B.C. and their exhaust plumes passed through the sensing beam of the RSD on a bridge directly above. Ship NOx emissions generally agreed with previous studies showing no emissions trends across vessel type. Ship SO2 emissions were reasonable based on expected Environmental Control Area fuel sulfur requirements and corresponded to 0.4-2.4% sulfur in the fuels. This method's specificity of individual vessel SO2 measurements suggests that this technique could be used as a tool to detect high sulfur fuel use in vessels.

  5. EXploring non road TRansport EMISsions in Europe. Development of a Reference System on Emissions Factors for Rail, Maritime and Air Transport. Annex to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiffi, C.; Fiorello, D. [Trasporti e Territorio TRT, Milan (Italy); Schrooten, L.; De Vlieger, I. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2008-06-15

    EX-TREMIS brings together the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on non-road transport vehicle emission factors and activity statistics, which together make it possible to estimate the energy consumption and emissions resulting from different transport operations. The database covers four main data types: fleet data, transport activity data, emission and energy consumption factors, total energy consumption and emissions data, where total emissions and emission factors are calculated for CO2, NOX, SOX, CO, VOC, CH4, NMVOC and PM. All the related datasets are made available on the project website www.ex-tremis.eu. The report illustrates the final resulting datasets and presents the development of some selected transport activity units and pollutant emissions. On a separate annex, the methodologies related to the three domains are described in detail together with the references to the relevant sources used and the activities for homogenising data from different sources and filling gaps to cover the whole set of information required.

  6. EXploring non road TRansport EMISsions in Europe. Development of a Reference System on Emissions Factors for Rail, Maritime and Air Transport. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiffi, C.; Fiorello, D. [Trasporti e Territorio TRT, Milan (Italy); Schrooten, L.; De Vlieger, I. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2008-06-15

    EX-TREMIS brings together the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on non-road transport vehicle emission factors and activity statistics, which together make it possible to estimate the energy consumption and emissions resulting from different transport operations. The database covers four main data types: fleet data, transport activity data, emission and energy consumption factors, total energy consumption and emissions data, where total emissions and emission factors are calculated for CO2, NOX, SOX, CO, VOC, CH4, NMVOC and PM. All the related datasets are made available on the project website www.ex-tremis.eu. The report illustrates the final resulting datasets and presents the development of some selected transport activity units and pollutant emissions. On a separate annex, the methodologies related to the three domains are described in detail together with the references to the relevant sources used and the activities for homogenising data from different sources and filling gaps to cover the whole set of information required.

  7. Hierarchical graph-based segmentation for extracting road networks from high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Rasha; Marpu, Prashanth Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of road networks in urban areas from remotely sensed imagery plays an important role in many urban applications (e.g. road navigation, geometric correction of urban remote sensing images, updating geographic information systems, etc.). It is normally difficult to accurately differentiate road from its background due to the complex geometry of the buildings and the acquisition geometry of the sensor. In this paper, we present a new method for extracting roads from high-resolution imagery based on hierarchical graph-based image segmentation. The proposed method consists of: 1. Extracting features (e.g., using Gabor and morphological filtering) to enhance the contrast between road and non-road pixels, 2. Graph-based segmentation consisting of (i) Constructing a graph representation of the image based on initial segmentation and (ii) Hierarchical merging and splitting of image segments based on color and shape features, and 3. Post-processing to remove irregularities in the extracted road segments. Experiments are conducted on three challenging datasets of high-resolution images to demonstrate the proposed method and compare with other similar approaches. The results demonstrate the validity and superior performance of the proposed method for road extraction in urban areas.

  8. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  9. MULTITEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOIL COVER IN THE INFLUENCE AREA OF THE PCH –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmila Gomes da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective proposed by the study was to map and analyze the spatial changes of the soil cover of the influence area of the Small Central Hydroelectric power plant (Pequena Central Hidrelétrica - PHC – São Simão, Alegre ES. The images were processed with the support of SPRING 5.1.6 and classified by using the algorithm Bhattacharya, from its two images of high suborbital definition (Ortofoto /2007 and orbital (Geoeye/ 2009 which retracted the periods that come before and after the referred Substation construction. Six thematic classes were defined. The Supervised Classification Battacharya, demonstrated being a good instrument to evaluate the alterations of the soil cover. Comparison of the data, we can see that there was a significant increase in pasture class with 17.38%, followed by the class water corps with 3.54% and 3.46 with rocky material. Had significant reduction class remnants of natural vegetation with 22.30%, followed by non-road - paved with 1.30% and 0.78% with exposed soil. The use and occupation of the soil on the places nearby the area of study, remains being covered by pasture (69.55% in 2009, and a good part of the vegetation cover was reduced to pasture. The construction of the PCH- São Simão favored for increasing rural exodus in neighboring community to the enterprise.

  10. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  11. Measurement-based auralization methodology for the assessment of noise mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pieter; Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2016-09-01

    The effect of noise mitigation measures is generally expressed by noise levels only, neglecting the listener's perception. In this study, an auralization methodology is proposed that enables an auditive preview of noise abatement measures for road traffic noise, based on the direction dependent attenuation of a priori recordings made with a dedicated 32-channel spherical microphone array. This measurement-based auralization has the advantage that all non-road traffic sounds that create the listening context are present. The potential of this auralization methodology is evaluated through the assessment of the effect of an L-shaped mound. The angular insertion loss of the mound is estimated by using the ISO 9613-2 propagation model, the Pierce barrier diffraction model and the Harmonoise point-to-point model. The realism of the auralization technique is evaluated by listening tests, indicating that listeners had great difficulty in differentiating between a posteriori recordings and auralized samples, which shows the validity of the followed approaches.

  12. An economic evaluation of incremental resources to road safety programmes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, J

    1999-01-01

    Road crashes are related to the level of traffic, road and weather conditions, and most importantly, road user behaviour, which is a function of the level of enforcement, education and advertising campaigns. Safety programmes such as enforcement and advertising campaigns against drink-driving, speeding or seatbelt wearing aim to improve road user behaviour, and thereby to reduce the number and severity of crashes. This paper estimates incremental safety outcomes of these programmes over time and compares them with their resource costs. Due to the common outcome of several programmes, it is difficult to identify the effects of individual programmes. This paper tries to separate out the effects of non-roading safety programmes as a group from roading improvements. The analysis shows that safety programmes in New Zealand produce high incremental returns. Given that the crash risks in New Zealand are high in comparison with most other OECD countries, there is considerable scope for improvements to be made. The high incremental benefit/cost ratio over time supports this view and indicates that the investment in safety programmes is well below the optimal level.

  13. Reduction of NOx Emission of a Diesel Engine with a Multiple Injection Pump by SCR Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with reduction of NOx-emission of a diesel engine with multiple injection pump by SCR catalytic converter. Main aim of the measurement was the detection of SCR catalyst converter efficiency. Tests were realized at the Research and Development workplace of Zetor Tractor a.s. Used engine was equipped with a multiple injection pump with electromagnetic regulator of a fuel charge. During the experiment selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter were used as an after treatment of harmful pollutants reduction. Testing cycle of the eight-point test was chosen and Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC was maintained according to 97/68/EC directive. Results confirmed the dependencies between temperatures of SCR catalyst and exhaust gases and the volume of exhaust gases on efficiency of SCR catalyst. During the operation load of the engine, selective catalytic reduction reached efficiency over 90 %. Used after treatment system is suitable for reduction of harmful pollutants according to the Tier 4f norm.

  14. 液压机械无级变速器传动特性分析%Analysis of Transmission Characteristics of HMCVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 朱镇; 朱彧

    2013-01-01

    通过研究单排行星机构和液压元件的不同组合,提出了适合非道路车辆传动系应用的液压机械无级变速传动方案,并分析了(3+1)段位的分矩-汇速液压机械无级变速器的转速比、功率比和转矩比等传动特性.研究表明:该方案能较好地适应非道路车辆液压机械传动的要求.%The appropriate planetary gear differential train and hydrostatic units are chosen to constitute the hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission to give the transmissive schemes of HMCVT,which suits the transmission of vehicle.The transmission characteristics of rotary speed ratio,power ratio and rotary torque ratio of HMCVT of the non-road separated torque ratio-fixed speed ratio with the range of (3 + 1) are analyzed.The results show that:the scheme can be better adapt to the hydraulic mechanical transmission requirements of off-road vehicle.

  15. Variable Selection for Road Segmentation in Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, S.; Bulatov, D.

    2017-05-01

    For extraction of road pixels from combined image and elevation data, Wegner et al. (2015) proposed classification of superpixels into road and non-road, after which a refinement of the classification results using minimum cost paths and non-local optimization methods took place. We believed that the variable set used for classification was to a certain extent suboptimal, because many variables were redundant while several features known as useful in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing are missed. This motivated us to implement a variable selection approach which builds a model for classification using portions of training data and subsets of features, evaluates this model, updates the feature set, and terminates when a stopping criterion is satisfied. The choice of classifier is flexible; however, we tested the approach with Logistic Regression and Random Forests, and taylored the evaluation module to the chosen classifier. To guarantee a fair comparison, we kept the segment-based approach and most of the variables from the related work, but we extended them by additional, mostly higher-level features. Applying these superior features, removing the redundant ones, as well as using more accurately acquired 3D data allowed to keep stable or even to reduce the misclassification error in a challenging dataset.

  16. Forest Road Detection Using LiDAR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Azizi; Akbar Najafi; Saeed Sadeghian

    2014-01-01

    We developed a three-step classification approach for forest road extraction utilizing LiDAR data. The first step employed the IDW method to interpolate LiDAR point data (first and last pulses) to achieve DSM, DTM and DNTM layers (at 1 m resolution). For this interpolation RMSE was 0.19 m. In the second step, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify the LiDAR data into two classes, road and non-road. For this classification, SVM indicated the merged distance layer with intensity data and yielded better identification of the road position. Assessments of the obtained results showed 63% correctness, 75% completeness and 52% quality of classification. In the next step, road edges were defined in the LiDAR-extracted layers, enabling accu-rate digitizing of the centerline location. More than 95% of the Li-DAR-derived road was digitized within 1.3 m to the field surveyed nor-mal. The proposed approach can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management.

  17. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  18. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1 using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2 using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  19. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  20. Robust road detection in shadow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaiyue; Xia, Siyu; Zhang, Junkang; Qin, A. Kai

    2016-07-01

    Image-based road detection is a vital task for many real-world applications, such as autonomous driving and obstacle detection. We propose a method for segmenting road regions from a single image based on horizon line estimation and clustering technology. The key idea is to leverage normalized cross correlation to search for the line separating the road image. Additionally, we divide the lower part of the road image into several identical parts horizontally and utilize a density-peak clustering algorithm in terms of gray and HSV value of each pixel. Clustering results are further labeled as road and nonroad based on the assumption that two adjacent horizontal parts share similar clustering size and average gray value. For road images with shadows, we also propose a new shadow-free space derived from HSV space. By calculating maximum entropy and reconstructing images, we show that shadows are eliminated to achieve better road detection. Experimental results on four datasets and shadow images demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  1. Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Spangler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  2. Air manganese levels and chronic liver disease mortality in North Carolina counties: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, John G

    2012-09-05

    Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease) susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina's 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  3. Semantics-based measurement information transmission method for reverse engineering%逆向工程中基于语义的测量信息传递方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尧锋; 王文; 卢科青; 魏燕定; 陈子辰

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between surface digitization and model reconstruction is relatively independent in reverse engi-neering. In addition to three-dimensional coordinates, some useful auxiliary information (implicit information) is lost (cannot be stored and transferred in common neutral files), which makes the follow-up model reconstruction difficult and time-consuming. To solve this problem, a novel semantics-based measurement information transmission method is proposed. Firstly, the semantic information mined throughout the surface digitization is analyzed. Then, a semantic information model is established, and an IGES-like data format is used to store sematic information. The packaging and parsing of semantic information, data reprocessing and CAD model reconstruction are described. An experimental case is studied, and the results show that the method can greatly improve the efficiency of CAD model reconstruction.%针对逆向工程中曲面数字化与模型重建的信息交互方式单一,一些对后续建模有用的辅助信息(隐式信息)流失(目前的数据文档格式无法保存与传递),造成后续模型重建困难的问题,提出一种基于语义的测量信息传递方法,分析测量过程中有利于模型重建的隐式信息,建立语义信息模型,采用类IGES数据格式存储语义信息,阐述语义信息的封装、解析方法以及基于语义的数据预处理、模型重建过程。实验研究表明,基于语义的测量信息传递方法能够有效提高CAD模型重建效率。

  4. Response of carrying capacity of piles induced by adjacent Metro tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-jie; DENG Fei-huang; WU Jia-jia; LIU Jian; WANG Fu-qiang

    2009-01-01

    , to deal with the carrying capacity and the settlement of pile-foundations. The results are of value to similar engi-neering projects.

