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Sample records for nonrhizomatous birdsfoot trefoil

  1. Elemental composition of birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russelle, M.P.; McGraw, R.L.; Grava, J.; Beuselinck, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Developmental and environmental effects on mineral nutrient concentration in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) are not well documented. In this study, elemental composition of two birdsfoot trefoil stands were determined from a late vegetative stage through reproductive growth. Norcen birdsfoot trefoil was established on a Glyndon silt loam (coarse-silty, frigid Aeric Calciaquolis)( in Roseau County, in 1980, and Norcen and Leo birdsfoot trefoil were seeded on a Waukegan silt loam (fine-silty over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludolls) near Rosemount, in 1981. Shoot and root samples were taken at approximately biweekly intervals in the year following establishment. Shoots were separated into stems, leaves, umbels, and seed. Environment influenced the concentration of most elements. This environmental effect was generally consistent among plant parts for C, Mg, S, Na, and Mn; i.e., all parts had lower elemental concentrations at Rosemount than at Roseau. The relationship between environments for P, K, Zn, and Cu concentrations varied with different plant parts; i.e., some plant components had element concentrations higher at the southern than northern location, whereas other components had element concentrations that showed the converse. Although most elements were less concentrated with advancing developmental stage, environment modified the rate and extent of change in concentration of every element in at least one plant part. Interactions of environment with development stage were not as evident for shoots as for the separate shoot components. Whereas other reports have often emphasized the large differences in nutrient concentrations among legume species, this data suggest that nutrient concentration may be as strongly influenced by environment as by species.

  2. Suspected photosensitisation in lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K J; West, D M; Alley, M R; Waghorn, G C

    1995-06-01

    Suspected photosensitisation occurred in three groups of lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus c.v. Grasslands Goldie). In one group, sucking lambs aged about 10 weeks, grazing birdsfoot trefoil, developed skin lesions while lambs of a similar age and from the same flock grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or a mixed sward of both species showed no signs of photosensitisation. Affected lambs had lesions on their backs and ears. In a few animals the tips of the ears were shortened by 2-3 cm. In the affected lambs, serum liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase), bilirubin and serum Vitamin B12 levels were within the normal range. At necropsy, no significant pathological changes were detected in the liver and histological changes in the skin were consistent with primary photosensitisation. In the second group, three of 80 weaned lambs grazing the same birdsfoot trefoil at a restricted intake were affected in the same manner as the first group. In the third group, 15 animals from 28 sets of sucking twin lambs were also affected. In only two sets of twins were both lambs affected. None of the ewes grazing with the lambs in the first or third groups showed any clinical signs of photosensitisation.

  3. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerboom, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I{sub 50}s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I{sub 50}s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I{sub 50} of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I{sub 50} of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, {sup 14}C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min{sm bullet}mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81.

  4. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A.; Wyss, U.; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M.; Bee, G.; Zeitz, J. O.; Kreuzer, M.; Dohme-Meier, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) ? sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) ? were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and r...

  5. The development of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) plants from in vitro selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofelis, S; Le, H; Grant, W F

    1992-02-01

    Herbicide-resistant lines of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. cv 'Leo') were isolated after sequential selection at the callus, shoot, and whole plant levels to the sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide Harmony {DPX-M6316; 3-[[[(4-methoxy-6methyl-1,3,5, triazine-2-yl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate}. In field and growth chamber tests the Harmony regenerant lines displayed an increased tolerance as compared to control plants from tissue culture and controls grown from seed. Results of evaluation of callus cultures of regenerated mutant lines signify stability of the resistance. Outcrossed seeds collected from field trials, and tested in vitro for herbicide resistance, indicate that the trait is heritable and that resistance may be due to reduced sensitivity of acetolactate synthase to SU inhibition. Genetically stable herbicide-resistant lines of birdsfoot trefoil were successfully isolated using in vitro selection.

  6. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L. ; Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of /sup 14/C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O/sub 2/ uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage /sup 14/C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots.

  7. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  8. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lactation trials were conducted to assess the feeding value of silage made from populations of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT). These silages were compared to an alfalfa silage (...

  9. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...

  10. Protein and dry matter degradability of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent work suggests several European- and Mediterranean-derived cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) are well adapted to the colder continental USA and produce forage with greater condensed tannin (CT) concentrations, but comparable neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and slightly ...

  11. Induction of two mutants in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) by x-rays and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therrien, M.C.; Grant, W.F. (McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Macdonald Coll.)

    1982-10-01

    The mutagenic effects of X-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 8-ethoxycaffeine (EOC), N-hydroxyurea (HU) and 2-aminopurine (2AP) on seed treatment of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. 'Mirabel') were assessed over four generations. Mutants were recovered in the M/sub 2/, M/sub 3/ and M/sub 4/ generations from selfed lines, from crosses derived form selfed lines and from open pollination lines. Mutant plants exhibiting vestigial floret character were recovered from X-rays, EMS, EOC and HU treatments. Mutant chlorotica plants were obtained from EMS treatment only. No mutants were recovered from 2AP treatment, EMS, the most effective mutagen, produced nine vestigial floret and 12 chlorotica mutants. Mutants were obtained from only one exposure of X-rays (12 krad). There was evidence for preferential elimination of gametes. The chlorotica and vestigial floret mutants were inherited as tetrasomic recessives. Mutation frequencies of 0.4 - 3.1% in a tetrasomic background are indicative of the effectiveness of EMS in birdsfoot trefoil.

  12. Yield, morphological characteristics, and chemical composition of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly grown North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) varieties, such as Norcen,0 produce forage with insufficient condensed tannin (CT) concentrations to maximize ruminant livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean genotypes with higher CT...

  13. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  14. Condensed tannins in the tissue culture of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1986-08-01

    Two forage legumes, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), containing condensed tannins in their leaves and stems were used as source material to study condensed tannins in tissue culture. More protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll tissue of a low tannin-containing strain of birdsfoot trefoil than from a high tannin-containing strain, but more tannin-filled protoplasts were observed in the latter. Growth rates of leaf explant-derived callus tissue were greater for the high-tannin than for the low-tannin strain. In sainfoin, callus cultures from leaf explants produced numerous tannin-filled cells by 21 days. Explants from sainfoin cotyledons and roots, tissues which normally do not contain tannins, also formed callus with tannin-filled cells in 21 days but in almost every case, a cytokinin was required for tannin formation to occur. The occurrence of tannin-filled cells in callus from root and cotyledon explants was variable and genotype specific. These results show that endogenous tannins can affect protoplast isolation and possibly callus growth in birds-foot trefoil, and that the formation of condensed tannins in sainfoin callus culture can be influenced by a growth regulator.

  15. The effects of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) when compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on ovine gastrointestinal parasite development, survival and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Barrett, J; Keatinge, R; Lampkin, N H

    2006-06-15

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory on parasitic nematode development, survival and migration when compared with perennial ryegrass. In experiment one, sheep faeces, containing 10,385 Cooperia curticei eggs were added to 25 cm diameter pots containing birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass, and the pots maintained under optimal conditions for nematode parasite development. Replicate pots of each forage type were destructively sampled on day 8, 16, 20, 28 and 37 to collect the nematode larvae. When forages were compared on a dry matter basis, by day 16 there were 31% and 19% fewer larvae on birdsfoot trefoil and chicory than on ryegrass, respectively (P<0.01). In the second experiment, replicate 1m(2) field plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory and ryegrass were sub-sampled on day 14, 21, 35 and 49 for larval counts following the application of sheep faeces containing 585,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta eggs to each plot on day 0. Results showed there were a minimum of 58% and 63% fewer infective stage parasitic larvae on birdsfoot trefoil and chicory, respectively, compared with ryegrass on day 14 and 35 when forages were compared on a forage dry matter, plot area sampled and leaf area basis (P<0.01). Overall, these results indicate that the number of infective stage larvae on birdsfoot trefoil and chicory pasture was reduced by the effect of their sward structure on the development/survival/migration of ovine parasitic nematodes. These effects may be one of the ways in which these forages may affect parasitic infections in grazing livestock.

  16. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  17. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  18. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  19. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  20. CO/sub 2/ fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of /sup 14/C to the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Vance, C.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Stade, S.

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N/sub 2/ in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation rates of 50 to 80 ..mu..g CO/sub 2/ kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/ (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO/sub 2/. Nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO/sub 2/ was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO/sub 2/ kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/) were 10 to 100-fold higher than /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed /sup 14/C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed /sup 14/C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The occurrence of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N/sub 2/.

  1. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of alkane degrading bacteria associated with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) in a petroleum oil-contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Andria, Verania; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Smalla, Kornelia; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-12-15

    Twenty-six different plant species were analyzed regarding their performance in soil contaminated with petroleum oil. Two well-performing species, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Taurus), Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. Leo) and the combination of these two plants were selected to study the ecology of plant-associated, culturable alkane-degrading bacteria. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere, root interior and shoot interior and subjected to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene, the 16S and 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and alkane hydroxylase genes. Furthermore, we investigated whether alkane hydroxylase genes are plasmid located. Higher numbers of culturable, alkane-degrading bacteria were associated with Italian ryegrass, which were also characterized by a higher diversity, particularly in the plant interior. Only half of the isolated bacteria hosted known alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and cytochrome P153-like). Degradation genes were found both on plasmids as well as in the chromosome. In regard to application of plants for rhizodegradation, where support of numerous degrading bacteria is essential for efficient break-down of pollutants, Italian ryegrass seems to be more appropriate than Birdsfoot trefoil.

  2. Hydrocarbon degradation and plant colonization of selected bacterial strains isolated from the rhizsophere and plant interior of Italian ryegrass and Birdsfoot trefoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Y.; Andria, V.; Reichenauer, T. G.; Sessitsch, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizosphere, root and shoot interior of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Taurus), Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. Leo) grown in a soil contaminated with petroleum oil. Strains were tested regarding their phylogeny and their degradation efficiency. The most efficient strains were tested regarding their suitability to be applied for phytoremediation of diesel oils. Sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soil, with and with out compost, were spiked with diesel and used for planting Italian ryegrass and birdsfoot trefoil. Four selected strains with high degradation activities, derived from the rhizosphere and plant interior, were selected for individual inoculation. Plants were harvested at flowering stage and plant biomass and hydrocarbon degradation was determined. Furthermore, it was investigated to which extent the inoculant strains were able to survive and colonize plants. Microbial community structures were analysed by 16S rRNA and alkB gene analysis. Results showed efficient colonization by the inoculant strains and improved degradation by the application of compost combined with inoculation as well as on microbial community structures will be presented.

  3. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  4. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Wyss, U; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M; Bee, G; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2017-04-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the

  5. Palatability in sheep and in vitro nutritional value of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and chicory (Cichorium intybus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Anna; Arrigo, Yves; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Soliva, Carla R; Wyss, Ueli; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme, Frigga

    2007-12-01

    Three temperate forages, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory, characterized by elevated contents of plant secondary compounds, were compared to a ryegrass-clover mixture (control) in dried (Experiment 1) and ensiled form (Experiment 2) in their palatability and nutritional value. Palatability was measured in adult wethers (n = 6) allowed to choose between the familiar control forage and one of the three test plants. Palatability index was calculated from differences in intake of control and test plants measured after given times. Generally at first contact, palatability of the unfamiliar plants was low. Lag time until palatability index approached or exceeded a value of 100 was 2-5 d, but could not be related to the content of condensed tannins. Sainfoin had a high palatability, the highest content of condensed tannins (77.4 +/- 10.23 g/kg DM), a high content of duodenally utilisable crude protein (94.7 +/- 16.87 g/100 g CP), and a high content of metabolizable energy (9.5 +/- 0.38 MJ ME/kg DM), making this plant most promising for various purposes including anthelmintic action.

  6. Morphological and anatomical aspects of birdsfoot trefoil and big trefoil Aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos de cornichão-comum e cornichão-dos-banhados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Poles Maroso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of describing the aerial and underground organs of birdsfoot trefoil [Lotus corniculatus (São Gabriel and ARS-2620 cultivars] and big trefoil [Lotus uliginosus (Maku cultivar]. The plants were cultivated in pots and harvested at 150 and 210 days after sowing. Stems, leaves and roots were prepared in according to conventional anatomical techniques. The anatomical structures of L. corniculatus and L. uliginosus differed in terms of pith cell integrity, starch content in the parenchyma root cell and underground stem cortex. The leaves were amphistomatic, with phenolic idioblasts, small vascular bundles and few conducting elements. The underground system was diffuse, with adventitious shoots that grew in two directions, had no cataphylls, emerged from the ground, and gave rise to aerial stems. The morphological characteristics of the shoot system of both species matched the recent descriptions of soboles.Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar e descrever anatomicamente os órgãos aéreos e subterrâneos de cornichão-comum [Lotus corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel; cv. ARS-2620] e cornichão-dos-banhados [Lotus uliginosus (cv. Maku]. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos e colhidas aos 150 e 210 dias após semeadura. Amostras de caules, folhas e raízes foram preparadas de acordo com as técnicas convencionais de anatomia. As estruturas anatômicas das espécies L. corniculatus e L. uliginosus diferem quanto à integridade das células da medula das hastes, à quantidade aparente de amido nas células do parênquima das raízes e quanto ao tamanho da região cortical dos caules subterrâneos. As folhas são anfiestomáticas, possuem idioblastos fenólicos e feixes condutores de pequeno tamanho e com poucos elementos de condução. O sistema subterrâneo é difuso. Os caules têm origem adventícia, crescimento bipolar, não apresentam catáfilos e, ao emergirem do solo, originam ramos aéreos. As

  7. Caracterização morfofisiológica de genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L. Morphophysiological characterization on the birdsfoot trefoil genotypes (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Bolzon Soster

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O cornichão cv. São Gabriel é uma importante leguminosa hiberno-primaveril para o sul do Brasil, cuja principal limitação é a baixa persistência sob pastejo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar oito populações desse cultivar, selecionadas sob pastejo ou corte, comparando um genótipo rizomatoso (cv. ARS-2620 com um cultivar uruguaio sem rizomas (cv. Trueno, com a finalidade de verificar a variabilidade morfológica e caracteres vinculados à tolerância ao pastejo. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios em casa-de-vegetação, com plantas cultivadas em vasos, até alcançarem o florescimento pleno. Foi observada variabilidade morfofisiológica no germoplasma, como morfologia das folhas, dos caules e das coroas, assim como hábito de crescimento. Somente no cv. ARS-2620 foram observados rizomas típicos, mas todos os genótipos apresentaram hastes subterrâneas. O cv. ARS-2620 foi susceptível a ácaros, observando-se sintomas de antracnose (Colletotrichum sp. em duas populações. A variabilidade morfofisiológica das populações do cv. São Gabriel poderá ser explorada em programas de melhoramento do cornichão.The birdsfoot trefoil cv. São Gabriel is an important winter-spring growing legume in the Southern Brazil, which main limitation is the low persistence under grazing. The objective of this work was to evaluate eight populations of this cultivar, selected under grazing or cut, comparing with one rhizomatous genotype (cv. ARS-2620 and a cultivar from Uruguay without rhizomes (cv. Trueno, with the purpose to evaluate the morphological variability and characters linked to grazing tolerance. Two assays were conducted in the greenhouse with plants grown in pots until the full flowering stage. It was observed morphological variability in the germplasm, with variation in the leaf, stem and crown morphology as well as in growth habit. Only in the cv. ARS-2620 was observed typical rhizomes, but all the genotypes showed subterraneous stems

  8. Caracterização agronômica de genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L. Agronomic characterization if birdsfoot trefoil genotypes (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Bolzon Soster

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar agronomicamente genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., incluindo oito populações do cv. São Gabriel, um cultivar rizomatoso (cv. ARS-2620 e um cultivar sem rizomas (cv. Trueno. Plantas individuais foram cultivadas e submetidas a sete cortes em condições de campo, durante um ano, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao comprimento de entrenós, estatura, diâmetro, comprimento de legumes, produção de forragem e valor nutritivo. Na média geral, as populações e o cv. Trueno foram cerca de 50% mais produtivos em relação ao cv. ARS-2620. Os genótipos apresentaram entre 80 e 100% de sobrevivência. O conteúdo de proteína bruta reduziu de 21,8% (estádio vegetativo para 11,2% (estádio de frutificação. A média geral de fibra detergente ácido foi de 24,2% e a de fibra detergente neutro variou entre 55,3 e 58,8%.This work was carried out to characterize agronomically birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes, including eight populations derived from the cultivar São Gabriel, one rhizomatous cultivar (ARS-260 and one cultivar without rhizomes (Trueno. Individual plants were submitted to seven cuts under field conditions during one year, at Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The genotypes showed variability relative to internode lenght, height, diameter, legume lenght, forage production and nutritive value. On the average, the populations and the cv. Trueno were about 50% more productive than the cv. ARS-260. The genotypes presented a survival range from 80% to 100%. The crude protein content decreased from 21.8 (vegetative stage to 11.2% (fruiting stage. The overall mean for acid detergent fiber was 24.2% and the neutral detergent fiber ranged from 55.3% to 58.8%.

  9. [Self-fertility problems in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    The problems of Lotus corniculatus self-fertility are analyzed. The self-compatibility of hereditivity character, the efficacy of different methods of self-pollination (autogamy, geitonogamy within one plant and among plants of one clone), and usage of the mixture of self-compatible and self-incompatible pollen were studied.

  10. Growth Strategy of Rhizomatous and Non-Rhizomatous Tall Fescue Populations in Response to Defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal H. Bryant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of rhizome production, in two contrasting rhizomatous (R and non-rhizomatous (NR tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort populations, and to assess whether rhizome production is associated with changed biomass allocation or plant growth pattern. Growth of R and NR populations was compared, under hard defoliation (H, 50 mm stubble, lax defoliation (L, 100 mm stubble, or without defoliation (U, uncut. Populations were cloned and grown in a glasshouse and defoliated every three weeks, with destructive harvests performed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. R plants allocated more biomass to root and less to pseudostem than NR plants. Plant tiller numbers were greatly reduced by defoliation, and R and NR populations differed in leaf formation strategy. R plants had narrower leaves than NR, but their leaves were longer, because of greater leaf elongation duration. R plants were more plastic than NR plants in response to defoliation. Ultimately, biomass allocation to rhizomes did not differ between populations but R plants exhibited a subtle shift in distribution of internode length with a few longer internode segments typically located on secondary and tertiary tillers.

  11. Prolific plant regeneration from protoplast-derived tissues of Lotus corniculatus L. (birdsfoot trefoil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P S; Hadiuzzaman, S; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C

    1983-04-01

    Protoplasts isolated enzymatically from seedling roots, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Lotus corniculatus L. produced callus which underwent prolific shoot regeneration. The rapidity and ease of recovering plants from protoplast-derived tissues makes this forage legume an attractive experimental system for genetic manipulation.

  12. Measuring gene flow from two birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) field trials using transgenes as tracer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, F; Bellucci, M; Arcioni, S

    2003-06-01

    Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants but concern has been expressed about the potential environmental risks of releasing genetically modified (GM) organisms into the environment. Attention has focused on pollen dispersal as a major issue in the risk assessment of transgenic crop plants. In this study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. Plants of Lotus corniculatus L. transformed with either the Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase gene asnA or the beta-glucuronidase gene uidA, were used as the pollen donor. Nontransgenic plants belonging to the species L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. and Kit. ex Willd, and L. pedunculatus Cav., were utilized as recipients. Two experimental fields were established in two areas of central Italy. Plants carrying the uidA gene were partially sterile, therefore only the asnA gene was used as a tracer marker. No transgene flow between L. corniculatus transformants and the nontransgenic L. tenuis and L. pedunculatus plants was detected. As regards nontransgenic L. corniculatus plants, in one location flow of asnA transgene was detected up to 18 m from the 1.8 m2 donor plot. In the other location, pollen dispersal occurred up to 120 m from the 14 m2 pollinating plot.

  13. [Analysis of quantitative traits connected with seed weight and flowering terms in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2000-01-01

    The nature of inheritance of characters connected with the seed size (seed mass) and quality of the shoots (germination energy, seed viability, general shoot length, shoot mass, dry weight of shoots) in Lotus corniculatus L. was analyzed. The investigations were carried out on plants of three varieties: the wild form from the Krasnodar Region and local forms MF1 and MF3. The correlation analysis was carried out. The pattern of inheritance in the terms of plant flowering and length of shoots were studied.

  14. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  15. Scaling of Navier-Stokes trefoil reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The reconnection of a trefoil vortex knot is examined numerically to determine how its helicity and two of its vorticity norms behave. During an initial phase, the helicity is remarkably preserved, as reported in recent experiments (Scheeler et al. 2014a). In addition, the enstrophy ($Z$) has self-similar growth where all $\\sqrt{\

  16. Simulated Navier-Stokes trefoil reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and self-reconnection of a perturbed trefoil vortex knot is simulated, then compared to recent experimental measurements (Scheeler et al. 2014a). Qualitative comparisons using three-dimensional vorticity isosurfaces and lines, then quantitative comparisons using the helicity. To have a single initial reconnection, as in the experiments, the trefoil is perturbed by 4 weak vortex rings. Initially there is a long period with deformations similar to the experiment during which the energy, continuum helicity and topological self-linking number are all preserved. In the next period, once reconnection has clearly begun, a Reynolds number independent fraction of the initial helicity is dissipated in a finite time. In contrast, the experimental analysis finds that the helicity inferred from the trajectories of hydrogen bubbles is preserved during reconnection. Since vortices reconnect gradually in a classical fluid, it is suggested that the essential difference is in the interpretation of the reconnectio...

  17. Promoter hypomethylation and upregulation of trefoil factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Tørring, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    . In clinical samples, methylation of the promoter/enhancer regions of TFF1 and TFF3 was significantly lower in PC compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The present study shows an inverse relation between promoter methylation and expression of trefoil factors. Preliminary analysis on clinical samples...... cell lines with significant TFF expression as compared to benign immortalized prostate cell lines and PC cell lines not expressing trefoil factor. The most striking difference was observed for CpG sites located close to the AUG start codon overlapping several putative binding sites for cellular......Trefoil factors, mucin-associated peptides, are overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC). We hypothesized that promoter methylation contributes to the regulation of trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) in human prostate cells. Here we show hypomethylation of promoter regions of TFF1 and TFF3 in PC...

  18. Decay of trefoil and other magnetic knots

    CERN Document Server

    Candelaresi, Simon; Brandenburg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Two setups with interlocked magnetic flux tubes are used to study the evolution of magnetic energy and helicity on magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) systems like plasmas. In one setup the initial helicity is zero while in the other it is finite. To see if it is the actual linking or merely the helicity content that influences the dynamics of the system we also consider a setup with unlinked field lines as well as a field configuration in the shape of a trefoil knot. For helical systems the decay of magnetic energy is slowed down by the helicity which decays slowly. It turns out that it is the helicity content, rather than the actual linking, that is significant for the dynamics.

  19. Trefoil peptides promote restitution of wounded corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, M N; Cook, J R; Kunert, K S; Fini, M E; Gipson, I K; Podolsky, D K

    2001-04-01

    The ocular surface shares many characteristics with mucosal surfaces. In both, healing is regulated by peptide growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. However, these factors are not sufficient to ensure most rapid healing. Trefoil peptides are abundantly expressed epithelial cell products which exert protective effects and are key regulators of gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, the critical early phase of cell migration after mucosal injury. To assess the role of trefoil peptides in corneal epithelial wound healing, the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) and spasmolytic polypeptide (SP/TFF2) on migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells were analyzed. Both ITF and SP enhanced restitution of primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. While the restitution-enhancing effects of TGF-alpha and TGF-beta were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta-antibodies, trefoil peptide stimulation of restitution was not. Neither trefoil peptide significantly affected proliferation of primary corneal epithelial cells. ITF but not SP or pS2 mRNA was present in rabbit corneal and conjunctival tissues. In summary, the data indicate an unanticipated role of trefoil peptides in healing of ocular surface and demand rating their functional actions beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Salivary trefoil factor 3 enhances migration of oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storesund, Trond; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Kolltveit, Kristin M; Bryne, Magne; Schenck, Karl

    2008-04-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the mammalian TFF family. Trefoil factors are secreted onto mucosal surfaces of the entire body and exert different effects according to tissue location. Trefoil factors may enhance mucosal healing by modulating motogenic activity, inhibiting apoptosis, and promoting angiogenesis. Trefoil factor 3 is secreted from the submandibular gland and is present in whole saliva. The aim of this study was to assess the migratory and proliferative effects of TFF3 on primary oral human keratinocytes and oral cancer cell lines. The addition of TFF3 increased the migration of both normal oral keratinocytes and the cancer cell line D12, as evaluated by a two-dimensional scratch assay. By contrast, no increase in proliferation or energy metabolism was observed after stimulation with TFF3. Trefoil factor 3-enhanced migration was found to be driven partly by the extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk1/2) pathway, as shown by addition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD 98059. Previous functional studies on trefoil peptides have all been based on cells from monolayered epithelium like the intestinal mucosa; this is the first report to show that normal and cancerous keratinocytes from stratified epithelium respond to TFF stimuli. Taken together, salivary TFF3 is likely to contribute to oral wound healing.

  1. Trefoil factors: Gastrointestinal-specific proteins associated with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping; Ling, Hui; Lan, Gang; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Haobin; Yang, Ruirui

    2015-10-23

    Trefoil factor family (TFF), composed of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, is a cluster of secreted peptides characterized by trefoil domain (s) and C-terminal dimerization domain. TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor, is a single trefoil peptide originally detected in breast cancer cell lines but expressed mainly in the stomach; TFF2, a candidate of gastric cancer suppressor with two trefoil domains, is abundant in the stomach and duodenal Brunner's glands; and TFF3 is another single trefoil peptide expressed throughout the intestine which can promote the development of gastric carcinoma. According to multiple studies, TFFs play a regulatory function in the mammals' digestive system, namely in mucosal protection and epithelial cell reconstruction, tumor suppression or promotion, signal transduction and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Action mechanisms of TFFs remain unresolved, but the recent demonstration of a GKN (gastrokine) 2-TFF1 heterodimer implicates structural and functional interplay with gastrokines. This review aims to encapsulate the structural and biological characteristics of TFF.

  2. Vigor and persistence of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) populations selected with or without an orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) companion evaluated in grass sod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage legumes are often grown in mixtures with grass for grazing or harvested for hay or silage. Forage legume breeders often debate the necessity of incorporating grass competition into the breeding process, particularly when bred varieties will be utilized in mixture with grass. To address the va...

  3. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (Trifolium repens) in mixed pasture swards on incoming and established nematode infections in young lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernes, G; Waller, P J; Christensson, D

    2000-01-01

    Lotus corniculatus L., a leguminous plant containing condensed tannins, is now being evaluated in Sweden as a component of mixed pastures. This is because of its high nutritive value, palatability, modest requirement for water, calcium and phosphorous and particularly because it has the ability to survive harsh weather conditions that typify northern Scandinavia. This trial was undertaken to assess the possible parasitological benefits of using L. corniculatus when fed as a minor component in a mixed pasture sward to young sheep. This was compared with similar sheep that were fed pasture with a comparable legume content consisting of Trifolium repens L. Separate groups of lambs, maintained in pens and provided with fresh pasture cuts containing either L. corniculatus or T. repens each day, were trickle-dosed with infective larvae of mixed parasite species. For each pasture type, groups of 6 lambs had either established worm burdens only, received incoming infections only, or had the combination of both adult and incoming infections. Worm burdens were monitored by serial faecal egg counts and at the termination of the study, all animals were slaughtered for worm recovery, identification and enumeration. The results showed that there were no differential effects between L. corniculatus and T. repens on the different stages of development for a range of nematode parasite species recovered from these lambs. Several reasons may account for this: such as the low level of condensed tannins in the L. corniculatus variety tested, the minor proportion of this plant in the diet and/or the variety of L. corniculatus used in this trial which do not provide any benefits to controlling parasites of sheep.

  4. Immunoassays of human trefoil factors 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E M; Brynskov, J; Ejskjaer, K;

    2004-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where they play a critical role in mucosal protection and repair. The expression is up-regulated at sites of ulceration in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, we presented an ELISA method ...... for measurement of TFF3. The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate ELISAs for the other two known human trefoil peptides, TFF1 and TFF2, and to carry out a cross-sectional study on serum TFF levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)....

  5. Effects of Seed Treatments on Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    34• Birdsfoot trefoil [ Lotus corniculatus L.1 The seeds were treated as in number 3 above "* Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides Nutt.) except that the...Birdsfoot trefoil [ Lotus corniculatus L ] al. 1973). Family Gramineae Subfamily Poaceae GRASSES Tribe Chlorideae Buffalograss I Buchloe dactyloides...1973). cold, some cultivars are available with improved low-temperature resistance. There are conflicting Birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus

  6. Pharmacokinetics of trefoil peptides and their stability in gastrointestinal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellev, Stine; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are considered promising for therapeutic use in gastrointestinal diseases, and there is a need to explore the fate of injected TFF and the stability of the peptides in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenously (i.v.) administ...

  7. Effect of trefoil factors on the viscoelastic properties of mucus gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, L; Madsen, F; Poulsen, S S

    2002-01-01

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are expressed and secreted in a tissue-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of coexpression of trefoil peptides and mucins has been demonstrated in most mucus-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of trefoil peptides is up-regulat......-regulated in gastric ulceration and colitis. It is believed that TFF peptides interact with mucin to increase viscosity but this has never been confirmed. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the direct effect of trefoil peptides on mucus gel formation....

  8. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  9. Flavonoids from the bird's foot trefoil seeds (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the seeds of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. the presence of quercetin- and kaempferol heterosides was found. Eight crystalline compounds and one chromatographically homogeneous fraction were obtained from the flavonoid mixture using column chromatography on polyamide and cellulose. By means of TL-chromatography, elemental analysis and UV-spectrometry seven of the isolated compounds were identified to be quercetin, quercetin 3-arabopyranoside (guajaverin, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3,7-diglucoside, kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside kaempferol 3-glucosyl-7-rhamnoside and two remaining ones were only partly characterized a snearer indefinite kaempferol heterosides.

  10. Quantitative measurements of trefoil factor family peptides: possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund

    2013-01-01

    as well as in the circulation. They have been linked to both inflammatory diseases and to various types of cancer, and serum concentrations of TFF3 show a more than 47-fold increase during pregnancy. Several both commercial and in-house immunoassays exist, but a number of methodological issues remain......The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are produced and secreted by mucous membranes throughout the body. Their importance for the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces is well established, and the three peptides are present in various amounts in mucosal secretions...

  11. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised...... against these factors. TFF1 showed highest expression in the stomach and colon, whereas TFF2 and TFF3 showed highest expression in stomach and colon, respectively. All three TFFs were found in the ducts of pancreas. Whereas TFF2 was found to be restricted to these two tissues, the structurally more...... closely related TFF1 and TFF3 showed a more general tissue distribution and were found to colocalize on an array of mucosal surfaces. This is the first thorough parallel description of the tissue distribution of TFFs in normal tissues, and it provides a baseline for similar analysis in diseased tissues...

  12. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  13. Production of human intestinal trefoil factor in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong; PENG Xi; Lü Shang-jun; ZHANG Yong; WANG Shi-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To construct a Pichia pastoris (P. Pastoris) expression vector of human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF) and study its expression and purification procedures. Methods:hITF gene encoding mature peptide was modified with a polyhistidine tag sequence at the N-terminal, and then inserted into the P. Pastoris expression vector pGAPZαA at the ownstream of the α-mating factor signal. After gene sequencing, the recombinant pGAPZαA-hITF was transformed into the P. Pastoris strain X-33 with lithium chloride. rhITF was induced to constitutively express in shake flask, and then analyzed with Tricine SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The obtained rhITF was isolated from the cultured supernatants y ammonium sulfate precipitation, Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and ultrafiltration. Results:The correctness and integrity of rhITF were identified by restriction digestion and gene sequencing. rhITF was successfully expressed to 50 mg/L as a secretive protein. After purification, the purity was above 95%.Tricine SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis howed that rhITF presented as a single band with a molecular weight of 10 kDa, a little larger than 7 879 Da as assayed by mass spectrometry analysis. Conclusion:hITF P. Pastoris expression vector is successfully constructed and rhITF is expressed in P. Pastoris at commercially relevant level. This research lays foundation for the further functional tudying of hITF.

  14. Trefoil factor family peptides in the human foetus and at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie H; Poulsen, Steen S; Obeid, Rima;

    2011-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (7): 785-792 ABSTRACT: Background Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces. Changing levels of expression are reflected in serum concentrations. Serum levels of TFF2 and TFF3 are highly elevated during pregnancy. Here, we explore...... a possible foetal origin of these increased levels. Materials and methods We examined the expression of trefoil peptides in foetal tissues, placentas and foetal membranes from midterm abortions by immunohistochemistry. Employing in-house ELISAs, serum concentrations of TFF1-3 were measured in 92 paired...... samples of cord and maternal blood prior to delivery. Size exclusion chromatography was used to investigate the molecular forms of TFF1-3. Results Immunohistochemistry showed all trefoil peptides to be present during foetal life, but compared to adults with a more widespread expression of TFF2 and TFF3...

  15. Trefoil factor-3 expression in human colon cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyatsky, Mark; Lin, Jing; Yio, Xianyang; Chen, Anli; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zheng, Yan; Twyman, Christina; Bao, Xiuliang; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan; Lawrence Werther, J; Itzkowitz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether TFF3 is expressed in human colon cancer liver metastasis (CCLM) and whether inhibiting TFF3 expression in colon cancer cells would alter their invasive potential in vitro. Human CCLMs were analyzed at the mRNA and protein level for TFF3 expression. Two highly metastatic rat colon cancer cell lines that either natively express TFF3 (LN cells) or were transfected with TFF3 (LPCRI-2 cells), were treated with two rat TFF3 siRNA constructs (si78 and si365), and analyzed in an in vitro invasion assay. At the mRNA and protein level, TFF3 was expressed in 17/17 (100%) CCLMs and 10/11 (91%) primary colon cancers, but not in normal liver tissue. By real time PCR, TFF3 expression was markedly inhibited by both siRNA constructs in LN and LPCRI-2 cells. The si365 and si78 constructs inhibited invasion by 44% and 53%, respectively, in LN cells, and by 74% and 50%, respectively, in LPCRI-2 cells. These results provide further evidence that TFF3 contributes to the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells. These observations may have relevance for designing new diagnostic and treatment approaches to colorectal cancer.

  16. The gene encoding human intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is located on chromosome 21q22.3 clustered with other members of the trefoil peptide family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinery, R. [Royal College of Surgeons of England, London (United Kingdom); Williamson, J.; Poulsom, R. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    The gene coding for human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF), a recently described cellular motogen produced by gastrointestinal goblet cells and epithelia elsewhere, is a member of the rapidly growing trefoil peptide family. In a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel, the hITF (HGMW-approved symbol TFF3) genomic locus segregated with human chromosome 21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 2.1-kb genomic probe of the hITF gene mapped this locus more precisely to the q22.3 region. Triple fluorescence in situ hybridization, together with physical mapping of human genomic DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, revealed that the hITF gene is tightly linked to those encoding the other known human trefoil peptides, namely the breast cancer estrogen-inducable gene pS2 (BCEI) and human spasmolytic polypeptide (hSP/SML1). This gene family could become a useful marker for the genetic and physical mapping of chromosome 21 and for a better definition of the region involved in the clinical phenotype of several genetic diseases. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers

  18. Aortic valvuloplasty of calcific aortic stenosis with monofoil and trefoil balloon catheters: practical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Plante (Sylvain); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); L.C.P. van Veen; C. di Mario (Carlo); C.E. Essed; K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn order to evaluate the relation between balloon design (monofoil, trefoil) and valvular configuration, experimental aortic valvuloplasty was performed in four post-mortem hearts with calcific aortic stenosis of various morphology. The degree of obstruction of the aortic orifice was ass

  19. Development and evaluation of an ELISA for human trefoil factor 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Grønbaek, Henning

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The three trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) are small peptides believed to cross-link mucous glycoproteins and to play a role in the maintenance and repair of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To define the physiologic and potential diagnostic values of TFF3, assays able to measure TF...

  20. High Concentrations of Condensed Tannins in Utah Trefoil (Lotus utahensis Ottley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland ecosystems in the western USA are increasingly vulnerable to wildland fires, weed invasion, and misuse. For many of these rangelands, revegetation/restoration may be required to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, combat invasive weeds, and minimize soil erosion. Utah trefoil (L...

  1. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  2. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  3. Symmetric key structural residues in symmetric proteins with beta-trefoil fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Feng

    Full Text Available To understand how symmetric structures of many proteins are formed from asymmetric sequences, the proteins with two repeated beta-trefoil domains in Plant Cytotoxin B-chain family and all presently known beta-trefoil proteins are analyzed by structure-based multi-sequence alignments. The results show that all these proteins have similar key structural residues that are distributed symmetrically in their structures. These symmetric key structural residues are further analyzed in terms of inter-residues interaction numbers and B-factors. It is found that they can be distinguished from other residues and have significant propensities for structural framework. This indicates that these key structural residues may conduct the formation of symmetric structures although the sequences are asymmetric.

  4. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Toru; Yamada, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the 1970's, a preoperative diagnostic technique for thyroid follicular carcinoma has long been awaited. Many markers that distinguish follicular carcinomas from adenomas have been reported; however, most of them have not been confirmed to be beneficial for clinical use. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a relatively new family of peptides that bears the three-loop trefoil domain. Several groups have reported that the suppression of TFF3 mRNA expression is related to malignant characteristics of thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors and the expression level of TFF3 mRNA is the most promising indicator for diagnosing follicular carcinoma. Development of TFF3-based diagnostic methods is now ongoing and it may not be long before thyroid follicular carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively using an aspirated sample from the tumor.

  5. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  6. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  7. Impact of Applying Organic and Mineral Fertilisers on Dry Matter in Bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ileas toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying nitrogen fertilisers in legume species has been subjected to scientific research due to the efficacy of these fertilisers on yield (symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation. In general, applying high rates of nitrogen fertilisers on legume species does not correlate directly with green matter production because these species take the necessary nitrogen from the atmosphere. This feature is specific also to bird’s-foot-trefoil, which fixes important amounts of atmospheric nitrogen during vegetation. This paper presents the impact of the interaction between organic and mineral fertilisers on bird’s-foot-trefoil within a bifactorial experiment. Differences in yield at both unilateral effect of the factors and at that of the interaction of the factors are statistically ensured. Keywords: common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., organic and mineral fertilisers, dry matter

  8. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 expression is regulated by insulin and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Jose Barrera Roa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. They are classified into three groups: the gastric peptides (TFF1, spasmolytic peptide (TFF2 and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3. Previous studies have shown that trefoil factors are located and expressed in human endocrine pancreas suggesting that TFF3 play a role in: a pancreatic cells migration, b β-cell mitosis, and c pancreatic cells regeneration. We speculated that the presence of TFF3 in pancreas, could be associated to a possible regulation mechanism by insulin and glucose. To date, there are not reports whether the unbalance in carbohydrate metabolism observed in diabetes could affect the production or expression of TFF3.Methods: We determined the TFF3 levels and expression by immunoassay (ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique respectively, of intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29 treated with glucose and insulin. Also,Real Time-PCR (RTq-PCR was done.Results: Increasing concentrations of glucose improved TFF3 expression and these levels were further elevated after insulin treatment. Insulin treatment also led to the up-regulation of human sodium/glucose transporter 1 (hSGLT1, which further increases intracellular glucose levels. Finally, we investigated theTFF3 levels in serum of diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM and healthy patients. Here we shown that serum TFF3 levels were down-regulated in T1DM and this levels were up-regulated after insulin treatment. Also, the TFF3 levels of healthy donors were up-regulated 2 h after breakfast.Conclusion: Our fi ndings suggest for the fi rst time that insulin signaling is important for TFF3 optimal expression in serum and intestinal epithelial cells.

  9. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 expression is regulated by insulin and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Jose Barrera Roa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. They are classified into three groups: the gastric peptides (TFF1, spasmolytic peptide (TFF2 and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3. Previous studies have shown that trefoil factors are located and expressed in human endocrine pancreas suggesting that TFF3 play a role in: a pancreatic cells migration, b β-cell mitosis, and c pancreatic cells regeneration. We speculated that the presence of TFF3 in pancreas, could be associated to a possible regulation mechanism by insulin and glucose. To date, there are not reports whether the unbalance in carbohydrate metabolism observed in diabetes could affect the production or expression of TFF3.Methods: We determined the TFF3 levels and expression by immunoassay (ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique respectively, of intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29 treated with glucose and insulin. Also,Real Time-PCR (RTq-PCR was done.Results: Increasing concentrations of glucose improved TFF3 expression and these levels were further elevated after insulin treatment. Insulin treatment also led to the up-regulation of human sodium/glucose transporter 1 (hSGLT1, which further increases intracellular glucose levels. Finally, we investigated theTFF3 levels in serum of diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM and healthy patients. Here we shown that serum TFF3 levels were down-regulated in T1DM and this levels were up-regulated after insulin treatment. Also, the TFF3 levels of healthy donors were up-regulated 2 h after breakfast.Conclusion: Our fi ndings suggest for the fi rst time that insulin signaling is important for TFF3 optimal expression in serum and intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis....... The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme...... observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis...

  11. Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, elongated leaves, regular leaf arrangement along the stem and thicker leaves. Inheritance of altered characters was observed in the first progeny generation, and their genetic origin was considered.

  12. The SL_3 Jones polynomial of the trefoil: a case study of $q$-holonomic recursions

    CERN Document Server

    Garoufalidis, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The SL_3 colored Jones polynomial of the trefoil knot is a $q$-holonomic sequence of two variables with natural origin, namely quantum topology. The paper presents an explicit set of generators for the annihilator ideal of this $q$-holonomic sequence as a case study. On the one hand, our results are new and useful to quantum topology: this is the first example of a rank 2 Lie algebra computation concerning the colored Jones polynomial of a knot. On the other hand, this work illustrates the applicability and computational power of the employed computer algebra methods.

  13. Impact of positive coupling of the eye's trefoil and coma in retinal image quality and visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Eloy A; Alcón, Encarna; Artal, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    When the eye's higher-order aberrations are measured and reported, as important as the magnitude of each individual term are the possible combinations between them, which may change the overall retinal image quality and therefore visual performance. We have evaluated the relationships among different aberration terms in the human eye-coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration-and their effects on both retinal image quality and visual acuity (VA). In a group of normal young subjects with normal to excellent vision, we measured the eye's aberrations and high contrast VA under natural conditions after carefully correcting defocus and astigmatism. Among the different combinations of aberration terms, we only found a significant negative correlation (r2=0.30) between the vertical coefficients of trefoil C(3,-3) and coma C(3,-1). This is a positive coupling that produces a better retinal image quality than any of the other possible combinations of these terms. However, this improvement in image quality is limited by the presence of other aberrations. Only in a few eyes that presented the larger values of coupled vertical trefoil and coma appeared a significant improvement of image quality. Although we did not find a clear correction between the coma-trefoil vertical coupling and VA, most eyes with large amounts of aberrations (RMS>0.4 μm) have these terms coupled, keeping decimal acuity around 1.2 or higher.

  14. Optimizing of the cable bedding and the ampacity of underground power cables in trefoil formation by using the gravitational search algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perovic, Bojan; Klimenta, Dardan; Radosavljevic, Jordan; Jevtic, Miroljub

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the determination of the optimum values for dimensions of cable trench and cable bedding, interaxial spacings between power cables in trefoil formation and cable ampacities...

  15. Relationship between trefoil factor 1 expression and gastric rnucosa injuries and gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Ren; Jin-Yan Luo; Ya-Pi Lu; Lin Wang; Hua-Xiu Shi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with mucosa healing and carcinoma suppression, we assess the expression of trefoil factor 1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa.METHODS: TFF1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical method, and the average positive A was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software.RESULTS: Increased TFF1 was detected in gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer compared with normal mucosa. The same result could be seen in multiple and compound ulcer compared with simple ulcer. There was no significant difference between gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis and simple ulcer respectively. Increased TFF1 was detected in the peripheral mucosa of the gastric adenocarcinoma compared with normalmucosa. The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, the weaker the expression of TFF1. There was no TFF1 expressed in low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in middle and highly differentiated adenocarcinoma was a little lower than that in normal mucosa. But there was no significant difference. No TFF1 was assessed in esophageal squamous carcinoma and peripheral tissue. There was no significant difference between male and female.CONCLUSION: The expression of TFF1 was higher in gastritis and peptic ulcer than that in normal mucosa, and was also higher in multiple and compound ulcer than in simple ulcer. It seems that TFF1 plays a role in gastric mucosa protection and epithelial restitution. Increased expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue suggests that TFFLis associated with mechanism of carcinoma suppression and differentiation. Decreased expression of TFF1 in carcinoma and its relativity to the differentiation suggests that TFF1 is related to gland and cell destruction of carcinoma.

  16. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper.

  17. A novel non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from amphibian skin and its functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A naturally existing 72-kDa complex of non-lens betagamma-crystallin (alpha-subunit and trefoil factor (beta-subunit, named betagamma-CAT, was identified from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Its alpha-subunit and beta-subunit (containing three trefoil factor domains, with a non-covalently linked form of alphabeta(2, show significant sequence homology to ep37 proteins, a group of non-lens betagamma-crystallins identified in newt Cynops pyrrhogaster and mammalian trefoil factors, respectively. betagamma-CAT showed potent hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. The specific antiserum against each subunit was able to neutralize its hemolytic activity, indicating that the two subunits are functionally associated. betagamma-CAT formed membrane pores with a functional diameter about 2.0 nm, leading to K(+ efflux and colloid-osmotic hemolysis. High molecular weight SDS-stable oligomers (>240-kDa were detected by antibodies against the alpha-subunit with Western blotting. Furthermore, betagamma-CAT showed multiple cellular effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Low dosages of betagamma-CAT (25-50 pM were able to stimulate cell migration and wound healing. At high concentrations, it induced cell detachment (EC(50 10 nM and apoptosis. betagamma-CAT was rapidly endocytosed via intracellular vacuole formation. Under confocal microscope, some of the vacuoles were translocated to nucleus and partially fused with nuclear membrane. Bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar-type ATPase and nocodazole (an agent of microtuble depolymerizing, while inhibited betagamma-CAT induced vacuole formation, significantly inhibited betagamma

  18. pH and urea dependence of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in the beta-trefoil protein hisactophilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houliston, R Scott; Liu, Chengsong; Singh, Laila M R; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-29

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange rates were measured as a function of pH and urea for 37 slowly exchanging amides in the beta-trefoil protein hisactophilin. The rank order of exchange rates is generally maintained under different solution conditions, and trends in the pH and urea dependence of exchange rates are correlated with the rank order of exchange rates. The observed trends are consistent with the expected behavior for exchange of different amides via global and/or local unfolding. Analysis of the pH dependence of exchange in terms of rate constants for structural opening and closing reveals a wide range of rates in different parts of the hisactophilin structure. The slowest exchanging amides have the slowest opening and closing rates. Many of the slowest exchanging amides are located in trefoil 2, but there are also some slow exchanging amides in trefoils 1 and 3. Slow exchangers tend to be near the interface between the beta-barrel and the beta-hairpin triplet portions of this single-domain structure. The pattern of exchange behaviour in hisactophilin is similar to that observed previously in interleukin-1 beta, indicating that exchange properties may be conserved among beta-trefoil proteins. Comparisons of opening and closing rates in hisactophilin with rates obtained for other proteins reveal clear trends for opening rates; however, trends in closing rates are less apparent, perhaps due to inaccuracies in the values used for intrinsic exchange rates in the data fitting. On the basis of the pH and urea dependence of exchange rates and optical measurements of stability and folding, EX2 is the main exchange mechanism in hisactophilin, but there is also evidence for varying levels of EX1 exchange at low and high pH and high urea concentrations. Equilibrium intermediates in which subglobal portions of structure are cooperatively disrupted are not apparent from analysis of the urea dependence of exchange rates. There is, however, a strong correlation between

  19. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  20. Promoter polymorphisms in trefoil factor 2 and trefoil factor 3 genes and susceptibility to gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Mo-Ye; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-10-15

    The polymorphisms in trefoil factor (TFF) gene family that protect gastrointestinal epithelium might influence individual vulnerability to gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY platform to identify the genotypes of TFF2 rs3814896 and TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphisms in 478 GC patients, 652 atrophic gastritis patients, and 724 controls. For the TFF2 rs3814896 polymorphism, in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years, we found that AG+GG genotypes were associated with a 0.746-fold decreased risk of atrophic gastritis [p=0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.580-0.960], a 0.626-fold decreased risk of GC (p=0.005, 95% CI=0.451-0.868), and a 0.663-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC (p=0.034, 95% CI=0.452-0.970) compared with the common AA genotype. For the TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphism, in the male subgroup, individuals with variant AG+AA genotype were associated with a 0.761-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC compared with the common GG genotype (p=0.043, 95% CI=0.584-0.992). Additionally, we found that in subjects aged ≤ 50 years compared with common AA genotype, TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes were associated with increased TFF2 mRNA levels in the total gastric cancer specimens and in the diffuse-type gastric cancer specimens; and in males aged ≤ 50 years compared with common GG genotype, TFF3 rs9981660 AA+AG genotypes were associated with TFF3 mRNA levels in diffuse-type gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between the TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes and decreased risks of GC, diffuse-type GC, and atrophic gastritis in younger people aged ≤ 50 years, and an association between TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotype and decreased risk of diffuse-type GC in men. Moreover, we found that TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes in people aged ≤ 50 years and TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotypes in younger males with diffuse-type GC were associated with higher levels of

  1. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  3. Trefoil factors are expressed in human and rat endocrine pancreas: differential regulation by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackerott, Malene; Lee, Ying C; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2, and 3 are expressed in mucosal epithelia. TFFs are particular abundant in the intestine in which they play a crucial role in maintenance and restitution of the epithelium. Because pancreas developmentally arises from the primitive foregut, we explored the expression o...... of TFF3 resulted in attachment and migration of the islet cells, but no effects on proliferation, insulin secretion or cytokine-induced apoptosis were seen. These data demonstrate expression of TFFs in the endocrine pancreas, but their possible functions remain unknown....... of TFFs in the pancreas in man and rat. Immunocytochemical staining of adult human pancreas showed abundant TFF3 immunoreactivity in pancreatic islets and some duct cells, whereas weak TFF1 and no TFF2 staining were detected. In the islets TFF3 localized to most insulin and some glucagon and pancreatic...... polypeptide-producing cells. TFF3 immunoreactivity was colocalized with insulin and glucagon in distinct cell clusters in human fetal pancreas at wk 14 and in the newborn rat pancreas. In isolated human and rat islets, TFF3 and TFF1 mRNA was identified by RT-PCR, and TFF3 protein was detected in human...

  4. Effects of Intestinal Trefoil Factor on Colonic Mucosa in Experimental Colitis of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian; ZOU Kaifang; QIAN Wei

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the protective effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) on colonic mucosa in experimental colitis of rats, ITF was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry at different time points. Three days after colitis induction, rats were treated with either 0.9 % saline solution or rhITF. Pathological changes and the expression of iNOS mRNA, NO, MDA and SOD were measured respectively. It was found that ITF was mainly located in goblet cells, significantly higher in model group than in normal group (P<0.05). rhITF could increase the iNOS mRNA expression and NO contents, and there was statistically significant difference between rhITF group and model group (P<0.05). rhITF also caused an increase of MDA and a decrease of SOD, but there was no significant difference between two groups. These results indicated that ITF has apparent therapeutic effects in ulcerative colitis, which may be associated with iNOS and NO.

  5. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lebherz-Eichinger

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0.003, 0.8. In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.

  6. Expression of trefoil factors 1 and 2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qing Shi; Jian-Ting Cai; Jian-Ming Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and TFF2 in precancerous condition and gastric cancer and to explore the relationship between TFFs and tumorigenesis, precancerous condition and gastric cancer.METHODS: The expression of TFF1 and TFF2 was immunohistochemically analyzed in paraffin-embedded samples from 140 patients including 35 cases of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), 35 cases of gastric ulcer (GU),35 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and 35 cases of gastric cancer (GC).RESULTS: TFF1 and TFF2 were located in cytoplasm of gastric mucous cells. In CSG, GU, CAG and GC, the level of TFF1 expression had a decreased tendency (P< 0.05).The expression of TFF2 was higher in GU than in CSG,but the difference was not significant. The expression of TFF2 also had a decreased tendency in GU, CAG, and GC (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The reduced expression of TFF1 and TFF2 in precancerous conditions and gastric cancer may be associated with the proliferation and malignant transformation of gastric mucosa. More investigations are needed to explore the mechanism of TFFs and the relationship between TFFs and gastric cancer.

  7. Excitonic Coupling in Linear and Trefoil Trimer Perylenediimide Molecules Probed by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Yoo, Hyejin

    2012-10-25

    Perylenediimide (PDI) molecules are promising building blocks for photophysical studies of electronic interactions within multichromophore arrays. Such PDI arrays are important materials for fabrication of molecular nanodevices such as organic light-emitting diodes, organic semiconductors, and biosensors because of their high photostability, chemical and physical inertness, electron affinity, and high tinctorial strength over the entire visible spectrum. In this work, PDIs have been organized into linear (L3) and trefoil (T3) trimer molecules and investigated by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to probe the relationship between molecular structures and interchromophoric electronic interactions. We found a broad distribution of coupling strengths in both L3 and T3 and hence strong/weak coupling between PDI units by monitoring spectral peak shifts in single-molecule fluorescence spectra upon sequential photobleaching of each constituent chromophore. In addition, we used a wide-field defocused imaging technique to resolve heterogeneities in molecular structures of L3 and T3 embedded in a PMMA polymer matrix. A systematic comparison between the two sets of experimental results allowed us to infer the correlation between intermolecular interactions and molecular structures. Our results show control of the PDI intermolecular interactions using suitable multichromophoric structures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. ERG Cooperates with Androgen Receptor in Regulating Trefoil Factor 3 in Prostate Cancer Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  9. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer.

  10. Trefoil factor 3 is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Nagarajan; Kang, Jian; Kong, Xiangjun; Tang, Jianzhong; Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Miller, Lance D; Liu, Edison T; Mertani, Hichem C; Zhu, Tao; Grandison, Prudence M; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E

    2010-12-01

    We report herein that trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased cell proliferation and survival, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, and promoted migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF3 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, depletion of endogenous TFF3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Neutralization of secreted TFF3 by antibody promoted apoptosis, decreased cell growth in vitro, and arrested mammary carcinoma xenograft growth. TFF3 expression was significantly correlated to decreased survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased ER transcriptional activity, promoted estrogen-independent growth, and produced resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant in vitro and to tamoxifen in xenograft models. siRNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of antiestrogens. Increased TFF3 expression was observed in tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR) cells and antibody inhibition of TFF3 in TAMR cells improved tamoxifen sensitivity. Functional antagonism of TFF3 therefore warrants consideration as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma.

  11. Trefoil factor 3 peptide regulates migration via a Twist-dependent pathway in gastric cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianqian; Gao, Jian; Li, Honglin; Guo, Wendong; Mao, Qi; Gao, Enhui; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2013-08-16

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family and essential in regulating cell migration and maintaining mucosal integrity in gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of TFF3 and its downstream regulating mechanisms in cancer cell migration remain unclear. We previously reported that TFF3 prolonged the up-regulation of Twist protein to modulate IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Twist protein in TFF3-induced migration of SGC7901 cells. While Twist was activated by TFF3, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Twist abolished TFF3-induced cell migration. Furthermore, the migration related marker CK-8 as well as ZO-1 and MMP-9 was also regulated by TFF3 via a Twist-dependent mechanism. Our study suggests that Twist, as an important potential downstream effector, plays a key role in TFF3-modulated metastasis in gastric cancer and can be a promising therapeutic target against intestinal-type gastric cancer.

  12. ERG cooperates with androgen receptor in regulating trefoil factor 3 in prostate cancer disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, David S; Chen, Ying-Bei; Banerjee, Samprit; Pan, Yihang; Yu, Jindan; Vuong, Terry; Perner, Sven; Lafargue, Christopher J; Mertz, Kirsten D; Setlur, Sunita R; Sircar, Kanishka; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Bismar, Tarek A; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca

    2010-12-01

    To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC) and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  13. Trefoil factor family (TFF) proteins as potential serum biomarkers in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocka, M; Langer, D; Petrtyl, J; Vockova, P; Hanus, T; Kalousova, M; Zima, T; Petruzelka, L

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) is composed of three secretory proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) that play an important role in mucosal protection of gastrointestinal tract. Their overexpression in colorectal tumors seems to be associated with more aggressive disease. We collected serum samples from 79 healthy controls and 97 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer at the time of diagnosis or at progression. Serum levels of TTF1-3, CEA and CA19-9 were measured by ELISA. Serum TFF1 and TFF3 levels were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls (p TFF3 correlated with extent of liver involvement in patient without pulmonary metastases and patients with higher TFF3 levels had significantly worse outcome (p TFF3 had higher sensitivity and the same specificity. Our results indicate that TFF3 is an effective biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with higher sensitivity than CEA a CA19-9. TFF3 levels strongly correlate with extension of liver disease and seem to have prognostic value.

  14. Intestinal trefoil factor promotes invasion in non-tumorigenic Rat-2 fibroblast cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victor Y W; Chan, Michael W Y; Leung, Wai-Keung; Leung, Po-Sing; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chan, Francis K L

    2005-04-15

    Intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is essential in regulating cell migration and maintaining mucosal integrity in gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that TFF3 was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma. Whether TFF3 possesses malignant potential is not fully elucidated. We sought to investigate the effects of inducting TFF3 expression in a non-malignant rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-2) on the cell proliferation, invasion and the genes regulating cell invasion. Invasiveness and proliferation of transfected Rat-2 cell line were assessed using in vitro invasion chamber assay and colorimetric MTS assay. Differential mRNA expressions of invasion-related genes, namely, metalloproteinases (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), beta-catenin and E-cadherin, were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We showed that TFF3 did not inhibit the proliferation of Rat-2 cells. We also demonstrated that transfection of TFF3 significantly promoted invasion of Rat-2 cells by 1.4- to 2.2-folds. There was an upregulation of beta-catenin (13.1-23.0%) and MMP-9 (43.4-92.2%) mRNA expression levels, and downregulation of E-cadherin (25.6-33.8%) and TIMP-1 (31.5-37.8%) in TFF3-transfected cells compared to controls during 48-h incubation. Our results suggested that TFF3 possesses malignant potential through promotion of cell invasiveness and alteration of invasion-related genes.

  15. Study on Productivity of some Legume Crops in Pure Cultivation and Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliana Vasileva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of pot trial the productivity of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. cv. ‘Targovishte’ 1”; sainfoin (Onobrychis Adans. breeding N26, white clover (Тrifolium repens L. cv. ‘Milka’, and subclover (Trifolim subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum cv. ‘Clear’, in pure cultivation and in mixtures was studied. The treatments were as follows: 1. birdsfoot trefoil 100%; 2. sainfoin 100%; 3. white clover 100%; 4. subclover 100%; 5. cocksfoot 100%; 6. birdsfoot trefoil+cocksfoot; 7. sainfoin+cocksfoot 8. white clover+cocksfoot; 9. subclover+cocksfoot; 10. birdsfoot trefoil+ subclover; 11. sainfoin+subclover; 12. white clover+subclover. The ratio between components in the mixtures was 50:50. Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. cv. ‘Dabrava’ as a grass component was used. It was found, that aboveground dry matter yield of white clover, birdsfoot trefoil, sainfoin and subclover in mixture with cocksfoot was higher as compared to these in pure cultivation. Subclover in mixture with birdsfoot trefoil increased aboveground dry matter yield, but in mixture with sainfoin and white clover did not contribute to increase of their productivity.

  16. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise;

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our......, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases....

  17. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, immersed in hydroponic culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-11-01

    Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, with or without root was investigated to prepare higher radioactive plant in hydroponic culture medium (140-150 Bq/ml). It was found that {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue was increased with time, as high as 1.6 times of that in the culture medium after 4 days. On the other hand, {sup 137}Cs concentration was affected by carrier element (Cs>6 ppm) and coexistent elements in the medium. Radioactivity of the plant after 4 days was shown to be sufficient for successive experiments. (author)

  18. The therapeutic effect of recombinant human trefoil factor 3 on hypoxia-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in immature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Hong; Yu, Hong-Gang; Sheng, Zhi-Xiang; Luo, He-Sheng; Yu, Jie-Ping

    2003-11-15

    Trefoil peptides are a new class of regulatory peptides involved in mucosal protection and repair in the gastrointestinal tract. Among them, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) (intestinal trefoil factor) is known to be cytoprotective in the gut. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of recombinant human trefoil factor 3 (rhTFF3) on hypoxia-induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in immature rats. In the present study, thirty-two 1-day-old Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as nonhypoxic controls. Group 2 rats were subjected to hypoxia reoxygenation (H/O) and then were returned to their mothers. Groups 3 and 4 rats were subjected to H/O, were returned to their mothers, and were treated with rhTFF3 intraperitoneally (0.5 mg) and subcutaneously (0.2 mg), respectively, for the next 3 days. All animals were killed on day 4, and intestine specimens were obtained to determine the histological changes, tissue level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tromboxane B2 (TXB2), and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, the effects of rhTFF3 on abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were also investigated. In neonatal NEC (group 2), necrosis of villi and crypts and, in some cases, transmural necrosis was observed under light microscopy. Tissue level of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, prostaglandin E2, tromboxane B2, and nitric oxide were significantly higher than group 1. In addition, abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 was markedly increased. In groups 3 and 4, only very slight intestinal injury was observed. The tissue level of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, prostaglandin E2, tromboxane B2, and nitric oxide were significantly decreased in comparison to the group 2. Meanwhile, the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase

  19. Trefoil factors: Tumor progression markers and mitogens via EGFR/MAPK activation in cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanuengnuch Kosriwong; Trevelyan R Menheniott; Andrew S Giraud; Patcharee Jearanaikoon; Banchob Sripa; Temduang Limpaiboon

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate trefoil factor (TFF ) gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression as potential biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: TFF mRNA levels, gene copy number and protein expression were determined respectively by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in bile duct epithelium biopsies collected from individuals with CCA, precancerous bile duct dysplasia and from disease-free controls. The functional impact of recombinant human (rh)TFF2 peptide treatment on proliferation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was assessed in the CCA cell line, KMBC, by viable cell counting and immunoblotting, respectively. RESULTS: TFF1 , TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in CCA tissue compared to disease-free controls, and was unrelated to gene copy number. TFF1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in both dysplasia and CCA, whereas TFF2 immunoreactivity was increased only in CCA compared to diseasefree controls. By contrast, TFF3 immunoreactivity was moderately decreased in dysplasia and further decreased in CCA. Kaplan-Meier analysis found no association of TFF mRNA, protein and copy number with age, gender, histological subtype, and patient survival time. Treatment of KMBC cells with rhTFF2 stimulated proliferation, triggered phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), whereas co-incubation with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PD153035, blocked rhTFF2-dependent proliferation and EGFR/ERK responses. CONCLUSION: TFF mRNA/protein expression is indicative of CCA tumor progression, but not predictive for histological sub-type or survival time. TFF2 is mitogenic in CCA via EGFR/MAPK activation.

  20. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-30

    Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  1. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  2. Trefoil factor-2, human spasmolytic polypeptide, promotes branching morphogenesis in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, E N; Williams, R; Jayaram, Y; Gilbert, C; Chaudhary, K S; Siu, L S; Koumarianou, A; Playford, R; Stamp, G W

    1999-05-01

    Members of the trefoil factor (TFF) family are highly expressed in endodermal ulcerative wound healing and selectively in neoplastic proliferation of various glandular epithelia. There is some evidence that TFF1 and TFF3 affect cell motility, are indirectly involved in growth suppression, and are associated with mucin expression. TFF2 is co-expressed with TFF1 in gastric surface epithelial cells, but its potential role in vivo is unclear. We analyzed potential effects on cell proliferation and morphogenesis of TFF2 on a panel of epithelial and mesenchymal cell lines. TFF2 had no measurable effect on the proliferation of any of the cell lines tested. In type 1 collagen lattices, TFF2 at a low concentration (25-100 nM) induced the formation of highly complex branched structures in the breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 over a period of 14 to 42 days. No significant effect was shown with other cell lines. This morphogenic effect was abolished by monoclonal antibodies specific for either TFF2 or TFF1. TFF2 did not affect cell motility in MCF-7 cells as measured by videomicroscopy, in contrast to previous studies using TFF1. TFF2-treated MCF-7 colonies showed a 30% reduction in the number of apoptotic bodies, corroborated by trypan blue exclusion and DNA fragmentation ELISA, indicating TFF2 promotes cell survival via inhibition of apoptosis and can act as a morphogen in the presence of TFF1. These properties may complement the actions of TFF1 as a motogen and may explain differential expression in endodermal wound healing.

  3. Intestinal trefoil factor activates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to protect gastric mucosal epithelium from damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Zhizhou; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Yi; Sun, Baodi; Lin, Jinfeng; Xu, Min; Nie, Shinan

    2014-09-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF, also named as trefoil factor 3, TFF3) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival, cell migration and maintains mucosal epithelial integrity in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the underlying mechanisms and associated molecules remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ITF on gastric mucosal epithelium injury and its possible molecular mechanisms of action. In the present study, we show that ITF was able to promote the proliferation and migration of GES-1 cells via a mechanism that involves the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Western blot results indicated that ITF induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in the Akt signaling pathway. ITF also plays an essential role in the restitution of GES-1 cell damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced the apoptosis of GES-1 cells, decreased cell viability significantly (Pinhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ITF promotes the proliferation and migration of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and preserves gastric mucosal epithelial integrity after damage is mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway could act as a key intracellular pathway in the gastric mucosal epithelium that may serve as a therapeutic target to preserve epithelial integrity during injury.

  4. Recombinant Human Trefoil Factor 3 Ameliorates Bowel Injury: Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect on Experimental Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recombinant human trefoil factor 3 (intestinal trefoil factor has been suggested to be partially protective against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, but the mechanisms of this protection have not been defined. We investigated whether the protective effects of rhTFF3 are the result of an anti-inflammatory response. Methods. The rats were killed on day 4, the distal ileum was harvested for morphological studies and immunohistochemistry for NF-κB (p65, and the amounts of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in the intestinal tissue were measured using commercial ELISA assay kits. Results. In the neonatal NEC, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher than in normal group. In normal group, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and the amount of IL-10 was markedly increased compared with NEC group. In the NEC model, immunohistochemical staining for NF-κB (p65 was demonstrated to be of a strong brown color and was distributed in the intestinal epithelium. Treatment with rhTFF3 significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of NF-κB (p65 in the NEC model. Conclusions. Intestinal inflammation was ameliorated after rhTFF3 was injected. rhTFF3 may protect against the intestinal injury of the neonatal rat NEC model by suppression of the inflammatory response.

  5. Metabolism of oral trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) and the effect of oral and parenteral TFF2 on gastric and duodenal ulcer healing in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Thulesen, J; Christensen, L

    1999-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) are peptides produced by mucus-secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tract. A functional association between these peptides and mucus, leading to stabilisation of the viscoelastic gel overlying the epithelia, has been suggested. Both oral and parenteral administration of ...... of the peptides increase the resistance of the gastric mucosa....

  6. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease....... Materials and methods Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal...... progression in OSCC. Quantification of TFF levels in saliva may not be optimal in terms of diagnostic or predictive value for OSCC derived from oral mucosa....

  7. Construção e avaliação agronômica de genótipos de cornichão com respostas contrastantes à toxidez por alumínio Construction and agronomic evaluation of birdsfoot trefoil genotypes with contrasting responses to aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Martins dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar e caracterizar genótipos de Lotus corniculatus com respostas contrastantes à toxidez por alumínio. Quatro cultivares (São Gabriel, San Gabriel, Draco, Estanzuela e uma população (UFRGS foram submetidas a duas seleções consecutivas em solos com 30-35% de saturação por alumínio. As seleções consistiram da separação de 1% dos indivíduos mais e menos vigorosos para obtenção de genótipos tolerantes e sensíveis, respectivamente. Os indivíduos selecionados foram comparados ao germoplasma de origem por avaliação agronômica. Os genótipos selecionados pela tolerância ao alumínio tóxico foram de modo geral superiores aos germoplasmas originais, enquanto aqueles selecionados pela sensibilidade parecem ter sido selecionados pelo menor vigor, pois foram inferiores ao germoplasma original, mesmo em situações de ausência de alumínio tóxico. Entre os genótipos selecionados, destacou-se o UFRGS selecionado para tolerância, que apresentou elevada produção de matéria seca, sendo superior aos demais genótipos. A realização de testes a campo e a multiplicação de sementes destes genótipos para posterior uso em áreas que apresentem esta limitação é necessária, particularmente para a população de UFRGS selecionada para tolerância ao alumínio.The objective of this study was to select and characterize Lotus corniculatus genotypes with contrasting responses to toxicity by aluminum. Four cultivars (São Gabriel, San Gabriel, Draco, Estanzuela and one population (UFRGS were submitted to two consecutive selections in soils that presented 30-35% aluminum saturation. Selections consisted of separating 1% of the most and less vigorous individuals in order to obtain tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively. The individuals chosen were compared with the original germplasm by agronomical evaluation. Genotypes selected by tolerance to toxic aluminum were overall superior to the original populations. However, the materials chosen by sensitivity were inferior to the original populations even in situations where toxic aluminum was absent. Among the selected genotypes, the UFRGS selected for tolerance stood out, presenting an elevated dry matter production level - superior to all other genotypes. Field testing and seed multiplication of these genotypes for further use in areas that present this limitation is necessary, especially for the UFRGS population selected for tolerance to aluminum.

  8. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  9. Oriented Attachment of Recombinant Proteins to Agarose-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles by Means of a β-Trefoil Lectin Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebrón, Iván; Ruiz-Estrada, Amalia G; Luengo, Yurena; Morales, María Del Puerto; Guisán, José Manuel; Mancheño, José Miguel

    2016-11-16

    Design of generic methods aimed at the oriented attachment of proteins at the interfacial environment of magnetic nanoparticles currently represents an active field of research. With this in mind, we have prepared and characterized agarose-coated maghemite nanoparticles to set up a platform for the attachment of recombinant proteins fused to the β-trefoil lectin domain LSL150, a small protein that combines fusion tag properties with agarose-binding capacity. Analysis of the agarose-coated nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric studies shows that decoupling particle formation from agarose coating provides better results in terms of coating efficiency and particle size distribution. LSL150 interacts with these agarose-coated nanoparticles exclusively through the recognition of the sugars of the polymer, forming highly stable complexes, which in turn can be dissociated ad hoc with the competing sugar lactose. Characterization of the complexes formed with the fusion proteins LSL-EGFP (LSL-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein from Aquorea victoria) and LSL-BTL2 (LSL-tagged lipase from Geobacillus thermocatenolatus) provided evidence supporting a topologically oriented binding of these molecules to the interface of the agarose-coated nanoparticles. This is consistent with the marked polarity of the β-trefoil structure where the sugar-binding sites and the N- and C-terminus ends are at opposed sides. In summary, LSL150 displays topological and functional features expected from a generic molecular adaptor for the oriented attachment of proteins at the interface of agarose-coated nanoparticles.

  10. Host-derived, pore-forming toxin-like protein and trefoil factor complex protects the host against microbial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Yan, Chao; Guo, Xiaolong; Zhou, Kaifeng; Li, Sheng'an; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-05-06

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the bacterial β-pore-forming toxin superfamily. Surprisingly, numerous aerolysin-like proteins exist in vertebrates, but their biological functions are unknown. βγ-CAT, a complex of an aerolysin-like protein subunit (two βγ-crystallin domains followed by an aerolysin pore-forming domain) and two trefoil factor subunits, has been identified in frogs (Bombina maxima) skin secretions. Here, we report the rich expression of this protein, in the frog blood and immune-related tissues, and the induction of its presence in peritoneal lavage by bacterial challenge. This phenomena raises the possibility of its involvement in antimicrobial infection. When βγ-CAT was administrated in a peritoneal infection model, it greatly accelerated bacterial clearance and increased the survival rate of both frogs and mice. Meanwhile, accelerated Interleukin-1β release and enhanced local leukocyte recruitments were determined, which may partially explain the robust and effective antimicrobial responses observed. The release of interleukin-1β was potently triggered by βγ-CAT from the frog peritoneal cells and murine macrophages in vitro. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed and translocated to lysosomes, where it formed high molecular mass SDS-stable oligomers (>170 kDa). Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B release were detected, which may explain the activation of caspase-1 inflammasome and subsequent interleukin-1β maturation and release. To our knowledge, these results provide the first functional evidence of the ability of a host-derived aerolysin-like protein to counter microbial infection by eliciting rapid and effective host innate immune responses. The findings will also largely help to elucidate the possible involvement and action mechanisms of aerolysin-like proteins and/or trefoil factors widely existing in vertebrates in the host defense against pathogens.

  11. Influence of seed size and weight used in sowing on common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. Plant vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Ilie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. plants are influenced by seed size and weight upon sowing. Studies show that the five seed size groups influence plant vigour, i.e. a 2-4 times increase of morphological organs (roots, seedlings, leaves in larger and heavier seed group than in smaller and lighter seed group. This increase was also pointed out by the strong correlations between seed size and plant vigour.

  12. The Structure of the Neurotoxin- Associated Protein HA33/A from Clostridium botulinum Suggests a Reoccurring Beta-Trefoil Fold in the Progenitor Toxin Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    sequence similarity to the b-trefoil- containing binding domains of BoNT/A and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) from Clostridium tetani with sequence...doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.12.039 J. Mol. Biol. (2005) 346, 1083–1093The Structure of the Neurotoxin-associated Protein HA33/A from Clostridium botulinum...correspond stevens@scripps.eduThe hemagglutinating protein HA33 from Clostridium botulinum is associated with the large botulinum neurotoxin secreted

  13. TFF与消化系统肿瘤关系的研究进展%Research on Relations between Trefoil Factor and Digestive Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽英; 马丽; 秦玉彩

    2011-01-01

    Trefoil factor (TFF) peptides are a family of small molecular regulatory protein which is mainly expressed in gastrointestinal mucus membrane,including TFF1 (PS2), TFF2 (SP)and TFF3(ITF). Its main function is to keep the integrity of mucous membranes and promote the repair of epithelial damage. Recent studies have found that trefoil factor family has connection with the occurrence and development of digestive tumors. At the same time it has a certain impact on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore further study on mechanism of trefoil factor family in gastrointestal tumor will provide new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestal cancer.%TFF是一族主要表达于胃肠道黏膜的小分子多肽,包括乳腺癌相关肽、解痉多肽和肠三叶因子,其主要功能是维持黏膜的完整性和促进损伤黏膜的修复.近年研究发现TFF与消化系统肿瘤的发生、发展有关,同时对细胞的增殖和凋亡有一定的影响,因此,进一步研究TFF在消化系肿瘤中的作用机制,将为消化系肿瘤的诊断与治疗开辟新的途径.

  14. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise; Andreassen, Helle; Clementsen, Paul; Thim, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our aim was to explore their presence in pulmonary secretions and to investigate whether they are up-regulated in pulmonary diseases characterized by mucin hypersecretion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 92 individuals referred to bronchoscopy. The patients were grouped according to diagnosis and pulmonary function. The concentrations of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 were measured by ELISA. All three peptides were detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had concentrations two to three times above the levels in the healthy reference group, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases.

  15. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) enhances the oncogenic characteristics of prostate carcinoma cells and reduces sensitivity to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Omesha; Evans, Angharad; Pertziger, Mikhail; MacDonald, Christa; Chen, Helen; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E; Perry, Jo K

    2015-05-28

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a secreted protein which functions in mucosal repair of the gastrointestinal tract. This is achieved through the combined stimulation of cell migration and prevention of apoptosis and anoikis, thus facilitating repair. Deregulated TFF3 expression at the gene and protein level is implicated in numerous cancers. In prostate cancer TFF3 has previously been reported as a potential biomarker, overexpressed in a subset of primary and metastatic cases. Here we investigated the effect of increased TFF3 expression on prostate cancer cell behaviour. Oncomine analysis demonstrated that TFF3 mRNA expression was upregulated in prostate cancer compared to normal tissue. Forced-expression models were established in the prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, by stable transfection of an expression vector containing the TFF3 cDNA. Forced expression of TFF3 significantly increased total cell number and cell viability, cell proliferation and cell survival. In addition, TFF3 enhanced anchorage independent growth, 3-dimensional colony formation, wound healing and cell migration compared to control transfected cell lines. We also observed reduced sensitivity to ionising radiation in stably transfected cell lines. In dose response experiments, forced expression of TFF3 significantly enhanced the regrowth of PC3 cells following ionising radiation compared with control transfected cells. In addition, TFF3 enhanced clonogenic survival of DU145 and PC3 cells. These studies indicate that targeting TFF3 for the treatment of prostate cancer warrants further investigation.

  16. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Jan; Busch, Maike; Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  17. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:27626280

  18. Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is present in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the developing mouse fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2013-04-01

    Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is found in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis, whereas no TFF3 presence is observed in healthy cartilage. During endochondral ossification, bone tissue replaces degenerating cartilage. There is no data about the role of TFF3 in this process. Our aim was to study the localization of TFF3 in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the mouse fetus. CD1 mouse fetuses, days 14-17, were isolated, fixed, and paraffin embedded. Fetuses were cut into 6μm sections, and processed for immunohistochemical staining with affinity purified polyclonal rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody. TFF3 was present in cartilage chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification, particularly in zone of proliferation, hypertrophy and calcification as well as in zone of cartilage degeneration during the monitored fetal period. Resting cartilage showed no presence of TFF3, while during endochondral ossification TFF3 localization showed an analogous pattern to that reported in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis. Our data indicate that the role of TFF3 in these pathological conditions is similar to its role in the physiological process of endochondral ossification.

  19. Denaturant-Dependent Conformational Changes in a [beta]-Trefoil Protein: Global and Residue-Specific Aspects of an Equilibrium Denaturation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latypov, Ramil F.; Liu, Dingjiang; Jacob, Jaby; Harvey, Timothy S.; Bondarenko, Pavel V.; Kleemann, Gerd R.; Brems, David N.; Raibekas, Andrei A.; (Amgen)

    2010-01-12

    Conformational properties of the folded and unfolded ensembles of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are strongly denaturant-dependent as evidenced by high-resolution two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), limited proteolysis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The folded ensemble was characterized in detail in the presence of different urea concentrations by 1H-15N HSQC NMR. The {beta}-trefoil fold characteristic of native IL-1ra was preserved until the unfolding transition region beginning at 4 M urea. At the same time, a subset of native resonances disappeared gradually starting at low denaturant concentrations, indicating noncooperative changes in the folded state. Additional evidence of structural perturbations came from the chemical shift analysis, nonuniform and bell-shaped peak intensity profiles, and limited proteolysis. In particular, the following nearby regions of the tertiary structure became progressively destabilized with increasing urea concentrations: the {beta}-hairpin interface of trefoils 1 and 2 and the H2a-H2 helical region. These regions underwent small-scale perturbations within the native baseline region in the absence of populated molten globule-like states. Similar regions were affected by elevated temperatures known to induce irreversible aggregation of IL-1ra. Further evidence of structural transitions invoking near-native conformations came from an optical spectroscopy analysis of its single-tryptophan variant W17A. The increase in the radius of gyration was associated with a single equilibrium unfolding transition in the case of two different denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). However, the compactness of urea- and GuHCl-unfolded molecules was comparable only at high denaturant concentrations and deviated under less denaturing conditions. Our results identified the role of conformational flexibility in IL-1ra aggregation and shed light on the nature of structural transitions within the

  20. Expression of intestinal trefoil factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and histological changes in intestine of rats after intrauterine asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Fen Xu; Jun Li; Mei Sun; Hong-Wei Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the expressions of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and histologic changes in intestine, to investigate the relationship between ITF and intestinal damage and repair after intrauterine hypoxia so as to understand the mechanism of intestinal injury and to find a new way to prevent and treat gastrointestinal diseases.METHODS: Wistar rats, pregnant for 21 d, were used to establish animal models of intrauterine asphyxia by clamping one side of vessels supplying blood to uterus for 20 min, another side was regarded as sham operation group. Intestinal tissues were taken away at 0, 24, 48and 72 h after birth and stored in different styles. ITF mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. PCNA expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. Intestinal tissues were studied histologically by HE staining in order to observe the areas and degree of injury and to value the intestinal mucosa injury index (IMDI).RESULTS: ITF mRNA appeared in full-term rats and increased with age. After ischemia, ITF mRNA was decreased to the minimum (0.59±0.032) 24 h after birth, then began to increase higher after 72 h than it was in the control group (P<0.01). PCNA positive staining located in goblet cell nuclei. The PCNA level had a remarkable decline (53.29±1.97) 48 h after ischemia. Structure changes were obvious in 48-h group, IMDI (3.40±0.16) was significantly increased. Correlation analyses showed that IMDI had a negative correlation with ITF mRNA and PCNA (r = -0.543,P<0.05; r = -0.794, P<0.01, respectively).CONCLUSION: Intrauterine ischemia can result in an early decrease of ITF mRNA expression. ITF and PCNA may play an important role in the damage and repair of intestinal mucosa.

  1. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases 1 and 2 are required for maximal trefoil factor 1 induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiti Khan

    Full Text Available Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases 1 and 2 (MSK1 and MSK2, activated downstream of the ERK- and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are involved in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Following mitogenic or stress stimuli, they mediate the nucleosomal response, which includes phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10ph coupled with transcriptional activation of immediate-early genes. While MSK1 and MSK2 are closely related, their relative roles may vary with cellular context and/or stimuli. However, our knowledge of MSK2 recruitment to immediate-early genes is limited, as research has primarily focused on MSK1. Here, we demonstrate that both MSK1 and MSK2, regulate the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced expression of the breast cancer marker gene, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1, by phosphorylating H3S10 at its 5' regulatory regions. The MSK-mediated phosphorylation of H3S10 promotes the recruitment of 14-3-3 isoforms and BRG1, the ATPase subunit of the BAF/PBAF remodeling complex, to the enhancer and upstream promoter elements of TFF1. The recruited chromatin remodeling activity leads to the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain phosphorylation at the TFF1 promoter, initiating TFF1 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show that MSK1 or MSK2 is recruited to TFF1 regulatory regions, but as components of different multiprotein complexes.

  2. Effect of electroacupunture on gastric mucosal intestinal trefoil factor gene expression of stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Li; Jie Yan; Shou-Xiang Yi; Xiao-Rong Chang; Ya-Ping Lin; Zong-Bao Yang; Ai Huang; Rong Hu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate electroacupunture(EA) at the acupoints of Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming(SMFY),Gallbladder Meridian of Foot-Yangming(SMFY) on gastric mucosal intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) gene expression detection in stress-induced rats with gastric mucosal lesion, and to explore the regulatory mechanism and significance of EA-related gastric mucosal protective effect.METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Blank group, Model group, Model group+EA at acupoints of SMFY group("SMFY group"), and Model group+EA at acupoints of GMFY group(GMFY group).All rats (except blank group) were made model by water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Then the gastric mucosa tissue in each rat was taken off after assessment of gastric mucosal lesion index(GUI), and the expression of ITF mRNA of the tissues was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) method.RESULTS: Compared with Model group(54.3 ± 1.34),the GUI value in SMFY group (31±2.21) decreased significantly(P 0.05), in SMFY group(0.76± 0.01)with an extremely obvious difference (P<0.01), furthermore the expression in SMFY group was significantly higher than in GMFY group (P< 0.01).CONCLUSION: The gastric mucosal protective effect by EA at the acupoints of SMFY and GMFY was related to the expression variance of ITF, indicating certain meridian specificity exists. It could be one proof for the TCM theory "Relative particularity between SMFY and stomach".

  3. The value of trefoil factor 3 expression in predicting the long‑term outcome and early recurrence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morito, Kiyoto; Nakamura, Jun; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Kai, Keita; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shuusuke; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2015-02-01

    The trefoil factor (TFF) family comprises three thermo-stable and protease-resistant proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) and plays an essential role in gastrointestinal mucosa protection and regeneration, and TFFs have recently been found to be involved in the development and progression of various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance of TFFs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains unclear. The present study determined the relationship between TFF expression and clinicopathological findings, as well as long-term outcome in CRC patients. The mRNA expression levels of TFFs were examined in the excised CRC specimens obtained from 154 consecutive CRC patients who underwent surgical resection between 2005 and 2007 at our institution. TFF3 expression was significantly associated with the presence of distant metastasis (p=0.017), although neither TFF1 nor TFF2 expression was associated with the clinicopathological features. Survival rate of the patients with positive TFF3 was significantly worse compared to those with negative TFF3 (p=0.011). A multivariate analysis revealed that the expression of TFF3, lymph node metastasis, and vascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival. Furthermore, among 134 patients with no clinical findings of metastasis at surgery, the patients with positive TFF3 experienced recurrence within one year more frequently than those with negative TFF3 (p=0.039). In conclusion, TFF3 is not only a useful biomarker for a long-term surgical result in CRC patient, but also may be a risk factor of early recurrence.

  4. Prognostic significance of the co-expression of nucleophosmin and trefoil factor 3 in postoperative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Sun, Zhenqing; Liu, Kewei; Qiu, Wensheng; Yao, Ruyong; Feng, Tongtong; Xin, Chao; Yue, Lu

    2014-11-01

    Although a number of studies have indicated that the positive expression of nucleophosmin (NPM) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is associated with oncogenesis and poor prognosis in several tumor types, the prognostic value of the co-expression of NPM and TFF3 in gastric cancer (GC) has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the role of NPM and TFF3 in GC and determine their prognostic value. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients who had undergone radical gastric tumor resection. The expression of NPM and TFF3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and the association of NPM and TFF3 with clinicopathological characteristics was investigated using the Chi-square test. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the prognostic value of these markers. Of the 108 samples, NPM was positive in 57 (53%) and TFF3 was positive in 54 samples (50%). The positive expression of NPM was correlated with advanced tumor stage and recurrence (P=0.0333 and PTFF3 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.0005), poor differentiation (P=0.0435), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0116), advanced tumor stage (P=0.0244) and recurrence (P=0.0116). The univariate analysis revealed that the expression of NPM, the expression of TFF3 and the co-expression of the two were associated with poor survival (P=0.0004, 0.0028 and 0.0020, respectively). By multivariate analysis, all three factors were identified as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients (hazard ratio = 1.970, 2.021 and 2.339, respectively). In conclusion, the expression of NPM and TFF3 and, particularly, the co-expression of the two, may serve as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients.

  5. Increased trefoil factor 3 levels in the serum of patients with three major histological subtypes of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yiqing; Yang, Yie; Ma, Dedong; Xiao, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The trefoil factor (TFF) family is composed of three thermostable, and protease-resistant proteins, named TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3. TFF protein levels have been found to be related to the development of various types of cancer. However, it is still unclear whether TFF proteins are differentially expressed in the serum of different histological subtypes of lung cancer compared to healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated the levels of TFF proteins in serum and lung tissues of 130 lung cancer patients (58 squamous cell lung carcinoma cases, 43 adenocarcinoma cases and 29 SCLC cases) and 60 healthy individuals. It was found that TFF1 and TFF2 have similar or slightly higher levels in these three subtypes of lung cancer compared to healthy individuals, while TFF3 levels were significantly higher in the examined lung cancer cases compared to healthy individuals. Immunoblot analyses of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 indicated that lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines have a higher expression of the TFF3 protein, but not of TFF1 or TFF2 proteins, compared to tissues from healthy individuals or from the normal cell line. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated higher levels of TFF3, but not TFF1 and TFF2, transcripts in lung cancer tissues or cell lines. These results show increased TFF3 levels in serum and lung tissues, suggesting that TFF3 may serve as a promising, easily detected biomarker of lung cancer.

  6. Trefoil factor 3 stimulates human and rodent pancreatic islet beta-cell replication with retention of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueger, Patrick T; Schisler, Jonathan C; Lu, Danhong; Babu, Daniella A; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Newgard, Christopher B; Hohmeier, Hans E

    2008-05-01

    Both major forms of diabetes involve a decline in beta-cell mass, mediated by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in type 1 diabetes and by increased rates of apoptosis secondary to metabolic stress in type 2 diabetes. Methods for controlled expansion of beta-cell mass are currently not available but would have great potential utility for treatment of these diseases. In the current study, we demonstrate that overexpression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in rat pancreatic islets results in a 4- to 5-fold increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, with full retention of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This increase was almost exclusively due to stimulation of beta-cell replication, as demonstrated by studies of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and co-immunofluorescence analysis with anti-bromodeoxyuridine and antiinsulin or antiglucagon antibodies. The proliferative effect of TFF3 required the presence of serum or 0.5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor. The ability of TFF3 overexpression to stimulate proliferation of rat islets in serum was abolished by the addition of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist AG1478. Furthermore, TFF3-induced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat islets cultured in serum was blocked by overexpression of a dominant-negative Akt protein or treatment with triciribine, an Akt inhibitor. Finally, overexpression of TFF3 also caused a doubling of [3H]thymidine incorporation in human islets. In summary, our findings reveal a novel TFF3-mediated pathway for stimulation of beta-cell replication that could ultimately be exploited for expansion or preservation of islet beta-cell mass.

  7. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut...

  8. Enhanced antidepressant-like effects of the macromolecule trefoil factor 3 by loading into negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qin,1 Xu Yang,1–3 Jia Mi,4 Jianxin Wang,1 Jia Hou,1,2 Teng Shen,1 Yongji Li,2 Bin Wang,4 Xuri Li,4 Weili Zhu5 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 5National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Immunocytes, mainly neutrophils and monocytes, exhibit an intrinsic homing property, enabling them to migrate to sites of injury and inflammation. They can thus act as Trojan horses carrying concealed drug cargoes while migrating across impermeable barriers to sites of disease, especially the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In this study, to target circulating phagocytic cells, we formulated negatively charged nanosize liposomes and loaded trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 into liposomes by the pH-gradient method. According to the optimized formulation (5:1.5 of lipid to cholesterol, 10:1 of lipid to drug, 10 mg/mL of lipid concentration, and 10 mmol/L of phosphate-buffered saline, 44.47% entrapment efficiency was obtained for TFF3 liposomes with 129.6 nm particle size and –36.6 mV zeta potential. Compared with neutrally charged liposomes, the negatively charged liposomes showed a strong binding capacity with monocytes and were effectively carried by monocytes to cross the BBB in vitro. Furthermore, enhanced antidepressant-like effects were found in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests in mice, as measured by decreased immobility time, as well as increased swimming time and reduced immobility in rats. These results suggested that negatively charged liposomes could improve the behavioral responses of TFF3, and our study opens up a new way for the development of

  9. Amplification of chromosome 2:Lq22.3 harboring trefoil factor family genes in liver fluke related cholangiocarcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanuengnuch Muenphon; Temduang Limpaiboon; Patcharee Jearanaikoon; Chawalit Pairojkul; Banchob Sripa; Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine allelic imbalance on chromosomal region 21q22-qter including trefoil factor family genes (TFF) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients and analyze the correlation between allelic imbalances and clinicopathological parameters.METHODS: Quantitative PCR amplification was performed on four microsatellite markers and trefoil factor family genes (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) using a standard curve and SYBR Green Ⅰ dye method. The relative copy number was determined by DNA copy number of tested locus to reference locus. The relative copy number was interpreted as deletion or amplification by comparison with normal reference range. Associations between allelic imbalance and clinicopathological parameters of CCA patients were evaluated by x2-tests.Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival.RESULTS: The frequencies of amplification at D21S1890,D21S1893, and TFF3 were 32.5%, 30.0%, and 28.7%,respectively. Patients who had amplification at regions covering D21S1893, D21S1890, and TFF showed poor prognosis, whereas patients who had deletion showed favorable prognosis (mean: 51.7 wk vs 124.82 wk,P = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that amplification of D21S1893, D21S1890 and TFF,blood vessel invasion, and staging were associated with poor prognosis.CONCLUSION: D21S1893-D21S1890 region may harbor candidate genes especially TFF and serine protease family, which might be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis contributing to poor survival. The amplification in this region may be used as a prognostic marker in the treatment of CCA patients.

  10. Intestinal trefoil factor controls the expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli-catenin and the E-cadherin-catenin complexes in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, J A; Noda, M; Rowan, A; Dixon, C; Chinery, R; Jawhari, A; Hattori, T; Wright, N A; Bodmer, W F; Pignatelli, M

    1998-03-17

    Intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the trefoil family of peptides, small molecules constitutively expressed in epithelial tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. TFF3 has been shown to promote migration of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and to enhance mucosal healing and epithelial restitution in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the effect of recombinant TFF3 (rTFF3) stimulation on the expression and cellular localization of the epithelial (E)-cadherin-catenin complex, a prime mediator of Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion, and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-catenin complex in HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Stimulation by rTFF3 (10(-9) M and 10(-8) M) for 20-24 hr led to cell detachment and to a reduction in intercellular adhesion in HT29 and HCT116 cells. In both cell lines, E-cadherin expression was down-regulated. The expression of APC, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin also was decreased in HT29 cells, with a translocation of APC into the nucleus. No change in either cell adhesion or in the expression of E-cadherin, the catenins, and APC was detected in SW480 cells. In addition, TFF3 induced DNA fragmentation and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in HT29. Tyrphostin, a competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, inhibited the effects of TFF3. Our results indicate that by perturbing the complexes between E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and associated proteins, TFF3 may modulate epithelial cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

  11. Molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Ren; Jin-Yan Luo; Ya-Pi Lu; Lin Wang; Hua-Xiu Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) and the role of TFF1 in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric carcinoma and its molecular biological mechanism underlying gastric mucosa protection.METHODS: The molecular forms of TFF1 in normal gastric mucosa were observed by Western blot. The expression of TFF1 in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) was also assayed by immunohistochemical method. The average positive AO was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software.RESULTS: Three patterns of TFF1 were found in normal gastric mucosa: monomer, dimmer, and TFF1 compound whose molecular weight is about 21 kDa.The concentration of TFF1 compound was the highest among these three patterns. TFF1 was expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum, especially around the nuclei. The closer the TFF1 to the lumen, the higher the expression of TFF1.The expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue of gastric carcinoma (0.51 ± 0.07) was higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (0.44 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was positively related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma was, the weaker the expression of TFF1. No TFF1 was expressed in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in moderately-well differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.45± 0.07) was a little lower than that in normal mucosa (P > 0.05). The expression of TFF1 in gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia (0.57 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001).No TFF1 was expressed in intestinalized gastric mucosa.There was no statistically significant difference between the expressions of

  12. Technical note: effects of forage protein-binding polyphenols on chemistry of dairy excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2009-04-01

    Forage chemistry can affect intake, digestion, milk production, and manure excretion. Although information is available on the effects of forage protein-binding polyphenols on small ruminant production and manure excretion, little information is available for dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare fecal and urinary N excretion of diets formulated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage versus condensed tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or o-quinone-containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) silages. Significantly higher concentrations of N were excreted in urine by lactating Holstein dairy cows fed red clover and low-tannin birdsfoot trefoil (8.2 g/L) than by cows fed high-tannin birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa (7.1 g/L). Fecal N concentrations were similar (33.6 g/kg) among all diets. Dairy cows fed red clover had lower rates of urinary N excretion (5.0 g/h) compared with other forages (6.6 g/h). Fecal N excretion rates were lowest for red clover (4.1 g/h), intermediate for alfalfa (5.8 g/h), and greatest for cows fed high- and low-tannin birdsfoot trefoil (6.4 g/h). The ratio of fecal N to urinary N was highest for high-tannin trefoil, lowest for alfalfa and red clover, and higher in excreta collected in morning than evening. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in feces, of N in NDF (NDIN) and acid detergent fiber (ADIN), and relative amounts of NDIN and ADIN excreted in feces were significantly higher from cows fed high-tannin birdsfoot trefoil than the other silage types. Study results imply that collection of excreta for environmental studies needs to consider forage polyphenol and diurnal effects on chemistry of dairy excreta.

  13. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  14. Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

  15. Een afwijkende vorm van Lotus corniculatus L. in wegbermen, in het bijzonder in de Lauwerszeepolder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der D.T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. var. sativus Chrtková-Žertová is an erect form of Birdsfoot-trefoil, up to 0.5 m high, with hollow stems. It is a component of a commercial (grass) seed mixture which is sown in sandy road verges all over the country. At the Lauwerszee polder it appeared to hybridize with wild

  16. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus of f icinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)−white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1...

  17. In-situ Ruminal Protein, Fiber, and Dry Matter Degradability of Legume Silages and Hays as Influenced by Protein-binding Polyphenols and Conditioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioning and conservation methods may alter polyphenol binding in forage legumes and the degradability of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter (DM) in the rumen. In this study, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil with 6 or 15 g/kg condensed tannins (CT), and red clover with ~1...

  18. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents of forage species in four-cut system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, H.; Nadeau, A.; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations were measured in herbage of birdsfoot trefoil (Bft), red clover (Rc), white clover (Wc), timothy (Ti) and perennial ryegrass (Pr) grown in four mixtures (Bft+Ti, Rc+Ti, Rc+Pr and Wc+Pr) in a small-plot field experiment at Foulum, Denmark, over 2 years. P...

  19. Optimizing of the cable bedding and the ampacity of underground power cables in trefoil formation by using the gravitational search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Bojan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of the determination of the optimum values for dimensions of cable trench and cable bedding, interaxial spacings between power cables in trefoil formation and cable ampacities. This non-linear multi-objective optimization problem with constraints is solved by using the gravitational search algorithm (GSA. The procedure used in this paper has allowed the simultaneous inclusion of all control variables into the optimization process and the determination of an optimal solution in accordance with specified optimization criteria. in the present case, the optimal solution is obtained based on the following optimization criteria: (i minimization of the total installation cost for cable line, (ii maximization of the cable ampacity and (iii a simultaneous application of the minimization of the total installation cost for cable line and the maximization of the cable ampacity. The constraints on control variables are introduced through penalty factors which expand the objective function, it is also assumed that the cable ampacity corresponds to a load factor of 0.8. The procedure is carried out with respect to the drying out effect in the soil surrounding the cables.

  20. Neuropeptide Trefoil Factor 3 Reverses Depressive-Like Behaviors by Activation of BDNF-ERK-CREB Signaling in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The trefoil factors (TFFs are a family of three polypeptides, among which TFF1 and TFF3 are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Our previous study indicated that TFF3 was a potential rapid-onset antidepressant as it reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by acute or chronic mild stress. In order to further identify the antidepressant-like effect of TFF3, we applied an olfactory bulbectomy (OB, a classic animal model of depression, in the present study. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3, we tested the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB signaling in the hippocampus in the process. Chronic systemic administration of TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. for seven days not only produced a significant antidepressant-like efficacy in the OB paradigm, but also restored the expression of BDNF, pERK, and pCREB in the hippocampal CA3. Inhibition of BDNF or extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK signaling in CA3 blocked the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3 in OB rats. Our findings further confirmed the therapeutic effect of TFF3 against depression and suggested that the normalization of the BDNF-ERK-CREB pathway was involved in the behavioral response of TFF3 for the treatment of depression.

  1. Expression of an Antirrhinum dihydroflavonol reductase gene results in changes in condensed tannin structure and accumulation in root cultures of Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavage, A D; Davies, I G; Robbins, M P; Morris, P

    1997-11-01

    Condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) are an important factor in the nutritive and dietary quality of many forage crops. We report here experiments aimed at altering the levels and monomer composition of condensed tannins (CTs) in 'hairy root' cultures of Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil) using genetic manipulation. An Antirrhinum majus dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) cDNA was expressed in sense in L. corniculatus and CT levels in transgenic root cultures were analysed. Two co-transformed lines were noted with decreased CT content relative to controls and these levels were comparable with antisense-DFR phenotypes. In ADFR10, a co-transformed line with the highest CT levels, CT structure was altered in a manner consistent with the substrate specificity of the introduced gene; that is an increase in pro-pelargonidin monomers noted after hydrolysis of CTs. RT-PCR confirmed the expression of endogenous DFR gene(s) in both putatively co-suppressed lines and also in ADFR10. Analysis of selected root culture lines indicated that the monomer composition of CTs did not change during growth and development but that levels of CTs varied in a regulated manner.

  2. Neuropeptide Trefoil Factor 3 Reverses Depressive-Like Behaviors by Activation of BDNF-ERK-CREB Signaling in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Luo, Yixiao; Zhang, Ruoxi; Shi, Haishui; Zhu, Weili; Shi, Jie

    2015-11-30

    The trefoil factors (TFFs) are a family of three polypeptides, among which TFF1 and TFF3 are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Our previous study indicated that TFF3 was a potential rapid-onset antidepressant as it reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by acute or chronic mild stress. In order to further identify the antidepressant-like effect of TFF3, we applied an olfactory bulbectomy (OB), a classic animal model of depression, in the present study. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3, we tested the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) signaling in the hippocampus in the process. Chronic systemic administration of TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) for seven days not only produced a significant antidepressant-like efficacy in the OB paradigm, but also restored the expression of BDNF, pERK, and pCREB in the hippocampal CA3. Inhibition of BDNF or extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling in CA3 blocked the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3 in OB rats. Our findings further confirmed the therapeutic effect of TFF3 against depression and suggested that the normalization of the BDNF-ERK-CREB pathway was involved in the behavioral response of TFF3 for the treatment of depression.

  3. Trefoil factor 3 is required for differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and acts as a context-dependent tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abols, A; Ducena, K; Andrejeva, D; Sadovska, L; Zandberga, E; Vilmanis, J; Narbuts, Z; Tars, J; Eglitis, J; Pirags, V; Line, A

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is overexpressed in a variety of solid epithelial cancers, where it has been shown to promote migration, invasion, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. On the contrary, in the majority of thyroid tumors, it is downregulated, yet its role in the development of thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here we show that TFF3 exhibits strong cytoplasmic staining of normal thyroid follicular cells and colloid and the staining is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, while it is decreased in all thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. By meta-analysis of gene expression datasets, we found that in the thyroid cancer, conversely to the breast cancer, the expression of TFF3 mRNA was downregulated by estrogen signaling and confirmed this by treating thyroid cancer cells with estradiol. Forced expression of TFF3 in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation, clonal spheroid formation and entry into the S phase. Furthermore, it induced acquisition of epithelial-like cell morphology and expression of the differentiation markers of thyroid follicular cells and transcription factors implicated in the thyroid morphogenesis and function. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that TFF3 may act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the cellular context.

  4. Vangl1 protein acts as a downstream effector of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF)/TFF3 signaling and regulates wound healing of intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabis, Jiri; Rosenberg, Ian; Podolsky, Daniel K

    2006-03-10

    The intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) protects intestinal epithelia from a range of insults and contributes to mucosal repair. However, the signaling events that mediate healing responses are only partially understood. To identify ITF signaling pathways, proteins that were Ser/Thr phosphorylated in response to ITF stimulation were immunoprecipitated from human colon carcinoma cell lines and identified by mass spectrometry. We demonstrated that Van Gogh-like protein 1 (also designated Vang-like 1 or Vangl1), a protein with four transmembrane domains, was Ser/Thr phosphorylated in response to ITF stimulation. Vangl1 was present in normal human colon and all intestinal epithelial cell lines (IEC) tested. In transfected IEC, FLAG-Vangl1 was mostly present in the Nonidet P-40 soluble fraction as detected by Western blotting, corresponding to the localization of endogenous protein in cytoplasmic vesicular structures by confocal microscopy with rabbit polyclonal anti-human Vangl1 antibody (alpha-Vangl1). Vangl1 cell membrane association increased with differentiation, as demonstrated by co-localization with E-cadherin in differentiated IEC. Increased Vangl1 phosphorylation after stimulation with ITF corresponded to decreased cell membrane association with E-cadherin. Functionally, Vangl1 overexpression enhanced ITF unstimulated and stimulated wound closure of IEC, whereas siRNA directed against Vangl1 inhibited the migratory response to ITF. Vangl1 protein may serve as an effector mediating the ITF healing response of the intestinal mucosa.