  5. 具有孔道沉槽的滑阀过流面积分析%Analysis of Orifice Area of Slide Valve with Sinking Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立杰; 王力航; 王帅; 李德新

    2016-01-01

    Multiple valve with its high degree of integration was widely used in the field of engi-neering machinery,where the valve port form possessed a very important impact on flow control char-acteristics.Aiming at the cylindrical and conical valve orifice of the spool valve with grooves on the valve body,and based on the structural characteristics and pressure distribution and velocity changes of the internal flow field,and with the equivalent orifice area theory,the calculation equations of ori-fice area of the cylindrical and conical valve orifice were proposed and analyzed.The results were correc-ted by the flow field simulation,and the accuracy of the results was verified by experiments.The study results have some reference values for the design and performance prediction of the hydraulic master valve.%多路阀以其高集成度被广泛应用于工程机械领域,其中阀口形式对多路阀流量控制特性具有重要影响。对于阀体上开有孔道沉槽、节流面为常见的圆柱面和圆锥面两种滑阀阀口形式的多路阀,根据其结构特征及内部流场压力分布和速度变化情况,利用等效阀口面积理论,推导了圆柱面阀口和圆锥面阀口过流面积计算公式。利用流场仿真对计算结果进行了修正,采用实验手段验证了计算结果的准确性。研究结果对滑阀阀芯的多路阀设计及性能预测具有一定参考价值。

  6. Development and application of the WSJ-4 multifunction digital IP instrument receiving system based on pseudo-random signal%WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化激电仪接收系统的研制及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永兵; 何继善

    2014-01-01

    WSJ-4 pseudo-random signal multifunction digital IP instrument receiver system is based on the Chinese Academy of Engi-neering, Central South University Professor He Jishan invention a frequency domain induced polarization theory of a new generation of geophysical equipment. As the same series dual-band instrument in the Geophysical sweep surface application to play a lot of advanta-ges, but it is not a good solution to the distinction between the carbonaceous rocks and ore Therefore, the device is in this case, based on the academician He 2n pseudo-random signal power law theory developed, mainly carbonaceous rocks and ore phase of different fre-quency response relationship different to be distinguished from each other. Engineering practice shows, the WSJ-4 excited electric meter receiving system can distinguish between carbonaceous rocks with mine. As the first R&D personnel, the article introduces the basic principle and method of the WSJ-4 multi-functional digital pseudo-random signal receiving system, as well as in the practice of laborato-ry test data and engineering application examples, informative illustration of the instrument the Features and application effect.%介绍了WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化接收系统的基本原理和实现方法,以及其在实验室的测试数据和工程实践中的应用实例,详实地阐述了该仪器的特点及应用效果。 WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化激电仪接收系统是基于频率域激发极化理论的新一代物探设备。该设备主要利用碳质岩与矿石中导电矿物质成分的激发极化性质,特别是时间常数(以相位参数反映)的显著差异性反映特性来达到区分矿与非矿的目的。

  7. Design and Optimization of a Plank Assembled Densely with Blind-matching Connectors%某盲插连接器高密度安装板的设计与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金祥

    2015-01-01

    盲插技术在雷达设计中的应用越来越广泛。在安装板的设计过程中,轴向和径向配合尺寸是盲插连接器可靠连接的关键。某安装板上固定有两型盲插连接器,连接器安装密度大,数量多,因而安装板受力大,易变形。文中根据安装板的结构形式特点,在分析影响插拔可靠性因素的基础上,介绍了精度控制方法;通过建立安装板的有限元模型,对安装板进行了静载荷分析,其仿真结果与实物试验结果基本一致;针对安装板刚度差、变形大的问题,运用有限元法进行进一步优化,按分析结果选取最优的解决方案,满足了工程应用要求。这为相似构件提供了一个有效的值得借鉴的设计与优化方法。%The blind-matching technology is more and more widely used in the design of radars .Both axial and radial matching dimensions are the keys to perfect connection in the design of planks .A large number of blind-matching connectors (two types) are densely fixed in one plank so that the plank is easily deformed under pres -sure.In this paper the factors which affect the blind-matching connection are analyzed and a method to control the precision is introduced according to the structural characteristics of the plank .The static load analysis for the plank is carried out by a finite element model and the static load analysis results are coincident with the engi -neering practice .The plank is further optimized by finite element method to improve its rigidity .The best solu-tion is adopted to meet the engineering requirements .This research provides an effective tool for the design of the similar components .

  8. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Blasting Disintegration Engineering in City%城市拆除爆破工程风险评价与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 陈建宏; 江时雨

    2014-01-01

    In order to make dynamic analysis of blasting disintegration engineering in City,the blasting disintegration engi-neering risk evaluation system in city was established.1 6 evaluation indexes were put forward in four aspects,the blasting environment,safety management,design safety and construction safety.Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)and matter-ele-ment analysis were used to determine the index weight of synthesis.With the five-element connection number as assessment tool,the comprehensive evaluation and prediction model of blasting disintegration engineering in City was constructed and applied to make comprehensive evaluation of risks involved with a certain blasting disintegration engineering in City.The re-sults show that in the comprehensive evaluation and prediction model,the static risk assessment and dynamic risk assess-ment are combined;and the results can conform to the experts thought.The model is operable in practice.%为实现对城市拆除爆破工程风险的动态分析,构建城市拆除爆破安全评价指标体系,从爆区环境、安全管理、设计安全及施工安全4个方面提出16个评价指标;结合物元分析与层次分析法(AHP)进行合成,确定各评价指标权重,并以五元联系数作为评价工具,构建城市拆除爆破工程安全评价预测模型;最后,以某城市拆除爆破工程为例,进行评价和预测分析。结果表明:基于物元分析和五元联系数的城市拆除爆破工程安全评价预测模型实现了安全评价时静态与动态的结合,评价结果符合专家思维,在实际应用中具有可操作性。

  9. Economic Impact of Ice-Storage Rate on Chilled- Water Storage Air-Conditioning%蓄冷率对水蓄冷空调的经济性影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泊; 王瑞婷

    2014-01-01

    According to the large difference between peak load in the daytime and valley load at night in summer, the air-conditioning load is expounded as the main reason causing difference, with an engi-neering example in Tianjin and the local step tariff. The operation strategy of chilled-water storage air-con-ditioning is designed, as well as several design schemes in different storage rate. The effects of ice-storage rate on the initial investment, operating cost and other economic type are analyzed. The best storage rate of the actual project, as an important parameter to determine the capacity of refrigeration machine and volume of the apparatus, is calculated by evaluation of the static payback period and net present value method.%针对天津某工程实例,结合天津当地阶梯电价,根据电力供应夏季白天“峰期”负荷与夜晚“谷期”负荷的差值较大的特点,分析空调是造成电网峰谷负荷差的主要原因之一。设计了水蓄冷空调的运行策略以及在不同蓄冷率下的几种设计方案。主要分析了蓄冷率对水蓄冷空调的初始投资、运行费用等经济性的影响,同时通过评价静态回收年限以及净现值提供了计算实际工程最佳蓄冷率的方法,得出最佳蓄冷率是确定制冷机容量和蓄冷装置容积的重要参考指标的结论。

  10. 直剪仪多级液压加载系统的设计与控制%Design and Control of Multilevel Loadings Hydraulic System of Direct Shear Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕原君; 杜时贵; 罗战友; 黄曼

    2014-01-01

    岩石材料不同形状接触面的静动力学特性是岩石力学研究重点。接触面力学特性研究的一个基本途径是通过接触面基本力学特性试验。为了得到稳定的岩体结构面抗剪强度,需要对不同尺寸的岩体结构面试样进行抗剪强度直剪试验。以现有直剪仪为基础,提出新设备的液压系统和控制方案,并对直剪仪法向力和剪切力的控制精度和方法等问题进行了分析。试验测试表明:该试验仪的测试结果可信,精度能满足工程设计要求。文中的研究为岩石试验提供了大压力范围、柔性控制的仪器设备,为测试试样的剪胀和尺寸效应提供装备。%The key research of rock mechanics is static or dynamic behavior between rock materials with various shapes of contact surface.The basic approach of the contact surface mechanics property research is through the contact surface basic mechanics property test.To get steady shear strength of rock joints,shear strength of different size of samples need be tested.Hydraulic system and control scheme of a new device were introduced based on existent direct shear apparatus.At the same time,control accuracy and methods of normal force and shear force were analyzed.The accuracy was validated by several laboratory and in-situ experiments.It meets engi-neering design demand.The research provides large pressure range and flexible control apparatus in testing stress-dilation and size effect of sample.

  11. Numerical Analysis of the Safety Performance of the Intake Tower of Water Conservancy Project%肯斯瓦特水电站进水塔安全性能数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺万莹; 郭德发

    2014-01-01

    This article had carried on the three-dimensional finite element analysis for the intake tower of Kenswat water conservancy engineering. The stress distribution during the periods of completion,construction and normal operation was calculated. Besides,the explicit and implicit meth-ods of dynamic calculation were applied to investigate the dynamic response of intake tower. The results show that in the static condition,stress near the gate slot is larger in the condition that access door is closed,the corresponding measures should be taken to reduce stress;explicit analysis found that the top acceleration is bigger than the ground acceleration,and the stress value is greatly raised,which may cause damage to buildings;Spectral analysis has a clear physical meaning with intuitive,and the calculation amount is much smaller,which is suitable for use in general engi-neering design.%对肯斯瓦特水电站进水塔进行了三维有限元计算分析,计算了结构在完建期、正常运行期以及检修期静力工况下的应力分布情况。因其地处8度地震区,故综合采用显式与隐式动力学方法计算考察了进水塔的动力响应。结果表明:静力工况中发现检修门关闭时,门槽附近的应力较大,应采取相应措施减小应力;瞬态分析发现塔顶部加速度比地面加速度要大,且应力值有较大幅度提高,可能导致建筑物损伤;谱分析的物理意义直观明确,且计算量较小,适合一般工程设计时使用。

  12. Non-probabilistic Reliability Blade Based on Interval Analysis of Steam Turbine Finite Element Method%基于区间有限元的汽轮机叶片非概率可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志杰; 王璋奇

    2012-01-01

    Considering the uncertainty of turbine blade design parameters, static response of blade was studied based on non-probabilistic reliability theory and interval finite element method. To avoid the corre- lation possibly existing among the coefficients of interval finite element equations determined by uncertain parameters, the non linear interval stiffness matrix was linearized using Taylor expansion, while the inter- val finite element equations solved by use of the improved iterative algorithm so as to obtain fluctuation range of blade's structural static response (stress and deformation). Combined with examples, a compari- son has been made to the static response respectively obtained hy analytical method and improved iterative algorithm. Results show that the improved iterative algorithm can satisfy the requirement of actual engi- neering projects, which may help to quantitatively determine the reliability of blade.%考虑汽轮机叶片设计参数的选取存在不确定性,利用非概率可靠性理论并结合区间有限元方法对汽轮机叶片的静态结构响应进行了研究.由于不确定参数确定的区间有限元控制方程中系数可能存在相关性,利用泰勒展开对非线性的区间刚度矩阵进行线性化处理,避免系数之间的相关性,采用改进迭代解法求解区间有限元控制方程,获得叶片静态结构响应(即应力和变形)的区间范围,并结合实例对叶片响应值与解析解进行了比较.结果表明:改进迭代解法的计算结果能够满足工程应用,并且可定量判断出叶片的可靠程度.

  13. Finite element analysis of tower crane jib based on ANSYS Workbench%基于 ANSYS Workbench 的塔机吊臂有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳龙; 李玉奇

    2015-01-01

    基于 ANSYS Workbench 模块对某塔式起重机吊臂建立有限元模型,通过静态和线性屈曲分析塔机吊臂在近端重载和远端轻载的极限荷载不同工况下的应力变形以及稳定性的状况。结果表明:吊臂起重臂节上下主弦杆之间的腹杆强度有所冗余,可适当调节腹杆的壁厚以使材料得到更充分的利用,受压主弦杆可选用更大直径的管子或用焊接工字钢代替,吊臂刚度和稳定性良好,可为塔机设计和工程施工以及进一步结构优化提供理论依据。%Based on ANSY Workbench plate,finite element analysis of a tower crane jib is made.By static and linear buckling analysis,the tower crane jib in the proximal overloading and distal of ultimate loading condition of light load are analyzed,esp.for the deformation and stress of the jib under different working conditions and status of the stability of the crane jib.The results show that section jib crane arm and abdominal strength be-tween the main chords are redundant.Abdominal wall thickness of the rod can be adjusted properly so that the material can be used fully.Compression of the main chord can be chosen by large diameter pipes replaced or welded Beam I.Good rigidity and stability of the crane will provide reference for tower crane design and engi-neering construction,and provide theory for machine design and construction,structural optimization.

  14. Design and imple mentation of railway supervision mobile syste m%基于移动互联网的铁路监理系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东; 刘超; 刘武成

    2015-01-01

    为方便铁路监理工作,实现铁路监理随时随地办公,在对铁路项目监理现场和铁路监理公司进行充分调研之后,针对铁路监理工作的特点和监理工程师的需求,开发铁路工程监理系统。该应用基于 Android 操作系统,以 SQL Server 2005为远程数据库。通过 HttpURLConnection 和 HttpClient 接口实现网络访问,开发规范查询和工程项目信息查询等功能。在现有铁路监理公司办公流程和监理工程师现场监督方式的基础上,基于 MQTT 协议实现了消息主动推送,开发监理基本表式和待办任务等模块。研究结果表明:该系统运行稳定,界面友好且易于扩展。%Based on Android operating system and remote database of SQL Server 2005,this paper provides a development process of the railway engineering supervision system according to the character of railway engineer-ing supervision and the need of engineers after the full investigation of engineering fields and supervision compa-nies.This system,which made the work more convenient,has achieved the goal for supervision engineers of working anywhere and anytime.It also developed the functions such as querying code and information on engi-neering project by network access with the HttpURLConnection and the HttpClient interface.Based on the exist-ing processes of railway supervision companies and the manner of supervision engineers'working,this system also realized the function of active push with the MQTT protocol.The supervision basic table type module and to -do tasks module were developed as well.Results show that the system runs stably with friendly interface and is easy to extend.

  15. Study on the evaluation index system of river ecological restoration%河流生态修复效果评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹欠欠; 王兴科

    2014-01-01

    本文在归纳分析国内外河流生态修复效果评价研究现状的基础上,总结了河流生态修复效果评价各类方法的优缺点,指出生态修复效果评价指标体系的构建原则和结构层次;通过对生态修复效果评价指标体系的构建依据和方法进行分析,运用频度分析法、理论分析法并结合工程实践,依据与河流生态修复成果紧密相关的河流健康评价指标体系、河流生态修复效果评价指标体系及国内外河流生态修复技术措施进行指标筛选,构建河流生态修复效果评价指标体系,从新的视角提出了包含河流自然功能、生态环境功能和社会经济功能三个方面27项分指标的河流生态修复效果多目标综合评价指标体系;同时展望河流生态修复效果评价今后主要的研究方向,为后续河流生态修复研究工作提供有效的参考依据。%in this paper,we used frequency analysis,theoretical analysis,and combined with engi-neering practice and index system of river health evaluation,proposed an index system for evaluating the result of river restoration. The new evaluation index system was divided into 3 categories,further into 27 sub-indicators as nature function,ecological function and socio-economic function of the rivers. Finally we put forward the prospects for future research direction in the field of ecological res-toration of rivers.