  5. A Variant Form of the Human Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1 (DMBT1) Gene Shows Increased Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Interacts with Dimeric Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human......-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340) positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue...

  6. Trefoil Factor-3 (TFF3 Stimulates De Novo Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma both Directly and Indirectly via IL-8/CXCR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hoe Lau

    Full Text Available Mammary carcinoma cells produce pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3 is an oncogene secreted from mammary carcinoma cells and associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we demonstrate that TFF3 produced in mammary carcinoma cells functions as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells promoted proliferation, survival, invasion and in vitro tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. MCF7-TFF3 cells with forced expression of TFF3 generated tumors with enhanced microvessel density as compared to tumors formed by vector control cells. Depletion of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells by siRNA concordantly decreased the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells stimulated IL-8 transcription and subsequently enhanced IL-8 expression in both mammary carcinoma cells and HUVEC. Depletion of IL-8 in mammary carcinoma cells with forced expression of TFF3, or antibody inhibition of IL-8, partially abrogated mammary carcinoma cell TFF3-stimulated HUVEC angiogenic behavior in vitro, as did inhibition of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR2. Depletion of STAT3 by siRNA in MCF-7 cells with forced expression of TFF3 partially diminished the angiogenic capability of TFF3 on stimulation of cellular processes of HUVEC. Exogenous recombinant hTFF3 also directly promoted the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Hence, TFF3 is a potent angiogenic factor and functions as a promoter of de novo angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma, which may co-coordinate with the growth promoting and metastatic actions of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma to enhance tumor progression.

  7. Serum Level of Trefoil Factor 2 can Predict the Extent of Gastric Spasmolytic Polypeptide-Expressing Metaplasia in the H. pylori-Infected Gastric Cancer Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Wu, Chung-Tai; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-02-01

    Gastric cancer has familial clustering in incidence, and the familial relatives of gastric cancer sufferers are prone to have spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and intestinal metaplasia (IM) after H. pylori infection. This study tested whether serum pepsinogen I/II and trefoil factor family (TFF) proteins can predict SPEM or IM in the H. pylori-infected relatives of patients with gastric cancer. We prospectively enrolled 119 H. pylori-infected relatives of gastric cancer patients of noncardiac gastric cancer patients, who then received panendoscopy to obtain gastric biopsy to define the presence of corpus gastritis index (CGI), SPEM, and IM. The advanced SPEM in histology was defined by TFF2 immunohistochemistry. Each patient also had checkups of serum TFF2, TFF3, and pepsinogen I/II by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 119 H. pylori-infected relatives included 61 with SPEM, and 34 with IM. The presence of either IM or SPEM was not related to the serum TFF2, TFF3, and pepsinogen I/II levels (p > .05). Serum TFF2 levels were higher in relatives with CGI who also had advanced SPEM (p = .032). For relatives without CGI, the elevated serum TFF2 levels correlated with higher H. pylori density and more severe gastritis in antrum (p = .001). The serum TFF2 level cannot predict SPEM or IM in H. pylori-infected relatives of patients with gastric cancer. For H. pylori-infected relatives with CGI, serum TFF2 levels may predict the advanced severity of SPEM. Elevated serum TFF2 levels may indicate severe H. pylori-related inflammation, at risk of development or progression of SPEM in relatives without CGI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trefoil Factor-3 (TFF3) Stimulates De Novo Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma both Directly and Indirectly via IL-8/CXCR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai-Hoe; Pandey, Vijay; Kong, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wu, ZhengSheng; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma cells produce pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is an oncogene secreted from mammary carcinoma cells and associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we demonstrate that TFF3 produced in mammary carcinoma cells functions as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells promoted proliferation, survival, invasion and in vitro tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). MCF7-TFF3 cells with forced expression of TFF3 generated tumors with enhanced microvessel density as compared to tumors formed by vector control cells. Depletion of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells by siRNA concordantly decreased the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells stimulated IL-8 transcription and subsequently enhanced IL-8 expression in both mammary carcinoma cells and HUVEC. Depletion of IL-8 in mammary carcinoma cells with forced expression of TFF3, or antibody inhibition of IL-8, partially abrogated mammary carcinoma cell TFF3-stimulated HUVEC angiogenic behavior in vitro, as did inhibition of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR2. Depletion of STAT3 by siRNA in MCF-7 cells with forced expression of TFF3 partially diminished the angiogenic capability of TFF3 on stimulation of cellular processes of HUVEC. Exogenous recombinant hTFF3 also directly promoted the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Hence, TFF3 is a potent angiogenic factor and functions as a promoter of de novo angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma, which may co-coordinate with the growth promoting and metastatic actions of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma to enhance tumor progression. PMID:26559818

  9. Trefoil Factor-3 (TFF3) Stimulates De Novo Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma both Directly and Indirectly via IL-8/CXCR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai-Hoe; Pandey, Vijay; Kong, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wu, ZhengSheng; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma cells produce pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is an oncogene secreted from mammary carcinoma cells and associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we demonstrate that TFF3 produced in mammary carcinoma cells functions as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells promoted proliferation, survival, invasion and in vitro tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). MCF7-TFF3 cells with forced expression of TFF3 generated tumors with enhanced microvessel density as compared to tumors formed by vector control cells. Depletion of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells by siRNA concordantly decreased the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells stimulated IL-8 transcription and subsequently enhanced IL-8 expression in both mammary carcinoma cells and HUVEC. Depletion of IL-8 in mammary carcinoma cells with forced expression of TFF3, or antibody inhibition of IL-8, partially abrogated mammary carcinoma cell TFF3-stimulated HUVEC angiogenic behavior in vitro, as did inhibition of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR2. Depletion of STAT3 by siRNA in MCF-7 cells with forced expression of TFF3 partially diminished the angiogenic capability of TFF3 on stimulation of cellular processes of HUVEC. Exogenous recombinant hTFF3 also directly promoted the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Hence, TFF3 is a potent angiogenic factor and functions as a promoter of de novo angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma, which may co-coordinate with the growth promoting and metastatic actions of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma to enhance tumor progression.

  10. Effects of trefoil peptide 3 on expression of TNF-alpha, TLR4, and NF-kappaB in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xu; Xu, Ling-Fen; Zhou, Ping; Sun, Hong-Wei; Sun, Mei

    2009-04-01

    The trefoil factor (TFF) peptides are major secretory products of mucus cells of the gastrointestinal tract. There were evidences that administration of recombinant human TFF3 is effective in treatment of models of colitis, but the mechanism of the effects of rTFF3 is not fully understood. The main aims of this study is to evaluate effects of intraperitoneal injection recombinant human TFF3 on the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis mice. Distal colitis was induced in BALB/C mice by intracolonic administration of TNBS in ethanol. Treated with administration rhTFF3 for treatment group(5 mg/ml; approximately 0.5 mg/mouse), and normal saline for control for 5 consecutive days. Colonic damage score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, TLR4, NF-kappaB mRNA expression, and tissue TNF-alpha, TLR4, NF-kappaB production were determined, respectively. Once daily application of hTFF3 for 5 days after TNBS/ethanol had been injected, both microscopic and macroscopic injury and inflammatory index had been reduced compared with controls. In addition, decreased tissue TNF-alpha, TLR4, NF-kappaB production, and TLR4, NF-kappaB mRNA expression had been found. This study has shown that hTFF3 may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, and one of the mechanisms may related to inhibit the TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathways.

  11. Implication of STAT3 signaling in human colonic cancer cells during intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) -- and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated cellular invasion and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivat, Christine; Christine, Rivat; Rodrigues, Sylvie; Sylvie, Rodrigues; Bruyneel, Erik; Erik, Bruyneel; Piétu, Geneviève; Geneviève, Piétu; Robert, Amélie; Amélie, Robert; Redeuilh, Gérard; Gérard, Redeuilh; Bracke, Marc; Marc, Bracke; Gespach, Christian; Christian, Gespach; Attoub, Samir; Samir, Attoub

    2005-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is overexpressed or activated in most types of human tumors and has been classified as an oncogene. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of the STAT3s to the proinvasive activity of trefoil factors (TFF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human colorectal cancer cells HCT8/S11 expressing VEGF receptors. Both intestinal trefoil peptide (TFF3) and VEGF, but not pS2 (TFF1), activate STAT3 signaling through Tyr(705) phosphorylation of both STAT3alpha and STAT3beta isoforms. Blockade of STAT3 signaling by STAT3beta, depletion of the STAT3alpha/beta isoforms by RNA interference, and pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3alpha/beta phosphorylation by cucurbitacin or STAT3 inhibitory peptide abrogates TFF- and VEGF-induced cellular invasion and reduces the growth of HCT8/S11 tumor xenografts in athymic mice. Differential gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays revealed that overexpression of STAT3beta down-regulates the VEGF receptors Flt-1, neuropilins 1 and 2, and the inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id-2) gene product involved in the neoplastic transformation. Taken together, our data suggest that TFF3 and the essential tumor angiogenesis regulator VEGF(165) exert potent proinvasive activity through STAT3 signaling in human colorectal cancer cells. We also validate new therapeutic strategies targeting STAT3 signaling by pharmacologic inhibitors and RNA interference for the treatment of colorectal cancer patients.

  12. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1 gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1 and the trefoil factor (TFF proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340. Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6 reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340 positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (p<0.0001 and Crohn's disease (p = 0.006 compared to normal colon tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of trefoil factor TFF1, 2 and 3 showed that TFF1 and 3 localized to goblet cells in both normal colon tissue and in tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. No staining for TFF2 was seen in goblet cells in normal colon tissue whereas the majority of tissue sections in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease showed sparse and scattered TFF2 positive goblet cells. DMBT1 and TFF proteins did therefore not co-localize in the same cells but localized in adjacent cells in the colon. The interaction between DMBT1(gp340 and trefoil TFFs proteins was investigated using an ELISA assay. DMBT1(gp340 bound to solid-phase bound recombinant dimeric TFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (p<0.0001 but did not bind to recombinant forms of monomeric TFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. 三叶孔板换热器热力性能及其影响因素分析%Investigation of the effects of structural parameters on the thermal performance of heat exchangers with trefoil-baffles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌云; 杨锦春; 周帼彦; 谭祥辉; 郭震; 朱辉; 郎红方; 朱冬生

    2014-01-01

    建立了三叶孔板换热器壳程周期性全截面模型,利用商用软件Fluent14.0及RNG k-ε湍流模型对8种不同结构参数的换热器壳程流体流动及传热性能进行数值模拟。分析了支撑板间距、三叶孔孔高、导流筒结构形式等结构参数对三叶孔板换热器传热及阻力性能的影响,并对比不同结构换热器的综合换热性能。结果表明:壳程传热系数与压力梯度都分别随着支撑板间距和开孔高度的增加而减小,且支撑板间距和三叶孔孔高对三叶孔板换热器壳程压降的影响大于其对传热的影响;六边形结构的导流筒换热器换热性能优于圆形导流筒换热器;8种换热器模型中,支撑板间距400mm、三叶孔高3.3mm(模型4-2)的换热器综合性能最好,支撑板间距400mm、三叶孔高1.8mm(模型2-2)的换热器综合性能最差。%This research established a simplified periodic model for the flow and heat transfer on shell side of heat exchangers with trefoil-baffles. Based on the RNG k-εturbulence model,the flow and heat transfer characteristics on shell side were investigated by using commercial CFD software Fluent14.0 for 8 heat exchanger samples with different structural parameters. Effects of the structural parameters,including baffle pitch,trefoil-hole height and draft tube structure,on the performance of heat transfer and friction were analyzed. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient and pressure gradient decreased when baffle pitch,as well as trefoil-hole height, increased. Baffle pitch and trefoil-hole height had larger influence on pressure drop than that on heat transfer coefficient. The heat exchanger with hexagon draft tube had better heat transfer performance than that with circle draft tube. The comprehensive performances were also evaluated. The Case 4-2 (Lb=400mm,H=3.3mm)was best and case 2-2(Lb=400mm,H=1.8mm)was worst among all heat exchangers with different structural

  14. Subdividing the Trefoil by Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Langer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, David Cox and Jerry Shurman proved that the curves they call -clovers can be subdivided into equal lengths (for certain values of by origami, in the cases where , 2, 3, and 4. In this paper, we expand their work to include the 6-clover.

  15. Een afwijkende vorm van Lotus corniculatus L. in wegbermen, in het bijzonder in de Lauwerszeepolder

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, van der, B.

    1988-01-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. var. sativus Chrtková-Žertová is an erect form of Birdsfoot-trefoil, up to 0.5 m high, with hollow stems. It is a component of a commercial (grass) seed mixture which is sown in sandy road verges all over the country. At the Lauwerszee polder it appeared to hybridize with wild populations with prostrate habit and solid stems.

  16. Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Terrain Stabilization in Cold Regions. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    The authors have conducted a two-year revegetation study to assess the ability of sewage sludge applications with or without supplemental fertilizer ...were from the treatment with the lower sludge rate and supplemental fertilizer . During the second year, treatments with the high sludge rate were the...better producers. Tall fescue and red fescue were the plant species that performed well in all treatments, while birdsfoot trefoil was the dominant species in treatments which did not receive nitrogen fertilizer .

  17. Trace metals in soil vegetation, and voles from mine land treated with sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberici, T.M.; Sopper, W.E.; Storm, G.L.; Yahner, R.H.

    Trace-metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and tissues of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were compared on a stripmined site reclaimed conventionally (control site) and with municipal sludge (treated site) in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in March and April 1983. With the exception of Zn concentrations in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), reclamation with municipal sludge did not increase trace metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, or meadow voles in comparison to the site reclaimed conventionally. Zinc concentration in birdsfoot trefoil from the site reclaimed with sludge was higher than that from the site reclaimed conventionally but was below phytotoxic levels. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, and Ni in vole tissues were not significantly different between control and treated sites. However, Cr concentrations in kidney and bone and Pb concentrations in liver and bone were higher on the control site than on the treated site. Stomach analyses indicated that meadow voles preferred tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae L.) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens L.) to birdsfoot trefoil and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) 27 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  18. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  19. 不同胃黏膜病变中TFF3表达与幽门螺杆菌的关系%THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREFOIL FACTOR 3 EXPRESSION AND HELICOBACTER pylori INFECTION IN DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚平; 张凌云; 余海英; 雷琳

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察三叶因子3 (trefoil factor 3,TFF3)在胃癌前病变及胃癌的表达,及其与幽门螺杆菌(Helicobacter pylori,H.pylori)感染的相关性,探讨H.pylori感染与胃癌发生的关系.方法 收集慢性浅表性胃炎(chronic superficial gastritis,CSG),慢性萎缩性胃炎伴中、重度肠上皮化生(intestinal metaplasia,IM),慢性萎缩性胃炎伴中、重度不典型增生(dysplasia,Dys)各30例,胃癌(gastric cancer,GC)40例,采用免疫组织化学SP法检测TFF3蛋白的表达.采用warthin-starry银染法及尿素酶试验检测胃黏膜H.pylori感染.结果 CSG、IM、Dys、GC组织中H.pylori感染的胃黏膜组织中,TFF3的表达高于无H.pylori感染的患者(P<0.05).结论 H.pylori感染可能通过上调TFF3的表达,在胃癌发生、发展过程中发挥重要作用.

  20. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian)/Trefoil factor 3/high-molecular-weight cytokeratin triple immunostain: a novel tissue-based biomarker in prostate cancer with potential clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca; Mosquera, Juan Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is associated with various cancers and overexpressed in a subset of prostate cancers. Functional studies suggest that v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) down-regulates TFF3 expression in hormone-naïve prostate cancer. To characterize this inverse relationship, we developed a triple immunostain encompassing ERG, TFF3, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin. Triple stain was performed on 96 tumors and 52 benign cases represented in tissue microarrays. Distinct ERG and TFF3 protein was expressed in 45% (43/96) and 36% (35/96) of prostate cancers, respectively. Coexpression was observed in 5% (5/96) of tumor cases, and 24% (23/96) did not express ERG or TFF3. The inverse expression of ERG and TFF3 was significant (P tumors demonstrating TFF3 expression. Sensitivity and specificity of combined ERG and TFF3 expression in detecting prostate cancer were 76% and 96%, respectively. The feasibility of triple immunostain protocol was validated in a set of 76 needle biopsies. The application of this multiplex in situ biomarker for molecular characterization of prostate cancer and as a supplemental diagnostic and prognostic tool in prostate needle biopsies should be further explored.

  1. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1) gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida; Thim, Lars; Fenger, Claus; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340). Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6) reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340) positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (pTFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (pTFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Evaluating the utility of trefoil factor 1 as a mammary-specific immunostain compared and in conjunction with GATA-3 and mammaglobin in the distinction between carcinoma of breast and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Justin M; Ginter, Paula S; Liu, Yifang; Chen, Zhengming; Narula, Navneet; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between metastatic breast carcinomas (BCs) and primary lung carcinomas (PLCs) can be difficult. This study tested the utility of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) for this purpose and compared it with mammaglobin and GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3). Tissue microarrays containing 365 BCs and 338 PLCs were stained with TFF1, mammaglobin, and GATA-3, and an H-score was calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated, and logistical regression analysis was performed. Accuracy of correctly classifying the tumor type was 81.9%, 71.3%, and 64.0% for GATA-3, mammaglobin, and TFF1, respectively. Odds ratios for selecting BCs were 25.69, 93.15, and 4.17, respectively, with P values less than .001. With a single exception, the best immunopanel included GATA-3 and mammaglobin in all comparisons. TFF1 demonstrated breast specificity but was inferior to mammaglobin and GATA-3. Therefore, its routine clinical use may not be justified. TFF1 showed little benefit when added to an immunopanel. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. Seleção a campo de rizóbios nativos para cornichão Field selection of native rhizobio for bird’s-foot trefoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Dobler Stroschein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L. tem sido apontado como uma das forrageiras mais promissoras para o uso no Rio Grande do Sul. No entanto, pouco se conhece a respeito da interação dessas plantas com os rizóbios nativos em condições de campo. Este estudo visou a avaliar a eficiência das interações entre rizóbios e plantas de Lotus corniculatus cv. 'São Gabriel' em condições de campo. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS com delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos estudados foram: dois controles sem inoculação (um com a adição de 80kg ha-1 de nitrogênio na forma de uréia e outro sem a adição de nitrogênio; inoculação com rizóbios: estirpes SEMIA 816, recomendada no Brasil, U510, recomendada no Uruguai, U512, em estudo no Uruguai, e quatro isolados de rizóbios nativos (UFRGS Lc322, UFRGS Lc349, UFRGS Lc269 e Iso 7. O isolado UFRGS Lc322 e a estirpe U510 são mais eficientes do que a estirpe SEMIA 816, recomendada para cornichão no país. Além disso, a produção de forragem das plantas inoculadas com o isolado UFRGS Lc322 e a estirpe U510 superou a obtida com a adição de 80kg ha-1 de nitrogênio.The bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. has been pointed as one of the most promising forage plants for use in Rio Grande do Sul. However, there is lack of information about the interaction of those plants with the native rhizobia in field conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of interactions between rhizobia and plants of Lotus corniculatus cv. 'São Gabriel' in field conditions. The experiment was carried out in the Agronomic Experimental Station (EEA of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, using random block design with four replications. The treatments were: two controls without inoculation (one with the addition of urea corresponding to 80kg ha-1 of nitrogen and other without nitrogen addition; inoculation with

  4. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNFα gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNFα gene expression independently of LGG.

  5. Correlation between expression of trefoil factor 3 and angiogenesis in gastric cancer%三叶因子3在胃癌组织中的表达及与血管形成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋宁; 马力

    2005-01-01

    目的研究三叶肽因子3(trefoil factor3,TFF3)在人胃癌组织中的表达及其与胃癌血管形成的关系.方法应用免疫组织化学S-P法检测40例原发性胃癌及10例正常胃粘膜组织中TFF3的表达,同时检测微血管密度(microvessel density,MVD),以抗CD34标记.结果 10例正常胃黏膜组织TFF3全部阴性表达,40例胃癌组织TFF3表达阳性率为60%(24/40).其阳性表达与胃癌的淋巴结转移有关(P<0.05),而与性别、肿瘤的浸润程度、细胞的分化程度无关.胃癌组织MVD明显高于正常胃粘膜组织,TFF3阳性及阴性表达组MVD均值分别为32.71±8.04、26.94±9.08,两组间MVD均值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论胃癌组织中TFF3表达增高,其高表达与淋巴结转移,肿瘤微血管形成有关.

  6. 不同营养支持途径对烧伤大鼠肠三叶因子表达的影响%Effects of different nutritional support route on intestinal trefoil factor expression in rats after burn injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭曦; 谭银玲; 陶凌辉; 王凤君; 赵云; 汪仕良

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms and effects of different nutritional support route on intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) as well as ITFmRNA expression in burned rats. Methods Wistar rats were inflicted with 30% total body surface area full thickness burns and randomly divided into three groups: burned and enteral nutrition (EN), burned and parenteral nutrition (PN), and normal control(C). The expression of ITF mRNA and content of ITF in intestine were quantitatively and localizationally determined with in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results ITF and ITF mRNA were expressed in whole small intestine and most of them were localized in goblet cell of intestinal villus. After burn injury, the structure of intestinal mucosa was severely damaged and the ability of goblet cell synthesis ITF, especially ITF dimer, were significantly decreased. EN could lessen the extent of ITF drop though it could not reverse this trend. Meanwhile, as compared with PN, EN could abate intestinal mucosa injury obviously. Conclusion It is main reason of the ability of goblet cell synthesis ITF decline that the intestine structure is damaged postburn. As compared with PN, EN can abate the extent of ITF, especially ITF dimer drop.%目的探讨不同营养支持途径对烧伤大鼠肠三叶因子(ITF)及其mRNA表达的影响及可能的机制。方法采用30%体表面积Ⅲ度烧伤大鼠模型,随机分成伤前对照(C)组,静脉营养(PN)及肠道营养(EN)组。EN和PN组除营养支持途径不同外,其它条件均相同。在此基础上采用原位杂交、免疫组化和高效液相色谱等手段观察了烧伤后两组大鼠ITF 及ITF mRNA的变化。结果正常大鼠小肠中ITF及ITF mRNA均有一定表达,它们主要分布于肠绒毛杯状细胞中。烧伤后PN组大鼠肠道组织结构严重受损,ITF mRNA表达明显降低,肠杯状细胞分泌ITF的能力大幅

  7. Location of trefoil factor 3 in chromophil cells of rat adenohypophysis%三叶因子3在大鼠腺垂体嗜色细胞中的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文静; 孙琳; 王静; 张静; 吴靖芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨三叶因子3(TFF3)在腺垂体远侧部嗜酸性细胞和嗜碱性细胞中的表达,明确TFF3在远侧部的分布。方法采用相邻切片的免疫组织化学染色,在相邻切片上分别显示TFF3/生长激素( GH)、TFF3/催乳素(PRL)、TFF3/促甲状腺激素(TSH)、TFF3/促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、TFF3/卵泡刺激素(FSH)、TFF3/黄体生成素( LH)的表达。结果 TFF3和各嗜色细胞的免疫反应产物为棕黄色,主要位于细胞质,ACTH免疫阳性信号在胞膜也有表达,主要分布在腺垂体的远侧部。邻片显示TFF3存在于部分GH、PRL、TSH、ACTH、FSH、LH细胞,分别占19.4%、22.4%、9.2%、6.5%、35.7%、8.3%,以FSH最多,PRL、GH次之。结论垂体远侧部TFF3可分别表达于GH、PRL、TSH、ACTH、FSH、LH细胞。%Objective To investigate the distribution and expression of trefoil factor 3(TFF3) in the eosinophilic cells and basophilic cells in the pars distalis of the rat pituitary .Methods The immunohistochemiscal staining technique was used to show the coexpression of TFF3/growth hormone (GH),TFF3/prolactin (PRL),TFF3/thyrotroph (TSH), TFF3/adrenocorticotropin (ACTH),TFF3/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),TFF3/luteinizing hormone (LH) in two contiguous slices .Results The immunoreactive products of TFF 3 and chromophil cells were brown granules , mainly expressed in cytoplasm .ACTH positive signals were expressed in the cell membrane and mainly located in the pars distalis hypophyseos.TFF3 existed in parts of GH,PRL,TSH,ACTH,FSH and LH cells in contiguous slices, accounting for 19.4%, 22.4%, 9.2%, 6.5%, 35.7%, 8.3%, respectively , in which FSH was the most , PRL and GH were less . Conclusion TFF3 expresses in GH, PRL, TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH cells in the pars distalis , which enriches the morphological data for the location of TFF 3 in gland cells of pars distalis hypophyseos .

  8. The changes of intestinal trefoil factor expression in rat small intestine after severe burn injury%严重烧伤对大鼠肠三叶因子表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭曦; 谭银玲; 陶麟辉; 王凤君; 赵云; 汪仕良

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of intestinal trefoil factor(ITF) as well as ITF mRNA expression in rat small intestine after severe burn injury .  Methods The distribution and the content of ITF in intestine were quantitatively determined with in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  Results ITF and ITF mRNA were distributed in whole small intestine and most of them localized in goblet cell of intestinal villus. After burn injury, the structure of intestinal mucosa was severely damaged and ITF mRNA expression was lessened. Moreover, the ability of goblet cell synthesis and ITF secretion, especially ITF dimmer were significantly decreased, i.e., from (369.33±65.56) ng/g before burn injury to (15.83±4.40) ng/g 7 days after burn injury, only accounting for 4% of that before injury. Conclusions The post burn damage to intestinal structure is the main cause for the declination in ability of goblet cell synthesis and ITF secretion; and ITF drop especially ITF dimmer can enhance intestinal mucosa injury and delay intestinal mucosa repair.%目的 探讨严重烧伤对大鼠肠三叶因子(ITF)及其mRNA表达的影响及意义。 方法 48只健康成年Wistar大鼠,制成30%TBSAⅢ度烧伤模型并随机分成正常对照组及伤后1,2,3,5,7 d共6组,每组8只。采用原位杂交、免疫组化等手段观察伤后ITF 及ITF mRNA表达的变化,并使用高效液相色谱仪对肠黏膜ITF含量进行定量检测。 结果 正常对照组大鼠小肠中ITF及ITF mRNA均有一定表达,它们主要分布于肠绒毛杯状细胞中。烧伤后肠黏膜组织结构受损,ITF mRNA表达明显减少,肠杯状细胞合成和分泌ITF的能力大幅下降(P<0.01),特别是ITF二聚体的含量远远低于伤前[(369.33±65.56) ng/g],伤后7 d[(15.83±4.40) ng/g]仅为伤前的4%。 结论 严重烧伤后肠黏膜组织结构受损是ITF合成

  9. 神经肽三叶因子3对可卡因奖赏效应的影响%Neuropeptide trefoil factor 3 increases reward effects of cocaine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹希; 杨金涛; 王杰超; 史海水

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨神经肽三叶因子3(trefoil factor 3,TFF3)对可卡因诱导的大鼠奖赏行为的影响及其可能机制.方法 50只SD大鼠分为对照组、可卡因组、可卡因+TFF3(0.01 mg/kg)组、可卡因+TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)组、可卡因+TFF3(0.5 mg/kg)组和TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)组六组(n=7~9),TFF3/生理盐水腹腔注射后30 min后给予可卡因(10 mg/kg)腹腔注射,记录可卡因给药后1h内大鼠自发活动情况.自发活动测试后立即断头取脑,分离伏隔核脑区(n=4~6),采用高效液相色谱法测定伏隔核脑区神经递质(多巴胺及其代谢物二羟苯乙酸)含量;另有21只大鼠分为对照组和TFF3处理组,经2d生理盐水、可卡因交替训练建立条件位置偏爱(CPP)模型,TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)/生理盐水腹腔注射后30 min后给予可卡因(5 mg/kg)腹腔注射TFF3,观察其对可卡因CPP评分的影响.结果 腹腔注射TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)可增强可卡因诱导的奖赏行为,表现为TFF3显著增加可卡因诱导的大鼠自发活性变化[对照组、可卡因组、可卡因+TFF3(0.01 mg/kg)和TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)组大鼠1h内运动总路程分别为:(180±41)cm,(359±53)cm,(590±75)cm,(153±27)cm];条件性位置偏爱实验显示,TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)能显著增强可卡因诱导的条件性位置偏爱的形成[训练后偏爱值分别为:(98±18)s,(187±24)s];高效液相色谱分析发现,TFF3能显著增加由可卡因诱导的大鼠伏隔核多巴胺变化[对照组、可卡因组、可卡因+TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)和TFF3(0.1 mg/kg)组分别为:(0.65±0.1)ng/ml,(1.24±0.14)ng/ml,(1.75±0.23) ng/ml,(0.74±0.21) ng/ml].结论 神经肽TFF3能够调节可卡因诱导的奖赏行为,这种调节作用可能与其影响伏隔核脑区多巴胺含量调节有关.%Objective To investigate the role of neuropeptide trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in cocaine reward responses and the underlying mechanism.Methods Fifty SD rats were divided into 6 groups including Control group,Cocaine group,Cocaine + TFF3 (0.01 mg/kg) group

  10. Effects of VOCs on herbaceous plants in an open-top chamber experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cape, J.N.; Leith, I.D.; Binnie, J.; Content, J.; Donkin, M.; Skewes, M.; Price, D.N.; Brown, A.R.; Sharpe, A.D

    2003-07-01

    Birdsfoot trefoil and broad-leaved dock were affected by VOCs. - A selection of herbaceous plants representing the ground flora around a typical chemical installation in the UK was exposed continuously for 7 weeks to a mixture of six VOCs (acetone, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, ethanol, methyl t-butyl ether and toluene) in open-top chambers. Exposure concentrations were based on predictions of atmospheric dispersion from a single source, at a distance of approximately 2 km. The effects of continuous exposure, representing a worst-case, were measured in terms of uncontrolled water loss from leaves, leaf wettability, chlorophyll content and fluorescence, dry matter production and detailed observations of changes in plant growth and phenology. There were significant effects of VOC exposure on seed production, leaf water content and photosynthetic efficiency in some plant species. Such effects may be detectable in vegetation close to major industrial point sources of VOCs, or as a result of an accidental release of material during manufacture or transport. Some of the species tested e.g. birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) seem to be promising as potential bioindicators for VOCs, but there may be other even more sensitive species waiting to be discovered. However, the most obvious and conveniently measured response to VOC exposure in the birdsfoot trefoil (premature senescence i.e. advanced timing of seed pod production) could easily be confused in the field with climatic influences. It is also uncertain at this stage whether any of the effects observed would lead to longer term ecological changes in natural plant communities, through biased competition between sensitive and more tolerant species.

  11. 人肠三叶因子串联亲和层析表达载体的构建与表达%Construction and expression of trefoil factor 3 expressing vector for tandem affinity purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建坤; 王琳; 裴一花; 刘国彦

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:As a novel growth factor, human intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) can promote cel growth and migration, and increase cel resistance to apoptosis, and it plays a great role in maintaining the mucosa integrity, mucosa protection and repairing the injured mucosa, also it has been closely related to the tumor growth and progression. With the function of mucosa repair, and as the tumor biomarker, TFF3 has a promising clinical application, but its definite interacting protein and molecular mechanism is stil unclear. OBJECTIVE:To construct and express the TFF3 recombinant protein with the tandem tag of StrepII-6×His in the target cel s for further purifying its interaction protein in the native condition based on the tandem affinity purification technique. METHODS:The DNA sequence for the tag (StrepII-TEV-6×His) and TFF3 as template was got by chemical synthesis and PCR amplification respectively. They were fused by the restriction enzyme XbaI site, and the tag sequence was located at the C terminus of TFF3 protein. TFF3-tag fusion gene was cloned into the pCDNA3.0 using EcoRI+HindIII, thus the TFF3-tag expressing vector pTFF3-C-StH was constructed and transfected transiently into gastric cel AGS by lipofectin. The recombinant TFF3-tag protein was expressed and detected by western blot assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The expressing vector pTFF3-C-StH for tandem affinity purification was constructed successful y, and was confirmed further by restriction enzyme analysis and sequenced. The recombinant TFF3-C-StH protein of TFF3-tag was expressed in the AGS cel , and showed specific antigenicity by western blot assay. Thus this work provides experimental base for further purification of the TFF3 interacting proteins.%背景:人肠三叶因子为新型的生长因子,可促进细胞生长与迁移,并使细胞具有很强抗凋亡能力,在维持胃肠黏膜完整性、黏膜保护与损伤修复发挥着重要作用,与胃肠道等多个肿瘤的发生

  12. Changes of trefoil factor 3 in hypophysis during healing of experimental gastric ulcer in rats%大鼠实验性胃溃疡自愈期间垂体三叶因子3的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小俊; 吕洋; 张文静; 张静; 邵素霞; 吴靖芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察大鼠实验性胃溃疡形成和愈合过程中垂体和血清三叶因子3(TFF3)的改变,探讨垂体TFF3在实验性胃溃疡愈合中的作用. 方法 以免疫组织化学染色检测溃疡组(42只)、盐水组(21只)和正常组(6只)大鼠垂体TFF3蛋白的表达;RT-PCR检测TFF3mRNA的转录;酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)法检测血清TFF3含量变化,原位杂交技术显示TFF3mRNA的定位. 结果 大鼠实验性胃溃疡自愈期间TFF3免疫反应阳性物质存在于腺垂体部分细胞和神经垂体,而TFF3 mRNA仅存在于腺垂体.与对照组相比,溃疡第1~6天,腺垂体内阳性信号平均吸光度值明显增大,6d达高峰,10d略有下降,14d复增高,23d下降,但仍高于对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05);神经垂体TFF3平均吸光度值在2~23d高水平波动,14d达高峰(P<0.01或P<0.05).RT-PCR显示,各组垂体均检测到TFF3 mRNA转录,溃疡组TFF3/GAPDH吸光度比值在溃疡2~ 23d均高于对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05);血清TFF3含量在溃疡组明显高于正常组(p<0.01). 结论 垂体TFF3在溃疡期间高表达,可能通过释放入血发挥促进溃疡愈合的作用.%Objective To explore the function of trefoil factor 3(TFF3) during the self-healing of experimental gastric ulcer in rats,and to observe the changes of TFF3 in hypophysis and blood serum. Methods The expression and changes of TFF3 peptide and mRNA in hypophysis at 42 gastric ulcer, 21 saline and 6 normal rats were detected by immunohistochemical SP and RT-PCR methods respectively. The content of TFF3 peptide of blood serum in different phase was detected by EL1SA. In situ hibridazation method (ISH) was used to detect the location of TFF3 mRNA in hypophysis. Results TFF3 immunoreactive profiles were mainly located in some cells of adenohypophysis ( AP) ,and neurohypophysis (NP) ,but TFF3 mRNA only in some cells of AP by ISH. The average absorbance( AA ) values increased from the day 1 to 6 after gastric ulcer

  13. 血清三叶因子3在胃癌中表达的临床研究%Clinical Research of Serum Trefoil Factor 3 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谢; 宋毓飞; 张学松; 黄志刚

    2016-01-01

    背景:在中国恶性肿瘤发病率和死亡率排序中,胃癌分居第二和第三位。探索方法简便、敏感性高的非侵入性指标以筛选出胃癌高危人群接受胃镜检查是胃癌普查的有效途径。目的:探讨三叶因子3(TFF3)作为胃癌筛查血清生物学标记物的临床价值。方法:收集宁波市医疗中心李惠利医院2013年7月—2014年1月49例胃癌患者和29名健康体检者的血清标本,采用 ELISA 法检测血清 TFFs 浓度,以 ROC 曲线及其曲线下面积(AUC)分析血清TFF1、TFF2、TFF3对胃癌的诊断性能,并进一步分析三者与胃癌临床病理特征的关系。结果:胃癌组 TFF3血清浓度显著高于健康对照组[(43.57±19.49)ng/ mL 对(29.97±14.20)ng/ mL,P <0.01],两组间 TFF1、TFF2血清浓度差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。血清 TFF1、TFF2、TFF3诊断胃癌的 AUC 分别为0.56、0.56和0.83,TFF3诊断性能最高;以33.0 ng/ mL 为 TFF3 cut off 值,相应敏感性和特异性分别为63.3%和82.8%,预测胃癌风险的 OR 值为8.27。TFF3血清浓度与胃癌 TNM 分期、分化程度和淋巴结转移显著相关(P <0.05)。结论:血清 TFF3是一个有应用前景的非侵入性胃癌筛查生物学标记物。%Background:Gastric cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third cause of cancer death in China. Selection of candidates in high risk of gastric cancer by a simple and non-invasive marker with high sensitivity and then undergoing endoscopy is an optimal approach for large scale gastric cancer screening. Aims:To evaluate the clinical value of using trefoil factor 3(TFF3)as a serum biomarker for gastric cancer screening. Methods:Serum samples of 49 gastric cancer patients and 29 healthy subjects were collected for measurements of serum TFFs by ELISA from Jul. 2013 to Jan. 2014 at Ningbo Medical Treatment Center Lihuili Hospital. ROC curve and the area under curve

  14. Expression of trefoil factor family-3 and β-catenin in different types of colorectal mucosal lesions%TFF3和β-catenin在不同大肠黏膜组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大中; 于亚男; 田字彬; 赵清喜; 孔心涓; 张翠萍; 魏良洲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究三叶因子3(TFF3)和β-catenin在不同大肠黏膜组织中的表达及其相互关系,探讨其在大肠腺癌及腺瘤发生、发展中的作用.方法:采用免疫组织化学PV6000法检测20例正常大肠黏膜、30例非腺瘤性息肉、20例大肠腺瘤、20例大肠腺瘤伴不典型增生和40例大肠腺癌组织中TFF3和β-catenin的表达,分析二者表达的差异及其相关性.结果:TFF3在大肠腺瘤、不典型增生组织表达下降(P<0.05),腺癌表达增加.β-catenin的异常表达率随腺瘤→腺瘤伴不典型增生→腺癌逐渐增加,腺癌组的膜表达缺失及异位表达均高于非腺癌性息肉和腺瘤组(60.00%vs 0.00%,15.00%;75.00%vs 0.00%,40.00%,均P<0.05).TFF3在腺癌中的表达与部位、分化程度无关,与淋巴结转移和Duke's分期密切相关(均P<0.05);β-catenin异常表达与部位、淋巴结转移无关,与肿瘤分化程度相关,异位表达尚与Duke's分期相关(均P<0.05).TFF3在腺癌中的表达与β-catenin膜表达缺失、异位表达均呈显著正相关(r=0.427,P=0.006;r=0.577,P=0.000),腺瘤中无相关(r=0.015,P=0.951:r=0.385,P=0.094);腺癌和腺瘤中β-catenin的膜表达缺失、异位表达两者间均呈显著正相关(r =0.638,P=0.000;r=0.514,P=0.020).结论:TFF3和β-catenin的表达与大肠腺癌的发生、发展密切相关,是肿瘤发生的早期分子事件.TFF3与β-catenin的异常表达相关,可能在大肠腺癌的发生、发展中存在共同作用.%AIM: To analyze the expression of trefoil factor family-3 (TFF3) and β-catenin in different types of colorectal mucosal lesions and to explore their role in the development and progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adenoma.METHODS: The expression of TFF3 and β-catenin was detected by immunohistochemistry in 20 normal colorectal mucosa spectrnens, 30 colorectal polyp specimens, 20 colorectal adenoma (CRA)specimens, 20 colorectal adenoma (with atypical hyperplasia, CRAAH) specimens, and 40

  15. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass–clover mixture...... (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P

  16. SOLID participatory research from Denmark: Use of herbs in pastures for dairy cows: Farmers’ experience, pasture coverage analyses, and literature survey of Danish research results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Karydi, Emmanouela; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    herbs year after year - constantly experimenting with optimizing the growing methods and seed mixtures. The motivations behind this were that they wanted to offer their animals a varied diet, they can see that the cows like the herbs, and sometimes even prefer them to grasses and clover, they believe...... chicory and salad burnet. In both fields, birdsfoot trefoil, yellow sweet clover, Sainfoin and starflower never established although the originally seed mixture had a quite high content of their seeds. The plant coverage analyses of the fields which were one to six years old, generally, dandelions...

  17. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  18. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  19. The use of cover crops to control tree invasion on a right-of-way near Tobermory. IV. Crop persistance and tree invasion in the third growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.

    1992-04-08

    A study was carried out to determine the ability of grasses, legumes, and the natural right-of-way vegetation cover to interfere with tree invasion. The location, in the Tobermory area of the Bruce Peninsula, was used to test 6 treatments at 6 sites, consisting of: soil scarification and seeding with creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra); soil scarification and seeding with juno orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata); soil scarification and seeding with birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus); soil scarification and seeding with a mixture of penngift crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); soil scarification with no seeding; and no soil scarification and no seeding. A design change in 1991 involved the addition of a slow release fertilizer and planting of green ash (Flaxinus pennsylvanica), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) to directly measure the interference potential of the crops. Orchard grass had the highest frequency (93[plus minus]3%), the largest cover (32[plus minus]7%) and the tallest canopy. Red fescue was present with a similarly high frequency and cover but did not appear to be as vigorous as the orchard grass. The frequencies of birdsfoot trefoil and crown vetch declined, and had extremely poor covers. The density of incompatible trees varied at each site but was not affected by the treatments. 41 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Effects of simulated acid precipitation on growth and nodulation of leguminous plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.H.; Alexander, M.

    1983-04-01

    Soil samples were collected from the Panther Lake, Sagamore Lake and Woods Lake watersheds of the Adirondack region of New York. The first two soils were from under coniferous canopy and the second from under a deciduous canopy. Agricultural soil was tested for comparative purposes. Simulated acid rain was applied to the soil samples for 14 days before seeds of Arlington red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and Viking birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) were sown. Results show that, based on nodule numbers and depth, nodulation of birdsfoot trefoil was more tolerant to acidity than that of red clover. The depth to which nodulation occurred was reduced with decreasing pH of the simulated rain. Yield and nitrogen content of both plant species were significantly reduced in two soils. Under the test conditions, the legumes were stunted and neither species nodulated in Sagamore soil. The enhancement of plant growth and nitrogen uptake in both plants in Howard soil (pH 6.7) may be a reflection of improved nutrient availability arising from chemical action of the more acid solutions. (JMT)

  1. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to grass in a systematic planting design. [Medicago sativa; Lotus corniculatus; Phalaris arundinacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, L.S.; Heichel, G.H.; Russelle, M.P.

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage legume in the USA, but N transfer from this or other perennial forage species to companion grasses growing in a mixed sward is poorly understood. Furthermore, interplant distances and legume/grass ratios have seldom been controlled in studies of N transfer from legumes to non-legumes. The objectives of this field study were: (i) to determine the amount of N transferred from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus carniculatus L.) to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.); (ii) to define conditions of distance and species ratio under which N transfer occurs; (iii) to compare the two legumes for N transfer; and (iv) to determine the effect of grass proximity on legume N/sub 2/ fixation. Legumes were interplanted with grass in single-species rows within km/sup 2/ plots on a Typic hapludoll soil labeled with /sup 15/N. Analysis of herbage showed significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in grass near legumes than in grass grown alone, and significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in legumes near grass than legumes in monoculture. Calculations using isotope dilution methods showed that grass derived a maximum of 68% of its N from alfalfa and 79% from trefoil. This N represented 13% of the N/sub 2/ fixed by trefoil and 17% of that fixed by alfalfa. The results indicated that N transfer occurred over a distance of 20 cm with maximum N transfer in areas of high legume/grass ratio. At third harvest, N derived from symbiosis was significantly higher (95% in alfalfa, 92% in trefoil) for legumes grown in mixture with grass than for legumes grown in monoculture (86% in alfalfa, 80% in trefoil). These results indicate that significant N transfer occurred, and that the amount of N transferred was dependent on interspecies distance and legume/grass ratio.

  2. 金莲花总黄酮对人甲状腺乳头癌 K1细胞三叶因子3表达变化的影响%Effects of Trollius flavonoids on the expression of Trefoil factor 3 in human papillary thyroid cancer K1 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房涛; 张静; 吴靖芳; 张文静; 张晨磊; 张芸芸; 裴达

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibition effect of Trollius flavonoids on the proliferation of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in human papillary thyroid cancer K1 cells in vitro, and to explore its effect on the expression of TFF3 in K1 cells.Methods The K1 cells cultured in vitro were treated by different concentrations of Trollius flavonoids for 24h,48h,72 h,respectively ,then the inhibition rate on K 1 cells growth was dectected by MTT .The changes of expression of TFF 3 protein/mRNA were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively.Results MTT detection showed that Trollius flavonoids had inhibition effects on proliferation and growth of K 1 cells in a dose and time dependent manner ( P <0.05). The examination results by Western blotting and Real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of TFF 3 protein and mRNA of K1 cells were decreased with the increase of flavonoids concentration ( P <0 .05 ) .Conclusion Trollius flavonoids have the inhibition effect on human throid papillary cancer cells and can inhibit the expression of TFF 3.%目的:探讨金莲花总黄酮对人甲状腺乳头癌K1细胞增殖抑制作用及三叶因子3(TFF3)表达变化。方法不同浓度金莲花总黄酮作用于体外培养K1细胞24、48、72 h,MTT检测细胞生长抑制率,Western blotting 和Real-time PCR检测不同浓度总黄酮对K1细胞TFF3蛋白及mRNA表达的影响。结果 MTT实验结果表明,同一时间总黄酮对K1细胞生长增殖抑制率随着药物浓度的增高而升高( P <0›.05),同一浓度总黄酮对K1细胞抑制率随时间延长而升高( P <0.05)。 Western blot及QPCR结果显示随着金莲花总黄酮浓度的升高K1细胞TFF3蛋白及mRNA水平下降( P <0.05)。结论金莲花总黄酮对人甲状腺乳头癌细胞具有抑制作用,并能抑制TFF3的表达。

  3. The Lotus japonicus genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides insights into some of the key achievements made in the study of Lotus japonicus (birdsfoot trefoil), as well as a timely overview of topics that are pertinent for future developments in legume genomics. Key topics covered include endosymbiosis, development, hormone regulation......, carbon/nitrogen and secondary metabolism, as well as advances made in high-throughput genomic and genetic approaches. Research focusing on model plants has underpinned the recent growth in plant genomics and genetics and provided a basis for investigations of major crop species. In the legume family...... Fabaceae, groundbreaking genetic and genomic research has established a significant body of knowledge on Lotus japonicus, which was adopted as a model species more than 20 years ago. The diverse nature of legumes means that such research has a wide potential and agricultural impact, for example...

  4. Species Diversity Effects on Productivity, Persistence and Quality of Multispecies Swards in a Four-Year Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Jingying; Søegaard, Karen; Cong, Wen-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Plant species diversity may benefit natural grassland productivity, but its effect in managed grassland systems is not well understood. A four-year multispecies grassland experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of species diversity±legumes and non-leguminous forbs±on productivity......, persistence and sward quality under cutting or grazing regimes and with or without slurry application. Three mixtures were established± 3-mix: grass, red and white clover, 10-mix: 3-mix plus birdsfoot trefoil and six non-leguminous forbs, and 12-mix: 10-mix plus lucerne and festulolium. Species diversity...... to cutting, grazing increased forage production by 9% per cut on average and lowered legume and forb proportions in the mixtures, but yields did not differ among the three mixtures. Overall, our results suggest that species diversity increases sward productivity and persistence only under an ungrazed cutting...

  5. Chemistry of flyash scrubber sludge components in plant-soil-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Flyash scrubber sludge (FASS) is a by-product from coal combustion at power plants. Land application and burial beneath wetlands have been suggested as more cost efficient disposal methods than burial in old mines. The FASS from the Associated Electric Power Plant at Thomas Hill, MO was added, 2.5 or 5.0% FASS by weight, to an acidic topsoil. FASS increased soil pH and salt level, and increased growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and tall fescue (Festuca aroundinacea L.). Concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Ni, P, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn in plant tissues were either unaffected or reduced due to FASS addition. The concentrations of B, Cl, Mo, Mn, and S were higher in tissues of plants grown on FASS treated than untreated soil. Boron content limited the amount of FASS that could be applied to soil.

  6. 肠三叶因子对肠组织核因子-κB及肿瘤坏死因子-α的调节及与肠损伤保护作用的关系%Relationship of intestinal trefoil factor for regulating of nuclear factor-κB and tumor necrosis factor-α and the protective effect of intestinal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆科; 孙梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨肠三叶因子(ITF)对肠组织NF-KB及TNF-α的调节及与肠损伤保护作用的关系.方法 24只10日龄的Wistar幼鼠随机分为正常对照组(NS组),脂多糖(LPS)组,ITF组,每组8只.NS组予9 g/L盐水1 mL/kg腹腔注射;LPS组予LPS(5 g/L)5 mg/kg腹腔注射;ITF组予重组ITF(5 g/L)0.1 mL/只+LPS 5 mg/kg腹腔注射.于腹腔注射后3h处死幼鼠,留取远端回肠组织,HE染色,光镜下行肠组织病理学检查.RT-PCR检测肠组织NF-κB mRNA表达水平.免疫组织化学检测肠组织NF-κB蛋白定位表达.ELISA法检测肠组织TNF-α分泌水平.结果 光镜下NS组肠组织结构正常,ITF组和LPS组均可见肠黏膜间质和上皮细胞水肿,ITF组较LPS组明显减轻;ITF组肠组织NF-KB mRNA和NF-κB蛋白表达均较LPS组明显下降(P均<0.01);ITF组肠组织TNF-α分泌较LPS组明显减少(P<0.01).结论 ITF减轻肠组织损伤的保护作用可能与其下调NF-KB mRNA和蛋白的表达及降低炎性介质TNF-α的分泌相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship of intestinal trefoil factor(HF) for regulating of nuclear factor(NF)-κB and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α and the protective effect of intestinal injury.Methods Twenty-four 10-day Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups:the control group(NS group,n =8),given 9 g/L sodium injection intraperitoneally,1 mL/kg; the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n =8),given LPS (5 g/L),5 mg/kg intraperitoreally; ITF group(n=8),given 1TF(5 g/L) 0.1 mL/each plus LPS 5 mg/kg intraperitoreally.Rats were sacrificed 3 hours after injection.A segment of distal ileum was dissected.The pathologic changes of small intestine were observed under the optical microscope(hematoxylin-eosin staining).The expressions of NF-κB mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),immunohistochemistry,respectively.TNF-α level in intestinal tissues was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Results The structure of small

  7. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M. [University of Kentucky, Quicksand, KY (United States). Robinson Experiment Station

    1998-07-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha{sup -1}) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site {number_sign}1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Coal slurry solids/coal fluidized bed combustion by-product mixtures as plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Green, W.P.; Dreher, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Fine-textured, pyritic waste produced by coal cleaning is stored in slurry settling ponds that eventually require reclamation. Conventionally, reclamation involves covering the dewatered coal slurry solids (CSS) with 1.3 m of soil to allow plant growth and prevent acid generation by pyrite oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the feasiblity of a less costly reclamation approach that would eliminate the soil cover and allow direct seeding of plants into amended CSS materials. Potential acidity of the CSS would be neutralized by additions of fluidized-bed combustion by-product (FBCB), an alkaline by-product of coal combustion. The experiment involved two sources of CSS and FBCB materials from Illinois. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) were seeded in the greenhouse into pots containing mixtures of the materials. CSS-1 had a high CaCO3:FeS2 ratio and needed no FBCB added to compensate for its potential acidity. CSS-2 was mixed with the FBCB materials to neutralize potential acidity (labeled Mix A and B). Initial pH was 5.6, 8.8, and 9.2 for the CSS-1, Mix A, and Mix B materials, respectively. At the end of the 70-day experiment, pH was 5.9 for all mixtures. Tall fescue and sweet clover grew well in all the treatments, but birdsfoot trefoil had poor emergence and survival. Elevated tissue levels of B, Cd, and Se were found in some plants. Salinity, low moisture holding capacity, and potentially phytotoxic B may limit the efficacy of this reclamation method.