  16. 朋辈心理辅导在工科院校新生入学适应中的应用--以湖南工程学院为例%Application of Peer Counseling in Engineering College Freshmen’ s Adaptation to College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲令

    2015-01-01

    朋辈心理辅导是近年来在国内外高校中兴起的一种思想政治教育新模式。湖南工程学院将其应用在工科院校新生的入学适应教育中,从选拔朋辈心理辅导人才,并进行科学系统的培训;创建良好的朋辈教育氛围和环境;积极开展并创新各类朋辈心理辅导和教育活动,使其融亲和性、趣味性和教育性为一体;建立朋辈心理辅导保障机制等几个方面进行了实践探索,结果表明,朋辈心理辅导有助于提高新生的心理自助和帮助他人的能力,有效弥补了专业辅导教师数量和精力的不足,对学校专业心理辅导和教学起到了不可或缺的辅助作用。%The peer counseling is a new mode of ideological and political education in colleges and universities both at home and abroad in recent years, based on the review of related research at home and abroad, we discussed its application in the engi-neering colleges freshmen adaptation to college. It can be conducted as follows: scientific system of training and selection of peer counseling talents and setting up a good atmosphere of peer education. Various kinds of peer counseling and education activities make it become a combination of affinity, fun and education. We should establish a peer counseling guarantee mechanism to pro-mote it development.

  17. Review of Lamellar Orientation Control of TiAl Alloys%TiAl合金片层取向控制研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江磊; 吴深; 高红霞; 王胜永; 田淑侠; 王霄; 刘建秀

    2016-01-01

    TiAl based alloys are widely studied as a new generation of high temperature structural material for aerospace and automotive industries due to the low density,excellent high temperature strength and good oxidation re-sistance.For TiAl alloys with full-lamellar structures,the mechanical property can be improved by controlling the growth direction of primaryαphase and obtaining lamellar structures parallel to the growth direction.The main me-thods for the lamellar orientation control of TiAl alloy are adj usting solidification path and seeding technique.In this paper,the research status of this method is reviewed.It is worth noting that the self-seeding technology andβseeding technology are newly developed methods for the lamellar structure control of TiAl alloys which will promote the engi-neering applications of lamellar structure control technology for TiAl alloys.Finially,future research and development direction for the lamellar orientation control of TiAl alloys are pointed out.%TiAl合金因具有低密度、良好的高温强度以及抗氧化性,成为在航空航天及汽车行业具有重要应用价值的新型高温结构材料。对于全片层TiAl合金,通过控制α相沿非择优取向生长,获得平行于生长方向的片层组织,可显著提高其综合力学性能。TiAl合金的片层组织控制方法主要包括改变凝固路径法和籽晶法。综述了 TiAl合金片层取向控制的现状及存在的主要问题,指出自引晶法和β相籽晶法是片层取向控制的新方法,将促进 TiAl 合金片层组织控制的工程化应用。最后,对TiAl合金片层取向控制的发展前景进行了展望。

  18. 模拟量合并单元暂态时间特性测试技术研究%Technology of time characteristic testing of analog quantity merging unit in transient state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒展; 汤汉松; 谢国强; 刘见

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied on the differentiation between analog quantity merging unit in transient delay and steady delay, and discussed the transmission delay problem of the merging unit in transient state from the view of relay pro -tection.The difference between transient delay and steady delay was explained , as well as the necessity test in engi-neering .A test scheme based on precise control in discrete time was proposed .The digital phase locked loop ( DPLL) was used to eliminate the digital timing jitter , the mutation detecting was used to determine the initial time .Then com-bining with the phase extraction for time delay compensation , this scheme can eliminate various error factors in the test to measure the effect of abnormal time characteristic on the composite error by utilizing synchronizing signal abnormity and changes of message dispersion as triggering condition .The application of the developed test system in engineering has proved the feasibility of the scheme .%介绍了模拟量输入合并单元的暂态延时与稳态延时之间的差异性,并从继电保护应用的角度关注了模拟量输入合并单元暂态下的传变延时问题,阐述了暂态延时与稳态延时的差异性以及在工程中测试的必要性,提出了一种基于基于精确离散时间控制的的合并单元暂态时间特性测试方案,采用数字相位锁定器( DPLL)消除数字量时序抖动,利用突变量检测确定初始时刻,再结合相位提取进行时差补偿修正,很好的消除了测试中的各个误差因素,利用同步信号异常、报文离散度变化等突发事件作为触发条件,测试这些异常过程时间特性的变化对电流电压复合误差的影响。通过开发的测试系统在工程中的应用,以验证本时间特性测试技术方案的可行性。

  19. Application of WMS Data Services to Large-Scale Engineering%大型工程中的WMS数据获取与集成应用方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩元利; 刘一平; 王汉东; 朱庆

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the civil engineering design, we explore an efficient, integrated engi- neering design and application prototype system using shared Web Map Service(WMS) data. First, directly targeted on WMS data server, a WMS data acquisition application program is implemented based on WMS public access protocol with efficient parallel multi-threaded net- work transmission of spatial data tiles, as well as double access mechanism combined local caching with network share strategy. Second, the prototype system achieves WMS remote data localization simulated application and distributed collaborative shared by independent download application program as well as embedded real-time threads. Third, fixing on the application of WMS data in engineering, we explore a series of tools such as coordinates transformation, image merging and CAD file produce, to promote the WMS data easily con- verted to all kinds of different plane engineering data with high-precision. Finally, We take full advantage of WMS data organizational characteristics and develop an unified global 3D prototype platform to express and integrate various WMS data sources. The experiments show that the techniques and methods we adopted are effective and efficient.%面向大型土木工程设计,提出了一种运用WMS共享空间数据源并实现高效应用集成的工程设计应用技术体系。首先,直接针对WMS数据服务器定向开发数据获取应用,通过高效并行多线程实现空间数据的分块网络传输,同时结合本地缓存机制与网络共享,实现了一种双轨存储访问机制;其次,基于独立的应用下载与嵌入的实时线程分配,实现了远程数据的本地化模拟应用环境与分布式共享协同;再次,针对WMS数据的应用,实现了空间数据向工程数据的高精度转换与工程制图出图体系,开发了统一的全球三维可视化平台,用于直观地综合表达各种WMS数据源。

  20. Application Research on Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Bedrock Geothermal Yield Increasing in Western Henan%水力压裂技术在豫西基岩地热井增产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申云飞; 卢玮; 陈莹; 程存平

    2016-01-01

    地热资源是清洁能源,其开发利用主要通过钻井工程来实现。地热资源量(水量)大小决定着开发利用的价值。实际中,因地层等条件的复杂和不确定性,导致地热井出水量和温度不能达到预期的目标。特别是在山区基岩缺水地区地热资源开发,由于水量和温度指标偏低,严重影响了清洁能源的开发利用。本文结合工程实例,首次在豫西基岩严重缺水地区通过压裂车和钻井泵分段水力压裂技术,使低产地热井出水量增加3倍,达到了预期的目的。为今后基岩地区地热和地下水资源开发利用增产提供了借鉴。%Geothermal energy is a clean energy source;its development and utilization are mainly realized by drilling engi-neering, and the value of development and utilization are determined by the amount of geothermal resources (water yield). In practice, due to the complexity and uncertainty of the stratum, the water yield and water temperature can not reach the expectation, especially in water-shortage mountainous bedrock area, development and utilization of clean energy source are seriously affected by low water yield and temperature indexes.Staged hydraulic fracturing technology by using fracturing truck and drilling pump is applied in serious water shortage area of Westen Henan for the first time, water output grows 3 times for low yield geothermal well and reached the expected target.It can provide reference for the future development and utilization of geothermal and groundwater resources in the bedrock area.

  1. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical relationships: Implications for seismic hazard assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarfraz Khan; M Asif Khan

    2016-04-01

    Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a specialnuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve as a source of seismic amplification that may enhance the seismic shaking of many folds. Determination of the thickness of the soft sediments is therefore crucial in seismic hazard analysis. A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency andamplitude spectrum obtained from the noise measurements during the recording of natural seismicitycan be used to obtain thickness of soft sediments covering the bedrock. Nakamura (1989) presented atechnique to determine such spectrum using ratio of horizontal to vertical components of the Rayleighwaves. The present study is based on an extensive set of microtremor measurements carried out in theIslamabad city, Pakistan. Fundamental frequencies were obtained from weak motion sensors and TrominoEngy Plus instruments to show that the correlation is clearly valid for a wide range of sediment thickness.A simple formula was derived for the investigated area to determine directly the thickness of sedimentsfrom the main peaks in the H/V spectrum for seismometer and Tromino data separately. A comparisonis made between sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study withthose given in literature to demonstrate a positive correlation. The correlation of instrumental resonantfrequencies with calculated resonant frequencies (theoretical) suggests that the relation derived from thenoise measurements mostly depends on the velocity depth function of the shear wave. The fundamentalfrequency of the main peak of spectral ratio of H/V using the both instruments correlates well withthe thickness of sediments at the site obtained from the borehole data. It

  2. Study on probability of earthquake-induced slip of geoengineering rock mass joint plane%一地震诱发工程岩体结构面滑移概率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学晶; 亓玉成; 林倩; 邹德高

    2014-01-01

    Based on non-stationary random vibration model, a series of ground motions were synthesized, whose statistical parameters could satisfy the randomness of a potential earthquake. In order to evaluate the stability of engineering rock mass, horizontal equivalent acceleration (HEA) of the rock mass joint plane was defined, while the earthquake response of engi-neering rock mass was calculated numerically. The maximum horizontal equivalent acceleration (MHEA) was compared with the yield acceleration of the rock mass joint plane. Based on non-linear numerical calculations and ground motion samples of an earthquake, a new approach was proposed to calculate the probability density of the MHEA of rock mass joint plane. The application of this method in seismic reliability analysis of engineering rock mass was demonstrated. The numerical computa-tion results indicate that the probability of rock mass instability under remote earthquake is below 0. 01% , while the value is up to 26. 1% under near earthquake, given the same magnitude of earthquake.%基于非平稳随机地震动模型,编制快速合成人工地震动的程序以实现对工程地震动的随机抽样。对工程岩体地震响应进行等效线性数值计算时,定义结构面的水平等效加速度(时程),将结构面水平等效加速度(时程)的最大值超过其屈服加速度(滑移阈值)作为岩体失稳的极限条件;基于地震动随机抽样和等效线性化时程计算,提出一种随机地震动作用下工程岩体沿结构面的滑移概率和稳定可靠度的计算方法。考察某工程岩体在附近3个潜在震源影响下的结构面的滑移概率和稳定可靠性。结果表明,震级相差不大时,远场地震诱发该工程岩体的失效概率小于0.01%;近场地震作用下,工程岩体的失效概率为26.1%。

  3. 国内工程伦理研究综述%An Overview on Engineering Ethics Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波; 樊勇

    2014-01-01

    我国学界对工程伦理的研究主要是从三个层面展开:一是工程伦理的基础理论研究,包括工程伦理的内涵、学科定位和研究目的;二是对工程实践的伦理反思,包括工程实践中的伦理冲突、工程伦理原则和实践途径;三是对具体工程伦理实践问题的伦理检视,包括工程实践中敏感行业和敏感环节以及工程引发的利益冲突等。我国的工程伦理研究具有研究理论不成熟、研究对象专业性强等特点,存在对常态工程、在建或预建工程及工程技术应用伦理思想研究较少的问题,并呈现出学科建构不断加强、定性研究与定量研究结合的趋势。%The engineering ethics research in China ’ s academic circles has been carried out in three lev-els:the first level is the metatheoretical study of engineering ethics, including the studies of the contents, disci-plinary position and research purposes of engineering ethics;the second is the reflection on the practice of engi-neering ethics, including ethical conflicts, ethical principle and practical way in engineering practices;the third is the ethical examination to some specific problems, involving sensitive industries and links in engineering prac-tices and conflict of interest. Presently, theoretical study of engineering ethics in China is not mature yet, but the research subject has an obvious feature of being professional. In addition, more researches are needed to be done in the ethical thoughts concerning normal engineering projects being or to be constructed, and applied en-gineering technologies. The ethics study in China has shown a positive tendency of producing an increasing number of research findings, strengthening the discipline construction, and combing qualitative research with quantitative research.

  4. The Plight of Engineering Ethics Research and the Way Out-Based on the Theoretical Significance and Research%工程伦理研究的困境与出路--基于学理意义上的审视与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文宝

    2014-01-01

    工程伦理属于道德哲学研究范畴,研究应超越“问题”上升到“主义”层面,进行形上研究,这样才能摆脱工程伦理研究虚假繁荣的流弊;在工程体系中工程决策和监管最为关键,但由于隐身于工程表象背后,为多数研究者所忽视,工程伦理研究必须从工程一线转入背后决定环节才能真正取得实效;工程伦理具有实践理性,理性归属于道德,但不属于伦理,因此工程伦理虽然叫做伦理,但是要规范的却是道德,需要对工程体系决定环节进行自觉意识意义上的规范。%Engineering ethics belong to the category of moral philosophy,which should go beyond “problem”to “social-ism”level and carry out metaphysical study so as to get rid of false prosperity of engineering ethics research.It is the most crucial factor in engineering decision-making and supervision.But due to the fact that engineering ethics is hidden behind engineering appearances,it is ignored by most of the researchers.Engineering ethics research must be shifted from engi-neering line to the decision-making process,so that actual effect can be achieved.Engineering ethics carries practical ra-tional,and rational belongs to morality,not the ethics.Even though the engineering ethics is called ethics,it is morality which needs stipulation,i.e.,self-stipulation on decision-making process.

  5. 国内页岩气有效开采值得关注的几个问题%Noteworthy Issues on Effective Production of Shale Gas Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛承瑾

    2012-01-01

    China's shale gas exploration and production has been included in the national agenda. How-ever, many issues that regarding to cost-effective exploration and production still need to be noted and solved properly. As an unconventional natural gas resource, shale gas has its uniqueness, such as aimed at the market and users,depended on engineering and technology,featured in integration and intensive modol. In many undeveloped regions in China where gas pipeline network is not readily available, in shortage of water and electricity,poor infrastructure, a lot of difficulties must be solved, including that how to deter-mine the production according to sales and keep it stable in the future, with integration and intensive model to keep cost-effective exploration and production. This paper attempts to approach the main technical and economic problems that encountered in shale gas exploration and production,by means of systematic engi-neering method,pay great attention to cost-effective production,and take the engineering and technology as the most important aspect, so as to analyze technical and economic problems, draw attention from energy source industry.%中国页岩气勘探开发已列入国家议事日程,但如何实现经济有效开采还有许多问题需要加以关注并得到妥善解决.作为独立矿种的页岩气同样是天然气,在遵循天然气田开采固有的以市场用户为目标的基本规律的同时,还要以工程技术为中心、以集成集约为模式.在天然气管网不发达、大山沙漠、缺水少电、基础建设薄弱的中国广大页岩气赋存地区,如何实现以销定产长期稳定、集成集约有效开采,尚有系列难题有待破解.以系统工程方法为手段,以经济开采为主线,以工程技术为重点,探讨了页岩气开采中可能遇到的技术、经济问题,以期引起大家的关注.