  9. Performance of Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes submitted to cutting interval: subsidies to a breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of five birdsfoot trefoil populations (Lotus corniculatus L., selected under severe and intense grazing (P38, P37, P9 and P3 or cutting (population Corte, one rhizomatous population from Morocco and two cultivars, São Gabriel (Brazil and ARS 2620 (USA, to different cutting intervals (20 and 40 days. The trial was carried out in a greenhouse for 224 days. The plants were submitted to the treatments during four months, when it was made four and two cuttings for the 20 and 40 day intervals, respectively. In the following months, aerial part of the plants was totally removed and after 70 days of regrowth, evaluation of roots and aerial section were performed. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis was performed, obtaining the Mahalanobis distance (Md, dendogram by UPGMA method and the relative contribution of the characters for genetic divergence. There was no genotype × cutting interval interaction and the genotypes presented a reduction on dry matter yield of roots, crown and aerial sections, number of stems and plant height when submitted to frequent cuttings. The most divergent genotypes were Marrocos and P9 (Md = 108.7 and the most similar ones were São Gabriel and P37 (Md = 7.8. The results suggest exclusion of the population P9 because of its weak performance and the utilization of the populations Corte and P37 as progenitors in the birdsfoot trefoil breeding program. Root dry matter accumulation and plant height were the characters that contributed most to genetic divergence and they can be used for selection works.

  10. Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC. e exóticas (Lotus L. Availability and nutritive value of the wild leguminous (Adesmia DC. and exotics (Lotus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A. punctata e A. tristis, tendo como padrão Lotus corniculatus (cornichão e L. uliginosus. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação durante 210 dias (4000 graus-dia. A disponibilidade de forragem (DF foi similar entre A. latifolia (276 g MS/m² e cornichão (275 g MS/m² e entre A. tristis (201g MS/m² e L. uliginosus (192 g MS/m², sendo que A. punctata apresentou a menor DF (155 g MS/m². A. latifolia caracterizou-se pela maior precocidade na DF, devido ao crescimento mais rápido em relação às demais espécies, sugerindo seu potencial para utilização durante a estação fria. Em relação às análises de qualidade, o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas de A. latifolia foi de até 21,6% e a DIVMO atingiu 72,3%. Os maiores conteúdos de PB e DIVMO foram encontrados nas folhas de cornichão, 30,3 e 75,8%, respectivamente. A. tristis apresentou DIVMO muito baixa nos caules (34,9 a 44,7%, o que poderia limitar seu consumo por bovinos. Concluiu-se que, entre as espécies de Adesmia estudadas, A. latifolia detém o maior potencial forrageiro, sugerindo a continuidade de estudos com a espécie.The genus Adesmia DC. has 17 species native to Brazil, distributed in the Southern states, whose importance is linked to its adaptation to the soils and climatic conditions of the region, besides being an active winter-growing species (temperate. This work aimed to compare the patterns of dry matter (DM accumulation and nutritive value of A. latifolia, A. punctata and A. tristis, using Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and L. uliginosus (big trefoil, as checks. The experiment was carried out in

  11. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R;

    2015-01-01

    in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected......, and their numbers were significantly increased after the addition of GDNF (2.2-fold) or Forskolin (4.1-fold) compared to controls. Furthermore, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin had an additive effect and increased the number of TFF1-ir cells by 5.6-fold compared to controls. TFF1 expression was restricted...... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...

  12. Unfolding a molecular trefoil derived from a zwitterionic metallopeptide to form self-assembled nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ye

    2015-02-19

    While used extensively by nature to control the geometry of protein structures, and dynamics of proteins, such as self-organization, hydration forces and ionic interactions received less attention for controlling the behaviour of small molecules. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel zwitterionic metallopeptide consisting of a cationic core and three distal anionic groups linked by self-assembling peptide motifs. 2D NMR spectra, total correlated spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, show that the molecule exhibits a three-fold rotational symmetry and adopts a folded conformation in dimethyl sulfoxide due to Coulombic forces. When hydrated in water, the molecule unfolds to act as a self-assembling building block of supramolecular nanostructures. By combining ionic interactions with the unique geometry from metal complex and hydrophobic interactions from simple peptides, we demonstrate a new and effective way to design molecules for smart materials through mimicking a sophisticated biofunctional system using a conformational switch.

  13. Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: Not just trefoil peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F Assimakopoulos; Chrisoula D Scopa; Vassiliki N Nikolopoulou; Constantine E Vagianos

    2008-01-01

    Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14 (8): 1222-1230), it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte' proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions' formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials.

  14. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  15. Diversity of alkane degrading bacteria associated with plants in a petroleum oil-contaminated environment and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andria, V.; Yousaf, S.; Reichenauer, T. G.; Smalla, K.; Sessitsch, A.

    2009-04-01

    Among twenty-six different plant species, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Taurus), Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. Leo), and the combination of both plants performed well in a petroleum oil contaminated soil. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere, root interior and shoot interior and subjected to the analysis of 16S rRNA, the 16S and 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and alkane hydroxylase genes. Higher numbers of culturable, degrading bacteria were associated with Italian ryegrass, which were also characterized by a higher diversity, particularly in the plant interior. Only half of the isolated bacteria hosted known alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and cytochrome P153-like). Our results indicated that alkB genes have spread through horizontal gene transfer, particularly in the Italian ryegrass rhizosphere, and suggested mobility of catabolic genes between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. We furthermore studied the colonization behaviour of selected hydrocarbon-degrading strains (comprising an endopyhte and a rhizosphere strain) as well as the expression of their alkane monooxygenase genes in association with Italian ryegrass. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior.

  16. A comparison of two strategies to modify the hydroxylation of condensed tannin polymers in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mark P; Bavage, Adrian D; Allison, Gordon; Davies, Teri; Hauck, Barbara; Morris, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    A full-length sense Antirrhinum majus dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) sequence was introduced into birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) in experiments aimed at modifying condensed tannin content and polymer hydroxylation in a predictable manner. Analysis of transgenic plants indicated lines that showed enhanced tannin content in leaf and stem tissues. In contrast to previous data from root cultures, levels of propelargonidin units were not markedly elevated in lines with enhanced tannin content. RT-PCR analysis of four selected lines indicated a correlation between enhanced tannin content and expression of the introduced DFR transgene. Using a contrasting approach we introduced a flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequence derived from Eustoma grandiflorum into Lotus root cultures. Expression of the transgene was associated with increased levels of condensed tannins and in this case there was also no alteration in polymer hydroxylation. These results suggest that additional mechanisms may exist that control the hydroxylation state of condensed tannins in this model species.

  17. The strawberry transcription factor FaMYB1 inhibits the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins in Lotus corniculatus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P; Passeri, Valentina; Hauck, Barbara; Morris, Phil; Rubini, Andrea; Arcioni, Sergio; Damiani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are agronomically important biopolymers in higher plants composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units. The biosynthesis of these natural products is regulated by transcription factors including proteins of the R2R3MYB class. To gain insight into the genetic control of the catechin and epicatechin branches of the PA pathway in forage legumes, here the effects of the expression of FaMYB1, a flavonoid R2R3MYB repressor from strawberry, in Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), were tested. It was found that in leaves of T(0) transgenic lines the degree of PA inhibition correlated with the level of FaMYB1 expression. These effects were heritable in the transgene-positive plant T(1) generation and were tissue specific as the suppression of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was most pronounced in mesophyll cells within the leaf, whereas other flavonoid and phenolic compounds were substantially unaltered. The data suggest that FaMYB1 may counter-balance the activity of the endogenous transcriptional MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex promoting proanthocyanidin biosynthesis via the catechin and epicatechin branches and that FaMYB1 does not interfere with the expression levels of a resident R2R3MYB activator of PAs. It is proposed that in forage legumes leaf cell commitment to synthesize proanthocyanidins relies on the balance between the activity of activator and repressor MYBs operating within the MBW complex.

  18. Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

  19. A high-resolution method for the localization of proanthocyanidins in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Stephen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histochemical staining of plant tissues with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA or vanillin-HCl is widely used to characterize spatial patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in plant tissues. These methods are limited in their ability to allow high-resolution imaging of proanthocyanidin deposits. Results Tissue embedding techniques were used in combination with DMACA staining to analyze the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus corniculatus (L. and Trifolium repens (L. tissues. Embedding of plant tissues in LR White or paraffin matrices, with or without DMACA staining, preserved the physical integrity of the plant tissues, allowing high-resolution imaging that facilitated cell-specific localization of proanthocyanidins. A brown coloration was seen in proanthocyanidin-producing cells when plant tissues were embedded without DMACA staining and this was likely to have been due to non-enzymatic oxidation of proanthocyanidins and the formation of colored semiquinones and quinones. Conclusions This paper presents a simple, high-resolution method for analysis of proanthocyanidin accumulation in organs, tissues and cells of two plant species with different patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation, namely Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and Trifolium repens (white clover. This technique was used to characterize cell type-specific patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in white clover flowers at different stages of development.

  20. Forage legumes rich in condensed tannins may increase n-3 fatty acid levels and sensory quality of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Silacci, Paolo; Ampuero Kragten, Silvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Bee, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Tannins intensively interact with rumen microbes, which is expected to have consequences for meat quality. Silages prepared from birdsfoot trefoil (BT), sainfoin (SF), alfalfa (AF) or red clover (RC) were fed alone to 48 lambs. The SF contained five times more condensed tannins than BT, the other tanniferous plant. Growth and carcass performance, but not general meat quality, was reduced with BT and SF compared to AF and RC. Lambs fed SF had half the skatole levels in the perirenal fat than AF-fed lambs. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of the SF-fed lambs, compared to RC and BT, had a lower intensity for 'livery' and 'sheepy' flavors but a stronger 'grassy' flavor. The intramuscular fat of BT- and SF-fed lambs contained less saturated and more polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 20:4n-6, 20:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3, with SF being more efficient than BT. The SF was most promising to increase beneficial fatty acids and to reduce skatole content in lamb meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.

  4. Rumen microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen efficiency as affected by tanniferous and non-tanniferous forage legumes incubated individually or together in Rumen Simulation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhaus, Anja Grosse; Bee, Giuseppe; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Zeitz, Johanna O

    2017-08-29

    A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which have unfavourable great ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the rumen simulation technique (n=6). The tanniferous legumes, when compared to RC, changed the total short-chain fatty acid profile by increasing propionate proportions at the expense of butyrate. Silage from SF contained the most condensed tannins (CTs) (136 g CT kg(-1) dry matter) and clearly differed in various traits from the BT and RC silages. The apparent nutrient degradability (small with SF), microbial protein synthesis, and calculated content of potentially utilizable crude protein (large with SF) indicated that SF had the greatest efficiency in ruminal protein synthesis. The effects of combining SF with RC were mostly linear. The potential of sainfoin to improve protein supply, demonstrated either individually or in combination with a high-performance forage legume, indicates its potential usefulness in complementing protein-deficient ruminant diets and high-quality forages rich in rumen-degradable protein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutational analysis of target enzyme recognition of the beta-trefoil fold barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, Per K.; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2005-01-01

    of binding to target enzymes by surface plasmon resonance. Generally, the mutations had little effect on k(on), whereas the k(off) values were increased up to 67-fold. The effects on the inhibitory activity, however, were far more pronounced, and the K-i values of some mutants on the AMY2-binding side...

  6. Integração lavoura e pecuária e os atributos físicos de solo manejado sob sistema plantio direto Livestock-crop integration effects on physical attributes of a soil under no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2009-02-01

    evaluated: I wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and common vetch/corn; II wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and annual forages (black oat + common vetch/corn; III perennial cool season forages (fescue + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil; and IV perennial warm season forages (bahiagrass + black oat + rye grass + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil. System V alfalfa as hay crop was established in an adjacent area in 1994. Half of the areas under the systems III, IV, and V returned to system I after the summer of 1996 (southern hemisphere. The crops, both summer and winter, were grown under no-till. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Soil core samples were also collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experimental area. The variations in soil bulk density, total porosity, microporosity and macroporosity due to grain production systems with forages were not severe enough to cause soil degradation. The soil bulk density in the production systems with perennial forages was lower and total porosity and macroporosity, in the 0-2 cm layer, higher than in the production systems of grain or of grain with annual forages.

  7. Lucratividade e risco de sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens, sob sistema plantio direto Profitability and risk of production systems with pasture under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Serena Fontaneli

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo de cinco anos foi avaliar o desempenho de cinco sistemas de produção: sistema I (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja, pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja; sistema III [pastagem perene de estação fria (festuca + trevo branco + trevo vermelho + cornichão]; sistema IV [pastagem perene de estação quente (pensacola + aveia preta + azevém + trevo branco + trevo vermelho + cornichão]; e sistema V (alfafa para feno. As parcelas dos sistemas III, IV e V, retornaram para o sistema I, a partir do verão de 1996. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram aplicados à receita líquida quatro tipos de análise nos sistemas de produção: análise da receita líquida, da média variância, da distribuição de probabilidade acumulada e da dominância estocástica. Pela análise da receita líquida e da média variância, não houve diferença significativa entre os sistemas estudados. O sistema IV mostrou-se a melhor alternativa de produção, levando-se em conta lucratividade e menor risco, pela análise da dominância estocástica.The objective of this five-year study was to assess the performance of five production systems: system I (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and common vetch/corn; system II (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and oat + common vetch pasture/corn; system III [perennial cool season pasture (tall fescue + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]; and system IV [perennial warm season pasture (bahiagrass + black oat + ryegrass + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]; and system V (alfalfa as hay crop. The plot under systems III, IV, and V returned to system I after the summer of 1996. The treatments were allocated in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Four types of analysis were applied to the net return of production systems: net return, mean-variance, distribution

  8. Avaliação de espécies forrageiras de inverno na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul Evaluation of cool season forage species in Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a produção de forragem de espécies e cultivares forrageiros de inverno provenientes do programa de seleção do Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuária-INIA/Uruguai.Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivares Cetus, Estanzuela 284 e Titan; aveia (Avena byzantina, cultivares RLE 115a e 1095a; trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L., cv. Estanzuela Zapicán; trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Estanzuela 116; e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., cv. São Gabriel. Determinaram-se a produção de MS, o percentual e a produção dos componentes estruturais, a altura do dossel e os percentuais de FDN e PB. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Entre as gramíneas, o azevém cv. Titan apresentou a maior produção de MS, com 7,2 t/ha e elevada proporção de folhas. As produções de cornichão e trevo-vermelho foram semelhantes e superiores às do trevo-branco em produção de MS. As espécies e os cultivares testados mostraram-se adaptados às condições locais, mesmo com o déficit hídrico durante o período experimental.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the herbage production of cool season forage species and cultivars from Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuária- INIA/Uruguay breeding program. The following species and cultivars were evaluated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.: Cetus, Estanzuela 284 and Titan; Oats (Avena byzantina: RLE 115a and 1095a; White clover (Trifolium repens L.: Estanzuela Zapicán; Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: Estanzuela 116 and Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. São Gabriel. Dry matter production, structural components percentage and production, canopy height, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein percentages were determined. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a randomized block design, where the

  9. Ability of 3 tanniferous forage legumes to modify quality of milk and Gruyère-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M; Dohme-Meier, F; Wechsler, D; Goy, D; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) may affect ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A feeding experiment was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to evaluate whether diets containing CT from different forage legumes can increase polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acid content in milk and cheese, without affecting negatively their physicochemical and sensorial properties. Cows were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=6) for 52 d, divided into 2 periods: a control period (CoP) and an experimental period (ExP). During the CoP, cows received a basal diet composed of hay, corn silage, ExtruLin (Trinova Handel & Marketing AG, Wangen, Switzerland), concentrate, and alfalfa (AF) in a ratio of 45:25:5:7:18. In the ExP, in 3 of the 4 groups AF was replaced by either sainfoin (SF; 19% CT in dry matter) or 1 of 2 cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil [Polom (BP), 3% CT; Bull (BB), 5% CT]. At the end of each period, milk was collected on 3 consecutive days and analyzed for milk gross composition and fatty acid profile and was processed to Gruyère-type cheese. A trained panel assessed the sensory quality of raw milk and cheese using discriminative and descriptive tests. This experimental design consisting of AF in both the CoP and ExP allowed us to quantify effects due to lactation stage and experimental diets. In both the CoP and ExP, dry matter intake and milk yield did not differ among treatment groups. From the CoP to the ExP, milk urea content was reduced by 23% with SF, remained unchanged with BP, and tended to increase with AF and BB. The odor of the raw BB milk was judged to be different from AF milk. With SF, switching from the CoP to the ExP resulted in a 17% increase of the 18:3n-3 proportion in milk and cheese lipids. In BP cheese, the increase was 3%, whereas it tended to decrease in BB cheese. Additionally, the 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 proportions tended to increase in SF cheese from the CoP to the ExP. Compared with the AF cheeses, cheeses from cows

  10. Efeito de sistemas de produção mistos sob plantio direto sobre fertilidade do solo após oito anos Effect of mixed crop production systems under no-tillage on soil fertility after eight years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Santos

    2003-06-01

    assessed. Four production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and common vetch/corn; system II (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and grazed black oat + grazed common vetch/corn; system III [perennial cool season pastures (fescue + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]; and system IV [perennial warm season pastures (bahiagrass + black oat + rye grass + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]; and system V (alfalfa as hay crop, which was established in an adjacent area in 1994. The areas under systems III, IV, and V returned to system I after the summer of 1996. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Exchangeable Al and Ca + Mg, organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K levels were influenced by crop production systems. The production systems increased the contents of organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K, mainly at 0-5 cm depth. Organic matter, exchangeable Al, extractable P, and exchangeable K levels decreased from the 0-5 cm layer to the 15-20 cm layer, while the opposite occurred with pH and exchangeable Ca + Mg contents.

  11. Nitrogen cycling in young mine soils in southwest Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rensheng.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the nature of N form and dynamics in southwest Virginia mine soils. Fresh mine spoils contained a large amount of indigenous N, ranging from 650 to 2,500 mg/kg soil, which complicated N studies. Most of the indigenous N was geologic N which was unavailable to plants. The geologic N came from either 2:1 silicate minerals or coal fragments. Active N, consisting of hydrolyzable organic N and exchangeable N, comprised the minor fraction of indigenous N available to plants. With mine soil development, N accumulated mainly in the surface layer of mine soils via symbiotic fixation. Based on this fact, a simple, accurate method for measuring N accumulation which is corrected for indigenous N (Corr-N) has been developed. Corr-N is obtained by subtracting soil total N at 10-20 cm from soil total N at 0-5 cm. Under natural conditions the annual rate of N accumulation estimated by this method was 26 kg N/ha. Careful management enhanced N accumulation, and thus reduced the time required to build up soil N and to establish a vigorous, self-sustaining vegetative community in mine soils. Selecting proper overburn materials as a topsoil substitute, planting suitable legume species, and adding sewage sludge are effective methods for stimulating quick N accumulation and successful reclamation. For example, in experimental plots containing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) the accumulation rate was more than 150 kg N/ha per year. This work also showed that about 43%-63% of litter N was released during one year's decomposition, and about 2.3%-11.6% of litter N was subsequently taken up by plants depending on the plant species and soil N level. This indicates that N will effectively cycle through the plant-litter-soil system once a vegetative community is established on the young mine soil.

  12. Pollination success of Lotus corniculatus (L.) in an urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Vincent; Muratet, Audrey; Verfaillie, Fabien; Machon, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    Most anthropogenic activities are known to have deleterious effects on pollinator communities. However, little is known about the influence of urbanization on pollination ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the pollination service on Lotus corniculatus (L.), a self-sterile, strictly entogamous Fabaceae commonly observed in urban and suburban areas. We assessed the pollination success of artificial Lotus corniculatus populations at three levels: at large scale, along an urbanization gradient; at intermediate scale, based on landscape fragmentation within a 250 m radius and at local scale based on floral resource abundance and local habitat type. The main findings were that the pollination success, when assessed with the number of fruit produced per inflorescence, was lower in urban areas than in suburban ones, and was negatively affected by the number of impervious spaces in the neighborhood. The relationship between the number of fruits and the distance to the nearest impervious space was either positive or negative, depending on the gray/green ratio (low vs. high). Finally, on a local scale, floral resource abundance had a negative effect on pollination success when L. corniculatus populations were located in paved courtyards, and a positive one when they were located in parks. Pollination success seems to be explained by two intertwined gradients: landscape fragmentation estimated by the number of impervious spaces in a 250 m radius around L. corniculatus populations, and the behavior of bumblebees toward birdsfoot trefoil and floral displays, which appears to differ depending on whether a neighborhood is densely or sparsely urbanized. An abundance of attracting floral resources seems to enhance pollination success for L. corniculatus if it is not too isolated from other green spaces. These results have important implications for the sustainability of pollination success in towns by identifying local and landscape factors that influence reproductive success of

  13. Species Diversity Effects on Productivity, Persistence and Quality of Multispecies Swards in a Four-Year Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søegaard, Karen; Cong, Wen-Feng; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Plant species diversity may benefit natural grassland productivity, but its effect in managed grassland systems is not well understood. A four-year multispecies grassland experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of species diversity–legumes and non-leguminous forbs–on productivity, persistence and sward quality under cutting or grazing regimes and with or without slurry application. Three mixtures were established– 3-mix: grass, red and white clover, 10-mix: 3-mix plus birdsfoot trefoil and six non-leguminous forbs, and 12-mix: 10-mix plus lucerne and festulolium. Species diversity increased sward production and yield persistence under cutting regime. The 12-mix had the highest yield from the second year onwards and no statistically significant yield reduction over four years, while annual yields in the 3-mix and 10-mix decreased significantly with increasing grassland age. The higher yield in the 12-mix was mainly due to the inclusion of high-yielding lucerne. The 10-mix and 12-mix had lower proportions of unsown species than the 3-mix, the difference being dependent on grassland age. Generally, the 3-mix had higher concentrations of in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein (CP), and a lower concentration of ash than the 10-mix and 12-mix. Slurry application increased annual yield production by 10% and changed the botanical composition, increasing the proportion of grass and decreasing the proportion of legumes. Compared to cutting, grazing increased forage production by 9% per cut on average and lowered legume and forb proportions in the mixtures, but yields did not differ among the three mixtures. Overall, our results suggest that species diversity increases sward productivity and persistence only under an ungrazed cutting regime. We conclude that increasing species diversity by selecting appropriate species with compatible management is key to achieving both high yields and high persistence

  14. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  15. Proliferative effect of whey from cows' milk varying in phyto-oestrogens in human breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Höjer, Annika; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Purup, Stig

    2012-05-01

    Intake of dietary phyto-oestrogens has received a great deal of attention owing to their potential influence on hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. Cows' milk contains phyto-oestrogens and the content varies according to the composition of the feed and the type and amount of legumes used. In this study we evaluated the proliferative effect of milk (whey) with different phyto-oestrogen content in human breast (MCF-7) and prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Milk was obtained from cows fed either a birdsfoot trefoil-timothy silage based ration (B1) or two different red clover silage based diets (R1 and R2) resulting in total phyto-oestrogen contents of 403, 1659 and 1434 ng/ml for the B1, R1 and R2 diets, respectively. Whey was produced from the milk and added to cell culture medium in concentrations up to 10% for MCF-7 cells and 5% for PC-3 cells. Cell proliferation was measured fluorometrically after 7 d for MCF-7 cells and 5 d for PC-3 cells. There was no significant difference in the proliferative effect of whey from the different dietary treatments at any of the whey concentrations tested. An anti-proliferative effect (Pwhey was seen when tested in the presence of 10 pM oestradiol in the medium. This effect was independent of dietary treatment of cows. Whey induced a significant (Pmilk decreased PC-3 cell proliferation, and therefore the stimulatory effect of whey in PC-3 cells is believed to be mediated by other bioactives than equol. In conclusion, our results suggest that using whey in these proliferation assays, it was not possible to discriminate between milk with high or low levels of phyto-oestrogens.

  16. Mutational analysis of the β-trefoil fold protein barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor probes hot spots for the interaction with barley α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, P. K.; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2005-01-01

    increased 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas mutations on the other side of the inhibitor had virtually no effect. The mutants K140L, D150N, and E168T lost inhibitory activity, revealing the pivotal role of charge interactions for BASI activity on AMY2. A fully hydrated Ca(2+) at the AMY2-BASI interface...

  17. Upregulation of Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) After Rectal Cancer Chemoradiotherapy Is an Adverse Prognostic Factor and a Potential Therapeutic Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.casado@salud.madrid.org [Unidad de Oncologia, Hospital Infanta Sofia, Madrid (Spain); Moreno Garcia, Victor [Servicio de Oncologia Medica, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Laboratorio de Oncologia Traslacional, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, Jose Javier [Departamento de Bioestadistica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Gomez del Pulgar, Maria Teresa [Unidad de Oncologia Traslacional, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Feliu, Jaime [Servicio de Oncologia Medica, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Laboratorio de Oncologia Traslacional, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Maurel, Joan [Departamento de Oncologia, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Castelo, Beatriz [Servicio de Oncologia Medica, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Moreno Rubio, Juan; Lopez, Rocio A.B. [Laboratorio de Oncologia Traslacional, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Cabezas, Miguel Angel; Burgos, Emilio [Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Management of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with fluoropyrimidines, followed by total mesorectal excision. We sought to evaluate the expression of selected genes, some of which were derived from a previous undirected SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression)-based approach, before and after CRT, to identify mechanisms of resistance. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 129 consecutive patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of 53 candidate genes was performed on the biopsy specimen before treatment and on the surgical specimen after CRT. A paired-samples t test was performed to determine genes that were significantly changed after CRT. The result was correlated with patients' disease-free survival. Results: Twenty-two genes were significantly upregulated, and two were significantly downregulated. Several of the upregulated genes have roles in cell cycle control; these include CCNB1IP1, RCC1, EEF2, CDKN1, TFF3, and BCL2. The upregulation of TFF3 was associated with worse disease-free survival on multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 2.64; P=.027). Patients whose surgical specimens immunohistochemically showed secretion of TFF3 into the lumen of the tumoral microglands had a higher risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 2.51; P=.014). In vitro experiments showed that DLD-1 cells stably transfected with TFF3 were significantly less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil and showed upregulation of genes involved in the transcriptional machinery and in resistance to apoptosis. Conclusion: Upregulation of TFF3 after CRT for RC is associated with a higher risk of relapse. The physiological role of TFF3 in restoring the mucosa during CRT could be interfering with treatment efficacy. Our results could reveal not only a novel RC prognostic marker but also a therapeutic target.

  18. Mutational analysis of the β-trefoil fold protein barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor probes hot spots for the interaction with barley α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, P. K.; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...

  19. Induction of the adenoma-carcinoma progression and Cdc25A-B phosphatases by the trefoil factor TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S; Rodrigue, C M; Attoub, S; Fléjou, J F; Bruyneel, E; Bracke, M; Emami, S; Gespach, C

    2006-10-26

    TFF1 is overexpressed in inflammatory diseases and human cancers of the digestive and urogenital systems. To examine the transforming potential of TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells, premalignant PC/AA/C1 adenoma cells (PC) derived from a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were transformed by the TFF1 cDNA and used as a model of the adenoma-carcinoma transition. Constitutive expression of TFF1 increased anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar, and induced or potentiated the growth of colon PC-TFF1 and kidney MDCKts.src-TFF1 tumor xenografts in athymic mice. This resulted in reduction of thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and promotion of collagen type I invasion through several oncogenic pathways. Using the differential display approach to identify TFF1 target genes, we found that the dual specific phosphatases Cdc25A and B implicated in cell cycle transitions are strongly upregulated under active forms in both PC-TFF1 and HCT8/S11-TFF1 colon cancer cells. Accordingly, TFF1 expression is absent in normal human colon crypts but is induced in correlation with Cdc25a and b transcript levels and tumor grade in familial and sporadic colon adenomas and carcinomas. We propose that TFF1 and Cdc25A-B cooperate with other dominant oncogenic pathways to induce the adenoma and adenocarcinoma transitions. Agents that target TFF1/Cdc25 signaling pathways may be useful for treating patients with TFF1-positive solid tumors.

  20. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de herbicida - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148 Vegetation dynamics in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of herbicide - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os possíveis efeitos do uso do herbicida e da introdução de espécies de estação fria na dinâmica vegetacional da pastagem natural. Os tratamentos foram: pastagem natural com roçadas anuais (CN; pastagem natural melhorada com introdução de espécies de estação fria e com adubação anual (CNI; idem ao anterior, mas com uma aplicação de glifosato (G1; idem ao anterior, porém com três aplicações de glifosato (G3; idem ao G3, mas com o dobro da adubação anual (GA3. A semeadura de trevo branco, cornichão e azevém anual foi feita a lanço, sendo esta precedida da aplicação do herbicida glifosato. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável. A composição botânica observada foi diferente (p This study evaluated the possible effects of the use of herbicide and introduction of cool season species on the dynamics of natural grassland vegetation. The treatments were: natural grassland with annual mowing (CN; natural grassland improved with introduction of cool season species and annual fertilization (CNI; same as the previous but with glyphosate application (G1; same as the previous with three glyphosate applications (G3; same as G3 but with double annual fertilizing (GA3. The sod seeding of white clover, birdsfoot trefoil and annual ryegrass was preceded by application of the herbicide glyphosate. The grazing system was continuous, with variable stocking rates. The observed botanical composition was different (p < 0.06 between treatments that did not receive glyphosate application and those with application. The botanical composition of the treatments did not present variation (p = 0.57 among periods. The use of glyphosate allows an efficient establishment of the introduced species. However, the use of this practice is not recommended due to its effects on modifying the floristic composition of the natural grassland.

  1. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Omar Tomm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  2. A Conserved Potential Development Framework Applies to Shoots of Legume Species with Contrasting Morphogenetic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverjon, Lucas; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.; Litrico, Isabelle; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2017-01-01

    A great variety of legume species are used for forage production and grown in multi-species grasslands. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they display a broad range of morphologies that markedly affect their competitive abilities and persistence in mixtures. Little is yet known about the component traits that control the deployment of plant architecture in most of these species. During the present study, we compared the patterns of shoot organogenesis and shoot organ growth in contrasting forage species belonging to the four morphogenetic groups previously identified in herbaceous legumes (i.e., stolon-formers, rhizome-formers, crown-formers tolerant to defoliation and crown-formers intolerant to defoliation). To achieve this, three greenhouse experiments were carried out using plant species from each group (namely alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, sainfoin, kura clover, red clover, and white clover) which were grown at low density under non-limiting water and soil nutrient availability. The potential morphogenesis of shoots characterized under these conditions showed that all the species shared a number of common morphogenetic features. All complied with a generalized classification of shoot axes into three types (main axis, primary and secondary axes). A common quantitative framework for vegetative growth and development involved: (i) the regular development of all shoot axes in thermal time and a deterministic branching pattern in the absence of stress; (ii) a temporal coordination of organ growth at the phytomer level that was highly conserved irrespective of phytomer position, and (iii) an identical allometry determining the surface area of all the leaves. The species differed in their architecture as a consequence of the values taken by component traits of morphogenesis. Assessing the relationships between the traits studied showed that these species were distinct from each other along two main PCA axes which explained 68% of total variance: the first

  3. Efeitos de sistemas de produção de grãos envolvendo pastagens sob plantio direto nos atributos físicos de solo e na produtividade Effects of grain production systems including pastures under no-tillage on soil physical properties and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Spera

    2004-06-01

    solo na cultura de soja na camada de 0-5 cm.Ley forming modifier soil structure, which, in turn, effects soil physical characteristics in the upper layer. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil physical attributes and grain yield in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Typic Haplorthox located in Passo Fundo county (RS, Brazil, after eight years of mixed production cultivation (1993 to 2000. The effects of production systems integrating grain production with winter annual and perennial pastures under no-tillage were assessed. Four mixed production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and common vetch/corn; system II (wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and grazed black oat + grazed common vetch/corn; system III [perennial cool season pastures (fescue + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]; and system IV [perennial warm season pastures (bahiagrass + black oat + rye grass + white clover + red clover + birdsfoot trefoil]. System V (alfalfa as hay crop was established in an adjacent area in 1994. The areas under systems III, IV, and V returned to system I after the 1996 summer. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. As a control, physical soil parameter were evaluated in samples of a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil bulk density values were lower in the top layer (0-5 cm than in the deeper layer (10-15 cm, while the reverse was observed for the total porosity and macroporosity. Systems I, II, III, and IV showed higher bulk density values and lower total porosity and macroporosity values in the surface layer (0-5 cm. System V and subtropical forest presented low bulk density and high total porosity and macroporosity values compared to the other treatments. It was observed no differences between physical attributes of integrated and non-integrated crop and livestock systems. No significant correlation was verified between crop yields and physical soil

  4. Site-characteristic expression and induction of trefoil factor family 1, 2 and 3 and malignant brain tumor-1 in normal and diseased intrahepatic bile ducts relates to biliary pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Motoko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Saito, Takahito

    2004-01-01

    in normal and diseased livers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of TFF1,2,3 and DMBT1 were examined immunohistochemically in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EBO), and normal livers. RESULTS: In normal...

  5. Correlation of Trefoil factor 3 expression in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions with angiogenesis%TFF3在胃癌、癌前病变中的表达及与血管生成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王臣臣; 顾晓萌; 王妍; 黄山英

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究三叶因子3(TFF3)在胃癌及癌前病变中的表达情况,探讨其与胃癌的发生和血管生成的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学方法检测26例浅表性胃炎、25例肠上皮化生、20例不典型增生、66例胃癌组织中TFF3的表达,用CD34标记血管内皮,计数微血管密度(MVD).结果 胃癌组TFF3蛋白表达低于肠上皮化生组、不典型增生组,3组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但均明显高于浅表性胃炎组(P<0.01);胃癌组MVD值明显高于其他3组(P<0.01),肠上皮化生组、不典型增生组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但明显高于浅表性胃炎组(P<0.01),TFF3表达与胃癌淋巴结转移和TNM分期有关(P<0.05),TFF3表达与MVD呈显著正相关(r=0.672),阳性表达者的MVD值明显高于阴性表达者(P<0.01).结论 TFF3可能参与了胃癌发生发展、浸润转移和血管形成,其表达水平可作为早期预测胃癌发生发展和预后的有用指标.%Objective To investigate the expression of TFF3 in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions, and explore the correlation in gastric carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. Methods The expression of TFF3 was detected by immuno-histochemistry in 26 cases of superficial gastritis, 25 cases of intestinal metaplasia, 20 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 66 cases of gastric carcinoma. MVD was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 antibody. Results The expression of TFF3 was lower in gastric carcinoma than in intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia, with higher expressions than that in superficial gastritis (P 0.05) , with higher expressions than that in superficial gastritis(P < 0.01). The expression of TFF3 was correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM staging(P < 0.05). The expressions of TFF3 and MVD were positively correlated (r = 0. 672). MVD with positive expression of TFF3 was higher than that with negative expression (P< 0. 01). Conclusion TFF3 may play important roles in carcinogenesis , invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. It can be used as a useful indicator of the early prediction and prognosis of gastric cancinoma.

  6. Expression of Trefoil Factor Family Members in Gastric Cancer, Precancerous Lesion and Their Significance%三叶因子家族在胃癌及癌前病变组织中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽英; 秦玉彩; 尹希; 马丽

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨三叶因子家族(TFF)在胃癌及癌前病变中的表达及其意义.方法 选择经胃镜活检并经病理证实的基本正常或轻度浅表性胃炎患者20例(正常胃黏膜组)、慢性浅表性胃炎伴胃黏膜肠上皮化生患者30例(肠上皮化生组)、慢性萎缩性胃炎伴胃黏膜不典型增生患者24例(不典型增生组)和胃癌患者40例(胃癌组).采用免疫组化s-p法检测上述受检者的手术标本中TFF1、TFF2和TFF3的表达情况,并分析TFF与胃癌组织学类型、分化程度、浆膜浸润、淋巴结转移及TNM分期等临床病理特征的关系.结果 TFF1、TFF2在正常胃黏膜、不典型增生胃黏膜、肠上皮化生胃黏膜及胃癌组织中均有表达,二者表达强度依次呈递减趋势(P0.05);TFF3在有浆膜浸润、伴淋巴结转移和分期较晚(Ⅲ/Ⅳ期)胃癌组织中的表达阳性率[分别为91.7%、88.9%和95.O%]显著高于无浆膜浸润及淋巴结转移和I/Ⅱ期的胃癌组织(37.5%、46.2%和55.O%,P0.05);TFF1、TFF2和TFF3在弥漫型胃癌组织中的表达阳性率[分别为75.0%、82.1%和85.7%]显著高于肠型胃癌组织[分别为25.O%、41.7%和50.O%],差异有统计学意义(P

  7. 三叶因子表达规律与胃组织癌化进程的关系%The relationship between the positive expression rate of trefoil factor and the gastric cancer process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹香利; 闫育平

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨三叶因子的表达规律对判断胃癌恶化进程的临床意义.方法 采用免疫组化染色SP法对胃镜活检标本228例进行检测,其中正常胃黏膜40例,肠上皮化生60例,不典型增生48例,胃癌80例.统计分析胃组织病变演化至肠上皮化生、不典型增生及胃癌的过程中,三叶因子I、II、III(TFF1、TFF2、TFF3)的阳性表达情况及其与胃癌临床病理特征的关系.结果 在正常胃黏膜演变成胃癌过程中,TFF1、TFF2的表达强度逐渐递减(P0.05);TFF3在不同分化程度中的阳性表达无显著性差异(P>0.05),在不同TNM分期中有明显差异(P<0.05).结论 三叶因子的表达能够客观反映正常胃黏膜演变成胃癌的恶化过程,对诊疗胃癌具有重要的临床指导意义.

  8. 血清三叶因子3在胃癌及癌前病变筛查中的作用%The value of serum trefoil factor 3 in screening gastric cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文佳; 毛秋卉; 张学俭; 邹晓平

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨血清三叶因子3(TFF3)在胃癌及癌前病变筛查中的作用.方法 选择2011年1月至2011年12月行内镜检查及活检的患者326例,根据病理检查结果分为慢性萎缩性胃炎(CAG)组125例,上皮内瘤变组33例,肠型胃癌组66例,慢性非萎缩性胃炎(对照组)102例.采用ELISA法定量检测血清TFF3浓度.截点的选择用ROC曲线获得并得到相应的灵敏度、特异度;比较ROC曲线下面积(AUC)以判断血清TFF3诊断胃癌及癌前病变的有效性.结果 CAG组、肠型胃癌组血清TFF3水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.01,P<0.05).血清TFF3诊断CAG及胃癌的ROC曲线下面积分别为分别0.725±0.029,0.548±0.038.根据ROC曲线得到诊断CAG的血清TFF3最佳临界值为28.10 ng/ml,其诊断的灵敏度为66.4%,特异度为74.1%.结论 血清TFF3是筛选胃癌前病变的有效指标,但尚需进一步进行大宗病例、多中心研究.

  9. Expression and clinical significance of trefoil factor 3 in patiens with papillary thyroid carcinoma%三叶因子3在甲状腺乳头状癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小俊; 吴靖芳; 黄静; 张静; 张剑虹; 刘军超; 刘博; 薛刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨甲状腺乳头状癌(PTC)患者血清与组织中三叶因子3(TFF3)的表达水平及意义.方法 收集甲状腺肿瘤患者153例,其中乳头状癌组66例、腺瘤组51例、乳头状增生组36例,正常组153例(来源于每例标本的正常甲状腺组织).16例正常人血清标本作为ELISA检测的正常组.采用免疫组织化学SP法和原位杂交技术检测甲状腺手术标本中TFF3蛋白和mRNA的表达;ELISA检测血清TFF3浓度.结果 1.TFF3蛋白和mRNA均表达于细胞质,呈棕黄色颗粒.66例乳头状癌TFF3表达阳性率92.42%;36例乳头状增生阳性率47.22%;51例腺瘤阳性率31.37%;正常组阳性率25.40%;各组TFF3 mRNA阳性率略低于其蛋白,且与蛋白表达呈正相关(P <0.0001);甲状腺癌组积分吸光度显著高于其他3组(P<0.01);2.甲状腺乳头状癌中TFF3及mRNA高表达率与TNM分期和淋巴结转移有关(P<0.01);3.甲状腺癌组血清TFF3浓度明显高于乳头状增生组、腺瘤组和健康对照组(P <0.001).血清TFF3浓度在甲状腺癌组织阳性组明显高于阴性组(P<0.05).结论 甲状腺乳头状癌高表达TFF3蛋白及mRNA,检测血清TFF3浓度可能成为诊断甲状腺乳头状癌的筛选指标.

  10. Desempenho de pastagem nativa e pastagem sobre-semeada com forrageiras hibernais com e sem glifosato Performance of native pasture and pasture sodseeded with winter species with or without glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Melo Rizo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em Bagé-RS, visando avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS, taxa de lotação (kg de PV ha-1, ganho de peso vivo por animal (GMD, kg an-1 dia-1 e ganho por hectare (GPV ha-1 em: T1-pastagem nativa (testemunha; T2-pastagem nativa sobre-semeada com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus; T3- semelhante ao anterior, mais aplicação de glifosato; T4- semelhante ao anterior, porém com adubação dobrada. Foram utilizados novilhos Braford. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com ajustes na lotação para manter um nível de oferta de forragem de 10% (10kg de MS 100kg PV-1 dia-1. Para a determinação da MS da pastagem, utilizou-se o método da dupla amostragem com uso de disco e para a determinação da taxa de acúmulo de MS, utilizou-se o método da gaiola de exclusão. As análises estatísticas foram feitas no programa SAS (1997. O delineamento experimental foi blocos inteiramente casualizados, tendo dois blocos e quatro tratamentos. A introdução de espécies hibernais em pastagem nativa com ou sem uso de glifosato contribuiu para aumentar a produtividade do campo nativo. A sobre-semeadura de espécies hibernais permitiu maior carga e ganho por animal e por área comparados com a pastagem nativa.The experiment was developed in Bagé-RS, Brazil, to evaluate the dry matter production (DM, stocking rate (kg LW ha-1, live weight gain per animal (ADG, kg head-1 day-1 and gain per area (GPA, kg LW ha-1 in: T1-native pasture (control; T2-native pasture sodseeded with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus; T3-similar to anterior, plus glyphosate spraying; T4-similar to anterior, but with double fertilization. It were utilized Braford steers. The grazing method was the continuous stocking, with stocking adjustments to maintain a level of forage on offer of 10% (10kg of DM 100kg LW-1 day-1. To

  11. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate = Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção animal de novilhos e vegetal de campo natural e de campo natural sobre-semeado com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus com e sem a utilização do herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos foram: CN – campo nativo, com roçada anual; CNI – campo nativo com sobre-semeadura, adubação e roçada anual; G1 – Idem ao CNI com aplicação de herbicida no primeiro ano; G3 – idem ao G1 com supressão da vegetação natural com herbicida no segundo e terceiro ano; GA3 – Idem ao G3 com adubação duplicada nos três anos. O delineamento experimental foi blocos completamente casualizados com duas repetições. Os resultados apresentados são do terceiro anode avaliação. Para ganho médio diário, houve diferenças (p £ 0,1 entre tratamentos e períodos, que variaram de 0,214 kg animal-1 dia-1 em CN a 1,406 para os tratamentos com introdução de espécies. Quanto à variável ganho por área, os ganhos variaram de 84 a 410 kg PV ha-1. As cargas variaram de 283 a 679 kg PV ha-1. O uso do herbicida não apresentou efeitos sobre a produção; e a introdução de espécies de estação fria por sobre-semeadura melhorou a produção animal emCN, que possibilitou a colheita de maiores ganhos animal-1 dia-1 e por área.This study evaluated animal production of steers and pasture production of natural grassland and grassland overseeded withItalian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, with and without the use of glyphosate herbicide. Treatments consisted of: NG –natural grassland, with annual mowing; ING – natural grassland with overseeding, fertilizing and annual mowing; G1 – Same ING, but with glyphosate application in the first year; G3 – same as G1, with suppression of natural vegetation using herbicide in the second and third years; GF3 – same as G3, with doubled fertilizing in the three

  12. Efeito do pisoteio bovino em algumas propriedades físicas do solo de várzea Effect of cattle trampling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandro Rogério Vzzotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do pisoteio de animais bovinos sobre propriedades físicas de um solo de várzea cultivado com consórcio de espécies forrageiras de inverno. Utilizaram-se azevém (Lolium multiflorum + trevo branco (Trifolium repens + cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, semeadas dia 05 de abril de 1997, em solo classificado como Planossolo, cuja área foi sistematizada em desnível de 0,06mm-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das épocas de avaliação das características físicas do solo; T1 = antes da entrada dos animais, T2 = após a saída dos animais e T3 = seis meses após o término do pastejo. Cada piquete (Repetição de 0,5ha constituiu-se numa parcela, adotando-se pastejo contínuo com terneiros de 8-10 meses de idade e carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo, sendo que o resíduo de massa de forragem foi mantido ao redor de 1000kg/ha-1. O pisoteio animal ocasiona aumento da densidade do solo e redução da porosidade total. Nos primeiros cinco cm da superfície do solo, ocorre aumento da densidade do solo. Seis meses sem pisoteio não foram suficientes para que as raízes das plantas realizassem a descompactação do solo.The objetive of the work was to evaluate effects of bovine stepping on the physical proprieties of a lowland soil where a mixture of winter pastures were grown. The plant species were italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The soil is classified as an albaqualf, previously leveled with a 0,06% gradient. The experimental design was a randomized block in which each plot measured 0,5ha forming six experimental units under continuous grazzing. The soil treatments were the occasions in which the samplimg were taken; T1 = just before entrance of the animals, T2 = immediately after their exit and T3 = six months later. The

  13. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4674 Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4674

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Fontoura Júnior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção animal de novilhos e vegetal de campo natural e de campo natural sobre-semeado com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus com e sem a utilização do herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos foram: CN – campo nativo, com roçada anual; CNI – campo nativo com sobre-semeadura, adubação e roçada anual; G1 – Idem ao CNI com aplicação de herbicida no primeiro ano; G3 – idem ao G1 com supressão da vegetação natural com herbicida no segundo e terceiro ano; GA3 – Idem ao G3 com adubação duplicada nos três anos. O delineamento experimental foi blocos completamente casualizados com duas repetições. Os resultados apresentados são do terceiro ano de avaliação. Para ganho médio diário, houve diferenças (p ≤ 0,1 entre tratamentos e períodos, que variaram de 0,214 kg.animal-1 dia-1 em CN a 1,406 para os tratamentos com introdução de espécies. Quanto à variável ganho por área, os ganhos variaram de 84 a 410 kg PV há-1 . As cargas variaram de 283 a 679 kg PV há-1 . O uso do herbicida não apresentou efeitos sobre a produção; e a introdução de espécies de estação fria por sobre-semeadura melhorou a produção animal em CN, que possibilitou a colheita de maiores ganhos animal-1 dia-1 e por área.This study evaluated animal production of steers and pasture production of natural grassland and grassland overseeded with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, with and without the use of glyphosate herbicide. Treatments consisted of: NG – natural grassland, with annual mowing; ING – natural grassland with overseeding, fertilizing and annual mowing; G1 – Same ING, but with glyphosate application in the first year; G3 – same as G1, with suppression of natural vegetation using herbicide in the second and third years; GF3 – same as G3, with doubled fertilizing in

  14. Sistemas de Alimentação Pós-Desmama de Bezerras de Corte para Acasalamento com 14/15 Meses de Idade Post Weaning Feeding Systems for Beef Heifers to be Bred at 14/15 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2002-07-01

    (NNP. After this period, all heifers grazed together on improved natural pastures with annual ryegrass, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. These data were collected in a farm located in Dom Pedrito, RS, from 395 beef heifers from three genetic groups: Hereford; 3/4 Hereford -1/4 Nellore; 5/8 Hereford- 3/8 Nellore. Live weight (LW, body conditions score (BCS and live weight daily gains (LDG were recorded. No differences could be detected among systems for LW and LDG. Feedlot heifers had greater BCS. At the beginning and end of the mating season, heifers from pasture group were heavier and had greater BCS than heifers from feedlot and supplementation.

  15. Effect of exchanging Onobrychis viciifolia and Lotus corniculatus for Medicago sativa on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Bee, G; Silacci, P; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of feeding sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT; Lotus corniculatus), 2 temperate climate forage legumes that contain condensed tannins (CT), on ruminal fermentation and N turnover in dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated multiparous dairy cows (milk yield=40kg/d; 36 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design. All animals were fed basal diets containing 20% pelleted SF (223g of CT/kg of dry matter), BT (30.3g of CT/kg of dry matter), or alfalfa (AL) and concentrate to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. Each experimental period consisted of a 21-d adaptation period in a tiestall, followed by a 7-d collection period in metabolic crates, where feces and urine were collected quantitatively. During the 7-d period, milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were taken at each milking. Blood, ruminal fluid, and papillae were sampled on d 2 and 5. The relative abundance of selected bacterial strains in ruminal fluid and the gene expression of transporter genes in the papillae were determined with quantitative PCR. Total volatile fatty acids and the abundance of the cellulolytic bacteria Prevotella spp. and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased with SF compared with AL. The relative gene expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 was increased with BT compared with AL and SF. Total yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein were similar among treatments. The proportion of 18:3n-3 in milk fat was greater and those of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were lower with SF than with BT. The contents of urea N in blood (2.71, 3.45, and 3.90mmol/L for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), milk (79.8, 100.1, and 110.9mg/kg for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), and urine were lower with SF than with AL and BT, and a trend toward a lower ruminal ammonia content occurred with SF compared with BT. Intake and excretion of N with milk were similar among treatments, but urine N was lower with SF

  16. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  17. Seleção de populações de Lotus corniculatus L. com maior tolerância ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Selection of populations of Lotus corniculatus L. with increased tolerance to aluminum in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Janke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar genótipos de Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel e UFRGS mais tolerantes ao alumínio, utilizando-se a técnica de seleção em solução nutritiva. A solução continha 200 µmol/L de cálcio (CaCl2, 100 µmol/L de alumínio (AlCl3 e pH controlado na faixa de 4,1 a 4,3. Realizaram-se dois ciclos de seleção, nos quais as plântulas foram selecionadas pelo comprimento final das radículas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se o ganho genético alcançado nos ciclos de seleção, tanto nas populações originais como nas melhoradas, em um experimento com solução nutritiva com quatro concentrações de alumínio (0, 50, 100 e 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, por meio do crescimento radicular líquido. O uso de solução nutritiva foi eficiente na seleção de plântulas de cornichão tolerantes ao alumínio. Os materiais analisados apresentam diferenças em relação a esta característica, destacando-se o genótipo UFRGS F2, proveniente de dois ciclos de seleção, como o material com maior tolerância ao alumínio.The experiment was carried out to select genotypes of Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel and UFRGS more tolerant to aluminum, using the technique of selection in nutrient solution. The solution contained 200 µmol/L calcium (CaCl2 and 100 µmol/L aluminum (AlCl3 and a pH controlled in the range from 4.1 to 4.3. It was performed two cycles of selection, in which the seedlings were selected by the root final length. Subsequently, the genetic gain achieved in the cycles of selection was tested, in original and improved populations in an experiment in nutrient solution with four concentrations of aluminum (0, 50, 100 and 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, by liquid root growth. Use of nutritional solution was efficient in the selection of seedlings of birdsfoot trefoil tolerant to aluminum. The materials analyzed differ for this characteristic, with the genotype UFRGS F2, being the most tolerant.

  18. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Parts per million Expiration/revocation date Alfalfa, forage 50 None Alfalfa, hay 75 None Almond, hulls 50 None Apple, wet pomace 15 None Asparagus 15 None Banana 5.0 None Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 None Beet... potato, roots 0.2 None Trefoil, forage 15 None Trefoil, hay 25 None Vegetable, brassica, leafy, group...

  19. Activity, purification, and analysis of condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a class of plant polyphenolic compounds contained in some forages (i.e., sanfoin, big trefoil, birdfoot trefoil), condensed tannins (CTs), also referred to as proanthocyanidins (PAs), exhibit a variety of biological effects on ruminants and on the dairy farm nitrogen cycle. Interest in CTs stems ...

  20. Environmental Compliance Assessment Protocol - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ECAP-CDC), West Virginia Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Water loosestrife Delphinium exaltatum Tall larkspur Descurainia pinnata Tansy-mustard Desmodium lineatum A tick-trefoil (continued) 5 -10 Appendix 5-1...continued) Scientific Name Common Name Desmodium pauciflorum A tick-trefoil Digilariafiliformis Slender crabgrass Disporum maculatum Mandarin

  1. Impact of Ultrasounds on the Share of Hard Seeds in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Toth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has focused on 4 size groups of bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. (Ø 1.0-1.6 mm and 10 variants of ultrasound treatments with different intensities and exposure times (0.11-2.72 W/cm2 and 10-160 seconds. After treating the bird’s-foot trefoil seed groups with ultrasounds, the bird’s-foot trefoil seeds were put into Petri vases for germination and the following parameters were measured: germinating energy (after 10 days, germinating faculty (after 21 days and share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds (after 31 days. Research results show a very significant decrease of the share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds in the groups of medium- and large-size bird’s-foot trefoil seeds treated with ultrasounds, compared to the control variant (no group seeds or to the small-size bird’s-foot trefoil seed group treated with ultrasounds. Intensity and exposure time do not correlate with the share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds.

  2. Impact of Seed Size and of Ultrasounds on Seed Germination in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Toth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors point out the impact of ultrasounds on seed germination in bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The bird’s-foot trefoil seeds, grouped into 4 size groups, were exposed to ultrasounds with variable intensities and exposure times ranging between 0.11 and 2.72 W/cm2 and between 10 and 160 seconds. Research shows that both germinating energy and germinating ability measured at 10 and 21 days, respectively, were positively impacted by ultrasounds. The highest values were when we treated with ultrasounds medium- and largesize bird’s-foot trefoil seeds.

  3. Aspectos térmico-biológicos da germinação de sementes de cornichão anual sob diferentes temperaturas Thermal-biological aspects on seed germination of hairy bird's-foot trefoil under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para a germinação de sementes de Lotus subbiflorus Lag. utilizando-se como parâmetros a porcentagem, a velocidade, a frequência, a entropia informacional de germinação e a entalpia líquida de ativação. O experimento foi realizado em dois lotes com quatro subamostras, cada uma de 100 sementes, e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Foram utilizadas oito temperaturas constantes (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC com a presença de fotoperíodo. Esta espécie germina numa faixa de temperatura com valores mínimos entre 0 e 5ºC, ótimos entre 15 e 20 ºC e máximos entre 30 e 35 ºC. A velocidade de germinação apresentou-se linearmente dependente da temperatura. Os maiores valores de velocidade de germinação, que ocorreram entre 15 ºC e 20 ºC abaixo e acima desta faixa decresceram significativamente. Os menores valores de entropia informacional ocorreram entre 15 e 20 ºC, mostrando maior sincronização do processo germinvatio nessas temperaturas. O ponto mínimo da entalpia foi atingido a 278 K e o máximo, a 303 K e 290,5 K, ponto no qual a curva cruzou o eixo da abscissaThe objective of this research was to determine the minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures for seed germination of Lotus subbiflorus Lag., using germination percentage, speed, frequency, informational entropy and enthalpy of activation of germination. The experiment was carried out in two lots with four replicates of 100 seeds each. The data were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by Tukey's test. Eight constant temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC and light exposition (darkness and 8 h of light plus 16 h of darkness were used. This species of seed germinates in a temperature range of minimal values between 0 and 5 ºC, optimal values between 15 and 20 ºC and maximal values between 30 and 35 ºC. Germination rate was temperature dependent. The highest values of speed germination, occurring between 15 and 20 ºC below and above this range germination speed had a significant reduction. The lowest values of informational entropy occurred between 15 and 20 ºC, showing a higher synchronization of germination process in these temperatures. The enthalpy value of the system was calculated, reaching its minimum point at 278 K, and its maximum, at 303 K; the point at which the curve crossed the absciss axis was 290.5 K

  4. 胃癌组织三叶因子家族的表达与细胞增殖和凋亡的相关性%Relationship between Expression of Trefoil Factor Family and Gastric Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽英; 秦玉彩; 马丽; 尹希; 孙泽明; 田惠

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨三叶因子1(TFF1)、三叶因子2(TFF2)、三叶因子3(TFF3)在胃癌组织中的表达及其与细胞增殖、凋亡的相关性.方法 检测40例胃癌组织、20例正常胃黏膜、30例肠上皮化生及24例不典型增生胃黏膜中TFF1、TFF2、TFF3和增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)的表达及其细胞凋亡情况.结果 TFF1、TFF2在正常胃黏膜、不典型增生胃黏膜、肠上皮化生胃黏膜及胃癌组织中均有表达,两者表达强度依次均呈递减趋势(均P<0.05).TFF3在正常胃黏膜没有表达,而在肠上皮化生胃黏膜、不典型增生胃黏膜和胃癌组织中均有表达,表达强度依次呈递增趋势(P<0.05).胃癌组织中TFF1、TFF2表达与细胞增殖指数呈负相关(r=-0.55,r=-0.38,均P<0.05),与细胞凋亡指数呈正相关(r=0.58,r=0.48,均P<0.05);TFF3的表达与细胞增殖指数呈正相关(r=0.55,P<0.05),与细胞凋亡指数呈负相关(r=-0.48,P<0.05).结论 TFF可能通过影响胃癌细胞的增殖和凋亡,在胃癌发生、发展中起不同的作用.

  5. The expression and significance of trefoil factor 3 and SDF-1/CXCR4biological axis in papillary thyroid carcinoma%三叶因子3和SDF-1/CXCR4生物轴在甲状腺乳头状癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛刚; 黄静; 张慧芹; 张文静; 吴靖芳; 尚小领

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究三叶因子3、基质细胞衍生因子-1(SDF-1)及其受体CXCR4在甲状腺乳头状癌(PTC),中的表达,探讨三者在乳头状癌发生、发展和转归中的作用及相关性.方法:应用免疫组织化学法(SP法)检测92例PTC及癌旁组织中TFF3、SDF-1及CXCR4的表达,采用图像分析软件系统对免疫组织化学结果进行半定量分析.结果:①TFF3蛋白表达于癌细胞胞质,癌旁滤泡上皮细胞TFF3阴性或弱阳性,TFF3阳性率92.39%,其中临床Ⅲ~Ⅳ期强阳性率为71.19%(42/59),Ⅰ~Ⅱ期强阳性率为33.33%(11/33,P<0.01);有淋巴结转移者明显高于无淋巴结转移者(100.00% vs 86.27%,P<0.05).TFF3的AOD值在PTC内高于癌旁、有淋巴结转移者高于无淋巴结转移者、临床Ⅲ~Ⅳ期高于Ⅰ~Ⅱ期(P<0.05或P<0.01).②SDF-1表达于胞质,转移淋巴结和癌旁细胞为弱阳性或阴性.SDF-1阳性率和AOD值在PTC内高于癌旁、有淋巴结转移者高于无淋巴结转移者、临床Ⅲ~Ⅳ期高于Ⅰ~Ⅱ期、45岁以上高于45岁以下者(P<0.05或P<0.01);CXCR4主要表达于胞质,少数表达于胞核,癌旁组织中呈弱阳性或阴性,PTC中CXCR4表达的阳性率和AOD值与SDF-1相似:癌内高于癌旁、与临床分级、淋巴结转移和年龄有关(P<0.05或P<0.01).③PTC中,TFF3与SDF-1蛋白、SDF-1与CXCR4蛋白表达水平呈正相关(r=0.971,P<0.01).结论:TFF3、SDF-1、CXCR4在PTC中的高表达与癌的发生、发展有关,对判断PTC的恶性程度和病情进展有重要价值.

  6. Correlation of trefoil factor 3 expression in gastric carcinoma, precancerous lesions, gastric adenoma with angiogenesis%TFF3在胃癌、癌前病变及胃腺瘤中的表达及其与血管生成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路艳艳; 田字彬; 魏良洲; 孔心涓; 赵清喜; 李玉军; 孙显路

    2009-01-01

    目的:分析三叶因子3(TFF3)在不同胃黏膜病变中的表达及其与间质微血管密度(MVD)值的关系,探讨其在胃癌、癌前病变及胃腺瘤发生、发展中的作用.方法:应用免疫组织化学PV6000法检测20例正常胃黏膜、20例胃腺瘤、20例萎缩性胃炎伴肠化生、20例不典型增生、40例胃癌组织中TFF3的表达,同时检测MVD值,以抗CD34标记.结果:TFF3在胃腺瘤、萎缩性胃炎伴肠化生、不典型增生和胃癌各组表达均高于正常组(50.0%,65.0%,70.0%,57.5% vs 5.0%,均P<0.01).胃癌MVD值高于正常胃黏膜、胃腺瘤、萎缩性胃炎伴肠化生和不典型增生(30.65±6.04 vs 14.87±3.06,22.33±3.78,23.16±3.20,25.22±4.66,均P<0.01),各组MVD值均高于正常胃黏膜组(均P<0.01).TFF3表达和MVD值与胃癌淋巴结转移和分期有关(均P<0.05),MVD值还与胃癌浸润深度有关(P<0.05).TFF3阳性表达组的MVD值明显高于TFF3阴性组(34.53±4.45 vs 25.39±3.25,P<0.01).结论:TFF3可能是胃黏膜癌变过程中的早期分子事件,在胃黏膜癌变和癌变后的恶性演进过程中起作用,对胃癌早期诊断和预测胃癌发生转移可能具有重要的提示作用.

  7. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  8. Comportamento de leguminosas (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium em mistura com festuca Response of legumes (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium in mixture with tall fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2002-11-01

    temperate legumes (Adesmia latifolia (wild, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and Trifolium repens cv. Yi and cv. Regal was evaluated in mixture with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea. There was a period of 475 days between sowing date and the last cut and six cuts were made; on the autumn-winter/2000 only one cut was made, on the spring-summer, three cuts and on the autumn-winter/2001, two cuts. The intervals between cuts ranged between 43 and 91 days, being reduced in the warm season. During the total assay period, the average of the mixtures yielded 15038 kg/ha of DM; in the warm season 54% of this total was produced, with an average growth rate of 46 kg/ha/day of DM. In the cold season of 2000 and 2001 this rate was of 22 and 24 kg/ha/day of DM. The birdsfoot trefoil and white clover cv. Yi were the most productive legumes; the former was the best in the warm season (3500 kg/ha of DM and the last participated with 86,3% in the mixture in the autumn-winter/2001, with 2300 kg/ha/day of DM. The mixtures containing these legumes presented the smallest quantity of weeds and produced 13663 and 11,184 kg/ha of DM respectively, being 82% and 71% of these totals composed of legumes, fescue and ryegrass. A. latifolia did not have a good establishment and its contribution was only 0,84% in the first cut. The L. subbiflorus had a good establishment on the first year, but it disappeared from the mixture in the second year. L. uliginosus had a good establishment and persistence producing up to 1400 kg/ha of DM in the autumn/2001.

  9. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and

  10. Begonia “Tuti Siregar” (Begonia listada Smith &Wasshausen x Begonia acetosa Vellozo: a new cultivar from Bali Botanic Garden, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTUTININGSIH-M. SIREGAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Siregar HM, Ardaka IM, Siregar M (2010 Begonia “Tuti Siregar” (Begonia listada Smith &Wasshausen x Begonia acetosa Vellozo: a new cultivar from Bali Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 15-18. A new Begonia cultivar was generated by crossing Begonia listada Smith & Wasshausen with Begonia acetosa Vellozo at Bali Botanic Garden began in 2005. The female flowers of B. listada were pollinated with pollen grains from B. acetosa. Begonia listada is characterized by the following characters: erect, non rhizomatous, branched subshrub to 1 m tall; leaves: blade above bronze, beneath purple with two pale green veins. B. acetosa has the following characters: creeping rhizomatous perennial to about 1 m tall; leaves: thick, blade above olive green, beneath bright red, both surfaces with a dense covering of short stiff white hairs. The results of crossing is, herb, erect, non-rhizomatous, 40-75 cm heigh, stem brownish green, hairy, stipules in pairs, marcescent, ascending, membranous. Leaves, beautiful asymmetrical leaves intermediate between both parents; petiole deeply red, covered with wooly hairs, veins yellow like B. listada. The new cultivar, Begonia ‘Tuti Siregar’, has the American Begonia Society registration number 1001 (Salisbury 2008.

  11. Human eye cataract microstructure modeling and its effect on simulated retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Shuang; Chang, Chung-Hao; Horng, Chi-Ting; Yao, Hsin-Yu; Sun, Han-Ying; Huang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2017-02-01

    We designed a crystalline microstructure during cataract lesions and calculated the aberration value of the eye by using ray trace modeling to identify the corresponding spherical aberration, coma aberration, and trefoil aberration value under different pathological-change degrees. The mutual relationship between microstructure and aberration was then discussed using these values. Calculation results showed that with increased layer number of microstructure, the influence of aberration value on spherical aberration was the greatest. In addition, the influence of a relatively compact microstructure on spherical aberration and coma aberration was small, but that on trefoil aberration was great.

  12. The Streambank Erosion Control Evaluation and Demonstration Act of 1974, Section 32, Public Law 93-251. Appendix D. Ohio River Demonstration Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    SERICCA 20 MOUNDSVILLE, W. VA. PHALARIS ARUNOINACEA REED CANARY GRASS 2 IT 01AGROSTIS AL&A "to TOP 5S T LOTUS CORNICULATUS ISIROSFOOT TRFIL 10 OHIO... CORNICULATUS BIROSFOOT TREFOIL to F ,*21 LAETPESTUCA ARUNOHNAC A TALL fESCUE 0S I TE LOTUS CORNICULATUS SIROSFOOT TREFOIL .00H1 RIVE PLATE 19 D-2-37...AGROS-ris .4LBA KED 7TOP s LorLJS CORNICULATUS AJ*DSFooT rXEF’OL 10 C FKSruc9 fiRuNDINACER, TALL FffSC IAf CPCV.31,VLTA) 30 CORrD/VILq4 Vh9#9PffYC.is

  13. Apo and InsP[subscript 3]-bound crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain of an InsP[subscript 3] receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Baek, Kyuwon; Lu, Zhe (UPENN)

    2012-05-08

    We report the crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of a rat inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP{sub 3}R) in its apo and InsP{sub 3}-bound conformations. Comparison of these two conformations reveals that LBD's first {beta}-trefoil fold ({beta}-TF1) and armadillo repeat fold (ARF) move together as a unit relative to its second {beta}-trefoil fold ({beta}-TF2). Whereas apo LBD may spontaneously transition between gating conformations, InsP{sub 3} binding shifts this equilibrium toward the active state.

  14. ORNITHOPUS PERPUSILLUS L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. VILKONIS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Common birdsfoot serradella (Ornithopus perpusillus L. was first reported in Lithuania in 1898, from a single site, Klaipeda harbor. In 2000 the species was found on the Curonian Spit near Nida, and in two more places almost in the centre of the country. The ecology, community structure, habitat characteristics and distribution of the species are discussed and described. O. perpusillus is here regarded as native in both the Curonian Spit and the Prienai district. These are disjunct localities to the east of the main distribution area of the species. Collected seeds from 2005 are multiplying in Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture for further investigation.

  15. Extrinsic functions of lectin domains in O-N-acetylgalactosamine glycan biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Virginia; Ditamo, Yanina; Cejas, Romina B;

    2016-01-01

    Glycan biosynthesis occurs mainly in Golgi. Molecular organization and functional regulation of this process are not well understood. We evaluated the extrinsic effect of lectin domains (β-trefoil fold) of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) on catalytic activity of glycosyltransferases...

  16. Knots and Preons

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the four trefoil solitons that are described by the irreducible representations D^{3/2}_{mm'} of the quantum algebra SL_q(2) (and that may be identified with the four families of elementary fermions (e,\\mu,\\tau;\

  17. Protein precipitation behavior of condensed tannins from Lotus pedunculatus and Trifolium repens with different mean degrees of polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF) by two large- and two medium-sized condensed tannin (CT) fractions of similar flavan-3-ol subunit composition is described. CT fractions isolated from white clover flowers and big trefoil leaves exhibited...

  18. Impact by condensed tannins with different mean degrees of polymerization on protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CTs) isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) leaves were evaluated in precipitation studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF). The CTs were of similar compositions, but differed in the...

  19. 76 FR 76625 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Denial of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... printed with larger font; an expiration date should be distinctly legible to a fire or building inspector without taking down the sign; and the radiation trefoil should be displayed on the front and back of... luminosity requirement of applicable building or fire safety codes and are replaced. A self-luminous...

  20. Preventive effect of hydrotalcite on gastric mucosal injury in rats induced by taurocholate

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bao-Ping; Sun, Jun; Li, Mu-Qi; Luo, He-Sheng; Yu, Jie-Ping

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the preventive effect of hydrotalcite on gastric mucosal injury in rat induced by taurocholate, and to investigate the relationship between the protective mechanism of hydrotalcite and the expression of trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) mRNA and c-fos protein.

  1. Calculation Method for Normal Inducedlongitudinal Voltage on Pilot Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz B.M. Kamel,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a full study and detailed calculations of the induced voltage in pilot cables are carried out. First an introduction showing the importance of the induced voltage and its effect in pilot cables. The first calculation method Flat Formation. The second calculation method Trefoil Formation. Then the results obtained for both methods and compared. Finally a conclusion is conduct.

  2. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morozov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential expansion (DE for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern–Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso–Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R=[rs], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  3. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A

    2016-01-01

    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation $R$ is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of $3d$ Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil $3_1$ and for the figure eight knot $4_1$. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfil this program for all rectangular representation $R=[r^s]$, i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  4. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-10-01

    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R = [rs ], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  6. Vegetation Evaluation and Recommendations: Dredge Material Placement Areas and Adjacent Lands, Kaskaskia River Navigation Project, New Athens to Fayetteville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-03

    288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to Paspalum . Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale...in less satur- ated areas are Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick trefoil), Geum canadense (white avens), Paspalum fluitans (swamp bead grass ...tall fescue), Bromus inermis (smooth brome), and Tridens flavus (purple-top) are the most abundant and important grasses in the old fields. Major

  7. Comparison of Bergeron and Frequency-dependent cable models for the simulation of electromagnetic transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    analyses the simulation errors of different Bergeron models to a reference frequency-dependent model for a 150kV cable. The simulations consider flat and trefoil installation, both-ends bonding and cross-bonding, ideal voltage source and modelling of the area around the cable. The Bergeron model...... the modelling of the area around the cable being energised, the Bergeron model has a small error if tuned for the right frequency....

  8. N2-fixation and residual N effect of four legume species and four companion grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Søegaard, Karen; Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and climatic conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a sandy soil at two nitrogen levels with seven two-species forage mixtures: alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, red clover, or white clover in mixture with perennial ryegrass, and white clover in mixture with meadow fescue, timothy, or hybrid ryegrass. We...... found high N2-fixation of more than 300 kg N ha−1 from both red clover and alfalfa even when the two mixtures received 300 kg total-N ha−1 in cattle slurry. The addition of cattle slurry N fertilizer lowered N2-fixation for white clover and red clover as expected, but for bird's-foot trefoil and alfalfa...... no changes in the proportion of N derived from N2-fixation was observed. We conclude that the competition for available soil N from perennial ryegrass in mixture was an important factor for the proportion of N in alfalfa, white clover, and bird's-foot trefoil obtained from N2-fixation. White clover had...

  9. The Impact of Nitrogen Fertilisation on the Evolution of Floristic Composition in Mixtures of Festuca rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Cristea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra L. is a good competitive species that makes up the floristic structure of temporary meadows and that are used for grazing or mixed use (haymaking field – grassland together with Festuca pratensis L., Phleum pratense L., Poa pratense L., Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. The paper aims at pointing out the evolution of the floristic composition of the vegetal cover in different mixtures based on (creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., Dutch / white clover (Trifolium repens L. and bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. Analysis of mean results concerning the structure of the floristic composition of mixtures based on Festuca rubra L. (60% shows that in all 9 types of mixtures there was balance between the degree of participation of (creeping red fescue and the share of the other two legume species studied. In the control variants, in the two simple mixtures, the share of Dutch / white clover was 48% and that of bird’s-foot trefoil was 44%. These values decreased, on the average, with 10% when applying a rate of N50 and with 14% when applying a rate of N100. In the complex mixture, there was a mean value of the degree of participation of the two species of legumes of 46% (with a higher share of the bird’s-foot trefoil in the control variant, of 34% in the variant treated with N50 and of 30% in the variant treated with N100.

  10. Effects of silver ions (Ag+) on contractile ring function and microtubule dynamics during first cleavage in Ilyanassa obsoleta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A. H.; Stephens, A. P.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Schwarting, S. S.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The terminal phase of cell division involves tight constriction of the cleavage furrow contractile ring, stabilization/elongation of the intercellular bridge, and final separation of the daughter cells. At first cleavage, the fertilized eggs of the mollusk, Ilyanassa obsoleta, form two contractile rings at right angles to each other in the same cytoplasm that constrict to tight necks and partition the egg into a trefoil shape. The cleavage furrow contractile ring (CF) normally constricts around many midbody microtubules (MTs) and results in cleavage; the polar lobe constriction contractile ring (PLC) normally constricts around very few MTs and subsequently relaxes without cleavage. In the presence of Ag+ ions, the PLC 1) begins MT-dependent rapid constriction sooner than controls, 2) encircles more MTs than control egg PLCs, 3) elongates much more than control PLCs, and 4) remains tightly constricted and effectively cleaves the polar lobe from the egg. If Ag(+)-incubated eggs are returned to normal seawater at trefoil, tubulin fluorescence disappears from the PLC neck and the neck relaxes. If nocodazole, a drug that depolymerizes MTs, is added to Ag(+)-incubated eggs during early PLC constriction, the PLC is not stabilized and eventually relaxes. However, if nocodazole is added to Ag(+)-incubated eggs at trefoil, tubulin fluorescence disappears from the PLC neck but the neck remains constricted. These results suggest that Ag+ accelerates and gradually stabilizes the PLC constriction by a mechanism that is initially MT-dependent, but that progressively becomes MT-independent.

  11. The beauty of knots at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Amabilino, David B

    2012-01-01

    What makes a given object look beautiful to the observer, be it in the macroscopic world or at the molecular level? This very general question will be briefly addressed at the beginning of this essay, in relation to contemporary molecular chemistry and biology, leading to the general statement that, most of the time, beauty is tightly connected to function as well as to the cultural background of the observer. The main topic of the present article will be that of topologically non-trivial molecules or molecular ensembles and the fascination that such species have exerted on molecular or solid state chemists. Molecules with a graph identical to Kuratowski's K₅ or K₃,₃ graphs are indeed highly attractive from an aesthetical viewpoint, but perhaps even more fascinating and beautiful are molecular knots. A general discussion will be devoted to these compounds, which are still considered as exotic species because of the very limited number of efficient synthetic strategies leading to their preparation. Particularly efficient are templated approaches based either on transition metals such as copper(I) or on organic groups able to form hydrogen bonds or acceptor-donor stacks. A particularly noteworthy property of knots, and in particular of the trefoil knot, is their topological chirality. The isolation of both enantiomers of the trefoil knot (3₁) could be achieved and showed that such species have fascinating chiroptical properties. Finally, various routes to more complex and beautiful knots than the trefoil knot, which is the simplest non-trivial knot, will be discussed in line with the remarkable ability of transition metals to gather and orient in a very precise fashion several organic components in their coordination spheres, thus leading to synthetic precursors displaying geometries which are perfectly well adapted to the preparation of the desired knots or links.

  12. Peripheral Refraction Validity of the Shin-Nippon SRW5000 Autorefractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu Levi; Suheimat, Marwan; Wolffsohn, James S; Atchison, David A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the operation of the Shin-Nippon/Grand Seiko autorefractor and whether higher-order aberrations affect its peripheral refraction measurements. Information on instrument design, together with parameters and equations used to obtain refraction, was obtained from a patent. A model eye simulating the operating principles was tested with an optical design program. Effects of induced defocus and astigmatism on the retinal image were used to calibrate the model eye to match the patent equations. Coma and trefoil were added to assess their effects on the image. Peripheral refraction of a physical model eye was measured along four visual field meridians with the Shin-Nippon/Grand Seiko autorefractor SRW-5000 and a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, and simulated autorefractor peripheral refraction was derived using the Zernike coefficients from the aberrometer. In simulation, the autorefractor's square image was changed in size by defocus, into rectangles or parallelograms by astigmatism, and into irregular shapes by coma and trefoil. In the presence of 1.0 D oblique astigmatism, errors in refraction were proportional to the higher-order aberrations, with up to 0.8 D sphere and 1.5 D cylinder for ±0.6 μm of coma or trefoil coefficients with a 5-mm-diameter pupil. For the physical model eye, refraction with the aberrometer was similar in all visual field meridians, but refraction with the autorefractor changed more quickly along one oblique meridian and less quickly along the other oblique meridian than along the horizontal and vertical meridians. Simulations predicted that higher-order aberrations would affect refraction in oblique meridians, and this was supported by the experimental measurements with the physical model eye. The autorefractor's peripheral refraction measurements are valid for horizontal and vertical field meridians, but not for oblique field meridians. Similar instruments must be validated before being adopted outside their design scope.

  13. 一种新型钎料的成型方法及应用%Forming method and its application of a novel brazing filler metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星星; 龙伟民; 于新泉; 裴夤崟; 孙华为; 程亚芳

    2013-01-01

    主要设计了一种新型钎料的成型模具——三叶内摆线形滚动拉丝模,对其结构特征给以描述,通过算例将新型钎料与棒状钎料进行对比,详细介绍新型三叶内摆线形钎料的实现过程.结果表明,与棒状钎料相比,新型三叶内摆线形钎料与三钢球的接触面积大,增加幅度为15%~50%.在拉拔长度一定的条件下,与等横截面积的棒状钎料相比,三叶内摆线形钎料的横截面周长及体表面积较大.设计的新型钎料成型模具可有效减少能耗,提高拉拔效率,实现三叶内摆线形新型钎料的产业化.%A wire drawing dies of new brazing filler metal was designed.The structure feature of this wire drawing dies was described,and the body surface area of the new brazing filler metal was compared with rod-like brazing filler metal through examples,the process of trefoil hypocycloid brazing filler metal was introduced in detail.The results indicate that the contact area of trefoil hypocycloid brazing filler metal and three steel ball is larger about 15%~50% than the rod-like brazing filler metal.As compared to general trod-like brazing filler metal,the cross-sectional perimeter and body surface area of trefoil hypocycloid brazing filler metal is also larger under the same drawing length.The novel wire drawing dies can effectively reduce energy consumption and improve the drawing efficiency.Industrialization of trefoil hypocycloid new brazing filler metal would be realized in future.

  14. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 6. Some chemical characteristics and biological activity of root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin fraction of black medic trefoil (Medicago lupulina roots was isolated and purified. Its hydrolysis afforded several aglycones that have been identified by spectral and chemical properties as medicagenic acid, hederagenine and soyasapogenols: B, C, D, E and F. They made up, respectively. 46.9 and 45% of total sapogenins isolated. Two-dimensional TLC of M. lupulina root saponins revealed fourteen compounds, two of which were medicagenic acid glycosides. The haemolytic, antifungal and allelopathic activities of M. lupulina and M. media roots are compared and discussed.

  15. The unique rht-MOF platform, ideal for pinpointing the functionalization and CO 2 adsorption relationship

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The uniqueness of the rht-MOF platform, based on the singular (3,24)-connected net, allows for the facile design and synthesis of functionalized materials for desired applications. Here we designed a nitrogen-rich trefoil hexacarboxylate (trigonal tri-isophthalate) ligand, which serves to act as the trigonal molecular building block while concurrently coding the formation of the targeted truncated cuboctahedral supermolecular building block (in situ), and enhancing the CO 2 uptake in the resultant rht-MOF. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. The unique rht-MOF platform, ideal for pinpointing the functionalization and CO2 adsorption relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Ryan; Eubank, Jarrod F; Cairns, Amy J; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The uniqueness of the rht-MOF platform, based on the singular (3,24)-connected net, allows for the facile design and synthesis of functionalized materials for desired applications. Here we designed a nitrogen-rich trefoil hexacarboxylate (trigonal tri-isophthalate) ligand, which serves to act as the trigonal molecular building block while concurrently coding the formation of the targeted truncated cuboctahedral supermolecular building block (in situ), and enhancing the CO(2) uptake in the resultant rht-MOF. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Exotic relation modules and homotopy types for certain 1-relator groups

    CERN Document Server

    Harlander, Jens; 10.2140/agt.2006.6.2163

    2009-01-01

    Using stably free non-free relation modules we construct an infinite collection of 2-dimensional homotopy types, each of Euler-characteristic one and with trefoil fundamental group. This provides an affirmative answer to a question asked by Berridge and Dunwoody [J. London Math. Soc. 19 (1979) 433-436]. We also give new examples of exotic relation modules. We show that the relation module associated with the generating set x, y^4 for the Baumslag-Solitar group is stably free non-free of rank one.

  18. Effect of bacterial inoculation in some mixtures of grassland legumes and gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ghiocel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The paper presents the influence of bacterial inoculation of perennial legumes (alfalfa, bird’s-foot trefoil in pure culture and cultivated in association with perennial gramineae on fodder yield, fodder quality, and atmospheric nitrogen-fixing ability. Results point out an increase of 10-12% of the yield of dry matter in the variants inoculated. Bacterial inoculation with specific bacterial stems (Sinorhizobium meliloti and Mezorhizobium loti has a positive influence on fodder quality too, materialised in the raw protein content and the amount of nitrogen fixed biologically.

  19. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  20. Identification and expression analysis of a novel R-type lectin from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Seo, Gi Won; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-11-01

    We have identified novel ricin-type (R-type) lectin by sequencing of random clones from cDNA library of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA sequence is comprised of 495 bp encoding a protein of 164 amino acid residues and shows 49% identity with galectin of Tribolium castaneum. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid residues from 35 to 162 belong to ricin-type beta-trefoil structure. The transcript was significantly upregulated after early hours of injection with peptidoglycans derived from Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, beta-1, 3 glucan from fungi and an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes suggesting putative function in innate immunity.

  1. New mathematical model for error reduction of stressed lap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pu; Yang, Shuming; Sun, Lin; Shi, Xinyu; Liu, Tao; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-05-01

    Stressed lap, compared to traditional polishing methods, has high processing efficiency. However, this method has disadvantages in processing nonsymmetric surface errors. A basic-function method is proposed to calculate parameters for a stressed-lap polishing system. It aims to minimize residual errors and is based on a matrix and nonlinear optimization algorithm. The results show that residual root-mean-square could be >15% after one process for classical trefoil error. The surface period errors close to the lap diameter were removed efficiently, up to 50% material removal.

  2. Review: Gp-340/DMBT1 in mucosal innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumour 1 (DMBT1) is a gene that encodes alternatively spliced proteins involved in mucosal innate immunity. It also encodes a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 340 kDa, and is referred to as gp-340 (DMBT1(gp340)) and salivary agglutinin (DMBT1(SAG)). DMBT1(gp340...... proteins, including serum and secretory IgA, C1q, lactoferrin, MUC5B and trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), all molecules with involvement in innate immunity and/or wound-healing processes. Recent generation of Dmbt1-deficient mice has provided the research field of DMBT1 with a model that allows research...

  3. Comparison of corneal topographic measurements and high order aberrations in keratoconus and normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Hatice Nur; Kantarci, Feride Aylin; Yildirim, Aydin; Tatar, Mehmet Gurkan; Goker, Hasan; Uslu, Hasim; Gurler, Bulent

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report was to compare corneal topographic measurements and anterior high order corneal aberrations in eyes with keratoconus and normal eyes by using Scheimpflug-Placido topography. Eighty cases diagnosed with mild (group 1), moderate (group 2), and advanced (group 3) stage keratoconus (KC) according to Amsler-Krumeich Classification and 81 healthy (control group) cases were retrospectively examined. The mean keratometric measurements (as both diopters (Kavg) and mm values (mmavg)), central corneal thickness values (CCT), high order aberration (HOA), total wavefront aberration (TWA), coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration measurements were performed using Sirius topography equipment. The topographic values were compared between the groups. There were 25 cases in group 1 KC (15.5%), 34 cases in group 2 KC (21.1%), 21 cases in group 3 KC (13.1%), and 81 cases (50.3%) in the control group. In terms of mean age and gender distributions, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). However, there was significant difference between the groups in terms of Kavg, CCT, HOA, TWA, coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration values (pkeratoconus. Anterior high order corneal aberration measurements are a useful tool to guide the physician in diagnosis and classification of keratoconus. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Possible SLq(2) Substructure of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    We examine a quantum group extension of the standard model with the symmetry $SU(3) \\times SU(2) \\times U(1)\\times $ global $SLq(2)$. The quantum fields of this extended model lie in the state space of the $SLq(2)$ algebra. The normal modes or field quanta carry the factors $D^j_{mm^\\prime} (q|abcd)$, which are irreducible representations of $SLq(2)$ (which is also the knot algebra). We describe these field quanta as quantum knots and set $(j,m,m^\\prime)= 1/2 (N,w, \\pm r+1)$ where the $(N,w,r)$ are restricted to be (the number of crossings, the writhe, the rotation) respectively, of a classical knot. There is an empirical one-to-one correspondence between the four quantum trefoils and the four families of elementary fermions, a correspondence that may be expressed as $(j,m,m^\\prime)=3(t,-t_3, -t_0)$, where the four quantum trefoils are labelled by $(j,m,m^\\prime)$ and where the four families are labelled in the standard model by the isotopic and hypercharge indices $(t,t_3,-t_0)$. We propose extending this co...

  5. Uptake and accumulation of selenium by terrestrial plants growing on a coal fly ash landfill. 3. Forbs and grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H. (Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ilhaca, NY (USA). Environmental Biology Program)

    1992-09-01

    Plants grown on coal fly ash landfills can accumulate relatively high concentrations of selenium (Se), which may be ameliorated with gypsum application to the soil. In 1988 and 1989, experiments were conducted to measure the accumulation of Se in forbs and grasses growing on a coal fly ash landfill. In 1990, a dose-response study was conducted to determine whether forbs and grasses growing on a fly ash landfill would respond to gypsum applications with reduced tissue levels of Se and increased levels of S. Higher concentrations of Se were found in plants grown on the landfill than on nonlandfill control plots, and leguminous species tended to accumulate more Se than nonlegumes. Two of the four studied species - bird's-foot trefoil ([ital Lotus corniculatus L.]) and bitterweed ([ital Picris hieracioides L.]) - had higher concentrations of S when grown with gypsum. However, only bird's-foot trefoil showed significantly reduced Se. The difference in tissue levels of Se and S was a presence/absence response, not a monotonic response to the rate of applied gypsum. Although it is clear that gypsum applications have the potential for mitigating Se uptake by some plants, the response is quite variable on a fly ash landfill, probably due to variability in concentration and availability of Se in the soil cap.

  6. A Knot Model Sugugested by the Standard Electroweak Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, R J

    2004-01-01

    We attempt to go beyond the standard electroweak theory by replacing the underlying Lie algebra with its q-deformation: SU_q(2) x SU(1). This step introduces new degrees of freedom that we interpret as indicative of non-locality and as a possible basis for a solitonic model of the elementary particles. The solitons are conjectured to be knotted flux tubes labelled by the irreducible representations of SU_q(2), an algebra which is not only closely related to the standard theory but also plays a role in the description of knots. Each of the four families of elementary fermions is conujectured to be represented by one of the four possible trefoils. The three individual fermions belonging to any family then occupy the three lowest states in the excitation spectrum of the trefoil for that family. The dimensionless deformation parameter, q, is assumed to be a function of the Higgs field and to be an effective measure of the influence of the new degrees of freedom introduced by the deformation of SU(2). One finds a ...

  7. Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li; Zhang; Lei; Liu; Chang-Xia; Cui; Ming; Hu; Zhao-Na; Li; Li-Jun; Cao; Xiu-Hua; Jing; Guo-Ying; Mu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser keratomileusis (LASIK). ·METHODS: In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher -order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. · RESULTS: The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher -order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO -RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. ·CONCLUSION: Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error.

  8. Crystal structure of MytiLec, a galactose-binding lectin from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with cytotoxicity against certain cancer cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Daiki; Kawai, Fumihiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Unzai, Satoru; Hasan, Imtiaj; Fujii, Yuki; Park, Sam-Yong; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Tame, Jeremy R. H.

    2016-01-01

    MytiLec is a lectin, isolated from bivalves, with cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines that express globotriaosyl ceramide, Galα(1,4)Galβ(1,4)Glcα1-Cer, on the cell surface. Functional analysis shows that the protein binds to the disaccharide melibiose, Galα(1,6)Glc, and the trisaccharide globotriose, Galα(1,4)Galβ(1,4)Glc. Recombinant MytiLec expressed in bacteria showed the same haemagglutinating and cytotoxic activity against Burkitt’s lymphoma (Raji) cells as the native form. The crystal structure has been determined to atomic resolution, in the presence and absence of ligands, showing the protein to be a member of the β-trefoil family, but with a mode of ligand binding unique to a small group of related trefoil lectins. Each of the three pseudo-equivalent binding sites within the monomer shows ligand binding, and the protein forms a tight dimer in solution. An engineered monomer mutant lost all cytotoxic activity against Raji cells, but retained some haemagglutination activity, showing that the quaternary structure of the protein is important for its cellular effects. PMID:27321048

  9. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T R; Taylor, Alexander B; Pakhomova, Olga N; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P; Baseman, Joel B; Hart, P John

    2015-04-21

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and "walking" pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. Here we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. The results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.

  10. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  11. Ecosystem effects in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Chapter L in 2011 Floods of the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Allen, Yvonne C.; Couvillion, Brady R.; McKee, Karen L.; Vervaeke, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Mississippi River flood in the Lower Mississippi River Basin was one of the largest flood events in recorded history, producing the largest or next to largest peak streamflow for the period of record at a number of streamgages on the lower Mississippi River. Ecosystem effects include changes to wetlands, nutrient transport, and land accretion and sediment deposition changes. Direct effects to the wetland ecosystems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin were minimized because of the expansive levee system built to pass floodwaters. Nutrients carried by the Mississippi River affect water quality in the Lower Mississippi River Basin. During 2011, nutrient fluxes in the lower Mississippi River were about average. Generally, nutrient delivery of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers contributes to the size of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on available limited post-flood satellite imagery, some land expansion in both the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya River Deltas was observed. A wetland sediment survey completed in June 2011 indicated that recent sediment deposits were relatively thicker in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River (Birdsfoot) Delta marshes compared to marshes farther from these rivers.

  12. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    Two feeding experiments were performed to study the effects of silage botanical composition, regrowth interval and α-tocopherol supplementation on the fatty acid (FA) composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations of milk. In Exp. 1, 24 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed two......- or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...... of FA in silage and the proportions of unsaturated FA in milk. Intakes of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and lutein were higher on B2 than on R2 due to higher silage intake on B2. However, the highest intake was seen on diet R3 due to the higher concentrations in the silage mixture. In Exp. 2, intakes of α...

  13. Numerical Simulation of Two-phase Flow in Subcooled Boiling Region of Steam Generator%蒸汽发生器传热管束过冷沸腾区两相流动数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成龙; 丛腾龙; 田文喜; 秋穗正; 苏光辉

    2014-01-01

    基于两流体欧拉数学模型结合RPI壁面沸腾模型,利用大型商用CFD软件ANSYS CFX 12.0对蒸汽发生器传热管束过冷沸腾区一次侧、壁面和二次侧耦合传热过程进行了数值模拟。研究了三叶梅花孔支撑板和不同入口过冷度条件下蒸汽发生器传热管束内的流动沸腾现象,得到一、二次侧流场与温度场,二次侧空泡份额分布,支撑板梅花孔局部的流动状况及不同入口过冷度对蒸汽发生器热工水力特性的影响。数值模拟结果表明,三叶梅花孔支撑板的存在及不同入口过冷度对蒸汽发生器传热管束过冷沸腾区域的热工水力特性影响显著。%Based on two fluid Euler model combining with RPI wall boiling model ,the coupled heat transfer among the primary side ,the tube wall and the secondary side in the subcooled boiling region of the heat transfer tube bundle of steam generator (SG) was simulated by using ANSYS CFX 12.0 code .The flow boiling phenomenon occurred in the heat transfer tube bundle of SG under trefoil orifice plate and different inlet subcooling conditions was researched . The velocity and temperature distributions of both the primary and the secondary sides ,the void fraction distribution of the secondary side ,the local flow characteristics around trefoil orifice plate ,and the effect of different inlet subcoolings on thermal-hydraulic characteristics of SG were acquired .Numerical simulated results show that the existence of trefoil orifice plate and inlet subcooling have a significant influence on thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the subcooled boiling region of the tube bundle of SG .

  14. Expression of TFF1、TFF2、TFF3 in Gastric Cancer,Precancerous Lesion and its Significance%三叶因子Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ在胃癌及癌前病变中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁绍艳; 李继昌

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨三叶因子Ⅰ(trefoil factor 1,TFF1) 、Ⅱ(trefoil factor 2,TFF2)、Ⅲ(trefoil factor 3,TFF3)在正常胃黏膜、癌前病变、胃癌中的表达及临床病理意义.方法:应用免疫组织化学S-P法检测20例正常胃黏膜、20例萎缩性胃炎伴肠化生、20例不典型增生、60例胃癌组织中TFF1、TFF2、TFF3的表达.结果:(1)TFF1在正常胃黏膜、萎缩性胃炎伴肠化生、不典型增生、胃癌组织中阳性表达率分别为100.0%、80.0%、75.0%、50.0%,呈下降趋势(P<0.05);其阳性表达与分化程度、分期有关(P<0.05).(2)TFF2在上述组织中阳性表达率分别为100.0%、85.0%、70.0%、38.3%,呈下降趋势(P<0.05);其阳性表达与分期有关(P<0.05).(3)TFF3在上述组织中阳性表达率分别为5.0%、30.0%、45.0%、58.3%,呈上升趋势(P<0.05);其阳性表达与浸润深度、淋巴结转移、分期有关(P<0.05).结论:在胃癌的演进过程中TFF1、TFF2的表达进行性丢失,TFF3进行性上升,三者可能共同参与胃癌的发生、发展、浸润及转移.

  15. Can origin of the 2400-year cycle of solar activity be caused by solar inertial motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    Full Text Available A solar activity cycle of about 2400 years has until now been of uncertain origin. Recent results indicate it is caused by solar inertial motion. First we describe the 178.7-year basic cycle of solar motion. The longer cycle, over an 8000 year interval, is found to average 2402.2 years. This corresponds to the Jupiter/Heliocentre/Barycentre alignments (9.8855 × 243. Within each cycle an exceptional segment of 370 years has been found characterized by a looping pattern by a trefoil or quasitrefoil geometry. Solar activity, evidenced by 14C tree-ring proxies, shows the same pattern. Solar motion is computable in advance, so this provides a basis for future predictive assessments. The next 370-year segment will occur between AD 2240 and 2610.

    Key words: Solar physics (celestial mechanics

  16. [Biomechanical analysis of the medullary bone nail and its locking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, E

    1985-07-01

    By mechanical definition an intramedullary nail is not a nail but rather a bendable feather, subject to longitudinal tension and to a lesser degree to transverse pressure. Reaming the medullary canal is necessary for centralization of the nail as well as to increase the area of contact with the bone. However, this procedure is detrimental to the bone metabolism and reduces its elasticity against torsional forces. The dynamic locking nail-system is more biologic than conventional nailing and it reduces rotatory instability with the help of additional components, such as transverse screws. Only static locking allows true static weight bearing with crutches, but not dynamic mobilisation. Nails with conventional strength and in leaf of trefoil formation are superior to other designs. However, an improved angle in the proximal locking is suggested, as this would allow for a three to four times greater weight bearing.

  17. Knots and Preons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Robert J.

    It is shown that the four quantum trefoil solitons that are described by the irreducible representations { D}3/2mm' of the quantum algebra SLq(2) [and that may be identified with the four families of elementary fermions (e, μ, τ νeνμντd, s, b; u, c, t)] may be built out of three preons, chosen from two charged preons with charges (1/3, -1/3) and two neutral preons. These preons are fermions and are described by the { D}1/2mm' representation of SLq(2). There are also four bosonic preons described by the { D}1mm^' and { D}000 representations of SLq(2). The knotted standard theory may be replicated at the preon level and the conjectured particles are in principle indirectly observable.

  18. Nuclease-free target recycling signal amplification for ultrasensitive multiplexing DNA biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihan; Chen, Shixing; Wang, Jianbang; Su, Jing; Xu, Jiaqiang; Mathur, Sanjay; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Shiping

    2017-08-15

    Ultrasensitive biosensing technologies without gene amplification held great promise for direct detection of DNA. Herein we report a novel biosensing method, combining target recycling signal-amplification strategy and a homemade electrochemical device. Especially, the target recycling was achieved by a strand displacement process, no needing the help of any nucleases. In the presence of target DNA, the recycling system could be activated to generate a cascade of assembly steps with three hairpin DNA segments. Each recycling process were accompanied by a disassembly step that the last hairpin DNA segment displaces target DNA from the complex at the end of each circulation, freeing targets to activate the self-assembly of more trefoil DNA structures. This biosensing method could detect target DNA at aM level and can distinguish target DNA from interfering DNAs, demonstrating its high sensitivity and high selectivity. Importantly, the biosensing method could work well with serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Chwastyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding proceeds through a a slipknot conformation. We elucidate the mechanics and energetics of its formation. We show that the knotting probability in on-ribosome folding is a function of temperature and that there is an optimal temperature for the process. Our model often leads to the establishment of the native contacts without formation of the knot.

  20. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A

    2016-01-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution -- that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations $R=[r^s]$ we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family -- the trefoil and the figure-eight knot,-- but manage to guess the full answer only for contributions of single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  1. The Bohr Atom of Glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, J P

    2003-01-01

    Recently Buniy and Kephart made an astonishing empirical observation, which anyone can reproduce at home. Measure the {\\it lengths} of closed knots tied from ordinary rope. The ``double do-nut'', and the beautiful trefoil knot are examples. Tie the knots tightly, and glue or splice the tails into a seamless unity. Compare two knots with corresponding members of the mysterious particle states known as ``glueball'' candidates in the literature. Propose that the microscopic glueball mass ought to be proportional to the macroscopic mass of the corresponding knot. Fit two parameters, then {\\it predict} 12 of 12 remaining glueball masses with extraordinary accuracy, knot by knot. Here we relate these observations to the fundamental gauge theory of gluons, by recognizing a hidden gauge symmetry bent into the knots. As a result the existence and importance of a gluon mass parameter is clarified. Paradoxically forbidden by the usual framework, the gluon mass cannot be expressed in the usual coordinates, but has a natu...

  2. Mode of proximal tubule damage: differential cause for the release of TFF3?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinah D Zwaini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tubular epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to damage. In search of a biomarker, this study evaluated the potential of different cell activation models (hypoxia/replenishment and protein overload to lead to a release of TFF3 (Trefoil factor 3. Surprisingly, we found disparity in the ability of the different stimuli to enhance the intracellular abundance of TFF3 and its release: While conditions of nutrient starvation and damage associated with replenishment lead to intracellular abundance of TFF3 in the absence of TFF3 release, stimulation with an excess amount of albumin did not yield accumulation of TFF3. By contrast, incubation of cells with a purified lambda light chain preparation from a patient with multiple myeloma provoked the presence of TFF3 in the cell supernatant. We therefore propose that elevations of TFF3 in renal disease might be more revelatory for the cause of restitution than previously thought.

  3. The Hilbert scheme of a plane curve singularity and the HOMFLY polynomial of its link

    CERN Document Server

    Oblomkov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    The intersection of a complex plane curve with a small three-sphere surrounding one of its singularities is a non-trivial link. The refined punctual Hilbert schemes of the singularity parameterize subschemes supported at the singular point of fixed length and whose defining ideals have a fixed number of generators. We conjecture that the generating function of Euler characteristics of refined punctual Hilbert schemes is the HOMFLY polynomial of the link. The conjecture is verified for irreducible singularities y^k = x^n, whose links are the k,n torus knots, and for the singularity y^4 = x^7 - x^6 + 4 x^5 y + 2 x^3 y^2, whose link is the 2,13 cable of the trefoil.

  4. Monitoring and Management of a Sensitive Resource: A Landscape-level Approach with Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    0.03 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.01 Desmodium 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 rotundifolium Desmodium spp. 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 Eupatorium...Caltha palustris 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.04 Cassia nictitans 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 Desmodium spp. 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00...Forbs Asarum canadense wild ginger Caltha palustris cowslip Cassia nictitans wild sensitive plant Desmodium prostrate tick trefoil rotundifolium

  5. Nanoindentation of GaN/SiC thin films on silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashchenko, A. S.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Redkov, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    The indentation process of thin gallium nitride film grown on SiC buffer layer on silicon was studied. SiC was obtained by the new method of substitution of atoms directly in a silicon substrate. Indentation data, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the indented system. Mechanical properties of the film and the substrate were derived using single-layer Oliver-Pharr and Doerner-Nix approaches. Micro-Raman confocal microscopy was used to construct 3-dimensional maps of mechanical stresses and crystalline quality both of GaN and silicon near the indenter impression for different indentation depths. The anisotropy of propagation of the elastic stresses during indentation was investigated and it was shown, that distribution of stress in the substrate has a shape of trefoil. This process has been modeled by means of molecular dynamics.

  6. Planar and spherical stick indices of knots

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Colin; Hawkins, Katherine; Sia, Charmaine; Silversmith, Rob; Tshishiku, Bena; 10.1142/S0218216511008954

    2011-01-01

    The stick index of a knot is the least number of line segments required to build the knot in space. We define two analogous 2-dimensional invariants, the planar stick index, which is the least number of line segments in the plane to build a projection, and the spherical stick index, which is the least number of great circle arcs to build a projection on the sphere. We find bounds on these quantities in terms of other knot invariants, and give planar stick and spherical stick constructions for torus knots and for compositions of trefoils. In particular, unlike most knot invariants,we show that the spherical stick index distinguishes between the granny and square knots, and that composing a nontrivial knot with a second nontrivial knot need not increase its spherical stick index.

  7. Focal-plane wavefront sensing for active optics in the VST based on an analytical optical aberration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzlöhner, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Rakich, A. P.; Noethe, L.; Schipani, P.; Kuijken, K.

    2016-08-01

    We study a novel focal plane wavefront sensing and active optics control scheme at the VST on Cerro Paranal, an f/5.5 survey telescope with a 1x1 degree field of view and a 2.6m primary mirror. This scheme analyzes the elongation pattern of stellar PSFs across the full science image (256 Mpixels) and compares their second moments with an analytical model based on 5th-order geometrical optics. We consider 11 scalar degrees of freedom in mirror misalignments and deformations (M2 piston, tip/tilt and lateral displacement, detector tip/tilt, plus M1 figure astigmatism and trefoil). Using a numerical optimization method, we extract up to 4000 stars and complete the fitting process in under one minute. We demonstrate successful closed-loop active optics control based on maximum likelihood filtering.

  8. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    acid secretion was impaired and the ECL cell signaling pathway was inhibited in CCK2 receptor KO mice but not in CCK1 receptor KO mice. However, in CCK1+2 receptor double KO mice the acid secretion in response to pylorus ligation-induced vagal stimulation and the ECL cell pathway were partially...... hydroxylase probably in trefoil peptide2-immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, mice lacking CCK receptors exhibited a functional shift from the gastrin-CCK pathways to the neuronal pathway in control of the ECL cells and eventually the acid secretion. Taking the present data together with previous findings, we......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  9. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  10. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26823779

  11. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji;

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.......-type trypsin inhibitor family of the beta-trefoil fold proteins. Diverse approaches including site-directed mutagenesis, hybrid constructions, and crystallography have been used to characterise the structures and contact residues in the AMY2/BASI complex. The three-dimensional structure of the AMY2/BASI...