  6. 逆向工程曲面重建及实验应用研究%Research on experimental application and surface reconstruction in reverse engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德海; 刘春玲; 李艳芹; 谢贵重; 刘建秀

    2016-01-01

    针对逆向工程前处理阶段获得的海量点云大数据存在运行速度慢、内存不足等问题,确立了点云分割的精确程度是影响最终数模精度和处理时间的关键因素;分析了点云处理的技术流程、三角Bezier曲面重构法和NURBS曲面造型法,研究了基于曲率的边界法识别技术和基于点云几何属性的特征区域自动分割方法以及平面分割技术;以某大型水轮机叶片和发动机皮带轮等为实验对象进行了三维光学扫描,采用Geomagic软件对获得的海量点云进行了处理和曲面重建操作,得出理想点云数模和真实数模的实际偏差率为96%,证明了采用的研究方法在逆向工程、质量检测及3D打印方面是切实可行的.%For the issue of slow speed and insufficient memory on numerous of large point cloud data in the pre-process of reverse engi neering,the precision of point cloud segmentation was determined as the key factor influencing on final model simulation precision and processing time.Then,the technical process of point cloud processing,the triangular Bezier surface reconstruction method and NURBS surface modeling method were analyzed.A large hydraulic turbine blade and an engine belt wheel were scanned by 3D optical scanner based on identification technology of curvature boundary method,automatic region segmentation in the point cloud geometry property features and plane segmentation technology.Through Geomagic software,the numerous of point cloud obtained were processed and the surface reconstruction was carried out.Furthermore,the actual deviation rate between ideal point cloud data and real data is 96%,which shows that the method is feasible in reverse engineering,quality inspection and 3D printing.

  7. 重组人促红细胞生成素纯化工艺的优化%Optimized Purification Process of Human Recombinant Erythropoietin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李干祥; 聂东宋; 杨葆生; 朱宁

    2001-01-01

    采用堆积床生物反应器,用无血清培养基培养分泌重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)的工程细胞株ZK9703.所收集的上清,采用阴离子交换层析-反相层析-分子筛层析三步纯化工艺路线,分别用Q-Sepharose XL-C4-S-200(方法Ⅰ)和DEAE Sepharose FF-Source-S -200( 方法Ⅱ)纯化3批产品,所得EPO纯度达98%以上,体外比活性大于1.3×105 IU/mg.方法Ⅰ、方法Ⅱ纯化过程的EPO体外活性回收率分别为23.56%和28.57%.本纯化方法Ⅱ工艺纯化日程短,分离效果好,EPO体内、体外活性回收率较高,更适合于大规模生产重组人促红细胞生成素.%Gene-engineered CHO cell line ZK9703 with the capacity to express huma n erythropoietin were cultured in packed bed bioreactor in a perfusion culture m ode. Harvest medium was collected and purified with a three-step purificati on pr ocession-exchanger, reverse phase and molecular sieve chromatogra phy. Three lot s of harvest medium was purified with a purification processQ-Sep harose XL, C4 reverse phase and S-200( the first method), three lots of harvest medium wa s pu rified with a purification processDEAE FF, source reverse phase an d S-200(the second method),the final products were analyzed for its purity and specific in vitro biological activity. Its purity is over 98%, and its specific in vit ro bio logical activity is over 1.3×105 IU/mg.The total recovery of EPO activity wa s 23.56% (by the fist method) and 28.57%.( by the second method), respectively. Th e results show that the second method of purification process is rapid and effic ient with high recovery, and could be more useful in large-scale production of rhEPO.

  8. Key Techniques of Ship Propulsion Shafting Vibration and Alignment%船舶推进轴系振动与校中关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑞平; 肖能齐; 林晞晨

    2016-01-01

    The influence of gear meshing transmission and universal coupling on the torsional vibration of shafting is studied . The calculation model of complex shafting coupled vibration and the vibration model of hybrid system are established .The solu-tion of propulsion shafting vibration system is put forward .The stern position and oil film stiffness on the fulcrum bearing variation optimization rational shafting alignment is obtained .The calculation software of shafting vibration and shafting alignment is devel-oped.On the basis of theoretical research , the test method of propulsion shafting vibration test and alignment test is carried out . Test instrument of the shafting vibration and alignment are developed , which provides a powerful technical support for the engi-neering application of the theoretical analysis .%针对齿轮啮合传动、万向联轴器传动等对推进轴系扭转振动的影响,建立复杂轴系耦合振动计算模型及混合动力系统轴系振动模型,提出推进轴系振动系统解决方案;通过大型船舶推进轴系弹性校中机理及计算方法的研究,得到船体变形、艉轴承支点位置及油膜刚度等对轴系合理校中影响的变化规律,开发轴系振动与校中集成计算分析软件,有效地解决了轴系设计与安装中振动计算分析与校中问题. 在理论研究的基础上,开展了推进轴系振动测试及校中检验等试验方法研究,开发了能满足轴系振动与校中等综合测试与监测的仪器.

  9. Characteristics of engineering and management thoughts in ancient China%中国古代工程建筑特色与管理思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何继善

    2013-01-01

    中华民族具有五千年悠久的发展历史,在此过程中保留下来的古代工程和建筑是对中国古代文明的真实反映,是中国古代人民智慧结晶和思想精髓所在,体现了中华民族传统的思想观念。本文列举了古代中国具有代表性的工程和建筑,阐述了他们的工程技巧和建筑特征,在此基础上总结了中国古代工程和建筑的特点,并进一步分析了古代工程管理思想的精髓,即“以人为本”与“天人合一”。本文基于我国工程和建筑发展历史、及其特点的研究,目的是为了把握工程管理的本质特征,为发展现代工程管理事业提供基础支撑。%The Chinese nation has a long history of five thousand years in that the preserved ancient engi-neering and construction wonders are true reflections of the ancient Chinese civilization,wisdom and ideological essence and the traditional Chinese ideas and concepts. This paper lists a number of the wonders representing the highest achievements in the history of ancient Chinese engineering and construction and expounds their engineer-ing skills and construction(architectural)features. On this basis,the characteristics of engineering and construc-tion in ancient China are summed up with further analyzing of the essence in ancient engineering management thoughts,that is,the“people-oriented”and“harmonization between the people and the nature”. Based on the study of history and characteristics of Chinese engineering and construction the purpose is to provide the basic support for grasping the essence of engineering management and developing of modern engineering management.

  10. Internal Sociology of Engineering and External Sociology of Engineering:an Attempt to Conceive the System of Engineering Sociology%“内部工程社会学”与“外部工程社会学”--建构工程社会学体系的一种尝试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏; 陈绍军

    2015-01-01

    目前工程社会学在我国正逐渐兴起,出现了“工程共同体论”、“社会评价论”和“建设工程系统论”三种不同研究范式,各学者对系统的工程社会学体系莫衷一是。本文首先批判性梳理了上述三种范式,指出其对于工程社会学建构的作用和意义;其次,借鉴英国科学社会学家约翰·齐曼对科学社会学知识的类型划分,将工程社会学体系划分为“内部工程社会学”和“外部工程社会学”,并提出“工程域”和“工程社区”两个概念,它们是工程社会学的基本范畴,也分别是内部工程社会学和外部工程社会学的核心概念;最后,展望工程社会学发展前景,指出工程社会学必将成为社会学“学术大家庭”中的重要一员。%As a new discipline, Engineering Sociology is emerging in China nowadays. There are three re-search paradigms, including“engineering community theory”,“social assessment theory”and“construction engi-neering system theory”. The concerning scholars are unable to agree with each other on the system of Engineering Sociology. Firstly, this paper critically reviews these three paradigms and points out their function and significance to the construction of Engineering Sociology. Secondly, with reference to the types of sociology of science sug-gested by British sociologist of science John Ziman, this paper divides the system of Engineering Sociology into Internal Sociology of Engineering and External Sociology of Engineering. The paper also conceives“engineering field”and“project-induced community”, and two concepts are not only basic categories of Engineering Sociology, but also core concepts of Internal Sociology of Engineering and External Sociology of Engineering separately. Lastly, this paper looks into the future development of Engineering Sociology, believing that it will become an important member of the“big academic family

  11. 地方性知识:工程成功“嵌入”社会何以可能∗%Local Knowledge:Why Engineering can Embed in Society Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍军; 朱运亮; 李如春

    2015-01-01

    Local knowledge in the process of engineering embedding society is a social regulation which affects the interdynamic relation between the project and society,including text and discourse,com-mon sense and society structure.As a typical traditional category,whether to comply with local knowl-edge determines the success of local knowledge embedding social engineering.In social engineering a-nalysis,participant observation helps to identify local knowledge,and local knowledge of social engi-neering is mainly for mutual eligibility,diversity and vulnerability.On this basis,combined with spe-cific engineering cases,this paper introduces the applications of social analysis of engineering from the view of local knowledge.The author holds the opinion that respecting,protecting and utilizing local knowledge properly can ensure engineering embeds in society successfully.%工程社会中的地方性知识是影响工程与社会之间互构关系的社会规范,包括文本与话语、常识、社会结构三种类型。作为典型的小传统范畴,是否遵从地方性知识决定了工程能否成功“嵌入”社会。在工程社会性分析中,参与观察有助于识别地方性知识,地方性知识的工程社会性主要表现为互适性、差异性、脆弱性。在上述分析的基础上,结合具体的工程案例,对地方性知识视角在工程社会性分析中的应用进行了介绍,认为只有尊重、保护及合理利用地方性知识才能确保工程成功“嵌入”社会。

  12. Application and Outlook of Geogrids to Frozen Subgrade%土工格栅在冻土路基中的应用及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈榕; 郝冬雪; 鲁楠

    2014-01-01

    It is a worldwide problem that the treatment about the freeze-thaw disaster of subgrade in frozen soil region. Moreover,this disaster happened in seasonal frozen regions is bigger than that happened in the perma-frost regions. General construction technologies and treatments to subgrade in permafrost region are not suit for the seasonal frost region. The geogrid is widely used in geotechnical engineering projects, because of its net structure and mosaic capacity. Based on reinforced characters of geogrid and the performance of geogrid-rein-forced earth structure in permafrost regions, this paper proposes that geogrid could be chosen to treating the frost heaving,thaw settlement and frost boiling,then the feasibility is also discussed mainly from practical engi-neering and theoretical research in detail.%冻土地区路基冻融病害的整治,一直被视为世界性的难题。现有的常规施工工艺和方法在冻土地区均存在着一定的局限性。土工格栅凭借其独特的网状结构和镶嵌咬合能力,在国内外岩土工程中得到了广泛的应用。本文基于土工格栅的加筋特性和现有的格栅加筋工程的实际经验,建议可选择土工格栅可对冻土路基冻融灾害进行防治,并分别针对冻土地区常见的冻胀、融沉及翻浆灾害问题,从理论研究和工程实践方面阐述了其具有一定的实际应用性,并对其进行了应用展望。

  13. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  14. Developing a press for static and dynamic testing of orthopedic devices and biological tissue Desarrollo de una prensa para pruebas estáticas y dinámicas de elementos ortopédicos y tejidos biológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova García Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes designing and constructing a test machine having a 1,800 N capacity and maximum 3 Hz frequency which will be used in static and dynamic testing of biological tissues and orthopedic devices such as external fixers. It consists of an oc-tagonal base with 500 mm distance between faces and a crosshead which slides between two columns (useful 350 mm opening thus allowing changing the height (maximum 600 mm according to the size of the specimen to be tested. A ball screw actuator is mounted over the crosshead which transforms a servomotor’s rotating movement into a lineal movement (maximum 150 mm stroke. First validations indicated that the machine performed within the design parameters. This project shows that the techno-logy required for supporting research is possible in developing countries thereby avoiding dependence on foreign companies for supporting, maintaining and updating equipment. Some conditions were also produced for the evolution of mechanical engi-neering in Colombia.Se describe el diseño y la construcción de una prensa con una capacidad de 1.800 N y una frecuencia máxima de 3 Hz que será utilizada para realizar pruebas estáticas y dinámicas de tejidos biológicos y elementos ortopédicos como fijadores externos. Consta de una base octagonal con una distancia entre caras de 500 mm y un travesaño que desliza sobre dos columnas (dis-tancia útil de 350 mm, permitiendo así modificar la altura de trabajo (máxima de 600 mm de acuerdo con el tamaño del ele-mento a probar. Sobre el travesaño está montado un actuador de tornillo con tuerca de bolas recirculantes, el cual transforma la rotación de un servomotor en un desplazamiento lineal (máximo de 150 mm. Las primeras validaciones indicaron un com-portamiento de la prensa dentro de los parámetros de diseño estipulados. Este proyecto tiende a demostrar que en países en desarrollo es posible generar la tecnología necesaria para apoyar la investigaci

  15. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  16. Source apportionment using LOTOS-EUROS: module description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kranenburg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To design effective mitigation strategies, the origin of emissions which produce air pollutants needs to be known. Contributors to air pollutants can be emission sources, like road traffic or industry, but also be more specified to emission from one location or from a specified time. Chemistry transport models can be used to assess the origin of air pollution across a large domain. However, in traditional simulations the information on origin is lost and brute force scenario studies are performed to assess the origin. Alternatively, one can trace the origin of air pollutants throughout a simulation using a labeling approach. In this paper we document and demonstrate a newly developed labeling module for the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS which tracks the source allocation for all particulate matter components and precursor gases. Dedicated simulations confirmed that the new module functions correctly. The new module provides more accurate information about the source contributions than using a brute force approach with scenario runs as the chemical regime remains unchanged. An important advantage of the new module is the reduction of computation costs and analysis work associated with the calculations. The new module was applied to assess the origin of particulate nitrate across the Netherlands. Averaged across the Dutch territory, the main contributions to nitrate are derived from road and non-road transport as well as power plants. Overall, only one-fifth of the concentration derived from sources located inside the country. The new technology enables new research directions as improved information on pollution origin is desired for policy support as well as scientific applications.