  12. Linked and knotted chimera filaments in oscillatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hon Wai; Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-07-01

    While the existence of stable knotted and linked vortex lines has been established in many experimental and theoretical systems, their existence in oscillatory systems and systems with nonlocal coupling has remained elusive. Here, we present strong numerical evidence that stable knots and links such as trefoils and Hopf links do exist in simple, complex, and chaotic oscillatory systems if the coupling between the oscillators is neither too short ranged nor too long ranged. In this case, effective repulsive forces between vortex lines in knotted and linked structures stabilize curvature-driven shrinkage observed for single vortex rings. In contrast to real fluids and excitable media, the vortex lines correspond to scroll wave chimeras [synchronized scroll waves with spatially extended (tubelike) unsynchronized filaments], a prime example of spontaneous synchrony breaking in systems of identical oscillators. In the case of complex oscillatory systems, this leads to a topological superstructure combining knotted filaments and synchronization defect sheets.

  13. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave ® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Betts, Brent S; Churgin, Daniel S; Hsu, Maylon; Neuffer, Marcus; Sikder, Shameema; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using wavefront (WF) guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms. In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients), with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS) value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing. Mean values for UDVA (logMAR) were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909). UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000). In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012), coma increased 11% (P = 0.065), and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214), while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490). In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126), coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144), spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713) and trefoil decreased 19% (P = 0.660). One patient lost one line of CDVA secondary to residual irregular astigmatism. Both the WaveLight Allegretto and the VISX CustomVue platforms had equal visual and safety outcomes. Most wavefront optimized HOA values trended upward, with a statistically significant increase in total HOA RMS. Eyes treated with the WF guided platform showed a decreasing trend in HOA values.

  14. Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Nancy J; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David

    2010-11-23

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers and 10 had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America's naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 μm over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Form-deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and form-deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3(-3) trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback.

  15. Wavefront aberration and contrast sensitivity after implantation of foldable and rigid iris claw phakic intraocular lenses: Artiflex versus artisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faroogh Parsipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study is to assess wavefront aberration and contrast sensitivity (CS after implantation of foldable iris claw - artiflex- and rigid iris claw - artisan- phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs. Materials and Methods: A nonrandomized prospective comparative case study was performed on 57 eyes; of which, 54 were myopia and 3 were hyperopia. Twenty-four patients had artisan pIOL implantation and 33 had artiflex pIOL implantation. Higher-order aberration (HOA and CS were obtained 1 year after surgery. Results: Total HOA in artisan group was greater than artiflex group (P = 0.044 with a mean HOA of 0.44 ± 0.15 root mean square (RMS for artisan and 0.35 ± 0.15 RMS for artiflex. Although, there were no significant differences in the vertical trefoil, vertical coma, horizontal trefoil, horizontal coma, secondary astigmatism, quatrefoil, and fourth order spherical aberration in two groups. CS in mesopic conditions was better in artiflex-treated eyes at three spatial frequencies of 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd (P = 0.003, P = 0.007, and P = 0.00, respectively, and no significant difference was seen between two lenses at 3 cpd. Conclusion: Although the components of HOA were not significantly different between two groups, total HOA was higher in artisan group, which may be due to the slight differences in each component, increasing the HOA as a total. CS was significantly better in artiflex group.

  16. Gene expression profiling of gastric cancer by microarray combined with laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Shiang Wu; Yi-Shing Lin; Yu-Ting Chang; Chia-Tung Shun; Ming-Tsan Lin; Jaw-Town Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the gene expression profile of gastric cancer (GC) by combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray and to correlate the profiling with histological subtypes. METHODS: Using LCM, pure cancer cells were procured from 45 cancerous tissues. After procurement of about 5 000 cells, total RNA was extracted and the quality of RNA was determined before further amplification and hybridization. One microgram of amplified RNA was converted to cDNA and hybridized to cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Among 45 cases, only 21 were qualified for their RNAs. A total of 62 arrays were performed. These included 42 arrays for cancer (21 cases with dyeswab duplication) and 20 arrays for non-tumorous cells (10 cases with dye-swab duplication) with universal reference. Analyzed data showed 504 genes were differentially expressed and could distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous groups with more than 99% accuracy. Of the 504 genes, trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3 were in the list and their expression patterns were consistent with previous reports. Immunohistochemical staining of trefoil factor 1 was also consistent with the array data. Analyses of the tumor group with these 504 genes showed that there were 3 subgroups of GC that did not correspond to any current classification system, including Lauren's classification. CONCLUSION: By using LCM, linear amplification of RNA, and cDNA microarray, we have identified a panel of genes that have the power to discriminate between GC and non-cancer groups. The new molecular classification and the identified novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis deserve further investigations to elucidate their dinicopathological significance.

  17. Higher-Order Aberrations in Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Karimian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between refractive error and higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with myopic astigmatism. Methods: HOAs were measured using the Zywave II aberrometer over a 6 mm pupil. Correlations between HOAs and myopia, astigmatism, and age were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects with mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error and refractive astigmatism were -4.94±1.63 D and 0.96±1.06 D, respectively. The most common higher-order aberration was primary horizontal trefoil with mean value of 0.069±0.152 μm followed by spherical aberration (-0.064±0.130 μm and primary vertical coma (-0.038±0.148 μm. As the order of aberration increased from third to fifth, its contribution to total HOA decreased: 53.9% for third order, 31.9% for fourth order, and 14.2% for fifth order aberrations. Significant correlations were observed between spherical equivalent refractive error and primary horizontal coma (R=0.231, P=0.022, and root mean square (RMS of spherical aberration (R=0.213, P=0.031; between astigmatism and RMS of total HOA (R=0.251, P=0.032, RMS of fourth order aberration (R=0.35, P<0.001, and primary horizontal coma (R=0.314, P=0.004. Spherical aberration (R=0.214, P=0.034 and secondary vertical coma (R=0.203, P=0.031 significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Primary horizontal trefoil, spherical aberration and primary vertical coma are the predominant higher-order aberrations in eyes with myopic astigmatism.

  18. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.

  19. Using a 3-Component Age Model for the Seaward Portions of an Abandoned Delta to Quantitatively Assess Sedimentary Input Pre- and Post-Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Bentley, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how deltaic landscapes naturally build and degrade is essential to conservation of deltaic coasts that are retreating worldwide. In the Mississippi Delta, the Lafourche delta complex holds the greatest potential for evaluating these processes under natural conditions. The last major avulsion in the Mississippi River delta occurred 700 years ago, when the Lafourche delta was abandoned for the distributary network that led to the modern birds-foot (Balize) delta. Subaerial portions of the abandoned Lafourche delta exist along Bayou Lafourche, but the youngest seaward deposits are disappearing quickly. Annual overbank flooding, organic production, changes in porosity and water content, and storm processes are all important to deltaic wetlands, for maintaining vertical equilibrium with sea-level. Quantifying their relative importance is problematic, especially considering that high-resolution sedimentological studies that cover the complete timescales relevant to this system (1 to 102 years) are lacking. To capture this time window for the Lafourche delta, 15 co-located vibracores (4-5 m, susceptible to compaction) and piston cores (0.5-1.5 m, negligible compaction) have been collected within the Lafourche delta west of Port Fourchon, LA, USA. Sediment composition via X-ray fluorescence (elements) and loss-on-ignition (organics), bulk-density, and grain size analysis have been applied to develop a stratigraphic model. 210Pb and 137Cs gamma decay, radiocarbon of bulk sediments, and optically-stimulated-luminescence of prodelta quartz (which can differ with radiocarbon by an order of magnitude) have been applied here to create an age model for the studied portion of the delta, and allow for quantitative interpretations of sedimentary controls over time. Total mineral sediment input to the delta decreased by an order of magnitude following abandonment, from about 16 kg m-2y-1 to 1.5 kg m-2y-1. Identified discrete storm events represent about 5% of these

  20. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight Allegretto Wave Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Churgin, Daniel S; Betts, Brent S; Hsu, Maylon; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight(®) Allegretto platforms. In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer's testing. Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) were -0.03 ± 0.07 and -0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121). Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296). While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront-optimized group (P = 0.091, P = 0.115, P = 0.459, respectively), only spherical aberration increased significantly (P = 0.014). Similar increases were found in wavefront- guided root mean square of total higher-order aberration (P = 0.113), coma (P = 0.403), trefoil (P = 0.603), and spherical aberration (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in spherical aberration change when comparing the two platforms. The wavefront-guided group showed an increase in contrast sensitivity at 12 cycles per degree (P = 0.013). Both VISX CustomVue and WaveLight Allegretto

  1. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Churgin, Daniel S; Betts, Brent S; Hsu, Maylon; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms. Methods In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing. Results Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) were −0.03 ± 0.07 and −0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121). Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296). While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront-optimized group (P = 0.091, P = 0.115, P = 0.459, respectively), only spherical aberration increased significantly (P = 0.014). Similar increases were found in wavefront- guided root mean square of total higher-order aberration (P = 0.113), coma (P = 0.403), trefoil (P = 0.603), and spherical aberration (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in spherical aberration change when comparing the two platforms. The wavefront-guided group showed an increase in contrast sensitivity at 12 cycles per degree (P = 0.013). Conclusion Both

  2. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  3. Visual performance and aberration associated with contact lens wear in patients with keratoconus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Abdu, Norhani Mohidin, Bariah Mohd-Ali Optometry and Vision Science Program, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Rigid gas permeable (RGP and silicone hydrogel (SH contact lenses with specific designs are currently being used to improve visual function in patients with keratoconus. However, there are minimal data available comparing the effects of these lenses on visual function in patients with keratoconus. The objectives of this study were to compare visual acuity and contrast sensitivity using spectacles, RGP lenses, and SH lenses, and to evaluate the effects of RGP and SH lenses on higher-order aberrations and visual quality in eyes with keratoconus. The relationship between visual outcomes, aberration, and visual quality were also examined. Methods: This was a pilot study involving 13 eyes from nine subjects with keratoconus. Subjects were fitted with RGP and SH contact lenses. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured using Snellen and Pelli-Robson charts, respectively. Ocular aberrations and visual quality were measured using an OPD-Scan II device. All measurements were conducted before and after contact lens wear. Results: Significantly better visual acuity was obtained with RGP lenses than with spectacles or SH lenses (P<0.001. No significant difference in contrast sensitivity values was detected between RGP and SH lenses (P=0.06. Both SH and RGP lenses significantly reduced total ocular and higher-order aberrations (P<0.001 when compared with spectacles, but RGP lenses reduced trefoil, coma, and spherical aberrations more than SH lenses. No significant difference in astigmatic aberrations was found between RGP and SH lenses (P=0.12. Negative correlations were found between visual acuity and coma aberration and contrast sensitivity with higher-order aberrations and coma, trefoil, and astigmatic

  4. Un modelo funerario del tardogótico castellano: las capillas treboladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ruiz, Begoña

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil chapels constitute the most innovative centralized model of all those developed in late-Gothic Spain. The brilliant unfolding of the great funerary chapels covered by astonishing vaults of star-shaped ribs at the end of the 15th and the first decades of the 16th century, created by artists who had emigrated from the other side of the Pyrenees, has long been recognized. Thus arise the great funerary chapels of Toledo or Burgos, in imitation of which appear an endless number of small chapels in churches and monasteries throughout the Peninsula, for all those nobles or ecclesiastics desirous of becoming a part of history. Only a few architects (pertaining to the Segovian region and to the influence of Juan Guas and patrons (belonging to the upper Castillian nobility and high clergy, distanced themselves from this model to venture for the trefoil. The result was a highly homogeneous group of structures errected within a limited span of time.

    Las capillas treboladas constituyen el modelo centralizado más innovador de cuantos se desarrollan en la España tardogótica. Es de sobra conocido el brillante desarrollo de las grandes capillas funerarias cubiertas con asombrosas bóvedas de crucería estrellada a finales del siglo xv y primeras décadas del siglo xvi de manos de artistas llegados de más allá de los Pirineos para renovar nuestro viejo gótico. Así surgen las grandes capillas funerarias de Toledo o Burgos, a semejanza de las cuales se construirán un sinfín de pequeñas capillas en iglesias parroquiales o monasterios por toda la geografía peninsular para todo aquel noble o religioso con pretensiones de pasar a la Historia. Sólo unos pocos arquitectos (vinculados al área segoviana y al influjo de Juan Guas y patronos (de la alta nobleza castellana y del alto clero se alejaron de este modelo para arriesgarse por el trebolado, dando como resultado un conjunto muy homogéneo de construcciones levantadas en un arco de tiempo

  5. Study on serum and intestinal ITF level and its relation with diarrhoea of weaned piglets%断奶仔猪血清及肠道肠三叶因子ITF水平与腹泻的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪蕊; 王莉; 王希彪

    2012-01-01

    The diarrhoea of weaned piglets was observed for a week, and the diarrhoea degree of Min pigs and Landrace was compared, too. The intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) density in serum and intestinal tissue homogenate were tested, then the paper analyzed the relation between ITF level and diarrhoea of weaned piglets. The results showed that, the diarrhoea rate, frequency and diarrhoea index of Min pigs were all less than Landrace, indicating Min pigs had better ability against diarrhoea than Landrace. The ITF level in serum and intestinal homogenate of weaned piglets had noteble changes, the serum ITF level of healthy group increased significantly (P<0.01), the jejunum and cecum ITF level of diarrhoea group increased significantly (P<0.05), while the healthy group's intestinal ITF level maintained stable relatively, indicating the important relationships between ITF and diarrhoea of weaned piglets, and stable intestinal ITF level might be an important physiological basis of intestinal healthy and less diarrhoea of weaned piglets.%观察仔猪断奶后一周的腹泻情况,比较民猪和长白猪的腹泻程度.用ELISA方法检测断奶仔猪血清和肠道肠三叶因子(Intestinal trefoil factor,ITF)浓度,分析断奶后ITF水平变化与仔猪断奶腹泻的关系.结果表明,断奶后一周内,民猪腹泻率、腹泻频率和腹泻指数均小于长白,提示民猪比长白具有更好的抵抗腹泻的能力.断奶后仔猪血清和肠道ITF水平发生了显著变化,健康组仔猪血清ITF含量极显著上调(P<0.01),腹泻组肠道ITF水平在空肠和盲肠显著上调(P<0.05),而健康组肠道ITF水平相对较稳定,提示ITF与仔猪断奶腹泻有重要关系,断奶仔猪维持肠道较稳定的ITF水平,是保证肠道健康,减少腹泻发生的重要生理基础.

  6. Crystal structure of an Exo-1,5-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis provides insights into the mechanism of substrate discrimination between exo- and endo-type enzymes in glycoside hydrolase family 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Zui; Ichinose, Hitomi; Maehara, Tomoko; Honda, Mariko; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2010-10-29

    Exo-1,5-α-L-arabinofuranosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 have strict substrate specificity. These enzymes hydrolyze only the α-1,5-linkages of linear arabinan and arabino-oligosaccharides in an exo-acting manner. The enzyme from Streptomyces avermitilis contains a core catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 and a C-terminal arabinan binding module belonging to carbohydrate binding module family 42. We determined the crystal structure of intact exo-1,5-α-L-arabinofuranosidase. The catalytic module is composed of a 5-bladed β-propeller topologically identical to the other family 43 enzymes. The arabinan binding module had three similar subdomains assembled against one another around a pseudo-3-fold axis, forming a β-trefoil-fold. A sugar complex structure with α-1,5-L-arabinofuranotriose revealed three subsites in the catalytic domain, and a sugar complex structure with α-L-arabinofuranosyl azide revealed three arabinose-binding sites in the carbohydrate binding module. A mutagenesis study revealed that substrate specificity was regulated by residues Asn-159, Tyr-192, and Leu-289 located at the aglycon side of the substrate-binding pocket. The exo-acting manner of the enzyme was attributed to the strict pocket structure of subsite -1, formed by the flexible loop region Tyr-281-Arg-294 and the side chain of Tyr-40, which occupied the positions corresponding to the catalytic glycon cleft of GH43 endo-acting enzymes.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Ligand Binding Suppressor Domain of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosanac, Ivan; Yamazaki, Haruka; Matsu-ura, Toru; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-11-10

    Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) to the amino-terminal region of IP{sub 3} receptor promotes Ca{sup 2+} release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Within the amino terminus, the first 220 residues directly preceding the IP{sub 3} binding core domain play a key role in IP{sub 3} binding suppression and regulatory protein interaction. Here we present a crystal structure of the suppressor domain of the mouse type 1 IP{sub 3} receptor at 1.8 {angstrom}. Displaying a shape akin to a hammer, the suppressor region contains a Head subdomain forming the {beta}-trefoil fold and an Arm subdomain possessing a helix-turn-helix structure. The conserved region on the Head subdomain appeared to interact with the IP{sub 3} binding core domain and is in close proximity to the previously proposed binding sites of Homer, RACK1, calmodulin, and CaBP1. The present study sheds light onto the mechanism underlying the receptor's sensitivity to the ligand and its communication with cellular signaling proteins.

  8. A Clinical Review of Thyroid Cancer at Sapporo Medical University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Junichi; Takano, Kenichi; Obata, Kazufumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Murayama, Kosuke; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a disease that affects 8,000 new individuals a year, a number that has increased approximately 3-fold in the past 30 years. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer can be related to various factors. The evolution of diagnostic technology has distinctly occurred in the fields of diagnostic imaging, cytology and immunochemistry. For example, liquid-based cytology, developed to assess gynecological lesions, has improved diagnostic accuracy over conventional smear cytology. This technique can also be positively applied to cytological analyses of thyroid cancer. In the field of tumor biomarkers, thyroglobulin and trefoil factor-1 are well known and useful. On the other hand, a new specific biomarker of thyroid cancer has been developed. Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors is extremely difficult or impossible with current tumor biomarkers and cytological methods. Although the standard treatment for thyroid cancer is a basic surgical resection, iodine adjuvant therapy after surgery is a well-known treatment. Here we present a treatment strategy for thyroid cancer according to the statistics obtained at our facility.

  9. Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack S. Avrin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two knots; just two rudimentary knots, the unknot and the trefoil. That’s all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. There are no quarks to provide fractional charge, no gluons to sequester them within nucleons and no “colors” to avoid violating Pauli’s principle. Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. All the requisite attributes emerge simply (and relativistically invariant as a result of particle conformation and occupation in and of spacetime itself, a spacetime endowed with the imprimature of general relativity. Also emerging are some novel tools for systemizing the particle taxonomy as governed by the gauge group SU(2 and the details of particle degeneracy as well as connections to Hopf algebra, Dirac theory, string theory, topological quantum field theory and dark matter. One exception: it is found necessary to invoke the munificent geometry of the icosahedron in order to provide, as per the group “flavor” SU(3, a scaffold upon which to organize the well-known three generations—no more, no less—of the particle family tree.

  10. SLq(2) extension of the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We examine a quantum group extension of the standard model. The field operators of the extended theory are obtained by replacing the field operators Ψ of the standard model by Ψ^Dmm'j, where Dmm'j are elements of a representation of the quantum algebra SLq(2), which is also the knot algebra. The Dmm'j lie in this algebra and carry the new degrees of freedom of the field quanta. The Dmm'j are restricted jointly by empirical constraints and by a postulated correspondence with classical knots. The elementary fermions are described by elements of the trefoil (j =3/2) representation and the weak vector bosons by elements of the ditrefoil (j=3) representation. The adjoint (j=1) and fundamental (j=1/2) representations define hypothetical bosonic and fermionic preons. All particles described by higher representations may be regarded as composed of the fermionic preons. This preon model unexpectedly agrees in important detail with the Harari-Shupe model. The new Lagrangian, which is invariant under gauge transformations of the SLq(2) algebra, fixes the relative masses of the elementary fermions within the same family. It also introduces form factors that modify the electroweak couplings and provide a parametrization of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. It is additionally postulated that the preons carry gluon charge and that the fermions, which are three preon systems, are in agreement with the color assignments of the standard model.

  11. On the SLq(2) extension of the standard model and the measure of charge

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Our SLq(2) extension of the standard model is constructed by replacing the elementary field operators, $\\Psi (x)$, of the standard model by $\\hat{\\Psi}^{j}_{mm'}(x) D^{j}_{mm'}$ where $D^{j}_{mm'}$ is an element of the $2j + 1$ dimensional representation of the SLq(2) algebra, which is also the knot algebra. The allowed quantum states $(j,m,m')$ are restricted by the topological conditions \\begin{align*} (j,m,m') = \\frac{1}{2}(N,w,r+o) \\end{align*} postulated between the states of the quantum knot $(j,m,m')$ and the corresponding classical knot $(N,w,r+o)$ where the $(N,w,r)$ are (the number of crossings, the writhe, the rotation) of the 2d projection of the corresponding oriented classical knot. Here $o$ is an odd number that is required by the difference in parity between $w$ and $r$. There is also the empirical restriction on the allowed states \\begin{align*} (j,m,m')=3(t,-t_3,-t_0)_L \\end{align*} that holds at the $j=\\frac{3}{2}$ level, connecting quantum trefoils $(\\frac{3}{2},m,m')$ with leptons and qua...

  12. Crystal structures of the ligand-binding region of uPARAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Cai; Jürgensen, Henrik J; Engelholm, Lars H

    2016-01-01

    remodelling through interaction with its ligands, including collagens and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We report the crystal structures of the first four domains of uPARAP (also named the ligand-binding region, LBR) at pH 7.4 in Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free forms. The first domain......The proteins of the mannose receptor (MR) family share a common domain organization and have a broad range of biological functions. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP) (or Endo180) is a member of this family and plays an important role in extracellular matrix...... (cysteine-rich or CysR domain) folds into a new and unique conformation different from the β-trefoil fold of typical CysR domains. The so-called long loop regions (LLRs) of the C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) 1 and 2 (the third and fourth domain) mediate the direct contacts between these domains...

  13. Nrf2 is involved in maintaining hepatocyte identity during liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zou

    Full Text Available Nrf2, a central regulator of the cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, participates in modulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. It is not clear, however, whether Nrf2 regulates hepatocyte growth, an important cellular mechanism to regain the lost liver mass after partial hepatectomy (PH. To determine this, various analyses were performed in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice following PH. We found that, at 60 h post-PH, the vast majority of hepatocytes lacking Nrf2 reduced their sizes, activated hepatic progenitor markers (CD133, TWEAK receptor, and trefoil factor family 3, depleted HNF4α protein, and downregulated the expression of a group of genes critical for their functions. Thus, the identity of hepatocytes deficient in Nrf2 was transiently but massively impaired in response to liver mass loss. This event was associated with the coupling of protein depletion of hepatic HNF4α, a master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, and concomitant inactivation of hepatic Akt1 and p70S6K, critical hepatocyte growth signaling molecules. We conclude that Nrf2 participates in maintaining newly regenerated hepatocytes in a fully differentiated state by ensuring proper regulation of HNF4α, Akt1, and p70S6K during liver regeneration.

  14. Optical vortex knots – one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempone-Wiltshire, Sebastien J.; Johnstone, Shaun P.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Feynman described the double slit experiment as “a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics”. The double-slit experiment, performed one photon at a time, dramatically demonstrates the particle-wave duality of quantum objects by generating a fringe pattern corresponding to the interference of light (a wave phenomenon) from two slits, even when there is only one photon (a particle) at a time passing through the apparatus. The particle-wave duality of light should also apply to complex three dimensional optical fields formed by multi-path interference, however, this has not been demonstrated. Here we observe particle-wave duality of a three dimensional field by generating a trefoil optical vortex knot – one photon at a time. This result demonstrates a fundamental physical principle, that particle-wave duality implies interference in both space (between spatially distinct modes) and time (through the complex evolution of the superposition of modes), and has implications for topologically entangled single photon states, orbital angular momentum multiplexing and topological quantum computing. PMID:27087642

  15. An acetylation site in lectin domain modulates the biological activity of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlocowski, Natacha; Lorenz, Virginia; Bennett, Eric Paul;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. All ppGalNAc-T family members contain a common (QXW)3 motif which is present in R-type lectin group. Acetylation site K521 is part of the QKW motif of ß......-trefoil in the lectin domain of ppGalNAc-T2. We used a combination of acetylation and site-directed mutagenesis approaches to examine the functional role of K521 in ppGalNAc-T2. Binding assays of non-acetylated and acetylated forms of the mutant ppGalNAc-T2K521Q to various naked and aGalNAc-glycosylated mucin peptides...... indicated that degree of interaction of lectin domain with aGalNAc depends on the peptide sequence of mucin. Studies of inhibitory effect of various carbohydrates on interactions of ppGalNAc-T2 with MUC1aGalNAc indicate that point K521Q mutation enhance the carbohydrate specificity of lectin domain for aGalNAc...

  16. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  17. Solitonic Models Based on Quantum Groups and the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The idea that the elementary particles might have the symmetry of knots has had a long history. In any current formulation of this idea, however, the knot must be quantized. The present review is a summary of a small set of papers that began as an attempt to correlate the properties of quantized knots with the empirical properties of the elementary particles. As the ideas behind these papers have developed over a number of years the model has evolved, and this review is intended to present the model in its current form. The original picture of an elementary fermion as a solitonic knot of field, described by the trefoil representation of SUq(2), has expanded into its current form in which a knotted field is complementary to a composite structure composed of three or more preons that in turn are described by the fundamental representation of SLq(2). These complementary descriptions may be interpreted as describing single composite particles composed of three or more preons bound by a knotted field.

  18. An SLq(2) Extension of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    {\\bf Abstract.} We examine a quantum group extension of the standard model. The field operators of the extended theory are obtained by replacing the field operators $\\psi$ of the standard theory by ${\\psi}$D$^j_{mm'}$, where D$^{j}_{mm'}$ are elements of a representation of the quantum algebra SLq(2), which is also the knot algebra. The D$^j_{mm'}$ lie in this algebra and carry the new degrees of freedom of the field quanta. The D$^j_{mm'}$ are restricted jointly by empirical constraints and by a postulated correspondence with classical knots. The elementary fermions are described by elements of the trefoil (j=3/2) representation and the weak vector bosons by elements of the ditrefoil (j=3) representation. The adjoint (j=1) and fundamental (j=1/2) representations define hypothetical bosonic and fermionic preons. In computing the charge and hypercharge, all particles described by higher representations may be regarded as composed of the fermionic preons. The new Lagrangian, which is invariant under gauge trans...

  19. The SLq(2) extension of the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    The idea that the elementary particles might have the symmetry of knots has had a long history. In any modern formulation of this idea, however, the knot must be quantized. The present review is a summary of a small set of papers that began as an attempt to correlate the properties of quantized knots with empirical properties of the elementary particles. As the ideas behind these papers have developed over a number of years, the model has evolved, and this review is intended to present the model in its current form. The original picture of an elementary fermion as a solitonic knot of field, described by the trefoil representation of SUq(2), has expanded into its present form in which a knotted field is complementary to a composite structure composed of three preons that in turn are described by the fundamental representation of SLq(2). Higher representations of SLq(2) are interpreted as describing composite particles composed of three or more preons bound by a knotted field. This preon model unexpectedly agrees in important detail with the Harari-Shupe model. There is an associated Lagrangian dynamics capable in principle of describing the interactions and masses of the particles generated by the model.

  20. TFF1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yanli; Zhang, Junjie; Cao, Jianchun; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Longe; Guo, Likun; Wang, Zhirong

    2012-05-01

    Trefoil Factor Family (TFF) plays an essential role in the intestinal epithelial restitution, but the relationship between TFF1 and gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. The present study aimed to determine the role of TFF1 in repairing gastric mucosa and in the pathogenesis of GC. The TFF1 expression in different gastric mucosas was measured with immunohistochemistry. Then, siRNA targeting TFF1 or plasmids expressing TFF1 gene were transfected into BGC823 cells, SGC7901 cells and GES-1 cells. The cell proliferation was detected with MTT assay and apoptosis and cell cycle measured by flow cytometry. From normal gastric mucosa to mucosa with dysplasia and to gastric cancer, the TFF1 expression had a decreasing trend. Down-regulation of TFF1 expression significantly reduced the apoptosis of three cell lines and markedly facilitated their proliferation but had no significant effect on cell cycle. Over-expression of TFF1 could promote apoptosis of three cell lines and inhibit proliferation but had no pronounced effect on cell cycle. TFF1 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of GC cells in vitro.

  1. Critical heat flux in natural convection cooled TRIGA reactors with hexagonal bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Avery, M.; De Angelis, M.; Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Feldman, E. E.; Dunn, F. E.; Matos, J. E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A three-rod bundle Critical Heat Flux (CHF) study at low flow, low pressure, and natural convection condition has been conducted, simulating TRIGA reactors with the hexagonally configured core. The test section is a custom-made trefoil shape tube with three identical fuel pin heater rods located symmetrically inside. The full scale fuel rod is electrically heated with a chopped-cosine axial power profile. CHF experiments were carried out with the following conditions: inlet water subcooling from 30 K to 95 K; pressure from 110 kPa to 230 kPa; mass flux up to 150 kg/m{sup 2}s. About 50 CHF data points were collected and compared with a few existing CHF correlations whose application ranges are close to the testing conditions. Some tests were performed with the forced convection to identify the potential difference between the CHF under the natural convection and forced convection. The relevance of the CHF to test parameters is investigated. (authors)

  2. Analytic PSF Correction for Gravitational Flexion Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Rebecca Sobel

    2013-01-01

    Given a galaxy image, one cannot simply measure its flexion. An image's spin one and three shape properties, typically associated with F- and G-flexion, are actually complicated functions of the galaxy's intrinsic shape and the telescope's PSF, in addition to the lensing properties. The same is true for shear. In this work we create a completely analytic mapping from apparent measured galaxy flexions to gravitational flexions by (1) creating simple models for a lensed galaxy and for a PSF whose distortions are dominated by atmospheric smearing and optical aberrations, (2) convolving the two models, and (3) comparing the pre- and post-convolved flexion-like shape variations of the final image. For completeness, we do the same for shear. As expected, telescope astigmatism, coma, and trefoil can corrupt measurements of shear, F- flexion, and G-flexion, especially for small galaxies. We additionally find that PSF size dilutes the flexion signal more rapidly than the shear signal. Moreover, mixing between shears, ...

  3. Therapeutic drug delivery by genetically modified Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidler, Lothar; Rottiers, Pieter

    2006-08-01

    Food-grade bacteria have been consumed throughout history without associated pathologies and are, therefore, absolutely safe to ingest. Unexpectedly, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), known from cheese production, can be genetically engineered to constantly secrete satisfactory amounts of bioactive cytokines. Both of these features enabled the development of a new kind of topical delivery system: topical and active delivery of therapeutic proteins by genetically modified micro-organisms. The host organism's record inspired the development of applications that target intestinal diseases. In a variety of mouse models, chronic colon inflammation can be successfully treated with (interleukin) IL-10-secreting L. lactis. Trefoil factor (TFF) producer strains have also been shown to be very effective in the treatment of acute colitis. Such novel therapeutic strains are textbook examples of genetically modified (GM) organisms. There are legitimate concerns with regard to the deliberate release of GM micro-organisms. On development of these applications, therefore, we have engineered these bacteria in such a way that biological containment is guaranteed. The essential gene thyA, encoding thymidylate synthase, has been exchanged for IL-10. This makes the GM strain critically dependent on thymidine. Lack of thymidine, for example, resulting from thymidine consumption by thyA-deficient strains-will irreversibly lead to induced "thymidine-less death." This accomplishment has created the possibility of using this strategy for application in human medicine.

  4. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Böttger

    Full Text Available The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  5. On matrix-model approach to simplified Khovanov–Rozansky calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morozov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wilson-loop averages in Chern–Simons theory (HOMFLY polynomials can be evaluated in different ways – the most difficult, but most interesting of them is the hypercube calculus, the only one applicable to virtual knots and used also for categorification (higher-dimensional extension of the theory. We continue the study of quantum dimensions, associated with hypercube vertices, in the drastically simplified version of this approach to knot polynomials. At q=1 the problem is reformulated in terms of fat (ribbon graphs, where Seifert cycles play the role of vertices. Ward identities in associated matrix model provide a set of recursions between classical dimensions. For q≠1 most of these relations are broken (i.e. deformed in a still uncontrollable way, and only few are protected by Reidemeister invariance of Chern–Simons theory. Still they are helpful for systematic evaluation of entire series of quantum dimensions, including negative ones, which are relevant for virtual link diagrams. To illustrate the effectiveness of developed formalism we derive explicit expressions for the 2-cabled HOMFLY of virtual trefoil and virtual 3.2 knot, which involve respectively 12 and 14 intersections – far beyond any dreams with alternative methods. As a more conceptual application, we describe a relation between the genus of fat graph and Turaev genus of original link diagram, which is currently the most effective tool for the search of thin knots.

  6. Optical vortex knots - one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempone-Wiltshire, Sebastien J.; Johnstone, Shaun P.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Feynman described the double slit experiment as “a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics”. The double-slit experiment, performed one photon at a time, dramatically demonstrates the particle-wave duality of quantum objects by generating a fringe pattern corresponding to the interference of light (a wave phenomenon) from two slits, even when there is only one photon (a particle) at a time passing through the apparatus. The particle-wave duality of light should also apply to complex three dimensional optical fields formed by multi-path interference, however, this has not been demonstrated. Here we observe particle-wave duality of a three dimensional field by generating a trefoil optical vortex knot - one photon at a time. This result demonstrates a fundamental physical principle, that particle-wave duality implies interference in both space (between spatially distinct modes) and time (through the complex evolution of the superposition of modes), and has implications for topologically entangled single photon states, orbital angular momentum multiplexing and topological quantum computing.

  7. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  8. Knotted Vortices: Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulation of Vortex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam; Karlin, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Knotted and interlinked vortex structures in real fluids are conjectured to play a major role in hydrodynamic flow dissipation. Much interest lies in determining their temporal stability and the mechanism through which knots dissolve. Kleckner and Irvine recently have shown the existence of such knotted vortices experimentally by accelerating hydrofoils in water. In the present work we employ the entropic lattice Boltzmann method (ELBM) to perform DNS simulations of the creation and dynamics of knotted vortex rings inspired by the experimental setup in. ELBM renders LBM scheme unconditionally stable by restoring the second law of thermodynamics (the Boltzmann H-theorem), and thus enables simulations of large domains and high Reynolds numbers with DNS quality. The results presented in this talk provide an in-depth study of the dynamics of knotted vortices and vortex reconnection events and confirm the existence of trefoil knots in silicio for the first time. This work was supported by a grant from the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) under project ID s347.

  9. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution — that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations R = [ r s ] we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family (the trefoil and the figure-eight knot) and provide the exhaustive answer for the first unknown case of R = [33]. The answer includes HOMFLY of arbitrary twist and double-braid knots and Racah matrices overline{S} and S — what allows to calculate [33]-colored polynomials for arbitrary arborescent (double-fat) knots. For generic rectangular representations fully described are only the contributions of the single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  10. Lotus corniculatus Crop Growth in Crude Oil Polluted Soil. Part1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of Polluted and Cultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of power plant fly ash, by its physical-chemical properties, can significantly change the characteristics of soils polluted with oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, TPH, in their rehabilitation process, if combined with biodegradable organic materials, wastes such as sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Maintaining vegetation on soils polluted with 80.5 ± 3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. of TPH under perennial regime specific to bird’s foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, demonstrates the tolerance of the plant to the created conditions by the treatment of polluted soil with adequate amounts of fertilizer and fly ash from burning coal in power stations. The addition of 50-500 g fly ash per vegetation pot equipped with crude oil polluted soil mixed with 250 g sewage sludge per pot has reduced the oil content in the soil, in two ways: on the one hand influenced by the state of development of plants and on the other hand by weather conditions (alternation of seasons. The amount of TPH lost during the 16 months of vegetation in soils polluted with 80.5±3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. was 73.3-77.5 g·kg-1 D.M.

  11. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of bioactive milk proteins in the intestine of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterton, Dereck E W; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2013-08-01

    The human newborn infant is susceptible to gut inflammatory disorders. In particular, growth-restricted infants or infants born prematurely may develop a severe form of intestinal inflammation known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which has a high mortality. Milk provides a multitude of proteins with anti-inflammatory properties and in this review we gather together some recent significant advances regarding the isolation and proteomic identification of these minor constituents of both human and bovine milk. We introduce the process of inflammation, with a focus on the immature gut, and describe how a multitude of milk proteins act against the inflammatory process according to both in vitro and in vivo studies. We highlight the effects of milk proteins such as caseins, and of whey proteins such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, immunoglobulins, trefoil factors, lactoperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, alkaline phosphatase, and growth factors (TGF-β, IGF-I and IGF-II, EGF, HB-EGF). The effects of milk fat globule proteins, such as TLR-2, TLR-4, sCD14 and MFG-E8/lactadherin, are also discussed. Finally, we indicate how milk proteins could be useful for the prophylaxis and therapy of intestinal inflammation in infants and children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-09

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways.

  13. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of bioactive milk proteins in the intestine of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterton, Dereck E W; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Bering, Stine Brandt

    2013-01-01

    The human newborn infant is susceptible to gut inflammatory disorders. In particular, growth-restricted infants or infants born prematurely may develop a severe form of intestinal inflammation known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which has a high mortality. Milk provides a multitude of prote......The human newborn infant is susceptible to gut inflammatory disorders. In particular, growth-restricted infants or infants born prematurely may develop a severe form of intestinal inflammation known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which has a high mortality. Milk provides a multitude......, and describe how a multitude of milk proteins act against the inflammatory process according to both in vitro and in vivo studies. We highlight the effects of milk proteins such as caseins, and of whey proteins such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, immunoglobulins, trefoil...... factors, lactoperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, alkaline phosphatase, and growth factors (TGF-β, IGF-I and IGF-II, EGF, HB-EGF). The effects of milk fat globule proteins, such as TLR-2, TLR-4, sCD14 and MFG-E8/lactadherin, are also discussed. Finally, we...

  14. Differential modification of flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis with an antisense chalcone synthase construct in transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, S P; Morris, P; Robbins, M P

    1997-11-01

    Three clonal genotypes of Lotus corniculatus L. (bird's foot trefoil) were transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct made using a stress induced CHS17 cDNA from Phaseolus vulgaris under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and Nos terminator via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. After initial screening, ten antisense and five control co-transformation events from each recipient clonal genotype were analysed. After elicitation with glutathione, the level of tannin accumulation was found to be increased in a number of antisense root cultures derived from the low (S33) and moderate (S50) tannin recipient genotypes. Six antisense and four control transformed lines from genotype S50 were selected for more detailed study. The antisense CHS construct was found to be integrated into the genome, with a copy number ranging from 1 to 5 and antisense orientation was confirmed by PCR. In transformed root cultures, increased CHS transcript levels were noted in a number of antisense lines. Biochemical analyses of glutathione-elicited-root cultures indicated a significant increase in tannin accumulation in antisense CHS lines and mean vestitol levels were reduced. These results show that the introduction of a heterologous antisense chalcone synthase construct into L. corniculatus resulted in an unpredicted molecular and biochemical phenotype. Such findings are discussed in relation to manipulation of this complex multigene family.

  15. Restoration of Ecosystems Destroyed by the Fly Ash Dump Using Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The leguminous plants was studied at experimental variants on fly ash dump: sown species of Onobrichys viciifolia and invasive colonies of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, and yellow sweet (Melilotus officinalis. Six experimental variants were studied in three replicates each: untreated fly ash, fly ash amended with unmodified/modified volcanic rock and fly ash treated with unmodified/modified volcanic rock (indigenous volcanic tuff mixed with organic fertilizer, anaerobically stabilized municipal sludge type. The characteristics of topsoil was assessed in toxic metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni content and the characteristics of plants was assessed in terms: height, shoot and roots dry weight, root and shoot ratio, root length density, the aspect plant and competitive ability of this species to dominate in sown habitat. Invasive plants (Lotus corniculatus and Melilotus officinalis have colonized up to 38 - 43 % and max 5 % respectively, treated experimental variants fly ash with organic fertilizer mixed with unmodified/modified volcanic tuff. The proposed strategy with sown leguminous species led to improved conditions for installation of more and resistant invasive species. Furthermore ecological restoration is increasing with effective fly ash dump stabilization.

  16. On matrix-model approach to simplified Khovanov-Rozansky calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Morozov, And.; Popolitov, A.

    2015-10-01

    Wilson-loop averages in Chern-Simons theory (HOMFLY polynomials) can be evaluated in different ways - the most difficult, but most interesting of them is the hypercube calculus, the only one applicable to virtual knots and used also for categorification (higher-dimensional extension) of the theory. We continue the study of quantum dimensions, associated with hypercube vertices, in the drastically simplified version of this approach to knot polynomials. At q = 1 the problem is reformulated in terms of fat (ribbon) graphs, where Seifert cycles play the role of vertices. Ward identities in associated matrix model provide a set of recursions between classical dimensions. For q ≠ 1 most of these relations are broken (i.e. deformed in a still uncontrollable way), and only few are protected by Reidemeister invariance of Chern-Simons theory. Still they are helpful for systematic evaluation of entire series of quantum dimensions, including negative ones, which are relevant for virtual link diagrams. To illustrate the effectiveness of developed formalism we derive explicit expressions for the 2-cabled HOMFLY of virtual trefoil and virtual 3.2 knot, which involve respectively 12 and 14 intersections - far beyond any dreams with alternative methods. As a more conceptual application, we describe a relation between the genus of fat graph and Turaev genus of original link diagram, which is currently the most effective tool for the search of thin knots.

  17. Communication across 300 generations: deterring human interference with waste deposit sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    The conditions attendant on the deep land burial of nuclear waste products raise a number of possible scenarios to cover the necessary 10,000 years of burial. However, no matter what kind of futuristic scenario obtains, it is desirable to develop an information system indicating the locale and nature of the deposit site and the types of materials stored, along with forewarnings not to interefere with the sites. A variety of such informational sites are suggested. Attention then turns to the recipients of such messages, recognizing from the outset that the psychological/perceptual makeup of individuals across the next 300 or so generations is virtually impossible to predict, particularly since new technologies may well alter that makeup in the furture. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that certain human characteristics may be considered universal, and that these suggest the incorporation of selected sign signification into the message system. There are other such characteristics that, while probably not intrinsic, can probably be acquired with a minimum of formal training. That still leaves much of the message content to be deliberately created and, hence, learned. The common trefoil or other developed biohazardous signs emerge as the best candidates for a generic base symbol for the buried material.

  18. Effect of Rebamipide on the Premalignant Progression of Chronic Gastritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P rebamipide medication than pre-treatment values. Rebamipide improved the clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, and pathological grades of chronic gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.

  19. Promiscuity of the Euonymus Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els J.M. Van Damme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize small amounts of carbohydrate-binding proteins on exposure to stress. For example, on exposure to drought, high salt, wounding and by treatment with some plant hormones or by pathogen attack. In contrast to the ‘classical’ plant lectins that are mostly located in the vacuolar compartment, this new class of inducible lectins is present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Taking into account that any physiological role of plant lectins most likely relies on their specific carbohydrate-binding activity and specificity, the discovery of these stress-related lectins provides strong evidence for the importance of protein-carbohydrate-interactions in plant cells. Hitherto, six families of such nucleocytoplasmic lectins have been identified in plants. This review will focus on the nucleocytoplasmic lectins with one or more Euonymus lectin (EUL domain(s. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of EUL proteins from a monocot, a dicot and a lower plant has been compared. Furthermore, modeling of the different EUL domains revealed a similar ß-trefoil fold consisting of three bundles of ß-sheet organized around a pseudo three-fold symmetry axis. Despite the sequence similarity and the conserved amino acids in the binding site, glycan array analyses showed that the EUL domain has a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site capable of accommodating high mannose N-glycans, blood group B related structures and galactosylated epitopes.

  20. Bivalent Carbohydrate Binding Is Required for Biological Activity of Clitocybe nebularis Lectin (CNL), the N,N′-Diacetyllactosediamine (GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc, LacdiNAc)-specific Lectin from Basidiomycete C. nebularis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohleven, Jure; Renko, Miha; Magister, Špela; Smith, David F.; Künzler, Markus; Štrukelj, Borut; Turk, Dušan; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that exert their biological activity by binding to specific cell glycoreceptors. We have expressed CNL, a ricin B-like lectin from the basidiomycete Clitocybe nebularis in Escherichia coli. The recombinant lectin, rCNL, agglutinates human blood group A erythrocytes and is specific for the unique glycan N,N′-diacetyllactosediamine (GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc, LacdiNAc) as demonstrated by glycan microarray analysis. We here describe the crystal structures of rCNL in complex with lactose and LacdiNAc, defining its interactions with the sugars. CNL is a homodimeric lectin, each of whose monomers consist of a single ricin B lectin domain with its β-trefoil fold and one carbohydrate-binding site. To study the mode of CNL action, a nonsugar-binding mutant and nondimerizing monovalent CNL mutants that retain carbohydrate-binding activity were prepared. rCNL and the mutants were examined for their biological activities against Jurkat human leukemic T cells and the hypersensitive nematode Caenorhabditis elegans mutant strain pmk-1. rCNL was toxic against both, although the mutants were inactive. Thus, the bivalent carbohydrate-binding property of homodimeric CNL is essential for its activity, providing one of the rare pieces of evidence that certain activities of lectins are associated with their multivalency. PMID:22298779

  1. Transient changes of enzyme activities and expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transient effects of weaning on the small intestine, 16 piglets were slaughtered at days 0, 1, 4 and 7 after weaning. Jejunal samples were collected to examine different enzyme activities and mRNA expressions of two stress protein families, namely, heat-shock proteins (HSP) and trefoil factors (TFF). Results showed that the activities of ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly changed at Day 1 and/or Day 4. The mRNA expressions of HSP10, HSP60 and HSP90 showed a pattern of increased expression with time after weaning. Expression significantly differed between Day 0 and Day 7 after weaning. The mRNA expression of HSP70 was significantly increased on Day 1 only. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly increased on Day 7 compared with those on Day 0. Expression of TFF3 was not affected by time after weaning. In conclusion, the present study indicated that weaning induced transient injury to small intestinal morphology and function. Particularly it changed enzyme activities and gene expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets. At first time, a change in the gene expression of HSP10 and a gene overexpression of TFF1 in the small intestine of piglets after weaning was found.

  2. Decay of helical and non-helical magnetic knots

    CERN Document Server

    Candelaresi, Simon

    2011-01-01

    We present calculations of the relaxation of magnetic field structures that have the shape of particular knots and links. A set of helical magnetic flux configurations is considered, which we call $n$-foil knots of which the trefoil knot is the most primitive member. We also consider two non-helical knots, namely the Borromean rings as well as a single interlocked flux rope that also serves as the logo of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. The field decay characteristics of both configurations is investigated and compared with previous calculations of helical and non-helical triple ring configurations. For the $n$-foil knots the decay is described by power laws that range form $t^{-2/3}$ to $t^{-1/3}$, which can be as slow as the $t^{-1/3}$ behavior for helical triple-ring structures that was seen in earlier work. The two non-helical configurations decay like $t^{-1}$, which is somewhat slower than the previously obtained $t^{-3/2}$ behavior in the decay of interlocked ...

  3. Clinical and immunological features of chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the activity of cytokines for determination of their pathogenic role and effective action of the individual factors of the immune system in infants with chronic non&specific non&ulcerative colitis (CNNC. Patients and methods. It is studied 60 children in the age from 1 to 3 years with CNNC, who were under hospitalization. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy children of appropriate age. Immunological status of children was evaluated on the base of determination of cytokine concentration in the blood serum by the method of Enzyme-Immuno-Sorbent-Assay. Results. It is found that during the CNNC in infants and the concentration and ratio of the different groups of cytokines in the blood serum undergoes significant changes — increasing the concentration of pro&inflammatory cytokines (IL&1α, IL&6, IL&8, TNF-α and decreases the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 is the IL-10, wherein the content growth factors is changing — by increased hepatocytes growth factor and reduced intestinal trefoil factor. Conclusions. Found changes of cytokines state can be regarded as a violation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms that is the basis of pathogenesis of the formation of a chronic inflammatory process in the infant's intestine.

  4. Validation of a combined corneal topographer and aberrometer based on Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Hong, Xin; Miller, Donald T.; Thibos, Larry N.; Bradley, Arthur

    2004-05-01

    A corneal aberrometer based on Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing was developed and validated by using calibrated aspheric surfaces. The aberrometer was found to accurately measure corneal reflective aberrations, from which corneal topography and corneal refractive aberrations were derived. Measurements of reflective aberrations correlated well with theory (R^2=0.964 to 0.994). The sag error root mean square (RMS) was small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.17 µm for four of the five calibrated surfaces with the fifth at 0.36 µm as a result of residual defocus. Measured refractive aberrations matched with theory and whole-eye aberrometry to within a small fraction of a wavelength. Measurements on three human corneas revealed very large refractive astigmatism (0.65-1.2 µm) and appreciable levels of trefoil (0.08-0.47 µm), coma (0.14-0.19 µm), and spherical aberration (0.18-0.25 µm). The mean values of these aberrations were significantly larger than the RMS in repeated measurements.

  5. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  6. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Tarquini, Elena; Salvadori, Maddalena; Ferri, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    K-ras and mucin profile variations, associated with intestinal carcinogenesis, were studied in the preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and in colonic tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The frequency of lesions with K-ras mutations was 23% (3/13), 5.5% (1/18) and 100% (14/14) in MDF, tumors and ACF, respectively. Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using immunohistochemistry. MDF and tumors showed a dramatic reduction in the expression of MUC2, whereas ACF showed only a slight reduction. The expression of M1/MUC5AC was almost absent in normal mucosa, but was increased in all the lesions (MDF, tumors and ACF). The expression of the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a marker of goblet cell lineage, was reduced in MDF and tumors compared to normal mucosa but not in ACF. In conclusion, although K-ras mutations are present in all ACF, they are less frequent in MDF and tumors; M1/MUC5AC is a marker associated with all preneoplastic events while the reduction of MUC2 and ITF expression is selectively associated with more advanced lesions such as MDF and tumors. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Tff3 is Expressed in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The trefoil factor family (TFF peptide TFF3 is typically secreted by mucous epithelia, but is also expressed in the immune system and the brain. It was the aim of this study to determine the cerebral cell types which express Tff3. Methods: Primary cultures from rat embryonic or neonatal cerebral cortex and hippocampus, respectively, were studied by means of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Moreover, Tff3 expression was localized by immunocytochemistry in sections of adult rat cerebellum. Results: Tff3 transcripts were detectable in neural cultures of both the cortex and the hippocampus as well as in glial cell-enriched cultures. Tff3 peptide co-localized with Map2 indicating an expression in neurons in vitro. The neuronal expression was confirmed by immunofluorescence studies of adult rat cerebellum. Furthermore, Tff3 peptide showed also a clear co-localization with Iba-1 in vitro typical of activated microglial cells. Conclusion: The neuronal expression of Tff3 is in line with a function of a typical neuropeptide influencing, e.g., fear, memory, depression and motoric skills. The expression in activated microglial cells, which is demonstrated here for the first time, points towards a possible function for Tff3 in immune reactions in the CNS. This opens a plethora of additional possible functions for Tff3 including synaptic plasticity and cognition as well as during neuroinflammatory diseases and psychiatric disorders.

  8. The potential involvement of the cofactor of BRCA1 in hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Youssef

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cofactor of BRCA1 (COBRA1, which also refers to negative elongation factor polypeptide B (NELF-B, is a negative elongation factor (NELF subunit that has been implicated in the development and progression of several cancers. While reduced COBRA1 expression has been associated with metastatic breast cancer, COBRA1 negatively regulates the activator protein-1 (AP-1 complex, leading to the down-regulation of trefoil factor-1 (TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. The involvement of COBRA1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC tumor formation and progression is not known. Here, we investigated the expression of COBRA1, the AP-1 complex, and TFF1 in several HCC cell lines; ranging from low- to high-grade HCC cell lines generated from patients with different stages of the disease. Our results showed that the COBRA1 protein was highly expressed in the low-grade HCC cell line, while significantly down-regulated in high-grade HCC cell lines. TFF1, previously regarded as a COBRA1 target gene, was only expressed in the low-grade HCC cell line and the control cells. Our results suggest that COBRA1 may play a role in HCC pathogenesis and progression. The TFF1 mRNA expression profile was uncorrelated to that of the AP-1 complex subunit proteins, which suggests the involvement of other regulatory pathways in TFF1 expression; however, this requires further study.