  17. Diesel Engine performance improvement in a 1-D engine model using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Prashanth

    2015-12-01

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was implemented to improve the engine development and optimization process to simultaneously reduce emissions and improve the fuel efficiency. The optimization was performed on a 4-stroke 4-cylinder GT-Power based 1-D diesel engine model. To achieve the multi-objective optimization, a merit function was defined which included the parameters to be optimized: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Nonmethyl hydro carbons (NMHC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). EPA Tier 3 emissions standards for non-road diesel engines between 37 and 75 kW of output were chosen as targets for the optimization. The combustion parameters analyzed in this study include: Start of main Injection, Start of Pilot Injection, Pilot fuel quantity, Swirl, and Tumble. The PSO was found to be very effective in quickly arriving at a solution that met the target criteria as defined in the merit function. The optimization took around 40-50 runs to find the most favourable engine operating condition under the constraints specified in the optimization. In a favourable case with a high merit function values, the NOx+NMHC and CO values were reduced to as low as 2.9 and 0.014 g/kWh, respectively. The operating conditions at this point were: 10 ATDC Main SOI, -25 ATDC Pilot SOI, 0.25 mg of pilot fuel, 0.45 Swirl and 0.85 tumble. These results indicate that late main injections preceded by a close, small pilot injection are most favourable conditions at the operating condition tested.

  18. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  19. Atmospheric impacts of black carbon emission reductions through the strategic use of biodiesel in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Magara-Gomez, Kento T; Olson, Michael R; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A; Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The use of biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel has gained interest as a strategy for greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy security, and economic advantage. Biodiesel adoption may also reduce particulate elemental carbon (EC) emissions from conventional diesel engines that are not equipped with after-treatment devices. This study examines the impact of biodiesel blends on EC emissions from a commercial off-road diesel engine and simulates the potential public health benefits and climate benefits. EC emissions from the commercial off-road engine decreased by 76% when ultra-low sulfur commercial diesel (ULSD) fuel was replaced by biodiesel. Model calculations predict that reduced EC emissions translate directly into reduced EC concentrations in the atmosphere, but the concentration of secondary particulate matter was not directly affected by this fuel change. Redistribution of secondary particulate matter components to particles emitted from other sources did change the size distribution and therefore deposition rates of those components. Modification of meteorological variables such as water content and temperature influenced secondary particulate matter formation. Simulations with a source-oriented WRF/Chem model (SOWC) for a severe air pollution episode in California that adopted 75% biodiesel blended with ULSD in all non-road diesel engines reduced surface EC concentrations by up to 50% but changed nitrate and total PM2.5 mass concentrations by less than ±5%. These changes in concentrations will have public health benefits but did not significantly affect radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The removal of EC due to the adoption of biodiesel produced larger coatings of secondary particulate matter on other atmospheric particles containing residual EC leading to enhanced absorption associated with those particles. The net effect was a minor change in atmospheric optical properties despite a large change in atmospheric EC

  20. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bouchard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  1. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; pparticulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 非线性STS,工程研究和工程形塑的主导性意象--对盖瑞·唐尼教授的访谈%Nonlinear STS, Engineering Studies and Dominant Images of Engineering Formation:--An Interview with Professor Gary Downey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖瑞·唐尼; 张志会

    2015-01-01

    As Alumni Distinguished Professor at Virginia tech, Professor Gary Downey is current President of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S;2013-2015), and a renowned scholar in the fields of STS and engineering studies. In this interview, Professor Downey describes how he is leading 4S initia-tives to call attention to STS scholarship that goes beyond the linear model of knowledge creation, diffusion, and utilization, or what Downey calls “nonlinear STS.” Having been trained initially as a mechanical engi-neer and cultural anthropologist studying controversies over nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal, he describes how he developed the concept and practice of “critical participation.” His critical participation in engineering formation (engineering education and training) began with critical analysis of the “dominant image” of engineering problem solving as U.S. engineers have understood it since the 1960s. Downey also questioned how and why engineering remained largely invisible in the emergence of STS as a scholarly field, except as a synonym for technology or as a metaphor for the heterogeneous construction of new technologies. Difficulties he encountered in teaching became crucial sites for making visible what the dominant image of engineering problem solving hid in engineering formation, and nominating an alternative image of engi-neering as collaborative problem definition and solution (PDS). He is now re-theorizing the“travel”of STS knowledge and expertise by helping the PDS image and associated practices scale up across localized arenas of engineering formation and work. Downey also explains how he joined with other researchers to establish and build Engineering Studies as an interdisciplinary field of research committed to both conventional and nonlinear scholarship. Key steps included founding the International Network for Engineering Studies (INES), organizing INES workshops, and creating the SCI journal Engineering Studies

  3. 三大检索数据库中集美大学发表科研论文现状分析%Bibliometric Analysis of the Current Status of Jimei University Science Research Papers by the Use of the 3 Major Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美; 郭玉清

    2012-01-01

    focused on electrical and electronic engi- neering, artificial intelligence, and theories and methods employed in computer science. Among the 584 papers in- cluded in Ei databases, 61.1% were journal articles and 38.9% were conference papers. In addition, the 584 papers were published half in Chinese journals in the field of engineering.

  4. 国外页岩层系石油勘探开发进展及启示%Progresses and Enlightenment of Overseas Shale Oil Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景伟; 朱如凯; 杨智; 白斌; 吴松涛; 苏玲

    2015-01-01

    recovery resource appraisal, sweet spot prediction methods integration of geology and engi-neering, novel fracture techniques and environmental impact of fracture were the research direction of China in the future.

  5. 反求工程的参数体系分析%Analysis of Parameter System of Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗全庆; 李明

    2014-01-01

    对原型的精确重构和基于原型的再设计是反求工程的应用目标之一。在制造业中,由于制造误差、测量误差、三维拟合精度等多种因素,使得依据实物原型重构而形成的制造数据与原型参数有较大的差距,在某种情况下,反求出的产品将会失去使用性能。针对此问题,提出了反求工程中存在有实物原型参数、重构参数和原始设计参数的参数体系,阐述了在不同的场合根据不同的要求应求出不同的参数,并提出了应用在制造业中的反求工程应逆求出制造实物原型所依据的原始设计参数,并依此作为制造新产品的依据。分析结果对强化反求工程在制造业的应用、突出反求工程的“创新”功能具有重要意义。%Accurate reconstruction of prototype and redesign based on prototype is one of the application goals of reverse engi-neering. In manufacture industry,because of many kinds of facts,such as,manufacturing errors,measuring errors and three-dimen-sional fitting precision,and so on,there was obvious gap between prototype parameter and manufacturing data that was formed based on objective prototype reconstruction,in some cases,the product to be reversed lost its using performance. Aimed at this problem,it puts forward that there is a parameter system that includes the objective prototype parameters,reconstruction parameters and original design parameters in the reverse engineering,and expounds that the different parameters must be obtained according to the different demands in a different situation. It proposed that the reverse engineering used in manufacture industry should find reversely the original design parameters that are foundation of making objective prototype,and should use it as the basis of making new products. The analysis result has great significance to strengthen the application of reverse engineering in the manufacturing industry,and highlight the

  6. 露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡空间形态优化%Space Shape Optimization of the Soil-rock Composite Reverse Dip Slope in Open-pit Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兰柱; 李广贺; 王东

    2016-01-01

    In view of the shape design of the boundary slope of the soil-rock composite reverse dip slope in the open-pit mine,the landslide model and stability of soil rock composite reverse dip slope in Dalianhe Open-pit Coal Mine is studied by a-dopting the method of rigid body limit equilibrium and three-dimensional numerical simulation. The study is based on the engi-neering practice of the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,by which the safety of the mining of coal resources of the north to boundary slope is guaranteed. The study results show that for the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,the landslide model is circular sliding;in order to meet the safety requirements, the mining slope angle should be up to 33°;the failure form of rock mass is the composition of tension and shear. At the foot of slope,local rock mass destruction should be done due to the stress concentration caused by the rock mass weight and it is the inducing factor of the whole slope failure.%针对露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡到界边坡形态设计问题,结合达连河露天煤矿外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的工程实际,基于刚体极限平衡与三维数值模拟的手段,研究了露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式及稳定性规律,设计了最终边坡形态,确保北帮到界过程中煤炭资源回采的安全。研究结果表明:达连河露天煤外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式为圆弧滑动;使外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡满足安全要求的采场边坡角为33°;露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡岩体的破坏形式为拉张-剪切复合型,岩体自重作用下的坡脚处应力集中造成的局部岩体破坏是整体边坡失稳的诱发因素。

  7. 1000 MW核主泵导叶体型线检测新方法%New method for measuring vane profile of diffuser of 1 000 MW reactor coolant pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥松; 卜延鹏; 邱国帆; 冯晓东

    2014-01-01

    To check the vane profile of the diffuser of a 1 000 MW reactor coolant pump (RCP), which is machined by using numerical control machining technique,a set of approaches for measuring and assessing vane profile of a through-flow-component are proposed.Through adopting a reverse engi-neering analysis software PolyWorks together with a three coordinates measuring machine,the three co-ordinates of vane pressure and suction sides of the diffuser are measured and the root mean square of deviation of the measured profile from the designed one is figured out.Based on a statistic and theoreti-cal analysis on the measured profile data of the vane pressure and suction sides near the vane leading and trailing edges,a formula for estimating deviation angel of pressure or suction side profile Δβis put forward.Moreover,a correlation for deviation angle between two vanes Δφ,and a correction formula for deviation of individual vane profile K are established.This set of methods can accurately and effec-tively inspect the vane profiles of a hydraulic machine and assure each profile to have the same wrap angle.Based on the measurement and evaluation of vane profiles of the diffuser of the RCP for Fuqing and Fangjiashan Nuclear Plant,all the deviation errors are allowable.As a result,the tested perfor-mance of the RCP shows that the flow rate and head deviate from the design specifications by ±2.5%and ±1 .5%,respectively.%为了检测核主泵水力部件数控加工完成后叶片型线的偏离程度,提出了一套水力部件的检测和评定方法.采用逆向工程点云分析软件(PolyWorks)与三维扫描设备相结合,测量导叶体模型叶片与产品叶片进出口压力、吸力面三坐标,同时计算叶片型线偏离的均方根偏差.通过对叶片进出口型线测量数据的统计处理和理论分析,提出叶片进出口型线偏离角度Δβ的计算公式、叶片间叶距角Δφ的偏离公式以及部分叶片型线偏离的修正

  8. Development of research on aerodynamics of high-speed rails in China%中国高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进展及发展思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红旗

    2015-01-01

    总结了中国高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进程的起步、积累、发展、深化、提升和引领等六个阶段。论述了提出的以列车空气动力学、列车/线桥隧空气动力学、车/风/沙/雨/雪环境空气动力学、弓网空气动力学、人体空气动力学为主要内容的高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进展。包括发现探明了相关的形成机理、激化过程、响应特性、影响规律、减缓途径、改善措施,提炼出了一套基础理论,突破了系列关键技术,以及全面的工程应用。解决了空气动力制约高速铁路发展、恶劣风环境影响行车安全等关键科学技术问题。介绍了高速轨道交通空气动力学专用实验平台群,包括动模型实验系统、交变气动压力下人体舒适性/车体刚度/气密性综合实验装置、风/沙/雨/雪气动实验平台群、视觉检测系统、在线实车实验系统、兼用风洞群、数值仿真平台。最后讨论了正在开展的研究和进一步发展的思考。%The paper summarizes start,growth,accumulation,development,improvement, and leadership of the research on aerodynamics of high-speed rails in China,which focuses on train aerodynamics,vehicle-track-bridge-tunnel coupling aerodynamics,vehicle-wind-sand-rain-snow environmental aerodynamics,pantograph-catenary aerodynamic and body aerodynamics. It is devoted to finding the mechanism of formation,building fundamental theorem,creating technical breakthrough,proposing measures to tackle aero dynamical problems which pose a threat to development of high-speed railways and safety of operation,and realizing their engi-neering application. The paper introduces a series of experimental platforms for testing aerody-namics of high-speed rails and novel experiments we have accomplished,including moving ve-hicle model tests,human comfort/vehicle body stiffness/air tightness tests under alternating pressure,aero dynamical experiments in wind

  9. Horizontal truncation design of oil offloading lines in an offloading system%外输系统中输油管的水平截断设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 康有为; 康庄

    2015-01-01

    由于其水平跨距过大等问题,外输系统中的输油管在模型试验中需要进行水平截断,而目前相关研究中没有一种明确的截断方法. 基于输油管静力特性等效提出一种适用于大跨距输油管水平截断方法,从而解决了深海外输系统中的输油管难以在常规海洋工程水池进行模型试验的问题. 并应用此方法对西非海域输油管系统进行等效截断方案设计,进行了外输系统截断模型试验. 试验结果证明该水平截断方法具有很好的可行性并且能够较好的反映原输油管系统的特性. 在此基础上通过数值模拟和试验结果对比分析的方法进行了输油管动态张力特性的参数分析,发现数值模型中输油管的静力特性能够准确预测,而正确模拟其动态张力的关键在于输油管阻尼系数和附加质量系数的选择.%Due to its large horizontal span, the oil offloading line ( OOL) for an offloading system needs to be trun-cated horizontally in the physical model test. But there is no specific truncation method reported for OOL in the cur-rent literatures. Based on the static equivalent principle, a horizontal truncation method applied to OOL with a large horizontal span was proposed here. This solved the problem that OOL could not be modeled in regular Ocean Engi-neering Basin because of its large horizontal span. By using this method, an equivalent truncation plan was designed for the OOL system in the West Africa Sea, and offloading system model tests were carried out. The experimental results prove that the horizontal truncation method has good feasibility and it can better reflect the characteristics of OOL prototypes. Further, parameter analysis was done on OOL tension characteristics, by comparing the numerical and model test results, showing that the static tension can be predicted well in the numerical model. The damping coefficient and the added mass coefficient of OOL are the key factors to be

  10. Tissue engineering of cardiovascular tissue using modified static ceeding method%改良静态细胞种植方法在培育心血管组织工程材料中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 池繁武; 杜静; 周钧; 彭彬; 王威; 温定国

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of modified static cell seeding method in tissue engineering of 2-dimensional cardiovascular patch .Methods Patch scaffolds fabricated from poly -4 -hydroxy -butyrate ( P4HB) polymers were seeded with human umbilical artery myofibroblasts ( HUAMs) using static cell seeding method .In static cultivation group , the cell-polymer patch constructs were cultured in vitro for 21 days under static cell culture condition . In dynamic group , the cell-seeded patch constructs were incubated in vitro for 14 days under static culture conditions and were subsequently transferred into a bioreactor for another culture of 7 days.Morphological characterization of tissue engi-neered ( TE) patches was observed included histology and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) .Extracellular matrix ( collagen ) formation was analyzed by immunohistochemistry .Results After static cell seeding and subsequently condi-tioning in the bioreactor , the fibroblast cells were well adhered to the surface of P 4HB polymer, the cells were mostly via-ble, had grown into the pores , and had formed uniform tissue on the patch constructs .Conclusion Using modified static cell seeding method , the uniform distribution of cells and tissue on the 2-dimensional tissue engineered structures can be achieved.%目的:评价改良静态细胞种植方法在培育二维心血管组织工程补片中的价值。方法将人脐带动脉壁平滑肌细胞以静态细胞种植方法种植在聚-4-羟基丁酸酯材料构建的补片支架材料上,制备组织工程补片。分别采用两种方法进行培育:静态培育为细胞材料复合物体外静态培育21 d;动态培育为细胞材料复合物先体外静态培育14 d,再置入生物反应器中继续动态组织培育7 d。对补片组织进行组织学、扫描电镜检查。免疫组化分析细胞外基质合成。结果静态细胞种植后经体外动态培育后,平滑肌细胞均匀地黏附于材料

  11. 人滑膜间充质干细胞的分离培养与鉴定%Isolation and identification of human synovial mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松; 符培亮; 丛锐军; 吴海山; 许震宇

    2014-01-01

    Background:It is difficult to repair the ininjuried cartilage, and it is a hot spot to repair the injuried cartilage by tissue engi-neering. An appropriate seed cell is crucial in ttissue engineering. Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) is easy to dif-ferentiate into cartilage than other source of mesenchymal stem cells. Meanwhile, SMSCs can be harvested easily. Objective:To study the method and procedure of the isolation and culture of human SMSCs in vitro and investigate the last-est methods of SMSCs identification. Methods: Synovial tissues were harvested from 11 patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery in our hospital. SMSCs were isolated and cultured according to Pei's method[6]. The SMSCs were identificated from morphological observation, cell growth curve, proliferation activity determined by CCK-8, flow cytometer, induction of adipo-genic/osteogenicondrogenic immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR. Results and conclusions:SMSCs were successfully isolated from synovial tissue and had specific phenotype and potential multi-directional differentiation.%背景:软骨一旦损伤将很难自我修复,组织工程学修复损伤软骨是目前的研究热点。组织工程学中找到合适的“种子细胞”至关重要。滑膜间充质干细胞(SMSCs)因较其他来源的间充质干细胞成软骨能力、增殖能力更强,且细胞容易获取、对机体损伤小等优点,越来越受到研究者的青睐。  目的:探讨人SMSCs体外分离、培养的方法与步骤,探索对SMSCs进行鉴定的最新方法。  方法:关节镜下获取11例行关节镜手术患者的滑膜组织,按照Pei等[6]的方法分离培养滑膜干细胞;从细胞形态学观察、细胞生长曲线分析、CCK-8测定增殖活力、流式细胞仪检测细胞周期和细胞表面抗原、对SMSCs进行成脂/成骨/成软骨诱导、免疫细胞荧光染色以及RT-PCR检测成脂/成骨/成软骨相关基因的表达等方面对SMSCs进

  12. Environmental Geology Analysis of the Construction of Qinshui River Underground Reservoir%沁水河地下水库建设环境地质条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡傲; 梁秀娟; 王有智

    2015-01-01

    地下水库是增加水资源的一种有效手段,为解决烟台地区用水紧张问题,在沁水河流域修建地下水库。根据沁水河地下水库的水文地质、工程地质条件确定地下水库截渗坝的位置及长度,确定库容量为5100万m3。利用水均衡法对地下水库人工调蓄效果进行计算和评价,结果显示:人工干预增加可开采水资源量为1250万m3/a;工程地质方面,变质岩下伏于第四系,并广泛分布,具有建库的优势;环境地质方面,建库以后能在很大程度上解决海水入侵问题,但是库区距离市区较近,库区内存在一定程度的地下水及土壤污染。综合分析,沁水河流域修建地下水库是可行的。%Underground reservoir is an effective approach to increase the water resources. In order to solve the water shortage problems of Yantai,building a groundwater reservoir has become inevitable. Confirming the cutoff position and length of the dam on the basis of the engi-neering geological conditions of Qinshui River underground reservoir and calculated the reservoir has a capacity of 51 million m3 with the stor-age capacity formula after determining the boundaries of underground reservoir. Evaluate the effect of groundwater reservoir in artificial stor-age with the method of water balance,the human intervention can increase the amount of mining resources to 12. 5 million m3/a. On the as-pect of engineering geological,the metamorphic rock underlying in the quaternary system and is widely distributed,with the advantages of building underground reservoir;on the environmental geology,it can solve the problem of seawater intrusion to a large extent after building the underground reservoir. The urban is closed to the basin of underground reservoir,and there is a certain amount of water and soil pollution in this region. Through a comprehensive analysis of all above,we conclude that it is feasible to build an underground reservoir in

  13. An Assessment System for the System Safety Engineering Capability Maturity Model in the Case of Spent Fuel Reprocessing%一种乏燃料后处理系统安全工程能力成熟度评估系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳小华; 刘征海; 刘志明; 万亚平; 白小峰

    2012-01-01

    We can improve the processing, the evaluation of capability and promote the user's trust by using system security engineering capability maturity model (SSE-CMM) . SSE-CMM is the common method for organizing and implementing safety engineering, and it is a mature method for system safety en- gineering. Combining capability maturity model (CMM) with total quality management and statistic theo- ry, SSE-CMM turns systems security engineering into a well-defined, mature, measurable, advanced engi- neering discipline. Lack of domain knowledge, the size of data, the diversity of evidences, the cumber- someness of processes, and the complexity of matching evidences with problems are the main issues that SSE-CMM assessment has to face. To improve effectively the efficiency of assessment of spent fuel repro- cessing system security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM), in this paper we de- signed an intelligent assessment software based on domain ontology and that uses methods such as ontology, evidence theory, semantic web, intelligent information retrieval and intelligent auto-matching techniques. This software includes four subsystems, which are domain ontology creation and management system, evi- dence auto collection system, and a problem and evidence matching system. The architecture of the soft- ware is divided into five layers: a data layer, an presentation layer. ontology layer, a knowledge layer, a service layer and a presentation layer.%SSE-CMM可用于过程改进、能力评估和提高用户的信任度,是组织和实施安全工程的通用方法,是系统安全工程领域成熟的方法体系。SSE-CMM结合了计算机科学中的CMM模型、管理学中的全面质量管理思想和统计理论,将系统安全工程转换为一个具有良好定义的、成熟的、可测量的先进工程学科。SSE-CMM评估面临领域知识缺乏、数据量大、证据类型多样、过程繁琐、证据与问题匹配复杂等

  14. Problems in engineering of independent coker naphtha hydrogenation process and countermeasures%焦化汽油单独加氢技术工程化的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立权

    2012-01-01

    Process and technology applied in independent coker naphtha hydrogen at ion engineering in China are introduced. To solve the problems encountered in independent coker naphtha hydrogenation engi-neering such as coking in top of hydrogenation reactor, rapid pressure drop rise in reactor bed, shortened operating cycle, fouling in heat exchangers in reactor system, greater pressure drop and reduced heat transfer coefficient etc, the fouling samples in reactor top distributor, fouling collector and reactor top catalyst as well as foul element compositions of fouling samples in heat exchangers of reactor system are analyzed, and sources of elements or root causes are traced and countermeasures are recommended. It is pointed out that, the recycle of products of saturated coker naphtha hydrogenation unit ( LP separator oil, hydrogenated coker naphtha) can not guarantee the long-term operation of the unit. Whereas, it will increase investment, energy consumption and operating costs. As the coking can not be avoided in coker naphtha hydrogenation, it is proposed that, in the design of overall refinery configuration, independent coker naphtha hydrogenation unit should not be considered. The coker naphtha can be hydrogenated together with coker gas oil, FCC gas oil, blended coker gas oil & FCC gas oil, blended coker gas oil & heavy gas oil or blended coker gas oil, FCC gas oil and heavy coker gas oil to extend the operating cycle of coker naphtha hydrogenation unit.%介绍了国内焦化汽油单独加氢工程化应用的技术及其流程,针对焦化汽油单独加氢工程化过程中遇到的问题,包括加氢反应器顶部结焦、反应器床层压力降快速上升、操作周期缩短、反应部分换热器结垢、压力降增大、传热系数降低等,分析了加氢反应器顶部分配盘、积垢篮、顶部催化剂结焦样品和反应部分换热器垢样的元素组成,追踪这些元素的来源或产生的原因,提出了应对措施.指出饱和焦

  15. Study on failure possibility of crossing construction by horizontal directional drilling%水平定向钻穿越施工的失效可能性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文; 蒋宏业; 姚安林

    2015-01-01

    The crossing construction by horizontal directional drilling is a main method of pipeline crossing engi -neering , and there exists risk in construction process due to the geological conditions , the use of equipment and the selection of crossing technology , so it is necessary to evaluate the failure possibility .The index evaluation system on failure possibility of crossing construction by horizontal directional drilling was established , including five aspects like man, machine, material, method and environment.The distribution rules of characteristic influencing factors , such as borehole-pipeline diameter ratio , friction coefficient of pipeline and soil , and so on , were obtained by me-chanical analysis on back dragging process .The scores of bottom indexes were transformed into prior probability through a fuzzy method , and probabilistic reasoning of them was conducted in Bayesian network , so as to determine the failure possibility .Taking an pipeline engineering which adopted horizontal directional drilling for crossing river as example , the grade of failure possibility was figured out to be relatively high , and the relevant controlling meas-ures were put forward .It has important engineering application value and practical significance for studying failure possibility of crossing construction by horizontal directional drilling through Bayesian network .%水平定向钻穿越施工是管道穿越工程的一种主要施工形式,在施工中由于地质条件、设备使用和穿越工艺选择等原因使其存在风险,因此有必要对其失效可能性进行研究。建立了包含“人、机、料、法、环”五方面的水平定向钻施工失效可能性指标评价体系,对于特征影响因素,如扩径比、管土摩擦系数等,运用回拖过程的力学分析得出其分布规律,用模糊化的方法将底层指标分值转化为先验概率,再代入贝叶斯网络进行概率推理,最终确定其失效可能性。

  16. 随机介质理论下隧道围岩渐进破坏过程数值实验研究%Numerical Experiment Research on the Progressive Failure Process of the Surrounding Rock of the Tunnel under the Stochastic Medium Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商拥辉; 李航; 张波; 方前程

    2015-01-01

    The strength subtraction is introduced to safety evaluation of tunnel surrounding rock,combining with “the shallow tunnel rapid construction double small spacing tunnels,wear interchange structure under the shield tunnel and the surface of the structure containing joint,irregular fissure of mountain highway tunnel”engi-neering examples,using real damage of material analysis software RFPA -2D ,the finite element model of each strength reduction factor is set up.Viscoelastic artificial boundary is adopted to eliminate the influence of boundary conditions on the calculation precision in model,and the model achieves the mesoscopic structure unit of surround-ing rock of the mean and the defects of random distribution by means of random medium theory,it also reveals the dynamic gradual damage process of surrounding rock,the primitive phase change damage evolution mechanism and characteristics of rock mass structural plane under different working conditions,the mesoscopic damage of surround-ing rock is thought to be caused by non average of rock nonlinear material macroscopic unit,the calculation results judged in failure of tunnel surrounding rock with different step reduction in crack development trends and the num-ber of cell damage,and calculates safety factor in the sense of the safety reserve.At the same time,combining ABAQUS with RFPA -2D two different finite element models,comparatively analyzing the random medium theory and continuum theory combining strength subtraction in differences of the evaluation of surrounding rock stability.%将强度折减法引入到隧道围岩安全评价中,结合“浅埋暗挖快速施工双线小间距隧道、盾构下穿立交结构隧道和结构面含有节理、不规则裂隙的山体公路隧道”等工程实例,借助材料真实破坏分析软件 RFPA-2D,建立每个强度折减系数下的有限元模型。模型采用了黏弹性人工边界来消除边界条件对计算精度的影响,并借助随机介

  17. 鲁南经济带地质环境脆弱性评价%Geological Environment Vulnerability Evaluation of the Economic Zone in South Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元仲; 赵书泉; 武雄

    2014-01-01

    The mineral and groundwater resources are very rich in the economic region of south Shandong.The geological environment problems caused by continuously pumping large quantity of groundwater include mine-dout area breakdown,karst collapse,land subsidence,cone of depression and saltwater intrusion.With 17 eva-luation factors,such as landform,rock-soil body characteristics,hydrogeological condition,environmental engi-neering geology problems,geological resource and ergonomic activity,etc.,this paper used Fuller triangle to define the factor weight and evaluate the geological environment vulnerability with experts clustering procedure. Four evaluation factors,i.e.soil environmental quality (T),engineering geology environment (G),geolog-ical hazard dangerous assessment (Z)and geological environment load capacity (C)were utilized to evaluate the suitability of the key cities in the study area with map overlapping method.The result shows that the whole region can be divided into four grade vulnerability sections,which are the serious vulnerability section,the high vulnerability section,the medium vulnerability section and the low vulnerability section;Heze city and Linyi city are located at the high vulnerability section;Jining city,Zaozhuang city and Rizhao city are located at the medium vulnerability section.The comprehensive assessment of the geological environment of the study area in-dicates that the five key cities all have basic suitable environment,and the west district of Zaozhuang city has suitable environment.%鲁南经济带内矿产资源及地下水资源非常丰富,长期大量开采引发的环境地质问题主要有采空塌陷、岩溶塌陷、地面沉降、地下水降落漏斗及海水入侵等。选取地形地貌、岩土体特征、水文地质条件、环境工程地质问题、地质资源和人类工程经济活动等17个评价因子,利用傅勒三角形法确定各评价因子的权重,采用专家聚类法评价地质环境脆弱性

  18. The Monitoring Research of Land Use/Cover Disturbance in Puguang Gas Field Development Zone%普光气田开发区土地利用/覆盖扰动监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东川; 黄勇; 张利辉