  9. Prototype segments polishing and testing for ELT M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Jacques; Chouarche, Laurent; Chaussat, Gilles; Hamy, Anne-Laure; Carel, Jean-Louis; Pernet, Bruno; Billet, Jacques; Leplan, Hervé; Ruch, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Sagem - Reosc has been awarded by ESO a contract for the manufacturing and testing of seven prototype segments of the E-ELT primary mirror in 2008. The purpose of this contract was to demonstrate the ability to produce aspherical off-axis hexagonal segments with very little edge effect and very high quality wavefront error and plan the production of the 931 segments needed for the primary mirror and spares. The manufacturing of the prototype segments is now completed. They have been delivered. Sagem has achieved for the best segment integrated on its support an overall surface error of 23 nm RMS and 6 nm RMS after removal of the allowed amount of Focus, Astigmatism and Trefoil. This article will present the process developped by Sagem and its performance. Sagem has also assessed the performances of an alternate manufacturing process based on the polishing of the segments under stress conditions (Stress Mirror Polishing). The results obtained by this process will also be presented.

  10. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  11. Mounting of reference surface for a transmission sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The mounting design of a reference surface for a 6-in transmission sphere is presented in this paper. To achieve highprecision measurement in interferometry, the reference wavefront error should be controlled within peak-to-valley (PV) 0.1 λ (λ=0.6328 um) for subtraction in calibration. The reference wavefront error includes the system aberration error and the irregularity of the reference surface. When a transmission sphere is well aligned, the reference wavefront error is dominated by the reference surface. The mounting of the reference surface is imperative because the surface deformation of the reference surface after mounting needs to be lower than 0.1 λ. Besides the mounting deformation, self-weight deformation is also considerable for large optics, such as 6-in reference surface in our study. Consequently, a semikinematic mounting is applied using three small contact areas to avoid over constraint. The transmission sphere in our study is vertically tested on QED aspheric stitching interferometer (ASI), and then the trefoil aberration is occurred. There are two methods to decrease surface deformation after mounting, including deformation correction using computer control optical surfacing (CCOS) and adding soft supporting between hard mounting. In this study, three soft supports are used to share the loads of three rigid supports and then to minimize surface deformation due to gravity. Mounting design and experiments are described in this paper. Finally, the reference wavefront error of the prototype is successfully restrained within 0.1 λ in measurement.

  12. Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer Adaptive Optics: On-sky performance and lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa P; Puglisi, Alfio T; Esposito, Simone; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Skemer, Andrew J; Defrere, Denis; Vaz, Amali; Leisenring, Jarron M

    2014-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is a high contrast imager and interferometer that sits at the combined bent Gregorian focus of the LBT's dual 8.4~m apertures. The interferometric science drivers dictate 0.1'' resolution with $10^3-10^4$ contrast at $10~\\mu m$, while the $4~\\mu m$ imaging science drivers require even greater contrasts, but at scales $>$0.2''. In imaging mode, LBTI's Adaptive Optics system is already delivering $4~\\mu m$ contrast of $10^4-10^5$ at $0.3''-0.75''$ in good conditions. Even in poor seeing, it can deliver up to 90\\% Strehl Ratio at this wavelength. However, the performance could be further improved by mitigating Non-Common Path Aberrations. Any NCPA remedy must be feasible using only the current hardware: the science camera, the wavefront sensor, and the adaptive secondary mirror. In preliminary testing, we have implemented an ``eye doctor'' grid search approach for astigmatism and trefoil, achieving 5\\% improvement in Strehl Ratio at $4~\\mu m$, with future plans to tes...

  13. Self-assembly of knots and links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Enzo; Polles, Guido; Marenduzzo, Davide; Micheletti, Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Guiding the self-assembly of identical building blocks towards complex three-dimensional structures with a set of desired properties is a major goal in material science, chemistry and physics. A particularly challenging problem, especially explored in synthetic chemistry, is that of self-assembling closed structures with a target topology starting by simple geometrical templates. Here we overview and revisit recent advancements, based on stochastic simulations, where the geometry of rigid helical templates with functionalised sticky ends has been designed for self-assembling efficiently and reproducibly into a wide range of three-dimensional closed structures. Notably, these include non trivial topologies of links and knots, including the 819 knot that we had predicted to be highly encodable and that has only recently been obtained experimentally. By appropriately tuning the parameters that define the template shape, we show that, for fixed concentration of templates, the assembly process can be directed towards the formation of specific knotted and linked structures such as the trefoils, pentafoil knots, Hopf and Solomon links. More exotic and unexpected knots and links are also found. Our results should be relevant to the design of new protocols that can both increase and broaden the population of synthetise molecular knots and catenanes.

  14. 实验研究正丁胺基罗沙替丁乙酸酯治疗胃溃疡%Rats with gastric ulcer were treated by butylamine roxatidine acetas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨正丁胺基罗沙替丁乙酸酯(BRA)对胃溃疡大鼠三叶因子2(trefoil factors2,TFF2)、血清脑肠肽(Ghrelin)、生长抑素(somatostatin,SOM)mRNA表达的影响.方法 Wistar大鼠60只随机分为对照组、雷尼替丁组、BRA组.雷尼替丁组、BRA组大鼠造模.对照组予生理盐水灌胃;雷尼替丁组予雷尼替丁灌胃;BRA组以BRA灌胃.ELISA法检测血清TFF2及Ghrelin水平,逆转录PCR(RT-PCR)法检测SOM mRNA的表达.结果 BRA组血清TFF2水平、SOM mRNA显著高于雷尼替丁组;治疗组Ghrelin水平低于雷尼替丁组P均<0.05.结论 BRA可提高胃黏膜组织再生及修复能力,保护胃黏膜促进胃溃疡愈合,为临床应用提供理论依据.

  15. A comparative Analysis by SAGE of Gene Expression Profiles of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantine W. P. M. van Baal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC are the two main types of esophageal cancer. Despite extensive research the exact molecular basis of these cancers is unclear. Therefore we evaluated the transcriptome of EA in comparison to non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE, the metaplastic epithelium that predisposes for EA, and compared the transcriptome of ESCC to normal esophageal squamous epithelium. For obtaining the transcriptomes tissue biopsies were used and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was applied. Validation of results by RT-PCR and immunoblotting was performed using tissues of an additional 23 EA and ESCC patients. Over 58,000 tags were sequenced. Between EA and BE 1013, and between ESCC and normal squamous epithelium 1235 tags were significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.05. The most up-regulated genes in EA compared to BE were SRY-box 4 and Lipocalin2, whereas the most down-regulated genes in EA were Trefoil factors and Annexin A10. The most up-regulated genes in ESCC compared to normal squamous epithelium were BMP4, E-Cadherin and TFF3. The results could suggest that the BE expression profile is closer related to normal squamous esophagus then to EA. In addition, several uniquely expressed genes are identified.

  16. Polycistronic strategy for cyanobacterial expression vector construction: Co-transcription of a human gene and a selective marker gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yukun; SHI Dingji; ZHAO Feifei; YU Meimin; RU Binggen

    2005-01-01

    A polycistronic expression vector, pKGA-NTF1, was constructed for the cyanobacterium. Within this vector, the spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene (aadA) facilitated the selection of transformants when co-transcribed with favorite genes. A natural glnA gene was selected as the platform to introduce the plasmid into a neutral site of the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 chromosome. Function of the vector was demonstrated by the insertion of a modified human Trefoil factor 3 gene (NTF1 ) to upstream of the aadA gene and by the analyses of the transformed strains. Antibiotics resistance assays showed that the dicistronic expression cassette conferred high spectinomycin resistance to both the E. coli cells and the Synechococcus cells. PCR analysis and Western-blot analysis were carried out to confirm the integration and expression of the NTF1 gene, respectively. Through simple molecular manipulations, the artificial polycistronic structure described here can be conveniently used to express other favorable genes or operons in cyanobacteria, and to study the cyanobacterial gene expression as well.

  17. Progress of burn research in metabolism and nutrition in China%我国烧伤代谢营养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仕良

    2008-01-01

    The achievements of burn metabolism and nutrition in China are briefly presented. Advance a new theory "Enterogenous Hypermetabolism". Develop a formula to calculate calorie needs in Chinese burn adults. Put forward new ideas on glucose absorption, neoglycogenesis, insulin resistance, and the use of hypoglycemic agent after burn inury. Observe the variation of plasma level of free aminoacids, investigate the changes and mechanisms of 26S proteasome and 19S regulator in skeletal muscle of burn trauma, and the clinical application and its mechanism of glutamine and arginine. Introduce the approach of 13 C NMR spectroscopy to investigate the alterations of hepatic anabolism functions in severely burned rats. Offer supplying the suitable dosage of vitamin A,C,E and microeiement of zinc, copper, ferrum for burn patients. Carry out serial studies of early enteral and parenteral nutrition, and compare enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Early ehteral nutrition with synbiotics might be beneficial to the controlling of burn infection. Both glucagon like peptide-2(GLP-2) and intestinal trefoil factor(ITF) exhibit protective effect on intestinal mucosa in minimizing injury and protecting barrier function. The choice of suitable opportunity to use rhGH (growth hormone) is investigated. In addition, advance the view points of isehemia and anoxia in metabolism, anti-inflammatory immune and nutrition.

  18. Influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Ansell, Juliet

    2014-08-01

    The effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. Green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. Growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. A significant increase in cecal Lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at week 4. At week 6, green and gold kiwifruit diets assisted in improving colonic barrier function by upregulating the expression of mucin (MUC)-2, MUC3, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or trefoil factor-3 genes. Gold kiwifruit consumption increased the colonic goblet cells per crypt at week 6. Significant negative correlations between E. coli and β-defensin 1 and TLR4 expression were observed. Consuming green and gold kiwifruit for 6 wk significantly altered the biomarkers of large bowel health; indicating that regularly consuming kiwifruit helps attain optimal digestive health.

  19. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  20. Comparison of corneal aberrations after femtosecond laser LASIK and SBK%飞秒LASIK与SBK术后角膜像差的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 张士胜; 吴江秀; 于青; 董世奇; 廉井财

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare changes in wavefront aberrations on the cornea after femtosecond laser LASIK (FS-LASIK) and sub-Bowman's keratomileusis (SBK),especially for total higher order aberrations (HOA),corneal spherical aberrations (C40),corneal horizontal coma (C31),corneal vertical coma (C3-1),corneal horizontal trefoil (C33) and corneal oblique trefoil (C3-3).Methods A prospective study was designed for 2 groups based on the procedure used.The groups were composed of 68 eyes of 34 patients who had undergone FS-LASIK and 90 eyes of 45 patients who had been treated with SBK.A Pentacam was used under dark room conditions to measure corneal aberrations before surgery and 1 and 3 months after surgery.Data were analyzed using ANOVA,an independent samples t test and Pearson correlation.Results The preoperative and postoperative differences for the total corneal HOA,corneal C40,and corneal C31in the FS-LASIK group were significant (F=8.511,12.356,11.843,P<0.01).The corresponding differences and in addition corneal C31 were also significant for the SBK group (F=46.601,38.627,10.874,11.727,P<0.01).One month after surgery,HOAs were higher in the SBK group than in the FS group (t=-3.063,P<0.05),and the same tendency was found 3 months after surgery (t=2.998,P<0.05).The differences for C40 at 1 month were not significant between the two groups (t=-1.990,P>0.05) but the differences were statistically significant at 3 months (t=-2.666,P<0.05).One and 3 months after surgery,the trefoil aberrations (C33,C3-3) of the cornea in the two groups were higher than before surgery; only the difference for C3-3 was significant.However,the difference in the trefoil aberrations of the cornea between the two groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion Both FS-LASIK and SBK can increase corneal HOA,corneal spherical aberrations and vertical coma,but the degree of increase after FS-LASIK is smaller than that after SBK.FS-LASIK improves visual quality more than SBK.%目的

  1. Study on the compensation effect of internal higher -order aberrations on corneal higher - order aberrations in myopia%近视眼患者眼内高阶像差对角膜高阶像差补偿作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马代金; 朱睿玲; 蔡望

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨青年中、低度近视眼患者眼内高阶像差对角膜高阶像差的补偿作用。  方法:收集2012-04/05在我院准分子激光中心接受角膜屈光手术的近视眼患者76例152眼,用OPD Scan ARK-10000测量瞳孔直径6 mm时角膜前表面和全眼球3~6阶总高阶像差( total higher-order aberrations ,HOAs)、总彗差( total coma aberration , TC )、总三叶草( total trefoil aberration,TT)、总球差( total spherical aberration ,TS)均方根值( root mean square ,RMS)及三阶彗差( Z3-1,Z31)、三叶草( Z3-3,Z33)、四阶球差( Z40)的Zernike系数,计算补偿因子( compensation factor ,CF)。  结果:角膜球差均为正值,33眼(21.7%)全眼球差为负值;角膜TC均方根值及Z3-1,Z31小于全眼像差,补偿因子为负值;角膜HOAs,TT,TS均方根值及Z3-3,Z33,Z40均高于全眼像差,补偿因子为正值。  结论:眼内高阶像差对角膜高阶像差主要表现为补偿作用;眼内球差对角膜球差有补偿作用,可降低全眼球差;眼内彗差、三叶草对角膜高阶像差的作用个体差异较大,可表现为部分补偿、过度补偿和叠加,其中彗差以叠加作用为主,三叶草以补偿作用为主。%AIM:To investigate the compensation effects of internal higher-order aberrations ( HOAs) on the corneal HOAs in youth with low and moderate myopia. METHODS: Seventy-six myopic patients ( 152 eyes ) who received corneal refractive surgery from April to May in 2012 were included in this study. The HOAs of the anterior corneal surface and the total ocular HOAs ( 3-6 stage) ocular were measured using OPD Scan ARK-10000.The root mean square values ( RMS ) of total HOAs, total coma ( TC ) , total trefoil ( TT ) and total spherical aberration ( TS) and Zernike terms of Z3-1 , Z3 1 , Z3-3 , Z3 3 , Z4 0 of a pupil with a diameter of 6mm were recorded to calculate the

  2. TFF3作为肿瘤生物标志物的研究%Review on Researches of TFF3 as Tumor Biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 黄建坤

    2015-01-01

    三叶因子3(trefoil factor 3,TFF3)为三叶因子多肽家族成员之一,与肿瘤的发生发展密切相关,可促进肿瘤的侵袭、转移与血管生成.作为肿瘤生物标志物,TFF3对胃癌诊断具有较高的敏感度和特异性,优于胃蛋白酶原(Pepsinogen,PG)标志物,是胃癌非侵入性筛查潜在的理想标志物,并可应用于胃肠道肿瘤化疗药效与预后的评价,同时,TFF3应用于子宫内膜样腺癌及甲状腺微小浸润性滤泡癌的病理诊断也具有重大临床价值.TFF3作为新型肿瘤生物标志物,在肿瘤分子诊断与靶向、个体化治疗领域倍受临床关注.

  3. TFF3 and survivin expressions associate with a lower survival rate in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia-Rong; Tang, Hui-Zhong; Zhou, Kai-Zong; Shen, Wu-Hong; Guo, He-Yi

    2013-11-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and survivin with functions of inhibiting apoptosis are involved in the gastric cancer by overexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of TFF3 and survivin in patients' tissue samples with gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between the protein expression and the different clinical records. By studying the expressions of TFF3 and survivin in gastric cancer through immunohistochemical staining and examining the survival rate via Kaplan-Meier analysis for gastric cancer patients, we found that the TFF3 and survivin positive expressions have a significant relationship with the lower survival rate comparing to that of negative expressions in the analyzed patients (P TFF3 and survivin expressions have the lowest survival rate. TFF3 or survivin positive expression correlates with the lymph node metastasis, metastasis, and TNM stages of gastric cancer. Survival analysis indicates that survival rate has a close relationship with the age, tumor histology, tumor differentiation, degree of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages (P TFF3 and survivin expressions play a vital role in gastric cancer development, and these two proteins are important markers for prognosis in gastric cancer. Patients with gastric cancer can increase the survival rate through an earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  4. Inhibition of ErbB-2 induces TFF3 downregulation in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lu; Xiang, Jinyu; Shen, Zan; Wang, Zhihao; Yao, Yasai; Zhou, Quan; Ding, Aiping; Qiu, Wensheng

    2014-07-01

    ErbB-2 gene plays an important role in carcinoma formation whose overexpression was observed in many types of tumors, including breast cancer. Dysregulation of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), which is thought to function in the development and progression of breast cancer, was found to be upregulated in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers and cells. However, a putative interaction between ErbB-2 and TFF3 in breast cancer remains unknown. To determine whether TFF3 has an important role in breast tumor, its levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in 130 cases of breast infiltrating duct carcinoma and 30 cases of normal breast tissue with a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human TFF3. Patients who were positive for ErbB-2 also had high expression levels of TFF3 (p TFF3 by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Compared with the control groups, ErbB-2 mRNA expression was decreased in the Lenti-ShERBB2 infection group, and Western blotting indicated a concordant ErbB-2 protein reduction. On the other hand, TFF3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly downregulated by ErbB-2 silencing in SK-BR-3. These findings are a proof of the foundation for a certain relationships of ErbB-2 and TFF3, which may serve as novel therapeutic markers of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers in the future.

  5. 三叶因子1与慢性浅表性胃炎脾胃湿热证研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坚; 劳绍贤

    2007-01-01

    三叶因子1(trefoil factor 1,TFF1)又名乳癌相关肽(breast cancer associated peptide,即pS2),是TFF家族成员之一,目前哺乳动物体内发现的还有TFF2和TFF3。TFF是一群主要由胃肠道黏液细胞分泌的小分子多肽,在胃肠黏膜保护与损伤修复,促进黏膜重建等方面发挥重要作用。因TFF1主要分布于胃黏膜,在胃黏膜保护及修护方面有重要作用,故已被广泛用于胃肠黏膜炎症、癌前病变及胃肠肿瘤等领域的研究。当前脾胃湿热证炎症机制方面的研究已取得较大进展,现就保护因子TFF1与慢性浅表性胃炎(CSG)脾胃湿热证研究的进展综述如下。

  6. TFF3 is a normal breast epithelial protein and is associated with differentiated phenotype in early breast cancer but predisposes to invasion and metastasis in advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed R H; Griffiths, Andrew B; Tilby, Michael T; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B

    2012-03-01

    The trefoil protein TFF3 stimulates invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. To determine whether it has a role in breast tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, its levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in breast tissue with a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human TFF3. TFF3 is expressed in normal breast lobules and ducts, at higher levels in areas of fibrocystic change and papillomas, in all benign breast disease lesions, and in 89% of in situ and in 83% of invasive carcinomas. In well-differentiated tumor cells, TFF3 is concentrated at the luminal edge, whereas in poorly differentiated cells polarity is inverted and expression is directed toward the stroma. Expression was high in well-differentiated tumors and was associated significantly with low histological grade and with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, accordant with induction of TFF3 mRNA by estrogen in breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, TFF3 expression was associated with muscle, neural, and lymphovascular invasion and the presence and number of involved lymph nodes, and it was an independent predictive marker of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. Consistent with an angiogenic function, TFF3 expression correlated strongly with microvessel density evaluated with CD31 and CD34. In conclusion, TFF3 is expressed in both the normal and diseased breast. Although associated with features of good prognosis, its profile of expression in invasive cancer is consistent with a role in breast tumor progression and tumor cell dissemination.

  7. IL-6/STAT3/TFF3 signaling regulates human biliary epithelial cell migration and wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-xing; Zhong, Xiang-yu; Cui, Yun-fu; Liu, Wei; Tai, Sheng; Wang, Zhi-dong; Shi, Yu-guang; Zhao, Shi-yong; Li, Chun-long

    2010-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), through activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3), has been implicated in the promotion of mouse biliary epithelial cell (BEC) proliferation and migration. However, it is still unclear whether the IL-6/STAT3/TFF3 signaling had similar effects on human BECs. Here, we showed that exposure of human BECs to recombinant IL-6 resulted in STAT3 phosphorylation and increased the expression of TFF3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 using RNA interference significantly abrogated IL-6-induced TFF3 expression. In an in-vitro wound healing model, IL-6 facilitated human BEC migration. This promotion of cell migration by IL-6 was blocked when STAT3 was knocked down. Interestingly, the addition of exogenous TFF3 could rescue the cell migration defects caused by STAT3 silencing. In conclusion, our data indicate that STAT3 plays a critical role in IL-6-induced TFF3 expression in human BECs and the IL-6/STAT3/TFF3 signaling is involved in human BEC migration and wound healing.

  8. In Vitro Investigation of the Immunomodulatory Potential of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Thirugnanam; Pravin, Mariappan; Muthusamy, Velusamy Shanmuganathan; Bharathi Raja, Rajaganapathy; Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subhadra

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated the immunomodulatory potential of ethyl acetate soluble supernatant of Lactobacillus casei (LC-EAS) in vitro. The effect of LC-EAS on nitric oxide release was analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells, wherein, an inhibition in nitric oxide production through suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression was observed. Evaluation of LC-EAS on LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a down-regulation in TNF-α and IL-6 genes and an upregulation of IL-10. An inhibition in the protein expression of NF-κB, ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation confirms the immunomodulatory potential of LC-EAS. The effect of LC-EAS on in vitro intestinal epithelial cells was investigated using HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cells. LC-EAS exhibited an inhibition of NF-κB and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was unregulated. To evaluate the downstream target of STAT3 upregulation, expression of the intestinal trefoil factor TFF3 which is a NF-κB regulator and STAT3 downstream target was studied. LC-EAS was observed to elevate TFF3 mRNA expression. Overall the study shows that the anti-inflammatory potential of LC-EAS is through inhibition of NF-κB in different cell types.

  9. Differential expression of gastric MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells: TFF3-wired IL1 β/Akt crosstalk-induced mucosal immune response against Shigella dysenteriae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Sivasithamparam Niranjali

    2012-02-01

    An understanding of the signaling mechanism(s) that regulate the differential expression of gastric mucin MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells would contribute significantly to investigations of its role in colonic mucosa infected with the bacterial pathogen Shigella dysenteriae. Here we show that S. dysenteriae-Sinduced expression of interleukin-1β upregulates MUC2 expression and the differential expression of MUC5AC. Differential expression of MUC5AC involves crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt, whereby the trefoil factor family peptide TFF3 activates Akt by phosphorylation of EGFR. TFF3 also downregulates E-cadherin expression, causing accumulation of β-catenin in the cytosol. Phosphorylation of GSK-3β (inactivated) by activated Akt inhibits ubiquitylation of β-catenin, leading to its nuclear translocation, which then induces the expression of MUC5AC and cyclin D1. Accumulation of cyclin D1 alters the cell cycle, promoting cell survival and proliferation. Human colon HT29MTX cells, which overexpress MUC5AC, were resistant to adherence and invasion of S. dysenteriae when compared with other mucin-secreting HT29 cell types. Thus, during infection with S. dysenteriae, crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt wired by TFF3 induces expression of MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells. Differentially expressed gastric MUC5AC aids in mucosal clearance of S. dysenteriae, inhibiting adherence and invasion of the pathogen to colonic epithelial cells, which protects the host.

  10. Generative rules for the morphogenesis of epithelial tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloussov, L V; Lakirev, A V

    1991-10-21

    A finite elements model imitating the morphogenesis of smoothly curved tubular epithelial rudiments is suggested. It is based upon the experimentally proved assumption of the lateral (tangential) pressure between adjacent epithelial cells. The main idea of the model is that under a non-zero local curvature the lateral cell-cell pressure acquires the radial components which are absent under zero curvature. In the framework of the model we investigate the roles of initial geometry, the different coefficients relating the local curvatures and radial cell shifts, and of visco-elastical cell-cell linkages in the shaping process. We also employ the different temporal regimes (both periodical and constant) of the lateral pressure exerted and the different overall durations of the modelling. As a result, we get a set of biologically realistical shapes, almost all of them belonging to the same basical "trefoiled" archetype. Among the variables explored, shaping was most affected by the changes in visco-elastical coefficients, in the temporal regimes and in the overall duration of the modelling. The model shows that rather complicated and realistical shapes of epithelial rudiments can be obtained without assuming any initial regional differences inside cell layers. The model may be useful for understanding the principles underlying both genetical and epigenetical regulation of the morphogenesis.

  11. Aberrant JAK/STAT Signaling Suppresses TFF1 and TFF2 through Epigenetic Silencing of GATA6 in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shyong Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2. Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60 of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation.

  12. Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Application on Corneal High-order Aberration and Visual Guality in Patients with Corneal Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Aydın Kurna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Evaluation of the corneal high-order aberrations and visual quality changes after application of silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with corneal opacities due to various etiologies. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients with corneal opacities were included in the study. During the ophthalmologic examination before and after contact lens application, visual acuity was measured with Snellen acuity chart and contrast sensitivity - with Bailey-Lowie Charts in letters. Aberrations were measured with corneal aberrometer (NIDEK Magellan Mapper under a naturally dilated pupil. Spherical aberration, coma, trefoil, irregular astigmatism and total high-order root mean square (RMS values were recorded. Measurements were repeated with balafilcon A lenses (PureVision 2 HD, B&L on all patients. Re sults: Patient age varied between 23 and 50 years. Two eyes had subepithelial infiltrates due to adenoviral keratitis, 1 had nebulae due to previous infections or trauma, and 2 had Salzmann’s nodular degeneration. We observed a mean increase of 1 line in visual acuity and 5 letters in contrast sensitivity with contact lenses versus glasses in the patients. Mean RMS values of spherical aberration, irregular astigmatism and total high-order aberrations decreased significantly with contact lenses. Dis cus si on: Silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses may improve visual quality by decreasing the corneal aberrations in patients with corneal opacities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 97-102

  13. Sintering condition of sewage sludge for artificial lightmass aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王里奥; 张雷; 黄川; 董婧蒙

    2009-01-01

    The sintering conditions of artificial lightmass aggregate (LWA) made up of sewage sludge,clay and pulverized flyash (PFA) by trefoil rotary kiln were investigated. The influencing factors of the aggregate strength including furnace temperature when feeding,the heating-up time from 500 to 1 000 ℃ ,the highest burning temperature,retention time at the highest burning temperature and furnace temperature at burning end were analyzed by orthogonal tests. The results show that 44.4% (mass fraction) sewage sludge meets the requirement of aggregate strength,others are 5.5% clay and 50.1% PFA. The burning temperature is the most important factor for the aggregate strength. The optimal sintering condition includes a furnace temperature of 471-490 ℃ when feeding,heating-up time of 10-11min from 500 to 1 000 ℃ ,the highest burning temperature between 1 161 and 1 170 ℃,retention time of 4 min at high burning temperature,and furnace temperature within 1 101-1 150 ℃ at burning end.

  14. The ternary structure of the double-headed arrowhead protease inhibitor API-A complexed with two trypsins reveals a novel reactive site conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Jiang, Chunhui; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Chen, Yuxing

    2009-09-25

    The double-headed arrowhead protease inhibitors API-A and -B from the tubers of Sagittaria sagittifolia (Linn) feature two distinct reactive sites, unlike other members of their family. Although the two inhibitors have been extensively characterized, the identities of the two P1 residues in both API-A and -B remain controversial. The crystal structure of a ternary complex at 2.48 A resolution revealed that the two trypsins bind on opposite sides of API-A and are 34 A apart. The overall fold of API-A belongs to the beta-trefoil fold and resembles that of the soybean Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors. The two P1 residues were unambiguously assigned as Leu(87) and Lys(145), and their identities were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Reactive site 1, composed of residues P5 Met(83) to P5' Ala(92), adopts a novel conformation with the Leu(87) completely embedded in the S1 pocket even though it is an unfavorable P1 residue for trypsin. Reactive site 2, consisting of residues P5 Cys(141) to P5' Glu(150), binds trypsin in the classic mode by employing a two-disulfide-bonded loop. Analysis of the two binding interfaces sheds light on atomic details of the inhibitor specificity and also promises potential improvements in enzyme activity by engineering of the reactive sites.

  15. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Daniel S Churgin2, Brent S Betts3, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder4, Marcus Neuffer1, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11University of Utah, John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ; 3Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing.Results: Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR were —0.03 ± 0.07 and —0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121. Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296. While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront

  16. Simulação computacional de cirurgias foto-refrativas personalizadas e precisão relacionada à ordem das aberrações ópticas Computational simulation of customized photorefractive surgery and precision of correction related to different order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento e a implementação de um algoritmo para simulação de cirurgias foto-refrativas. Sabe-se que os atuais " flying-spot" lasers para cirurgia refrativa disponíveis no mercado ainda contêm limitações na correção de algumas aberrações de ordem alta. No entanto, há muito pouca informação quantitativa sobre os erros envolvidos em função da complexidade das aberrações. Aplicando-se superfícies objetivo descritas por uma série de coeficientes de Zernike e o conceito matemático de convolução, várias ablações personalizadas foram simuladas para várias aberrações, desde baixa ordem (esfero-cilíndricas até aberrações de décima ordem (como coma, aberração esférica, entre outras. Os resultados mostram que o perfil de ablação de cada pulso do laser assim como seu diâmetro são fatores críticos quando o objetivo é corrigir aberrações de alta ordem. Além disso, outras conclusões foram possíveis, como por exemplo a de que nem todas as aberrações de alta ordem induzem aos mesmos erros na ablação. Também foi possível verificar que a correção de aberrações de alta ordem nos termos radiais (como aberração esférica é bem mais difícil do que naqueles termos contendo alta frequência angular (como trefoil.PURPOSE: To develop and implement an algorithm for simulation of photorefractive surgery. It is well known that many flying-spot lasers in the market have limitations in correcting higher order aberrations, but there is little quantitative information about errors related to aberration complexity. METHODS: By applying known surfaces described by Zernike polynomials of different orders it was possible to simulate several target surfaces that may well resemble in vivo cases of refractive surgery candidates. An algorithm that uses the mathematical concept of convolution was implemented and several simulated surfaces were tested, ranging from low order

  17. [Antifugal susceptibility testing and antifugal traditional Chinese medicines screening of oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zhou, Zeng-Tong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of pathogenic oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy to antifungal agents. To screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs by NCCLS M27-A2 method. Using YBC Test Kit to identify 20 clinical oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The in vitro susceptibilities of 20 oral Candida spp. to 5-flucytosine (5-FC), itraconazole (ITR), fluconazole (FLU), the extracts of 6 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (caltrop, honeysuckle flower, dandelion, green tea, pine bark, red trefoil) and utility componets of 7 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (sophorcarpidine, aloperine, archin, glycyrrhizic acid, glycosides of white peony root, glycosides of baikal skullcap root, hydrochloric berberine) were determined by NCCLS M27-A2 method. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all Candida spp. were 25%. All strains were sensitive to 5-flucytosine, 25% stains were resistant to fluconazole and 40% stains were resistant to itraconazole. In all agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs, glycosides of white peony root and hydrochloric berberine (C20H18CINO4) exhibited antifungal activity, especially to C. glabrates. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy was pretty high. NCCLS M27-A2 micro-dilution method is a reliable and reproducible method and can be used to screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs.

  18. Epithelial restitution and wound healing in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Sturm; Axel U Dignass

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The mucosal epithelium of the alimentary tract constitutes a key element of the mucosal barrier to a broad spectrum of deleterious substances present within the intestinal lumen including bacterial microorganisms, various dietary factors, gastrointestinal secretory products and drugs. In addition, this mucosal barrier can be disturbed in the course of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. Fortunately, the integrity of the gastrointestinal surface epithelium is rapidly reestablished even after extensive destruction. Rapid resealing of the epithelial barrier following injuries is accomplished by a process termed epithelial restitution, followed by more delayed mechanisms of epithelial wound healing including increased epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial cell differentiation. Restitution of the intestinal surface epithelium is modulated by a range of highly divergent factors among them a broad spectrum of structurally distinct regulatory peptides, variously described as growth factors or cytokines. Several regulatory peptide factors act from the basolateral site of the epithelial surface and enhance epithelial cell restitution through TGF-β-dependent pathways. In contrast, members of the trefoil factor family (TFF peptides) appear to stimulate epithelial restitution in conjunction with mucin glycoproteins through a TGF-β-independent mechanism from the apical site of the intestinal epithelium. In addition,a number of other peptide molecules like extracellular matrix factors and blood clotting factors and also nonpeptide molecules including phospholipids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), adenine nucleotides, trace elements and pharmacological agents modulate intestinal epithelial repair mechanisms. Repeated damage and injury of the intestinal surface are key features of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases

  19. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; De Matteis, Laura; Lozano-Perez, A. Abel; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Vezza, Teresa; de la Fuente, J M.; Cenis, Jose Luis; Gálvez, Julio; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Current treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is based on the use of immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs, which are characterized by important side effects that can limit their use. Previous research has been performed by administering these drugs as nanoparticles that target the ulcerated intestinal regions and increase their bioavailability. It has been reported that silk fibroin can act as a drug carrier and shows anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose This study was designed to enhance the interaction of the silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) with the injured intestinal tissue by functionalizing them with the peptide motif RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid) and to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of these RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles (RGD-SFNs) in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Materials and methods SFNs were prepared by nanoprecipitation in methanol, and the linear RGD peptide was linked to SFNs using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The SFNs (1 mg/rat) and RGD-SFNs (1 mg/rat) were administered intrarectally to TNBS-induced colitic rats for 7 days. Results The SFN treatments ameliorated the colonic damage, reduced neutrophil infiltration, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RGD-SFNs showed a significant reduction in the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) and inducible nitric oxide synthase in comparison with the TNBS control group. Moreover, the expression of both cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly diminished by the RGD-SFN treatment. However, both treatments improved the intestinal wall integrity by increasing the gene expression of some of its markers (trefoil factor-3 and mucins). Conclusion SFNs displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the TNBS model of colitis in rats

  20. Sex hormone influence on hepatitis in young male A/JCr mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

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    Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.

  1. Correlation between Corneal Topographic Indices and Higher-Order Aberrations in Keratoconus

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    Sepehr Feizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs between normal and keratoconic eyes, and to investigate the association between elevation-based corneal topographic indices and corneal wavefront data in the latter group. Methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study, 77 normal right eyes of 77 control subjects and 66 eyes of 36 keratoconic patients were included. In each eye, elevationbased corneal topographic indices including mean keratometry readings, best-fit sphere, maximum elevation, and 3-mm and 5-mm zone irregularity indices were measured using Orbscan II. The Galilei Scheimpflug analyzer was used to measure HOAs of the corneal surface. The independent student t-test was used to compare HOAs between the study groups. Spearman correlation was used to investigate possible associations between Orbscan and Galilei data in the keratoconus group. Results: All Zernike coefficients up to the 4th order except for horizontal trefoil, and vertical and horizontal tetrafoil were significantly greater in the keratoconus group than normal eyes (P<0.05. Root mean square (RMS of HOAs up to the 6th order and total HOAs were significantly higher in the keratoconus group (P<0.05. In the keratoconus group, the strongest association was observed between vertical coma (r=-0.71, P<0.01 and total RMS of HOAs (r=0.94, P<0.01 with irregularity in the 3-mm zone. Spherical and vertical coma aberrations were significantly correlated with mean keratometry (P<0.05 for both comparisons. Conclusion: Centrally located corneal HOAs are significantly greater in keratoconic eyes than normal controls. Anterior and inferior displacement of the cornea causes the majority of higher-order aberrations observed in keratoconus.

  2. Inflammatory cues modulate the expression of secretory product genes, Golgi sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production in LS174T cells.

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    Croix, Jennifer A; Bhatia, Shikha; Gaskins, H Rex

    2011-12-01

    The signals that mediate goblet cell expression of specific mucin chemotypes are poorly defined. Animal and in vitro studies show that acidomucin chemotypes may be altered by inflammation and changes in intestinal microbiota. To examine factors that may elicit this response, human adenocarcinoma-derived LS174T cells, which have a goblet cell-like phenotype and produce both sulfo- and sialomucins, were used to examine the effects of selected microbial and host factors on expression of goblet cell secretory product genes, sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production. Expression of genes encoding mucin 2 (MUC2), resistin-like molecule β (RETNLB), and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and Golgi sulfotransferases, carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 5 (CHST5) and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GAL3ST2), was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction following treatment with bacterial flagellin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or the mucogenic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). Expression of the toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene was also analysed. Sulfomucin expression was examined via high-iron diamide/alcian blue (HID/AB) histochemistry and immunofluorescent staining for the Sulfo Le(a) antigen, which is synthesized in part by GAL3ST2. Flagellin, IL-13 and TNF-α all significantly increased GAL3ST2, MUC2, TFF3 and TLR5 expression, while only IL-13 increased RETNLB and CHST5 expression. Based on HID/AB histochemistry, mucin sulfation was significantly increased in response to both flagellin and IL-13 but not TNF-α. Only treatment with flagellin increased the expression of the Sulfo Le(a) antigen. Collectively, these results indicate that bacterial flagellin, IL-13 and TNF-α differentially modulate the expression of goblet cell secretory product genes, sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production.

  3. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

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    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Chen, Jian; Chen, Hao; Yu, Wei; Gai, Qijing; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2014-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  4. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqing Chen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  5. Understanding the molecular basis of stability in Kunitz (STI) family of inhibitors in terms of a conserved core tryptophan residue: A theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Sharma, Ravi; Goswami, Nabajyoti; Ghosh, Debasree; Majumder, Sudip

    2017-08-01

    β-trefoil is one of the superfolds among proteins. Important classes of proteins like Interleukins (ILs), FibroblastGrowth Factors (FGFs), Kunitz (STI) family of inhibitors etc. belong to this fold. Kunitz (STI) family of inhibitors of proteins possess a highly conserved and structurally important Trytophan 91 (W91) residue, which stitches the top layer of the barrel with the lid. In this article we have investigated the molecular insights of the involvement of this W91 residue in the stability and folding pathway of Kunitz (STI) family. Winged bean Chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI), a member of Kunitz (STI) family was chosen as a model system for carrying out the work. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were run with a set of total six proteins, including wild type WCI (WT) & five mutants namely W91F, W91M, W91A, W91H and W91I. Among all of them the coordinates of four proteins were taken from their crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), where as the coordinates for the rest two was generated using in-silico modelling. Our results suggest that truly this W91 residue plays a determining role in stability and folding pathway of Kunitz (STI) family. The mutants are less stable and more susceptible to quicker unfolding at higher temperatures compared to the wild type WCI. These effects are most pronounced for the smallest mutants namely W91H and W91A, indicating more is the cavity created by mutation at W91 position more the proteins becomes unstable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of an intestine-specific promoter and inducible expression of bacterial α-galactosidase in mammalian cells by a lac operon system

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    Ya-Feng Zhai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-galactosidase has been widely used in animal husbandry to reduce anti-nutritional factors (such as α-galactoside in feed. Intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase would be highly beneficial for transgenic animal production. Methods To achieve the intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase, we first identified intestine-specific promoters by comparing the transcriptional activity and tissue specificity of four intestine-specific promoters from human intestinal fatty acid binding protein, rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein, human mucin-2 and human lysozyme. We made two chimeric constructs combining the promoter and enhancer of human mucin-2, rat intestinal trefoil factor and human sucrase-isomaltase. Then a modified lac operon system was constructed to investigate the induction of α-galactosidase expression and enzyme activity by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and an α-galactosidase substrate, α-lactose. We declared that the research carried out on human (Zhai Yafeng was in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and experimental research on animals also followed internationally recognized guidelines. Results The activity of the human mucin-2 promoter was about 2 to 3 times higher than that of other intestine-specific promoters. In the lac operon system, the repressor significantly decreased (P P Conclusions We have successfully constructed a high specificity inducible lac operon system in an intestine-derived cell line, which could be of great value for gene therapy applications and transgenic animal production.

  7. Altered expression of a putative progenitor cell marker DCAMKL1 in the rat gastric mucosa in regeneration, metaplasia and dysplasia

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    Watanabe Hiromitsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1 is a candidate marker for progenitor cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Lineage cells in the gastric mucosa are derived from progenitor cells, but this process can be altered after injury. Therefore, we explored DCAMKL1 expression under pathological conditions. Methods An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in rat stomach with acute superficial injury, chronic ulcer, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results DCAMKL1 was exclusively expressed in immature quiescent cells in the isthmus of normal fundic glands, where putative progenitor cells are thought to reside. DCAMKL1-positive cells and proliferating cells shed into the lumen after superficial injury and re-appeared during the regenerative process, mainly in the superficial mucosa. In the marginal mucosa around the active ulcer, parietal and chief cells diminished, foveolar hyperplasia was evident, and trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2/spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM emerged at the gland base. DCAMKL1 cells re-emerged in the deep mucosa juxtaposed with SPEM and proliferating cells. In the healing ulcer, the TFF2 cell population expanded and seemed to redifferentiate to chief cells, while proliferating cells and DCAMKL1 cells appeared above and below the TFF2 cells to promote healing. SPEM appeared and PCNA cells increased in the intestinalized mucosa, and DCAMKL1 was expressed in the proximity of the PCNA cells in the deep mucosa. DCAMKL1, PCNA and TFF2 were expressed in different dysplastic cells lining dilated glands near SPEM. Conclusion The ultrastructural appearance of DCAMKL1-positive cells and the expression patterns of DCAMKL1 in normal and pathological states indicate that the cells belong to a progenitor cell population. DCAMKL1 expression is closely associated with TFF2/SPEM cells after injury. DCAMKL1 cells repopulate close to proliferating, hyperplastic

  8. Insights into the catalytic mechanism of 16S rRNA methyltransferase RsmE (m³U1498) from crystal and solution structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Wan, Hua; Gao, Zeng-Qiang; Wei, Yong; Wang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Guang-Feng; Shtykova, Eleonora V; Xu, Jian-Hua; Dong, Yu-Hui

    2012-11-01

    RsmE is the founding member of a new RNA methyltransferase (MTase) family responsible for methylation of U1498 in 16S ribosomal RNA in Escherichia coli. It is well conserved across bacteria and plants and may play an important role in ribosomal intersubunit communication. The crystal structure in monomer showed that it consists of two distinct but structurally related domains: the PUA (pseudouridine synthases and archaeosine-specific transglycosylases)-like RNA recognition and binding domain and the conserved MTase domain with a deep trefoil knot. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed that RsmE forms a flexible dimeric conformation that may be essential for substrate binding. The S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-binding characteristic determined by isothermal titration calorimetry suggested that there is only one AdoMet molecule bound in the subunit of the homodimer. In vitro methylation assay of the mutants based on the RsmE-AdoMet-uridylic acid complex model showed key residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis. Comprehensive comparisons of RsmE with closely related MTases, combined with the biochemical experiments, indicated that the MTase domain of one subunit in dimeric RsmE is responsible for binding of one AdoMet molecule and catalytic process while the PUA-like domain in the other subunit is mainly responsible for recognition of one substrate molecule (the ribosomal RNA fragment and ribosomal protein complex). The methylation process is required by collaboration of both subunits, and dimerization is functionally critical for catalysis. In general, our study provides new information on the structure-function relationship of RsmE and thereby suggests a novel catalytic mechanism.

  9. FOX-superroots of Lotus corniculatus, overexpressing Arabidopsis full-length cDNA, show stable variations in morphological traits.

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    Himuro, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Hidenori; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Ichikawa, Takanari; Nakazawa, Miki; Seki, Motoaki; Fujita, Miki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Matsui, Minami; Akashi, Ryo; Hoffmann, Franz

    2011-01-15

    Using the full-length cDNA overexpressor (FOX) gene-hunting system, we have generated 130 Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines in bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) for the systematic functional analysis of genes expressed in roots and for the selection of induced mutants with interesting root growth characteristics. We used the Arabidopsis-FOX Agrobacterium library (constructed by ligating pBIG2113SF) for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of superroots (SR) and the subsequent selection of gain-of-function mutants with ectopically expressed Arabidopsis genes. The original superroot culture of L. corniculatus is a unique host system displaying fast root growth in vitro, allowing continuous root cloning, direct somatic embryogenesis and mass regeneration of plants under entirely hormone-free culture conditions. Several of the Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines show interesting deviations from normal growth and morphology of roots from SR-plants, such as differences in pigmentation, growth rate, length or diameter. Some of these mutations are of potential agricultural interest. Genomic PCR analysis revealed that 100 (76.9%) out of the 130 transgenic lines showed the amplification of single fragments. Sequence analysis of the PCR fragments from these 100 lines identified full-length cDNA in 74 of them. Forty-three out of 74 full-length cDNA carried known genes. The Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines of L. corniculatus, produced in this study, expand the FOX hunting system and provide a new tool for the genetic analysis and control of root growth in a leguminous forage plant.

  10. Prevention of natural grassland invasion by Eragrostis plana Nees using ecological management practices

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    Telmo Focht

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different types of disturbance on the ability of the natural grassland to avoid the invasion of Eragrostis plana Nees (South African lovegrass. The experiment was carried out in Dom Pedrito, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in an area free of South African lovegrass, from Feb. 2004 to Apr. 2007. The treatments were: 1 grassland management regimes: exclusion; low grazing intensity (rotational grazing, ±10 cm; and high grazing intensity (continuous grazing, ±5 cm; 2 initial levels of soil disturbance: high grassland, ±10 cm; low grassland, ±5 cm height; and low grassland with scarified soil; 3 fertilization regimes: without fertilization; phosphorus; and nitrogen. The experimental design was a split-split-plot type in complete blocks, with three replicates. Three winter cultivated species - Trefoil repens L., Lotus corniculatus L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and South African lovegrass -were sown in 54 split-splitplots (split-plots: low grassland, and low grassland with scarified soil. The other 27 split-split-plots (split-plots: high grassland were sown only with South African lovegrass. The grassland height, plant number of South African lovegrass, grassland dry mass and photosynthetic active radiation intercepted (FARint at the soil level were recorded. The fertilization regimes did not influence the South African lovegrass plant number. The initial levels of soil disturbance and grassland management regimes influenced the invasion of South African lovegrass. The invasion was favored by the lower grassland height and lower forage mass, higher intensity of the soil disturbance, and higher FARint due to the continuous grazing. On the contrary, higher grassland height, higher forage mass, lower soil disturbance and lower FARint, associated with rotational grazing or exclusion, showed higher potential to control the invasion of South African lovegrass in the natural grassland.

  11. Ca10Pt7Tt3 (Tt = Si, Ge): new platinide phases featuring electron-rich 4c-6e bonded [Pt7Tt3]20- intermetalloid clusters.

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    Doverbratt, Isa; Ponou, Siméon; Lidin, Sven; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-11-05

    Two new phases Ca(10)Pt(7)Tt(3) (with Tt = Si, Ge) were obtained by reacting stoichiometric mixtures of the elements at high temperature. Their structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. They are isostructural and crystallize in the Ba(10)Al(3)Ge(7) type structure, space group P6(3)/mcm (No. 193) with a = b = 8.7735(3) Å, c = 13.8260(5) Å, V = 921.66(6) Å(3), Z = 2 for Tt = Si, and a = b = 8.7995(6) Å, c = 13.9217(14) Å, V = 933.56(16) Å(3) for Tt = Ge phase. The most interesting structural features in these phases are the propeller shape {Pt(7)Tt(3)} (Tt = Si, Ge) intermetalloid clusters in a D(3h) local symmetry. LMTO electronic structure calculations and COHP analyses reveal that both Ca(10)Pt(7)Tt(3) (Tt = Si, Ge) phases are charge optimized, which is not predicted by the classical Zintl concept and the octet or Wade-Mingo's rules, but rather by a more complex bonding model based on the unprecedented electron-rich 4c-6e multicenter bonding. The clusters are best described as three-condensed trigonal planar [TtPt(3)](8-) units, resulting in a central Pt atom also with a trigonal planar coordination of three symmetrical equivalent Si/Ge atoms that are further connected to two terminal Pt atoms each. The "trefoil" electron-rich multicenter bonding is proposed here for the first time, and may be viewed as a unique bonding feature with potential relevance for the catalytic properties of the noble metal platinum.

  12. Biochemical properties of gastrokine-1 purified from chicken gizzard smooth muscle.

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    Karim Hnia

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The potential role and function of gastrokine-1 (GNK1 in smooth muscle cells is investigated in this work by first establishing a preparative protocol to obtain this native protein from freshly dissected chicken gizzard. Some unexpected biochemical properties of gastrokine-1 were deduced by producing specific polyclonal antibody against the purified protein. We focused on the F-actin interaction with gastrokine-1 and the potential role and function in smooth muscle contractile properties. BACKGROUND: GNK1 is thought to provide mucosal protection in the superficial gastric epithelium. However, the actual role of gastrokine-1 with regards to its known decreased expression in gastric cancer is still unknown. Recently, trefoil factors (TFF were reported to have important roles in gastric epithelial regeneration and cell turnover, and could be involved in GNK1 interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and function of GNK1 in smooth muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From fresh chicken gizzard smooth muscle, an original purification procedure was used to purify a heat soluble 20 kDa protein that was sequenced and found to correspond to the gastrokine-1 protein sequence containing one BRICHOS domain and at least two or possibly three transmembrane regions. The purified protein was used to produce polyclonal antibody and highlighted the smooth muscle cell distribution and F-actin association of GNK1 through a few different methods. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether our data illustrate a broader distribution of gastrokine-1 in smooth muscle than only in the gastrointestinal epithelium, and the specific interaction with F-actin highlights and suggests a new role and function of GNK1 within smooth muscle cells. A potential role via TFF interaction in cell-cell adhesion and assembly of actin stress fibres is discussed.

  13. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  14. Fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides enhance immunity by improving the foregut microflora and intestinal barrier in weaning rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Xueqin; Song, Xu; Wen, Bin; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Fuqin; Yang, Mingyue; Peng, Zhirong; Zhu, Hui; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Hesong; Fu, Xiangchao; Shi, Yunduo; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Ping

    2016-09-01

    Yupingfeng (YPF) is a kind of Astragali radix-based ancient Chinese herbal supplemented with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Radix Saposhnikoviae. Increasing evidence has proven the beneficial immunomodulating activity of YPF. However, the action mechanism(s) of it is not known. Here, we explored the immunomodulatory activity of unfermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (UYP) and fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (FYP) obtained using Rhizopus oligosporus SH in weaning Rex rabbits. The results showed that both UYP and FYP exhibited notable growth-promoting and immune-enhancing activities, improvement of the intestinal flora homeostasis, and maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and functionality. Notably, compared with UYP, FYP effectively enhanced average daily gain, organ indices, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TLR2, and TLR4 mRNA levels in spleen, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ protein concentrations in serum, and TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expressions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Moreover, FYP exhibited greater beneficial effects in improving the intestinal flora, including augment flora diversity and the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, reduction the abundance of Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the GIT, particularly the foregut and maintaining the intestinal barrier integrity and functionality by upregulating zonula occludens 1, claudin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, trefoil factor, and epidermal growth factor mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum. Our results indicated the immunoenhancement effect of FYP is superior over that of UYP, which is probably related with the amelioration of the intestinal microflora and intestinal barrier in the foregut.

  15. TFF3-dependent resistance of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT-29/B6 to apoptosis is mediated by miR-491-5p regulation of lncRNA PRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Carlos; Sharbati, Jutta; Kutz-Lohroff, Barbara; Huber, Otmar; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a double-edged cytokine associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory-related cancers being also able to induce cancer cell death. In the process of tumour development or metastasis, cancer cells can become resistant to TNF-α. In trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpressing colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29/B6), we observed enhanced resistance against TNF-α/interferon gamma-induced apoptosis. TFF3 is a secreted small peptide that supports intestinal tissue repair but is also involved in intestinal tumour progression and scattering. We hypothesised that TFF3 rescues intestinal epithelial cancer cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis by involving regulatory RNA networks. In silico-based expression analysis revealed TFF3-mediated regulation of selected microRNAs as well as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), whereas miR-491-5p was identified to target the lncRNA ‘psoriasis susceptibility-related RNA gene induced by stress’ (PRINS). RNA interference-based gain- and loss-of-function experiments examined miR-491-PRINS axis to exert the TFF3-mediated phenotype. Chemical inhibition of selected pathways showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT accounts for TFF3-mediated downregulation of miR-491-5p and accumulation of PRINS. Moreover, we showed that PRINS colocalises with PMAIP1 (NOXA) in nuclei of HT-29/B6 possessing inhibitory effects. Immunoprecipitation experiments proved molecular interaction of PMAIP1 with PRINS. Our study provides an insight into RNA regulatory networks that determine resistance of colorectal cancer cells to apoptosis.