    2014-01-01

    Gas field development engineering project often exerts damage to vegetation,changing land use status,lead to soil and water losses,and increase soil erosion intensity of the project area. Based on 3S technology,taking Puguang gas field development zone as the research area,the ecosystem destruction and recovery situation of the gas field development zone were monitored through layer overlay,buffering analysis and land use/cover change trajectory extraction using spatial analysis method. Results showed that during the process of the project,great impacts were brought about on the vegetation and the surrounding ecosystem. Land use/cover conversions were mainly between forest,farmland,grassland and con-structive land before and after the project. Among those conversions,the occupied farmland was the main land use during gas field development construction. While because appropriate measures,such as soil and water conservation,ecological res-toration,had been taken during the construction,no obvious soil erosion and ecological destruction arose. The later engi-neering protection measures produced better vegetation restoration in the project area.%气田开发施工工程常常对植被造成破坏,改变土地利用现状,产生水土流失,因而加剧了项目区土壤侵蚀强度。以普光气田开发区为研究区,在3S技术支持下,运用空间分析方法,通过图层叠加、缓冲区分析与土地利用/覆盖变化轨迹提取,对气田开发区的生态系统破坏与恢复情况进行监测。结果表明:气田开发工程过程中会对植被和周围生态系统产生较大影响;工程前后土地利用变化主要体现在林地、耕地、草地和建设用地之间的转换上,其中气田开发区建设以占用耕地为主。但由于采取了相应的水土保持、生态恢复等措施,没有引发明显的水土流失和生态破坏,故工程中采取的措施有效,后期植被恢复较好。

  19. Formation and Rock Engineering Characteristics of Chipwi Ductile Shear Zone Somewhere in Southeast Asia%某地区Chipwi韧性剪切带构造特征及其岩体工程性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓争荣; 雷世兵; 何永刚; 吴树良

    2015-01-01

    某拟建水电站工程地区发育有Chipwi韧性剪切带, 宽约500~800 m, 系区域上顺主干河流不具活动性的May Kha断裂构造形迹组成的骨架, 穿越混凝土重力坝左岸坝基. 采用构造地质学方法研究其构造特征, 对该地区区域构造的认识具有十分重要的意义; 采用工程地质学方法研究其岩体工程性状, 可为水电站工程设计提供技术支撑. 研究结果表明; 该韧性剪切带内物质组成主要为具有强烈定向组构的粗糜棱岩, 经历了不同时期多期次不同性质的构造活动. 在韧性变形之后很晚的时期, 区域上沿早期韧性剪切变形较强的变形带或者韧性剪切带边缘, 发育了脆性变形叠加在韧性变形带之上. 经其岩体工程性状研究,工程可容易利用的微新状岩体能满足工程要求, 对拟建水电站工程建设无不利影响.%The Chipwi ductile shear zone is developed across the planned site of a proposed hydropower station project , with the width of 500-800m.It is the skeleton of the inactive May Kha fault along the mainstream across the area ,cutting through the left bank foundation of the concrete gravity dam .Studying the tectonic characteristics of the area using geotec-tonic methods has a significant value to getting familiar to the geological structure of the area;Rock engineering research can provide technological support for the engineering design of the hydropower station .We have found out that this ductile shear zone is mainly made up by coarse mylonite with strong oriented structure ,and it has experienced multiple character-istics of tectonic movements through different time periods .At far later period after the ductile deformation ,brittle deform-ation has developed over the ductile deformation along the earlier formed deformation zone .The result of our rock engi-neering research shows that the newly shaped rock mass can meet the engineering requirements and it has no negative in -fluence on

  20. 工程化肝组织肝表面片状植入新方法%New method of liver mrface sheet implantation with engineering Liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巨超; 周海洋; 孙慧伟; 丁毅; 徐迎新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of orthotopic.ally implanting larger-size,sheet-likeengineered liver tissue on the surface of liver to facilitate the establishment of blood supply.MethodsHepatocytes and microvessel endothelial cells isolated from newborn rats using enzymatic dissociation withtypsin and by tissue adherence method,respectively,were combined with sheet-like collagen scaffold andvascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,10 g/L) to generate bepatocytes/endotheliocytes/VEGF/colla-gen constructs.The constructs were then implanted onto the surface of 15 rats' livers through the adherencemethod of sheet-like engineered liver tissue.Gross and histological observation was taken four weeks afterimplantation.Results The viability of both hepatocytes and endotheliocytes was over 90%.Sheet engi-neering liver tissue can fit closely with the orthotopic liver by the liver surface pasting method,and formhepatocyte-like tissue which was larger than 1 cm3.Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thehepatocytes were in good condition and distributed evenly in the implants,and angiogenesis could also beseen.We didn' t find cell degeneration and death.Conclusion The liver surface pasting method is sim-ple and safe,which can be used to build larger size of the engineering liver tissue,and also expected toreach the purpose of repairing damaged liver in situ.%目的 探索较大尺度工程化肝组织原位肝表面贴覆片状植入、尽快建立血供的可行性.方法 将采用胰酶冷消化法分离的新生大鼠肝细胞(1×1010个/L)、肺组织块贴壁法分离的大鼠微血管内皮细胞(1 ×1010个/L),与片状胶原支架、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF,10g/L)复合构建肝细胞/内皮细胞/血管生长因子/胶原支架复合的片状工程化肝组织.将其在15只大鼠肝表面贴覆植入,4周后取样进行大体观察及组织切片苏木素-伊红(HE)染色.结果 分离的肝细胞及内皮细胞活率均为90%以上.片状工

  1. Subduction-related prograde metamorphism of the ultramafic members of the Central-Sudetic Ophiolite (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtulek, Piotr; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-04-01

    ~680-780°C. The BBM serpentinites have mineral assemblage (antigorite-olivine-diopside-tremolite) typical for ~420-490°C and the ŚM rocks containing antigorite-olivine-diopside were altered at ~380-460°C (cf. phase diagram based on Berman et al., 1986). Similar mineral succession indicative for prograde metamorphism of serpentinites is typical for alteration in subduction zone setting and occurs in serpentinites from the Lanzo Massif in Alps (Debret et al., 2013) and in the mantle wedge serpentinites from Guatemala (Kodolanyi et al., 2012). This abstract was prepared as a part of the project of the National Science Centre of Poland ("Evolution of serpentinic members of the Lower Silesia ophiolites", DEC-2012/07/N/ST10/03934). References Berman, R. G., Engi, M., Greenwood, H. J., Brown, T. H., 1986. Derivation of internally-consistent thermodynamic data by the technique of mathematical programming: a review with application to the system MgO-SiO2-H2O. Journal of Petrology 27, 1331-1364. Debret, B., Nicollet, C., Schwartz, S., Andreani, M., Godard, M., 2013. Three steps of serpentinization in an eclogitized oceanic serpentinization front (Lanzo Massif - Western Alps). Journal of Metamorphic Geology 31, 65 - 186. Kodolányi, J., Pettke, T., Spandler, C., Kamber, B.S. and Gméling, K., 2012. Geochemistry of ocean floor and forearc serpentinites: Constraints on the ultramafic input to subduction zones. Journal of Petrology 53, 235-270.

  2. Application of genome editing technologies in researches on herpes simplex virus 1%基因组编辑技术在1型单纯疱疹病毒研究中的作用和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴丽; 李琦涵

    2016-01-01

    The viral genome editing technologies have been shown to largely contribute to the stud-ies of viral gene functions and to the treatment of infectious diseases. With the development of genetic engi-neering technologies, a variety of viral genome mutation technologies have been established. The homologous recombination is traditionally used to edit the viral genome, but the low frequency of homologous recombina-tion limits its application. Large genome DNA viruses including herpes simplex virus 1 can be edited by bac-terial artificial chromosome system. However, the cloning of viral genome to bacterial artificial chromosome plasmid is both laborious and time-consuming, and parts of the plasmid genes or drug selection markers may remain in the genome of virus and then affect the function of virus. Fortunately, the CRISPR-cas9 system which was discovered in 2013 can be used to edit the viral genome efficiently and accurately. Furthermore, the experiment is simple and will not leave any trail of the viral genome when the genetic mutation is per-formed. Here, we briefly review the application of homologous recombination, bacterial artificial chromosome system and CRISPR-cas9 system in researches on herpes simplex virus 1.%病毒基因组编辑技术对研究病毒基因的功能及病毒感染性疾病的治疗有着不可或缺的作用。随着基因工程技术的发展,多种病毒基因组突变技术应运而生。传统的同源重组技术一直用于编辑病毒基因组,然而,该技术的重组频率极低。此后,基因组较大的病毒如单纯疱疹病毒1型(HSV-1)可以通过细菌人工染色体质粒系统进行编辑,但是将较大的病毒基因组克隆到细菌人工染色体质粒费力费时,并且质粒的部分基因或药物选择标记物可能残留在病毒基因组内而影响病毒基因的功能。2013年发现的CRISPR-cas9系统可以完成对各类DNA病毒高效准确的定点基因编辑,

  3. Influence of fly ash dosage and desert sand replacement ratio on the mechanical properties of desert sand concrete%粉煤灰掺量和沙漠砂替代率对沙漠砂混凝土力学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付杰; 马菊荣; 刘海峰

    2015-01-01

    , which provides guidance for the engi-neering application of desert sand.

  4. A multifunctional measurement system for frequency based on PIC microprocessor%一种基于PIC单片机的多功能测频系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滔

    2012-01-01

    parameters of PWM. The system has advantages of simple structure and being easy to implement in software algorithm, which takes convenience to practical applications in engi-neering.

  5. Schematic Research and Practice on Electromagnetic Interference Protection of Electrified Railway%电气化铁路电磁干扰防护方案研究及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹潮鸿

    2015-01-01

    The dangerous sources such as oil(gas )pipeline,oil depot and oil transportation special line often be encoun-tered in the electrification reconstruction project of the existing railway in China,especially when the electrified railway passes through chemical plant area,AC electrified railway OCS may generate electromagnetic induced electromotive force and cause hazard to the oil(gas )pipeline across the railway,parallels to the railway and depot area,equipment and transportation special line on both sides of the railway,which may not only corrode the pipeline,but also hurt the operat-ing personnel. This paper expounds the harm and reason of electromagnetic interference,especially the concrete electro-magnetic protection scheme,and combined with the electromagnetic protection engineering of Xindian-Taian Railway crossing chemical industry area of Qilu Petrochemical Technology,the electromagnetic protection scheme of improved sol-id state decoupling current drainage system is put forward. By means of expounding the electromagnetic interference pro-tection scheme for the dangerous sources such as oil(gas )pipeline,oil depot,etc. around the electrified railway,com-bined with the practical engineering,this paper provides guidance to the electromagnetic interference protection engi-neering of the same type of other electrified railways in our country.%我国的既有铁路电气化改造工程经常会遇到铁路周边存在油气管线(穿越或平行铁路)、油(危险品)库、运油专用线等危险源,尤其是铁路穿越化工厂区段时,交流电气化铁路接触网会对穿越铁路、平行铁路的管道以及铁路两边的库区、设备、专运线等产生电磁感应电势,同时产生危害,不但腐蚀管道,还有可能对操作人员安全造成人身危害。文章论述了电磁干扰的危害及原因并重点阐述具体的电磁防护方案,结合辛泰铁路穿越齐鲁石化化工区的电磁防护工程,提出了改

  6. The Research on the Construction of Extrude Teaching Material for Civil Engineering Major%土建类专业立体化教材建设的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德利; 任大鹏; 宋殿文

    2012-01-01

    高校土建类专业传统教材已无法适应当前我国高校创新型和技能型培养人才的需要,在教学实践中,应建立与之配套的广义教材,即立体化教材。它是基于一体化设计的教学系统,它以传统纸质教材为基础,以数字技术为平台,以项目课程为导向,以实践能力教育为目标,并将当前最新三维可视化控制技术与智能化网络技术应用于教学各环节中,形成融“教、学、练、考”为一体的理实一体化课程教学体系。立体化教材构建了土建类专业学生理论学习与生产实际相结合的教学平台,弥补了教学手段、实训条件及时间、空间上的限制,在课堂上实现教学项目与施工项目、教学过程与施工过程、在校学习与实际工作的一致性,达到事半功倍的效果。%The traditional teaching material for civil engineering major has not adapted to current requirement for creative and skilled talents, so the construction of matching extrude teaching material in practical teaching process is necessary. It is one kind of teaching system based on integrated designs, it is based on the traditional paper material. Makes digital techniques as platform, makes project curriculums as guidance, makes practical a- bility education as goal and then applies the latest three-dimensional visual control techniques and intelligent network techniques to each teaching link.Thereby form one type of integrated curriculums teaching system fusing teaching, learning, practicing, examining'together. Extrude teaching material builds one type of teaching plat- form that combines theoretical learning with production practice closely for the students majoring in civil engi- neering. Remedy the restrict existing in teaching methods, practical training condition, time and space. And real- ize the consistency between teaching project and construction project, between teaching process and construction process and

  7. BMSCs-based tissue-engineering bone repairing bone defect in dental implant region:an experimental study%以 BMSCs为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植区骨量不足的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彪; 赵刚; 徐红梅; 郭希民; 郭红延

    2015-01-01

    Objective To repair bone defect in implant region using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells -based tissue-engi-neering bone and investigate its osteogenesis potential .Methods Bilateral implantaion ,two implants every side , was performed in the mandible premolar region of 3 Beagles and bone defects were created in the distal of every implant .Two bone defects in one side of mandible premolar region were randomly repaired with two types of grafts :PRP (n=6, the control group);and compound osteogenic-induced BMSCs with PRP(n=6, the experimental group).1 and 3 months after transplation, gross investigation,X-ray examination and histological observation were conducted to examine bone formation .Results One month after implantation ,the osteogenesis in ex-perimental group was better than in the control group .We detected more bone matrix and less collagenous fibers in the experimental group.The bone density in the experimental group was higher than in the control group and the difference was significantly different [(101 ±8.99)vs(93 ±9.81),P≤0.05].Three months after implantation,the bone density in the experimental group tended to be higher than in the control group;however,the difference was not statistically significant [(100.75 ±12.05)vs(105 ±11.58)].But we detected more Haversian system in the experimental group .Conclusion Bone marrow stem cell-based tissue-engineered bone has high osteogenic potential around implants .%目的:评价以骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ,BMSCs)为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植体周围骨缺损的成骨效果。方法在3只犬双侧下颌前磨牙区各植入2颗种植体,分为对照组和实验组,每组6颗种值体;在种植体远中制备骨缺损,对照组每侧骨缺损区随机植入富血小板血浆( platelet-rich plasma,PRP)和实验组成骨诱导培养BM-SCs复合PRP。分别于移植后1、3个月取材,行大体、影像

  8. 二元地基基坑抽水试验及数值分析%Pumping Test and Numerical Analysis for Foundation Pit of Two-layer Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段衍伟; 李守德; 王保田

    2014-01-01

    The foundation soil form in Qinhuai River’s lock area is the typical two-layer structure .As the pilot well loca-tion selection ,existed seepage channels ,as well as radius value selection and other factors make the calculated value of permeability coefficient in geological exploration stage having larger gap compared with the empirical value in past engi-neering practices ,for a more accurate description of the hydrogeologic conditions in site so as to provide accurate hydroge-ological parameters for precipitation design and construction ,the pumping test data is used to establish the space axisym-metric model for the foundation soil in site ,and by using the established foundation soil’s observation well model and the water level from remote bore-pressure meter for the expansion analysis of the model ,the reverse calculation is made for the soil’s permeability coefficient ,so to a certain extent ,some errors from the influencing radius and empirical fomula as well as the effect of the piping channel within the scope of on-site excavation are reduced .The subsoil’s permeability co-efficient obtained by comparing is less than that obtained in the geological exploration stage ,and closer to the empirical value from engineering practices ,thus the pit’s water out flow is made for a more accurate quantification ,which could provide a certain guiding significance for engineering practices .%秦淮河船闸地基土呈典型的二元结构地基形式,由于地质勘察阶段试验井位置选取、已有渗流通道以及影响半径取值等影响因素的存在使得地质勘查阶段渗透系数的计算值与以往的工程实践经验数值差距较大,为了更加准确的描述现场的水文地质条件,为工程降水设计、施工提供准确的水文地质参数,利用抽水试验得到的数据,对现场的地基土建立空间轴对称模型,根据建立的地基土层观测井模型以及远端孔压计所测得的水位对模型

  9. Site Measurement of Surrounding Rock Pressure and Analysis of Structure Stress of Large-span Bias-pressured Shallow Tunnels%大跨浅埋偏压隧道围压实测及结构受力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江磊; 侯哲生; 吴海卫

    2015-01-01

    大跨浅埋偏压隧道由于其非对称的受力条件,易引发结构变形与开裂等突出问题,近年来越来越受工程技术界的重视。以邢汾高速公路邢台段后偏梁大跨度隧道浅埋偏压段为例,通过实测围岩压力,根据荷载结构法的基本原理,利用 ANSYS 软件对其结构受力特性进行数值分析,得到结论:实测的围岩压力分布和偏压的地形之间具有较为一致的对应性,即围岩压力受地形的影响显著;二衬总应力受轴力引起的应力影响较小,主要受弯矩引起的应力控制,整个拱圈范围内最危险的部位是在受围岩压力最大的左侧拱肩处;随着二衬厚度的变化,二衬总应力在不同的部位均发生相应变化,但变化幅度均不大。相关研究结论为后续类似大跨浅埋偏压隧道的合理设计与施工提供参考依据。%The asymmetrical stress condition of the Large-span bias-pressured shallow tunnels can cause many problems easily ,such as structural deformation and cracking .These problems have attracted more and more attentions from engi-neering and technology research field in recent years .The Houpianliang large-span bias-pressured shallow tunnel in Xing-tai section of Xingtai - Fenyang highway was taken as an example to numerically analyze the mechanical characteristics of the structure by adopting ANSYS ,according to the data of site measurement of surrounding rock pressure and the princi -ple of load structure method .The results indicate that :the actual measured surrounding rock pressure is consistent with the bias terrain ,which means the surrounding rock pressure is influenced by topography significantly ;the total stress of the second lining is mainly controlled by the stress from bending moment and is less influenced by the stress from axial force ,the weakest part within the scope of the arch ring is the left spandrel which is subject to maximum pressure ;with the change of the

  10. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    et al., 2008) is rarely found within garnet crystal, while monazite found only along mylonitic foliation helps to constrain the age of shearing and hanging-wall rocks exhumation, between 25 Ma (low Y cores interpretd as Aln out product, close to P peak) and 18 Ma (high Y rims interpreted as Grt breakdown/melt crystallization product during decompression). The present results point out the occurence of a high-temperature shear zone, in the core of the GHS, active before the onset of the Main Central Thrust, responsible of at least a part of the exhumation of the metamorphic rocks. References Janots, E., Engi, M., Berger, J., Allaz, J., Schwarz, O., Spandler, C., (2008): Prograde metamorphic sequence of REE minerals in pelitic rocks of the Central Alps: implications for allanite monazite-xenotime phase relations from 250 to 610°C. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 26, 509-526. Williams, M.L., Jercinovic, M.J., (2012): Tectonic interpretation of metamorphic tectonites: integrating compositional mapping, microstructrual analyses and in situ monazite dating. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 30, 739-752.

  11. 国外在线工程伦理教育模式分析与启示--基于几所大学经验的思考%Modes and Implications of International Online Engineering Ethics Education:Reflections on the Experiences of Several Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2014-01-01

    Considering China’s need to strengthen/for strengthingengineering ethics education and the rapid development of online education, this paper introduces the current status of online engineering education in several foreign countriesanalyzes the modes of online engineering ethics education adopted by universities such as the University of Nebraska, Indiana University, Virginia Tech, and Deakin Universit andpoints out that their basic format involves the use of independent modules and discussion forums and their main characteristic is the empha-sis on active learning, self-directedness, and interaction, and evaluates the effectiveness of such education. These foreign experiences have implications for Chinese engineering ethics education: China should strengthen engi-neering ethics education, promote innovative teaching methods including the shift from teacher-centeredness to learner-centeredness, consider postgraduate and continuing education as the first target of online engineering edu-cation, use discussion as a major educational strategy, provide support at the university level, and train teachers and students before class starts. All these measure can be used as references to facilitate universities in China in using online education as a new means to promote engineering ethics education.%在我国工程伦理教育亟待积极推进和在线教育迅速发展的背景下,介绍一些西方国家的在线工程教育的发展现状,分析美国的内布拉斯加大学、印第安纳大学、弗吉尼亚技术大学和澳大利亚的迪肯大学等在线工程伦理教育采用的模式,指出其基本形式是使用独立模块和讨论等手段,主要特征是强调学习主动性、自导性和互动性,并评价国外工程伦理教育的效果。国外的实践经验给我国的启示包括:应重视工程伦理教育、推动教育方法革新(包括实现由“以教师为中心”向“以学生为中心”的转型)、考虑将在职研

  12. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of

  13. Optimal deployment of emissions reduction technologies for construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Zietsman, Josias; Quadrifoglio, Luca; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiobjective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and optimal manner. Given a fleet of construction equipment emitting different pollutants in the nonattainment (NA) and near -nonattainment (NNA) counties of a state and a set of emissions reduction technologies available for installation on equipment to control pollution/emissions, the model assists in determining the mix of technologies to be deployed so that maximum emissions reduction and fuel savings are achieved within a given budget. Three technologies considered for emissions reduction were designated as X, Y, and Z to keep the model formulation general so that it can be applied for any other set of technologies. Two alternative methods of deploying these technologies on a fleet of equipment were investigated with the methods differing in the technology deployment preference in the NA and NNA counties. The model having a weighted objective function containing emissions reduction benefits and fuel-saving benefits was programmed with C++ and ILOG-CPLEX. For demonstration purposes, the model was applied for a selected construction equipment fleet owned by the Texas Department of Transportation, located in NA and NNA counties of Texas, assuming the three emissions reduction technologies X, Y, and Z to represent, respectively, hydrogen enrichment, selective catalytic reduction, and fuel additive technologies. Model solutions were obtained for varying budget amounts to test the sensitivity of emissions reductions and fuel-savings benefits with increasing the budget. Different mixes of technologies producing maximum oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) reductions and total combined benefits (emissions reductions plus fuel savings) were indicated at different budget ranges. The initial steep portion of the plots for NO(x) reductions and total combined benefits against budgets

  14. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non‑Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2

  15. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  16. 一种自适应的区域生长算法用于道路分割%Road Image Segmentation Based on an Adaptive Region Growing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓明; 马智; 蔡自兴; 唐琏

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at road detection of vehicle driving on the highway, this thesis focused on the color and gray of image, an improved method based on cluster analysis and region growing for road detection was presented. In order to enhance the algorithm' s accuracy,inage pre-process which could eliminate lane' s interferences was taken. After the image pre-process, according to the distribution of the characteristics of the image, it was divided into three parts which were processed in different algorithms. For the central region which had much road information and mixed non-road information, an adaptive region growing rules algorithm which based on the traditional region growing algorithm and cluster analysis was used for segmenting the road region effectively. The algorithm could adaptive mauy situations on the highway, and it is an algorithm with high accuracy, real-times and robustness.%针对汽车在高速公路上行驶的道路区域分割问题,以路面颜色特征为研究对象,提出了一种将聚类分析应用于区域生长准则的算法,实现道路分割.为了提高算法的精确度,对图像进行预处理,消除车道线对道路分割的干扰.根据图像预处理之后道路信息分布的特点,将图像分为3块子区域分别用不同的算法进行检测.对于道路信息丰富,非道路信息也较多的中部区域,在传统区域生长的基础上结合聚类分析,提出了一种自适应生长准则的区域生长算法.该算法既能适应高速公路各种行驶环境,且实时性好、可靠性高、鲁棒性强.

  17. Effects on Air Pollution and Regional Climate of Producing and Using Hydrogen in Fuel Cells in all U.S. OnroadVehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects on U.S. air pollution and regional climate of switching the current U.S. fleet of onroad motor vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles, where hydrogen was produced by (1) steam-reforming of methane, (2) wind energy, or (3) coal gasification. An additional scenario in which the U.S. fleet was switched to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles was also examined. The model used was GATOR-GCMOM, a global-through-urban-scale nested and parallelized gas, aerosol, transport, radiation, general-circulation, mesoscale, and ocean model. U.S. emission data for the baseline case were obtained from the U.S. National Emission Inventory, which considers 370,000 stack and fugitive sources, 250,000 area sources, and 1700 categories of onroad and nonroad vehicular sources (including motorcycles, passenger vehicles, trucks, recreational vehicles, construction vehicles, farm vehicles, industrial vehicles, etc.). Emission inventories for each of the three hydrogen scenarios were prepared following a process chain analysis that accounted for energy inputs and pollution outputs during all stages of hydrogen and fossil-fuel production, distribution, storage, and end-use. Emitted pollutants accounted for included CO, CO2, H2, H2O, CH4, speciated ROGs, NOx, NH3, SOx, and speciated particulate matter. Results from the first scenario suggest that switching vehicles in the U.S. to hydrogen produced by steam-reforming of methane may reduce emission of NOx, reactive hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, BC, NO3-, and NH4+, but increase CH4, H2, and SO2 (slightly).The switch may also decrease O3 over most of the U.S. but short-term near-surfaces increases may occur over low-vegetated cities (e.g., in Los Angeles and along the Boston-Washington corridor) due to loss of NOx that otherwise titrates O3. The switch is also estimated to decrease PAN, HCHO, and several other pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Isoprene may increase since fewer oxidants (OH, O3

  18. Estimating sources of elemental and organic carbon and their temporal emission patterns using a least squares inverse model and hourly measurements from the St. Louis–Midwest supersite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC contain large uncertainties both in their spatial and temporal distributions for different source types. An inverse model was used to evaluate EC and OC emissions based on 1 year of hourly measurements from the St. Louis–Midwest supersite. The input to the model consisted of continuous measurements of EC and OC obtained for 2002 using two semicontinuous analyzers. High resolution meteorological simulations were performed for the entire time period using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF. These were used to simulate hourly back trajectories at the measurement site using a Lagrangian model (FLEXPART-WRF. In combination, an Eulerian model (CAMx: The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions was used to simulate the impacts at the measurement site using known emissions inventories for point and area sources from the Lake Michigan Directors Consortium (LADCO as well as for open burning from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN. By considering only passive transport of pollutants, the Bayesian inversion simplifies to a single least squares inversion. The inverse model combines forward Eulerian simulations with backward Lagrangian simulations to yield estimates of emissions from sources in current inventories as well as from emissions that might be missing in the inventories. The CAMx impacts were disaggregated into separate time chunks in order to determine improved diurnal, weekday and monthly temporal patterns of emissions. Because EC is a primary species, the inverse model estimates can be interpreted directly as emissions. In contrast, OC is both a primary and a secondary species. As the inverse model does not differentiate between direct emissions and formation in the plume of those direct emissions, the estimates need to be interpreted as contributions to measured concentrations. Emissions of EC and OC in the St. Louis region from on-road, non-road, marine

  19. Application of watershed deposition tool to estimate from CMAQ simulations the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to Tampa Bay and its watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Noreen D; Pribble, J Raymond; Schwede, Donna B

    2013-01-01

    The US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) to calculate from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model output the nitrogen, sulfur and mercury deposition rates to watersheds and their sub-basins. The CMAQ model simulates from first principles the transport, transformation, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. We applied WDT to estimate the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) to Tampa Bay and its watershed. For 2002 and within the boundaries of Tampa Bay's watershed, modeled atmospheric deposition rates averaged 13.3 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and ranged from 6.24 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) at the bay's boundary with Gulf of Mexico to 21.4 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) near Tampa's urban core, based on a 12-km x 12-km grid cell size. CMAQ-predicted loading rates were 1,080 metric tons N yr(-1) to Tampa Bay and 8,280 metric tons N yr(-1) to the land portion of its watershed. If we assume a watershed-to-bay transfer rate of 18% for indirect loading, our estimates of the 2002 direct and indirect loading rates to Tampa Bay were 1,080 metric tons N and 1,490 metric tons N, respectively, for an atmospheric loading of 2,570 metric tons N or 71% of the total N loading to Tampa Bay. To evaluate the potential impact of the US. EPA Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR, replaced with Cross-State Air Pollution Rule), Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Rules, Heavy Duty Highway Rule, and Non-Road Diesel Rule, we compared CMAQ outputs between 2020 and 2002 simulations, with only the emissions inventories changed. The CMAQ-projected change in atmospheric loading rates between these emissions inventories was 857 metric tons N to Tampa Bay, or about 24% of the 2002 loading of 3,640 metric tons N to Tampa Bay from all sources. Air quality modeling reveals that atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) contributes a significant fraction to Tampa Bay's total N loading from external sources. Regulatory drivers that lower nitrogen oxide

  20. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those