  16. Study of the wavefront aberrations in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-fei; ZHOU Yue-hua; WANG Ning-li; ZHANG Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia.Methods The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data.Results Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z3-1-Z31), trefoil (Z3-3-Z33) and 4th order aberration (Z40); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z3-1) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z31). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17±0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11±0.13, P0.05).Conclusions Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.

  17. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; De Matteis, Laura; Lozano-Perez, A Abel; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Vezza, Teresa; de la Fuente, J M; Cenis, Jose Luis; Gálvez, Julio; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena

    Current treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is based on the use of immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs, which are characterized by important side effects that can limit their use. Previous research has been performed by administering these drugs as nanoparticles that target the ulcerated intestinal regions and increase their bioavailability. It has been reported that silk fibroin can act as a drug carrier and shows anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to enhance the interaction of the silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) with the injured intestinal tissue by functionalizing them with the peptide motif RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) and to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of these RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles (RGD-SFNs) in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. SFNs were prepared by nanoprecipitation in methanol, and the linear RGD peptide was linked to SFNs using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The SFNs (1 mg/rat) and RGD-SFNs (1 mg/rat) were administered intrarectally to TNBS-induced colitic rats for 7 days. The SFN treatments ameliorated the colonic damage, reduced neutrophil infiltration, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RGD-SFNs showed a significant reduction in the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) and inducible nitric oxide synthase in comparison with the TNBS control group. Moreover, the expression of both cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly diminished by the RGD-SFN treatment. However, both treatments improved the intestinal wall integrity by increasing the gene expression of some of its markers (trefoil factor-3 and mucins). SFNs displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the TNBS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the RGD peptide.

  18. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways

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    Imtiaj Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis; shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc. MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase and caspase-3 (activator caspase. Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt’s lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface.

  19. Preventive effect of hydrotalcite on gastric mucosal injury in rats induced by taurocholate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Ping Yu; Jun Sun; Mu-Qi Li; He-Sheng Luo; Jie-Ping Yu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the preventive effect of hydrotalcite on gastric mucosal injury in rat induced by taurocholate, and to investigate the relationship between the protective mechanism of hydrotalcite and the expression of trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) mRNA and c-fos protein.METHODS: Forty five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into hydrotalcite group, ranitidine group and control group. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by introgastric acidified taurocholate. OD value of TFF2 mRNA expression in gastric mucous cells was determined by hybridization and computer image analysis system. OD value of c-fos protein expression in gastric mucous cells was measured by immunohistochemistry and computer image analysis system.RESULTS: The gross mucosal injury index in hydrotalcite group was significantly lower than that in ranitidine group and control group (8.60±2.20 vs 16.32±4.27, 29.53±5.39;P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression level of TFF2 mRNA in hydrotalcite group was markedly higher than that in ranitidine group and control group (0.56±0.09 vs 0.30±0.05, 0.28±0.03,P<0.05). The OD value of c-fos protein in hydrotalcite group was higher than that in ranitidine group and control group (0.52±0.07 vs 0.31±0.04, 0.32±0.05, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Hydrotalcite can protect gastric mucosal injury in rats induced by taurocholate, which may be related to the increased expression of TFF2 and c-fos protein.

  20. Refractive, Topographic, and Aberrometric Results at 2-Year Follow-Up for Accelerated Corneal Cross-Link for Progressive Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ercüment; Akcay, Betul Ilkay Sezgin; Kurt, Tugba; Yildirim, Yusuf; Günaydin, Zehra Karaagaç; Demirok, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To report the visual, refractive, and corneal topography and wavefront aberration results of accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) during a 24-month follow-up. Methods. Forty-seven eyes underwent riboflavin-ultraviolet A-induced accelerated CXL treatment (30 mW/cm2 with a total dose of 7.2 joules/cm2). Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical and cylindrical values, keratometry (K) measurements (Ksteep, Kflat, Kavg, and Kapex), central corneal thickness, and anterior corneal aberrometric analyses including total wavefront error (WFE), total high order aberration (HOA), astigmatism, trefoil, coma, quadrafoil, secondary astigmatism, and spherical aberration were evaluated. Results. The mean UDVA and CDVA were significantly improved at 1 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, resp.) and 2 years after treatment (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, resp.). The mean Ksteep, Kflat, Kaverage, and Kapex values were significantly lower than baseline at 12 months (p = 0.008, p = 0.024, p = 0.001, and p = 0.014, resp.) and 24 months (p = 0.014, p = 0.017, p = 0.001, and p = 0.012, resp.). Corneal thickness showed a significant decrease at 1 month. Total HOA and coma decreased significantly at the 12-month (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, resp.) and 24-month visits (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, resp.). Conclusion. Accelerated CXL (30 mW/cm2) was found to be effective in improving UDVA, CDVA, corneal topography readings, total HOA, and coma aberrations during the 24-month follow-up. PMID:28197339

  1. Automated Decision Tree Classification of Corneal Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa, Michael D.; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Roberts, Cynthia; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Raasch, Thomas W.; Bullimore, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The volume and complexity of data produced during videokeratography examinations present a challenge of interpretation. As a consequence, results are often analyzed qualitatively by subjective pattern recognition or reduced to comparisons of summary indices. We describe the application of decision tree induction, an automated machine learning classification method, to discriminate between normal and keratoconic corneal shapes in an objective and quantitative way. We then compared this method with other known classification methods. Methods The corneal surface was modeled with a seventh-order Zernike polynomial for 132 normal eyes of 92 subjects and 112 eyes of 71 subjects diagnosed with keratoconus. A decision tree classifier was induced using the C4.5 algorithm, and its classification performance was compared with the modified Rabinowitz–McDonnell index, Schwiegerling’s Z3 index (Z3), Keratoconus Prediction Index (KPI), KISA%, and Cone Location and Magnitude Index using recommended classification thresholds for each method. We also evaluated the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for each classification method. Results Our decision tree classifier performed equal to or better than the other classifiers tested: accuracy was 92% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.97. Our decision tree classifier reduced the information needed to distinguish between normal and keratoconus eyes using four of 36 Zernike polynomial coefficients. The four surface features selected as classification attributes by the decision tree method were inferior elevation, greater sagittal depth, oblique toricity, and trefoil. Conclusions Automated decision tree classification of corneal shape through Zernike polynomials is an accurate quantitative method of classification that is interpretable and can be generated from any instrument platform capable of raw elevation data output. This method of pattern classification is extendable to other classification

  2. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

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    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function in the small intestine of piglets alters with age.

  3. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  4. Origin and evolution of protein fold designs inferred from phylogenomic analysis of CATH domain structures in proteomes.

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    Syed Abbas Bukhari

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangements of secondary structures in proteins, irrespective of their connectivity, depict the overall shape and organization of protein domains. These features have been used in the CATH and SCOP classifications to hierarchically partition fold space and define the architectural make up of proteins. Here we use phylogenomic methods and a census of CATH structures in hundreds of genomes to study the origin and diversification of protein architectures (A and their associated topologies (T and superfamilies (H. Phylogenies that describe the evolution of domain structures and proteomes were reconstructed from the structural census and used to generate timelines of domain discovery. Phylogenies of CATH domains at T and H levels of structural abstraction and associated chronologies revealed patterns of reductive evolution, the early rise of Archaea, three epochs in the evolution of the protein world, and patterns of structural sharing between superkingdoms. Phylogenies of proteomes confirmed the early appearance of Archaea. While these findings are in agreement with previous phylogenomic studies based on the SCOP classification, phylogenies unveiled sharing patterns between Archaea and Eukarya that are recent and can explain the canonical bacterial rooting typically recovered from sequence analysis. Phylogenies of CATH domains at A level uncovered general patterns of architectural origin and diversification. The tree of A structures showed that ancient structural designs such as the 3-layer (αβα sandwich (3.40 or the orthogonal bundle (1.10 are comparatively simpler in their makeup and are involved in basic cellular functions. In contrast, modern structural designs such as prisms, propellers, 2-solenoid, super-roll, clam, trefoil and box are not widely distributed and were probably adopted to perform specialized functions. Our timelines therefore uncover a universal tendency towards protein structural complexity that is remarkable.

  5. Increased Cerebral Tff1 Expression in Two Murine Models of Neuroinflammation

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    Eva B Znalesniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The trefoil factor family (TFF peptide TFF1 is a typical secretory product of the gastric mucosa and a very low level of expression occurs in nearly all regions of the murine brain. TFF1 possesses a lectin activity and binding to a plethora of transmembrane glycoproteins could explain the diverse biological effects of TFF1 (e.g., anti-apoptotic effect. It was the aim to test whether TFF expression is changed during neuroinflammation. Methods: Expression profiling was performed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses in two murine models of neuroinflammation, i.e. Toxoplasma gondii-induced encephalitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the latter being the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis. Tff1 expression was also localized using RNA in situ hybridization histochemistry. Results: We report for the first time on a significant transcriptional induction in cerebral Tff1 expression in both T. gondii-induced encephalitis and EAE. In contrast, Tff2 and Tff3 expression were not altered. Tff1 transcripts were predominantly localized in the internal granular layer of the cerebellum indicating neuronal expression. Furthermore, also glial cells are expected to express Tff1. Characterization of both experimental models by expression profiling (e.g., inflammasome sensors, inflammatory cytokines, microglial marker Iba1, ependymin related protein 1 revealed differences concerning the expression of the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1 and interleukin 17a. Conclusion: The up-regulated expression of Tff1 is probably the result of a complex inflammatory process as its expression is induced by tumor necrosis factor α as well as interleukins 1β and 17. However on the transcript level, Tff1KO mice did not show any significant signs of an altered immune response after infection with T. gondii in comparison with the wild type animals.

  6. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Gerdol, Marco; Fujii, Yuki; Rajia, Sultana; Koide, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Daiki; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type) lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1) and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3), which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic "mytilectin family" in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps), it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF) at the 5' end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5'UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3'UTR and the poly-A signal) was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  7. Erythroidine alkaloids: a novel class of phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiogue, Sefirin; Halabalaki, Maria; Njamen, Dieudonné; Kretzschmar, Georg; Lambrinidis, George; Hoepping, Josephine; Raffaelli, Francesca M; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Erythrina poeppigiana is a medicinal plant which is widely used in Asia, Latin America, and Africa in traditional remedies for gynecological complications and maladies. In continuation of studies for the discovery of novel phytoestrogens, four erythroidine alkaloids, namely α-erythroidine, β-erythroidine, and their oxo-derivatives 8-oxo-α-erythroidine and 8-oxo-β-erythroidine, were isolated and structurally characterized from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of E. poeppigiana. Due to the high amounts of erythroidines in the extract and considering the widespread utilization of Erythrina preparations in traditional medicine, the exploration of their estrogenic properties was performed. The estrogenicity of the isolated erythroidines was assayed in various estrogen receptor-(ER)-dependent test systems, including receptor binding affinity, cell culture based ER-dependent reporter gene assays, and gene expression studies in cultured cells using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques. α-Erythroidine and β-erythroidine showed binding affinity values for ERα of 0.015 ± 0.010% and 0.005 ± 0.010%, respectively, whereas only β-erythroidine bound to ERβ (0.006 ± 0.010%). In reporter gene assays, both erythroidines exhibited a significant dose-dependent estrogenic stimulation of ER-dependent reporter gene activity in osteosarcoma cells detectable already at 10 nM. Results were confirmed in the MVLN cells, a bioluminescent variant of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Further, α-erythroidine and β-erythroidine both induced the enhanced expression of the specific ERα-dependent genes trefoil factor-1 and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 3 in MCF-7 cells, confirming estrogenicity. Additionally, using molecular docking simulations, a potential mode of binding on ERα, is proposed, supporting the experimental evidences. This is the first time that an estrogenic profile is reported for erythroidine alkaloids, potentially a new class of

  8. Mini-scleral Contact Lens for Management of Poor Visual Outcomes after Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments Implantation in Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Firoozeh; Hashemian, Mohammad Naser; Ajdarkosh, Zahra; Roohipoor, Ramak; Mohebi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of mini-scleral design (MSD) contact lenses to treat keratoconus patients who were unsatisfied with the results of corneal inlay. Methods: In this prospective interventional case series, 9 eyes of 6 keratoconus patients who were unsatisfied with the results of corneal inlay were fitted with MSD contact lenses. Demographic data, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and higher order aberrations (HOAs) were evaluated before contact lens fitting. Corrected visual acuity by placing the MSD contact lens with or without over-refraction, and HOAs were measured one hour after contact lens fitting. One month after contact lens wearing, corrected visual acuity by placing the MSD contact lens with over-refraction and possible contact lens related problems were assessed. Ocular comfort and contact lens handling problems were asked in follow-up visits. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical tests. Results: Nine eyes of 6 patients were successfully fitted with the mini-scleral lens. Fitting was ideal in 7 eyes and acceptable in 2 eyes. Mean corrected visual acuity by placing the MSD lens without over-refraction was 0.09 (range, 0.00-0.15) LogMAR which was significantly better than the mean BSCVA of 0.38 (range, 0.2-0.6) LogMAR (P = 0.007). The mean root mean square (RMS) of third-order coma and trefoil significantly decreased after MSD contact lens fitting (P = 0.012 and P = 0.015, respectively); however, changes in the fourth-order spherical aberration were not statistically significant (P = 0.336). Conclusion: Mini-scleral contact lenses may be helpful in the management of visually unsatisfied patients after corneal inlay. PMID:27621780

  9. Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Bollwein, H; Breves, G; Brügemann, K; Dänicke, S; Daş, G; Demeler, J; Hansen, H; Isselstein, J; König, S; Lohölter, M; Martinsohn, M; Meyer, U; Potthoff, M; Sanker, C; Schröder, B; Wrage, N; Meibaum, B; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Stinshoff, H; Wrenzycki, C

    2013-05-01

    It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be

  10. Evaluation of corneal optical properties in subjects wearing hydrogel etafilcon A contact lenses and the effect of administering mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution

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    Lombardo M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marco Lombardo,1,2 Marianna Rosati,1 Marco Pileri,3 Domenico Schiano-Lomoriello,1 Sebastiano Serrao11Fondazione G.B. Bietti IRCCS, 2Vision Engineering Italy Srl, 3Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni-Addolorata, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily administration of mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution on the corneal optical properties of subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A contact lenses (CLs.Methods: Forty-five subjects wearing etafilcon A CLs daily for more than 6 months were recruited into this pilot study. Fifteen of the subjects administered a 10% mannitol-enriched 0.05% sodium hyaluronate solution (study group once daily and 30 subjects did not administer any ophthalmic solution (control group. The subjects were examined at baseline and one month after recruitment. Changes in central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal light backscatter were evaluated by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR. Changes in corneal total high-order aberration, corneal spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil were evaluated using the OPD scan II.Results: At one month, corneal light backscatter decreased significantly in the study group (≤18.30 arbitrary units; P<0.05 and this was highly correlated with a decrease in CCT (R=0.81; P=0.04. The decrease in corneal total high-order aberration, spherical aberration, and coma was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P<0.05. No changes in corneal light backscatter or CCT were found in the control group during follow-up.Conclusion: Once-daily administration of a mannitol-enriched lubricant ophthalmic solution was effective for improving the corneal optical quality and reducing corneal swelling in subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A CLs during one month follow-up.Keywords: corneal optical quality, corneal high-order aberrations, Scheimpflug imaging, corneal backscattering, contact lens, hypertonic lubricant

  11. Effects of knots on protein folding properties.

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    Miguel A Soler

    Full Text Available This work explores the impact of knots, knot depth and motif of the threading terminus in protein folding properties (kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models. A knotted backbone has no effect on protein thermodynamic stability but it may affect key aspects of folding kinetics. In this regard, we found clear evidence for a functional advantage of knots: knots enhance kinetic stability because a knotted protein unfolds at a distinctively slower rate than its unknotted counterpart. However, an increase in knot deepness does not necessarily lead to more effective changes in folding properties. In this regard, a terminus with a non-trivial conformation (e.g. hairpin can have a more dramatic effect in enhancing kinetic stability than knot depth. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the probability of the denatured ensemble to keep knotted is higher for proteins with deeper knots, indicating that knot depth plays a role in determining the topology of the denatured state. Refolding simulations starting from denatured knotted conformations show that not every knot is able to nucleate folding and further indicate that the formation of the knotting loop is a key event in the folding of knotted trefoils. They also show that there are specific native contacts within the knotted core that are crucial to keep a native knotting loop in denatured conformations which otherwise have no detectable structure. The study of the knotting mechanism reveals that the threading of the knotting loop generally occurs towards late folding in conformations that exhibit a significant degree of structural consolidation.

  12. Copper promotes TFF1-mediated Helicobacter pylori colonization.

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    Sandro Montefusco

    Full Text Available The trefoil peptides (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 are a family of small highly conserved proteins that play an essential role in epithelial regeneration within the gastrointestinal tract, where they are mainly expressed. TFF1 expression is strongly induced after mucosal injury and it has been proposed that tff1 functions as a gastric tumor suppressor gene. Several studies confirm that tff1 expression is frequently lost in gastric cancer because of deletions, mutations or methylation of the tff1 promoter. Infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori results in chronic gastritis and it can lead to the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. Moreover, it is known that there is a strong link to the development of gastric cancer. It has been shown that H. pylori interacts with the dimeric form of TFF1 and that the rough form of lipopolysaccharide mediates this interaction. We have previously reported that the carboxy-terminus of TFF1 is able to specifically bind copper ions (Cu and that Cu binding favours the homodimerization of the peptide, thus enhancing its motogenic activity. Here, we report that the Cu-TFF1 cuprocomplex promotes adherence of H. pylori to epithelial cells. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric adenocarcinoma cells, AGS AC1 cells, induced to hyper-express TFF1 was enhanced compared to noninduced cells. Copper further promoted this interaction. A H. pylori mutant unable to bind TFF1 did not show enhanced infection of induced cells. Cu treatment induced a thickening of the mucus layer produced by the colorectal adenocarcinoma mucus secreting, goblet cells, HT29-E12 and promoted H. pylori colonisation. Finally, SPR analysis shows that the C-terminus of TFF1, involved in the binding of copper, is also able to selectively bind H. pylori RF-LPS.

  13. DIFFERENTIATING THE UNDIFFERENTIATED: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF MEDULLARY CARCINOMA OF THE COLON WITH AN EMPHASIS ON INTESTINAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Brody; Tavares, Rosemarie; Fanion, Jacqueline; Noble, Lelia; Gao, John; Sabo, Edmond; Resnick, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Undifferentiated or medullary carcinoma (MC) is characterized by its distinct histologic appearance and relatively better prognosis compared to poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma (PDC). These two entities may be difficult to differentiate by light microscopy alone. Only limited immunohistochemical studies investigating MC have been reported. These studies suggest a loss of intestinal differentiation, exemplified by a high percentage of CDX2 negativity. Our aim was to further characterize the immunohistochemical profile of MC, with particular emphasis on intestinal markers. Paraffin blocks from 16 cases of MC and 33 cases of PDC were retrieved and tissue microarrays were constructed and stained with an immunohistochemical panel including, CDX2, CK7, CK20, p53, intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), chromogranin, synaptophysin, MLH-1, MUC-1, MUC-2 and calretinin. A significantly higher proportion of MC, as opposed to PDC showed loss of staining for MLH-1 and for the intestinal transcription factor CDX2, in accordance with previous studies. MLH-1 staining was present in only 21% of MC cases compared with 60% of the PDC cases (p=0.02), whereas CDX2 was positive in 19% of MCs and 55% of PDCs (p=0.03). Interestingly, calretinin staining was strongly positive in 73% of MCs compared to only 12% of PDCs (p<0.0001). Evidence of intestinal differentiation by MUC-1, MUC-2 and TFF-3 staining was seen in 67, 60 and 53% of the MCs respectively. These three markers were frequently positive in many of the CDX2 negative MC cases. Medullary carcinoma of the colon retains a significant degree of intestinal differentiation as evidenced by its high percentage of staining for MUC-1, MUC-2, and TFF-3. Calretinin, MLH-1 and CDX2 may help to differentiate MC from PDC of the colon. PMID:18992917

  14. Cardioprotective proteins upregulated in the liver in response to experimental myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu Q; Tefft, Brandon J; Roberts, Derek T; Zhang, Li-Qun; Ren, Yupeng; Li, Yan Chun; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Phillips, Harry R; Wu, Yu H

    2012-12-15

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) activates innate cardioprotective mechanisms, enhancing cardiomyocyte tolerance to ischemia. Here, we report a MI-activated liver-dependent mechanism for myocardial protection. In response to MI in the mouse, hepatocytes exhibited 6- to 19-fold upregulation of genes encoding secretory proteins, including α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)2, bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator (BMPER), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, neuregulin (NRG)4, proteoglycan 4, and trefoil factor (TFF)3. Five of these proteins, including AGP2, BMPER, FGF21, NRG4, and TFF3, were identified as cardioprotective proteins since administration of each protein significantly reduced the fraction of myocardial infarcts (37 ± 9%, 34 ± 7%, 32 ± 8%, 39 ± 6%, and 31 ± 7%, respectively, vs. 48 ± 7% for PBS at 24 h post-MI). The serum level of the five proteins elevated significantly in association with protein upregulation in hepatocytes post-MI. Suppression of a cardioprotective protein by small interfering (si)RNA-mediated gene silencing resulted in a significant increase in the fraction of myocardial infarcts, and suppression of all five cardioprotective proteins with siRNAs further intensified myocardial infarction. While administration of a single cardioprotective protein mitigated myocardial infarction, administration of all five proteins furthered the beneficial effect, reducing myocardial infarct fractions from PBS control values from 46 ± 6% (5 days), 41 ± 5% (10 days), and 34 ± 4% (30 days) to 35 ± 5%, 28 ± 5%, and 24 ± 4%, respectively. These observations suggest that the liver contributes to cardioprotection in MI by upregulating and releasing protective secretory proteins. These proteins may be used for the development of cardioprotective agents.

  15. Ectopic expression of miR156 represses nodulation and causes morphological and developmental changes in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhishuo; Amyot, Lisa; Tian, Lining; Xu, Ziqin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2015-04-01

    The effects of microRNA156 overexpression on general plant architecture, branching, flowering time and nodulation were investigated in the model legume, Lotus japonicus. We cloned an miR156 homolog, LjmiR156a, from L. japonicus, and investigated its SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) genes and its biological function at enhancing vegetative biomass yield, extending flowering time, and its impact on nodulation. Thirteen potential targets for LjmiR156 were identified in vitro and their expression profiles were determined in aerial and underground parts of mature plants, including genes coding for eight SPLs, one WD-40, one RNA-directed DNA polymerase, two transport proteins, and one histidine-phosphotransfer protein. Two SPL and one WD-40 cleavage targets for LjmiR156-TC70253, AU089191, and TC57859-were identified. Transgenic plants with ectopic expression of LjmiR156a showed enhanced branching, dramatically delayed flowering, underdeveloped roots, and reduced nodulation. We also examined the transcript levels of key genes involved in nodule organogenesis and infection thread formation to determine the role of miR156 in regulating symbiosis. Overexpression of LjmiR156a led to repression of several nodulation genes during the early stages of root development such as three ENOD genes, SymPK, POLLUX, CYCLOPS, Cerberus, and Nsp1, and the stimulation of NFR1. Our results show that miR156 regulates vegetative biomass yield, flowering time and nodulation by silencing downstream target SPLs and other genes, suggesting that the miR156 regulatory network could be modified in forage legumes (such as alfalfa and trefoils) and in leafy vegetables (like lettuce and spinach) to positively impact economically valuable crop species.

  16. TFF3 and HER2 expression and their correlation with survival in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianchun; Zheng, Leizhen; Zhang, Li; Chen, Siyu; Zhu, Meiling; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Yajie

    2015-04-01

    The molecular biomarkers human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) are reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of TFF3 and HER2 expression in GC and explored the correlation between these two biomarkers. Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with GC were enrolled. TFF3 and HER2 expression was determined on tumor tissues. The results showed that TFF3 and HER2 were positively expressed in 42.7 and 10.9% of the cases, respectively. There were significantly higher rates of TFF3 positivity in patients with deep invasive tumors and advanced stage ones. Patients with negative TFF3 staining survived longer than those with the presence of TFF3, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 57.1 ± 7.1 and 39.5 ± 7.5%, respectively (P = 0.033). However, HER2 positivity was not significantly associated with OS (P = 0.262). Multivariate analysis demonstrated TFF3 expression to be an independent indicator for short-term survival, with a hazard ratio of 2.327 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.202-4.507, P = 0.012). There was a trend that the expression of TFF3 was more frequent in HER2 negative tumors than in HER2 positive ones (positive rates: 16.3 vs. 4.7%, P = 0.098). Patients with HER2-negative/TFF3-negative GC presented higher OS than those with other phenotypes (P = 0.009). This study suggests that TFF3 is an independent indicator for survival in GC, while HER2 is not associated with the outcome. Patients with HER2-negative/TFF3-negative GC have the best outcome.

  17. Gene expression alterations associated with outcome in aromatase inhibitor-treated ER+ early-stage breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Karina G; Lyng, Maria B; Elias, Daniel; Vever, Henriette; Knoop, Ann S; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI), either alone or together with chemotherapy, have become the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although AIs improve overall survival, resistance is still a major clinical problem, thus additional biomarkers predictive of outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients treated with AIs are needed. Global gene expression analysis was performed on ER+ primary breast cancers from patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy; half experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6.7 years). Gene expression alterations were validated by qRT-PCR, and functional studies evaluating the effect of siRNA-mediated gene knockdown on cell growth were performed. Twenty-six genes, including TFF3, DACH1, RGS5, and GHR, were shown to exhibit altered expression in tumors from patients with recurrence versus non-recurrent (fold change ≥1.5, p proliferation, growth, and development. TFF3, which encodes for trefoil factor 3 and is an estrogen-responsive oncogene shown to play a functional role in tamoxifen resistance and metastasis of ER+ breast cancer, was also shown to be upregulated in an AI-resistant cell line model, and reduction of TFF3 levels using TFF3-specific siRNAs decreased the growth of both the AI-resistant and -sensitive parental cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of TFF3 in parental AI-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cells resulted in reduced sensitivity to the AI exemestane, whereas TFF3 overexpression had no effect on growth in the absence of exemestane, indicating that TFF3 mediates growth and survival signals that abrogate the growth inhibitory effect of exemestane. We identified a panel of 26 genes exhibiting altered expression associated with disease recurrence in patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy, including TFF3, which was shown to exhibit a growth- and survival-promoting effect in the context of AI treatment.

  18. Expression of human TFF3 in relation to growth of HT-29 cell subpopulations: involvement of PI3-K but not STAT6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durual, Stéphane; Blanchard, Carine; Estienne, Monique; Jacquier, Marie-France; Cuber, Jean-Claude; Perrot, Valérie; Laboisse, Christian; Cuber, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides 1 and 2 (TFF1 and 2) are expressed in mucus cells of the stomach, whereas TFF3 is localized in goblet cells of the intestine. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) or signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 6 (STAT6) is involved in the expression of goblet cell specific markers. TFF3 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR, Northern blot, and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in relation to cell growth in subclones of HT-29 cells including the CL.16E and methotrexate (MTX) cell lines, which both exhibit a phenotype of mucus-secreting intestinal cells. A 30-fold increase in TFF3 mRNA levels and a 10-fold increase in TFF3-cell content were observed between the early proliferative and the late confluency states. The levels of MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA were also increased in the course of the differentiation process. A three to fourfold increase in PI3-K and Akt activities was observed in early post-confluent cells as compared with pre-confluent cells. Exposure of pre- and post-confluent cells to LY294002, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, for 1-4 days profoundly reduced TFF3 and MUC2 expression. A marked reduction in mucin granules content was also observed in LY-treated cells. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase (MEK) with PD98059 did not modify the course of differentiation of the goblet cell lines. Moreover, stable transfection of HT-29 CL.16E cells with a dominant negative form of STAT6 had no effect on TFF3 induction. Together, these data indicate that PI3-K promotes the expression of TFF3 and MUC2 and that the PI3-K/Akt pathway may play a pivotal role in intestinal goblet cell differentiation.

  19. Enhancement of leptin receptor signaling by SOCS3 deficiency induces development of gastric tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki-Ohara, K; Mayuzumi, H; Kato, S; Minokoshi, Y; Otsubo, T; Kawamura, Y I; Dohi, T; Matsuzaki, G; Yoshimura, A

    2014-01-01

    Leptin acts on its receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin and ObR are also expressed in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological significance of leptin signaling in the gut remains uncertain. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative feedback regulator of ObR-mediated signaling in the hypothalamus. We now show that gastrointestinal epithelial cell-specific SOCS3 conditional knockout (T3b-SOCS3 cKO) mice developed gastric tumors by enhancing leptin production and the ObRb/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. All T3b-SOCS3 cKO mice developed tumors in the stomach but not in the bowels by 2 months of age, even though the SOCS3 deletion occurred in both the epithelium of stomach and bowels. The tumors developed in the absence of the inflammatory response and all cKO mice died within 6 months. These tumors displayed pathology and molecular alterations, such as an increase in MUC2 (Mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming) and TFF3 (trefoil factor 3), resembling human intestinal-type gastric tumors. Administration of antileptin antibody to T3b-SOCS3 cKO mice reduced hyperplasia of gastric mucosa, which is the step of the initiation of gastric tumor. These data suggest that SOCS3 is an antigastric tumor gene that suppresses leptin overexpression and ObRb/STAT3 hyperactivation, supporting the hypothesis that the leptin/ObRb/STAT3 axis accelerates tumorigenesis and that it may represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  20. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

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    Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira

    Full Text Available A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu; 92 (Ser/Leu; 93 (Ile/Thr; 95 (Arg/Gly and 97 (Leu/Ser. CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM, but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å(2. The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells. The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells.

  1. Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome.

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    Carlos A Rossetti

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process

  2. The Evaluation of the Effects of Differently-Designed Toric Soft Contact Lenses on Visual Quality

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    Sevda Aydın Kurna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aspheric Balafilcon A and spherical Senofilcon A toric soft contact lenses, which have two different stabilization systems, on visual quality. Material and Method: Forty eyes of 20 patients who were followed up in our contact lens section were included in this study. Refractive errors of the patients were between -0.50 and -6.0 diopters of myopia and >0.75 diopter of astigmatism. The patients were randomly assigned to wear Balafilcon A (Purevision Toric, Baush&Lomb with prism balast toric system or spherical designed Senofilcon A (Acuvue Oasys for astigmatism, Johnson&Johnson with accelerated stabilization toric system. We recorded and compared the visual acuity with Snellen chart, contrast sensitivity with Bailey-Lovie chart in letters, mean root mean square (RMS of corneal aberration with by Nidek Magellan Mapper for all eyes with and without glasses and while wearing Balafilcon A or Senofilcon A toric soft contact lenses. Results: We did not observe any difference in visual acuity between contact lenses. Contrast sensitivity was increased approximately 4.8-5.4 letters with contact lenses. Total higher order aberrations of mean RMS values were 0.42±0.14 µm without contact lens, 0.37±0.23 µm with Balafilcon A lens, 0.43±0.15 µm with Senofilcon A (p=0.507. Trefoil values were significantly higher with Senofilcon A lenses when compared to Balafilcon A lenses. There was no statistically significant difference for other measured higher order aberrations. Discussion: High and low contrast vision values were adequate in both contact lens groups. There was a non-significant decrease in total higher order aberration values with aspheric design contact lenses when compared to spherical designs. Although there were differences in aberrations related to lens designs, they did not have significant effect on visual quality. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 253-7

  3. Changes of wavefront aberrations in keratoconus corrected with rigid gas permeable contact lens%圆锥角膜患者配戴硬性透氧性角膜接触镜后波前像差的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立华; 王兵; 贾丁; 冯恬风; 董慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of wavefront aberrations in keratoconus corrected with rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGPCL).Methods It was a prospective case-control study.Twenty-five patients (43 eyes) confirmed by corneal topography as keratoconus were corrected with RGPCL.Their corrected visual acuity (VA) and wavefront aberrations were detected by iTrace dynamic laserefraction before and after wearing RGPCL for 2 weeks.Lower-order abberations LOAs,higher-order abberation HOAs,coma,spherical and trefoil were measured.The results measured were compared using paired samples t test.Results There were statistic differences in total ocular wavefront aberrations,LOAs,HOAs,coma and trefoil.Total ocular wavefront aberrations were reduced from 9.12±4.20 μm to 1.67±0.92 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=9.062,P<0.01); LOAs were reduced from 8.88-±3.90 μm to 1.37±0.75 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=9.507,P<0.01); HOAs were reduced from 1.90±0.14 μm to 0.79±0.21 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=2.473,P<0.05); coma were reduced from 0.99±0.15 μm to 0.30±0.18 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=2.364,P<0.05); trefoil were reduced from 0.92±0.19 μm to 0.22±0.14 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=2.757,P<0.05).There were no statistics differences in spherical abberation.Spherical abberation were reduced from 0.54±0.25 μm to 0.32±0.27 μm after wearing RGPCL (t=1.239,P>0.05).Conclusion Keratoconus patients with RGPCL can reach satisfying corrected visual acuity and visual quantity.Total ocular wavefront aberrations were significant reduced after wearing RGPCL.%目的 研究圆锥角膜患者配戴硬性透氧性角膜接触镜(RGPCL)后波前像差及视觉质量的改变.方法 前瞻性病例对照研究.收集在山西省眼科医院就诊的圆锥角膜患者25例(43眼),选配合适的RGPCL配戴2周后,分别于配戴前及配戴后测定其矫正视力,采用iTrace波前像差仪进行戴镜前后的全眼波前像差测量,并测量戴镜前后高阶、低阶像差

  4. Crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of the botulinum C-D mosaic neurotoxin reveals potential roles of lysines 1118 and 1136 in membrane interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Buchko, Garry W.; Qin, Ling; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

    2011-01-07

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by different strains of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum are responsible for the disease botulism and include a group of immunologically distinct serotypes (A, B, E, and F) that are considered to be the most lethal natural proteins known for humans. Two BoNT serotypes, C and D, while rarely associated with human infection, are responsible for deadly botulism outbreaks afflicting animals. Also associated with animal infections is the BoNT C-D mosaic protein (BoNT/CD), a BoNT subtype that is essentially a hybrid of the BoNT/C (~two-thirds) and BoNT/D (~one-third) serotypes. While the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain receptor binding (HCR) domain of BoNT/CD (BoNT/CD-HCR) is very similar to the corresponding amino acid sequence of BoNT/D, BoNT/CD-HCR binds synaptosome membranes better than BoNT/D-HCR. To obtain structural insights for the different membrane binding properties, the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR (S867-E1280) was determined at 1.56 Å resolution and compared to previously reported structures for BoNT/D-HCR. Overall, the BoNT/CD-HCR structure is similar to the two sub-domain organization observed for other BoNT HCRs: an N-terminal jellyroll barrel motif and a C-terminal β-trefoil fold. Comparison of the structure of BoNT/CD-HCR with BoNT/D-HCR indicates that K1118 has a similar structural role as the equivalent residue, E1114, in BoNT/D-HCR, while K1136 has a structurally different role than the equivalent residue, G1132, in BoNT/D-HCR. Lysine-1118 forms a salt bridge with E1247 and may enhance membrane interactions by stabilizing the putative membrane binding loop (K1240-N1248). Lysine-1136 is observed on the surface of the protein. A sulfate ion bound to K1136 may mimic a natural interaction with the negatively changed phospholipid membrane surface. Liposome-binding experiments demonstrate that BoNT/CD-HCR binds phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes more tightly than BoNT/D-HCR

  5. Crystal Structure of the Receptor Binding Domain of the botulinum C-D Mosiac Neurotoxin Reveals Potential Roles of Lysines 1118 and 1136 in Membrane Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Zhang; G Buchko; L Qin; H Robinson; S Varnum

    2011-12-31

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by different strains of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum are responsible for the disease botulism and include a group of immunologically distinct serotypes (A, B, E, and F) that are considered to be the most lethal natural proteins known for humans. Two BoNT serotypes, C and D, while rarely associated with human infection, are responsible for deadly botulism outbreaks afflicting animals. Also associated with animal infections is the BoNT C-D mosaic protein (BoNT/CD), a BoNT subtype that is essentially a hybrid of the BoNT/C ({approx}two-third) and BoNT/D ({approx}one-third) serotypes. While the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain receptor binding (HCR) domain of BoNT/CD (BoNT/CD-HCR) is very similar to the corresponding amino acid sequence of BoNT/D, BoNT/CD-HCR binds synaptosome membranes better than BoNT/D-HCR. To obtain structural insights for the different membrane binding properties, the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR (S867-E1280) was determined at 1.56 {angstrom} resolution and compared to previously reported structures for BoNT/D-HCR. Overall, the BoNT/CD-HCR structure is similar to the two sub-domain organization observed for other BoNT HCRs: an N-terminal jellyroll barrel motif and a C-terminal {beta}-trefoil fold. Comparison of the structure of BoNT/CD-HCR with BoNT/D-HCR indicates that K1118 has a similar structural role as the equivalent residue, E1114, in BoNT/D-HCR, while K1136 has a structurally different role than the equivalent residue, G1132, in BoNT/D-HCR. Lysine-1118 forms a salt bridge with E1247 and may enhance membrane interactions by stabilizing the putative membrane binding loop (K1240-N1248). Lysine-1136 is observed on the surface of the protein. A sulfate ion bound to K1136 may mimic a natural interaction with the negatively changed phospholipid membrane surface. Liposome-binding experiments demonstrate that BoNT/CD-HCR binds phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes more tightly than BoNT/D-HCR.

  6. Peripheral refraction and higher-order aberrations with cycloplegia and fogging lenses using the BHVI-EyeMapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi Chandra; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Thomas, Varghese; Holden, Brien Anthony

    2016-01-01

    To determine if a fogging lens ameliorates accommodative effects driven by the closed-view design of the BHVI-EyeMapper (EM) instrument. We compared cycloplegic refraction and higher-order aberration measurements of the EM with those obtained with a fogging lens. Twenty-six, young, participants (15F, 25±5 years, range: 18-35 years, SE: +0.25 D and -3.50 D) with good ocular health were recruited. Five independent measurements of on- and off-axis refraction and higher-order aberrations were recorded across the horizontal visual field, under two conditions: non-cycloplegic measurements with +1.00 D fogging lens and cycloplegia, always in the same sequence. The contralateral eye was occluded during the measurements. Two drops of 1% Tropicamide delivered within 5 min facilitated cycloplegic measurements. All participants were refracted 30 min after installation of the second drop. Mean spherical equivalent measures of the non-cycloplegic condition were significantly more myopic than their cycloplegic counterparts (p<0.05); approximately by 0.50 D centrally, increasing to 1.00 D towards the periphery. The horizontal astigmatic component, J180, demonstrated small but statistically significant differences between the test conditions. Differences were predominant for eccentricities greater than 30°, in both nasal and temporal meridians. The oblique astigmatic component, J45, was not significantly different between the test conditions. The primary spherical aberration coefficient C(4, 0) was significantly less positive for the non-cycloplegic state than its cycloplegic counterpart. This result held true across the entire horizontal visual field. The horizontal coma and trefoil coefficients C(3, 1) and C(3, 3) were not significantly different between the two conditions. The use of +1.00 D fogging lens without cycloplegia did not provide complete relaxation of accommodation. The discrepancies between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic EM measurements were found to be more

  7. Cyclooxygenase 2,pS2,inducible nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor alpha in gastric adaptation to stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Nan Nie; Hai-Chen Sun; Xue-Hao Wu; Xiao-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of mucosal gene expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), pS2 (belongs to trefoil peptides),inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) in gastric adaptation to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) in rats.METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed to single or repeated WRS for 4 h every other day for up to 6 d. Gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was measured by laser Doppler fiowmeter3. The extent of gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated grossly and histologically and expressions of COX-2, pS2,iNOS and TGFα were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot.RESULTS: The damage to the surface of gastric epithelium with focal areas of deep haemorrhagic necrosis was induced by repeated WRS.The adaptative cytoprotection against stress was developed with activation of cell proliferation in the neck regions of gastric glands. The ulcer index (UI) in groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ was markedly reduced as compared with group Ⅰ (Ⅰ: 47.23±1.20; Ⅳ: 10.39±1.18,P<0.01). GMBF significantly decreased after first exposure to WRS with an adaptive increasement of GMBF in experimental groups after repetitive challenges with WRS. After the 4th WRS,the value of GMBF almost restored to normal level (Ⅰ:321.87±8.85; Ⅳ: 455.95±11.81,P<0.01). First WRS significantly decreased the expression of pS2 and significantly increased the expressions of COX-2, iNOS and TGFα. After repeated WRS, pS2 and TGFα expressions gradually increased (pS2: Ⅰ: 0.37±0.02; Ⅳ: 0.77±0.01; TGFα: Ⅰ:0.86±0.01; Ⅳ: 0.93±0.03, P<0.05) with a decrease in the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS (COX-2: Ⅰ: 0.45±0.02; Ⅳ:0.22±0.01; iNOS: Ⅰ: 0.93±0.01; Ⅳ: 0.56±0.01, P<0.01).Expressions of pS2, COX-2, iNOS and TGFα showed regular changes with a good relationship among them.CONCLUSION: Gastric adaptation to WRS injury involves enhanced cell proliferation, increased expression of pS2 and

  8. Optics of the average normal cornea from general and canonical representations of its surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; González, Luis; Hernández, José L

    2006-02-01

    three Zernike coefficients significantly higher than zero (third-order trefoil and fourth- and sixth-order spherical). These three nonzero Zernike coefficients are responsible for most of the higher-order aberrations of the average cornea. Finally, we propose and implement a simple method for three-dimensional registration of corneal topographies, passing from the general to the canonical form of the ellipsoid.

  9. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in rats

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    Rodriguez-Nogales A

    2016-11-01

    expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in comparison with the TNBS control group. Moreover, the expression of both cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly diminished by the RGD-SFN treatment. However, both treatments improved the intestinal wall integrity by increasing the gene expression of some of its markers (trefoil factor-3 and mucins. Conclusion: SFNs displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the TNBS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the RGD peptide. Keywords: nanoparticles, inflammatory bowel disease, silk fibroin, TNBS rat colitis, RGD

  10. Effect of dietary zinc oxide on jejunal morphological and immunological characteristics in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Pieper, R; Tedin, L; Martin, L; Meyer, W; Rieger, J; Plendl, J; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes and the effect of dietary Zn concentration on morphological and immunological characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. A total of 96 purebred Landrace piglets were weaned at the age of 26 ± 1 d, and randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups fed with low (57 mg Zn/kg), medium (164 mg Zn/kg), and high (2425 mg Zn/kg) dietary Zn (ZnO). Piglets (4 males and 4 females per treatment group) were killed at 33 ± 1, 40 ± 1, 47 ± 1, and 54 ± 1 d of age. In the jejunum, villus height, crypt depth, and the number of goblet cells producing neutral, acidic, sulfated, and sialylated mucins were measured. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were characterized by flow cytometry and the gene expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), mucin 20 (MUC20), β-defensin 3, and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Villus height and crypt depth in the jejunum showed age related differences (P < 0.01), whereas the dietary concentrations of Zn had no effect. The mucin types were modified mainly by age, and dietary Zn had no effect in the proximal jejunum. In the distal jejunum, age and Zn had effects on the mucin types. The abundance of sulfomucins decreased (P < 0.001) and sialomucins increased with age (P < 0.001), while high dietary ZnO reduced the sulfomucins (P < 0.001) and increased the sialomucins (P < 0.05) in the crypts. The phenotypes of lymphocytes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum showed relatively constant percentages of T-cells, as well as natural killer cells. High dietary Zn treatment led to a reduced abundance of CD8(+) γδ T-cells (P < 0.05). The apportionment of different cytotoxic T-cell was age dependent. Although the percentage of CD4(-)CD8β(+) increased (P < 0.01), the relative amount of CD4(+)CD8β(+) decreased with age (P < 0.05). The expression of MUC2 and MUC20 was not influenced by age or dietary Zn concentration. High Zn intakes resulted in a reduced

  11. Oncological outcome and patient satisfaction with skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: a prospective observational study

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    Burgoyne Gwyne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of early breast cancer (BC with skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR is not based on level-1 evidence. In this study, the oncological outcome, post-operative morbidity and patients' satisfaction with SSM and IBR using the latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap and/or breast prosthesis is evaluated. Methods 137 SSMs with IBR (10 bilateral were undertaken in 127 consecutive women, using the LD flap plus implant (n = 85, LD flap alone (n = 1 or implant alone (n = 51, for early BC (n = 130 or prophylaxis (n = 7. Nipple reconstruction was performed in 69 patients, using the trefoil local flap technique (n = 61, nipple sharing (n = 6, skin graft (n = 1 and Monocryl mesh (n = 1. Thirty patients underwent contra-lateral procedures to enhance symmetry, including 19 augmentations and 11 mastopexy/reduction mammoplasties. A linear visual analogue scale was used to assess patient satisfaction with surgical outcome, ranging from 0 (not satisfied to 10 (most satisfied. Results After a median follow-up of 36 months (range = 6-101 months there were no local recurrences. Overall breast cancer specific survival was 99.2%, 8 patients developed distant disease and 1 died of metastatic BC. There were no cases of partial or total LD flap loss. Morbidities included infection, requiring implant removal in 2 patients and 1 patient developed marginal ischaemia of the skin envelope. Chemotherapy was delayed in 1 patient due to infection. Significant capsule formation, requiring capsulotomy, was observed in 85% of patients who had either post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR or prior radiotherapy (RT compared with 13% for those who had not received RT. The outcome questionnaire was completed by 82 (64.6% of 127 patients with a median satisfaction score of 9 (range = 5-10. Conclusion SSM with IBR is associated with low morbidity, high levels of patient satisfaction and is oncologically safe for T(is, T1 and T2

  12. Endocrine disruptor regulation of microRNA expression in breast carcinoma cells.

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    Syreeta L Tilghman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several environmental agents termed "endocrine disrupting compounds" or EDCs have been reported to bind and activate the estrogen receptor-α (ER. The EDCs DDT and BPA are ubiquitously present in the environment, and DDT and BPA levels in human blood and adipose tissue are detectable in most if not all women and men. ER-mediated biological responses can be regulated at numerous levels, including expression of coding RNAs (mRNAs and more recently non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Of the ncRNAs, microRNAs have emerged as a target of estrogen signaling. Given the important implications of EDC-regulated ER function, we sought to define the effects of BPA and DDT on microRNA regulation and expression levels in estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the cellular effects of DDT and BPA, we used the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which is ER (+ and hormone sensitive. Our results show that DDT and BPA potentiate ER transcriptional activity, resulting in an increased expression of receptor target genes, including progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and trefoil factor 1. Interestingly, a differential increase in expression of Jun and Fas by BPA but not DDT or estrogen was observed. In addition to ER responsive mRNAs, we investigated the ability of DDT and BPA to alter the miRNA profiles in MCF-7 cells. While the EDCs and estrogen similarly altered the expression of multiple microRNAs in MCF-7 cells, including miR-21, differential patterns of microRNA expression were induced by DDT and BPA compared to estrogen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown, for the first time, that BPA and DDT, two well known EDCs, alter the expression profiles of microRNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these compounds could provide important insight into the role of EDCs in human disease, including breast cancer.

  13. Creation and structure determination of an artificial protein with three complete sequence repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Motoyasu, E-mail: adachi.motoyasu@jaea.go.jp; Shimizu, Rumi; Kuroki, Ryota [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakatashirane 2-4, Nakagun Tokaimura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakatashirane 2-4, Nakagun Tokaimura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    An artificial protein with three complete sequence repeats was created and the structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure showed threefold symmetry even though there is an amino- and carboxy-terminal. The artificial protein with threefold symmetry may be useful as a scaffold to capture small materials with C3 symmetry. Symfoil-4P is a de novo protein exhibiting the threefold symmetrical β-trefoil fold designed based on the human acidic fibroblast growth factor. First three asparagine–glycine sequences of Symfoil-4P are replaced with glutamine–glycine (Symfoil-QG) or serine–glycine (Symfoil-SG) sequences protecting from deamidation, and His-Symfoil-II was prepared by introducing a protease digestion site into Symfoil-QG so that Symfoil-II has three complete repeats after removal of the N-terminal histidine tag. The Symfoil-QG and SG and His-Symfoil-II proteins were expressed in Eschericha coli as soluble protein, and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Symfoil-II was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography after removing the HisTag by proteolysis. Both Symfoil-QG and Symfoil-II were crystallized in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1.8 M ammonium sulfate as precipitant at 293 K; several crystal forms were observed for Symfoil-QG and II. The maximum diffraction of Symfoil-QG and II crystals were 1.5 and 1.1 Å resolution, respectively. The Symfoil-II without histidine tag diffracted better than Symfoil-QG with N-terminal histidine tag. Although the crystal packing of Symfoil-II is slightly different from Symfoil-QG and other crystals of Symfoil derivatives having the N-terminal histidine tag, the refined crystal structure of Symfoil-II showed pseudo-threefold symmetry as expected from other Symfoils. Since the removal of the unstructured N-terminal histidine tag did not affect the threefold structure of Symfoil, the improvement of diffraction quality of Symfoil-II may be caused by molecular characteristics of

  14. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Nattrass, Gregory S; Forder, Rebecca E A; McGrice, Hayley A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Hughes, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of Eimeria (EM) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) challenges on the mRNA levels of genes involved in mucin (Muc) synthesis (Muc2, Muc5ac, Muc13, and trefoil family factor-2 [TFF2]), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-18 [IL-18]), and metabolic processes (cluster of differentiation [CD]36) in the jejunum of broilers were investigated. Two parallel experiments involving 1) EM challenge and 2) EM and CP challenges were conducted. The first experiment was a 2 X 2 study with 12 birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal substitution (25%) in the diet (FM) and EM challenge. The treatments were: Control (FM-, EM-), Fishmeal (FM+, EM-), EM challenge (FM-, EM+), and fishmeal substitution and EM challenge (FM+, EM+). The second experiment was a 2 X 2 X 2 experiment with six birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal (FM-, FM+), Eimeria (EM-, EM+), and C perfringens (CP-, CP+). In both arms of the study, male broilers were given a starter diet for the whole period of 16 days, except those assigned to FM+, where 25% of the starter ration was replaced with fishmeal from days 8 to 14. EM inoculation was performed on day 9 and CP inoculation on days 14 and 15. The EM challenge birds were euthanatized for sampling on day 13; postmortem examination and sampling for the Eimeria plus C perfringens challenge arm of the study were on day 16. In the Eimeria challenge arm of the study, fishmeal supplementation significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, TFF2, and IL-18 pre-CP inoculation but simultaneously increased the levels of Muc13 and CD36 mRNAs. Birds challenged with Eimeria exhibited increased mRNA levels of Muc13, Muc5ac, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. In the Eimeria and C. perfringens challenge arm, birds exposed to EM challenge exhibited significantly lower mRNA levels of Muc2 and CD36. The mRNA levels of CD36 were also significantly suppressed by CP challenge. Our results showed that the transcription of mucin synthesis

  15. Optics of the average normal cornea from general and canonical representations of its surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; González, Luis; Hernández, José L.

    2006-02-01

    Zernike coefficients significantly higher than zero (third-order trefoil and fourth- and sixth-order spherical). These three nonzero Zernike coefficients are responsible for most of the higher-order aberrations of the average cornea. Finally, we propose and implement a simple method for three-dimensional registration of corneal topographies, passing from the general to the canonical form of the ellipsoid.

  16. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Is an Independent Predictive Factor of Hospital Readmission and Survival in Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Graupera

    Full Text Available MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in chemotaxis of monocytes. In several diseases, such as acute coronary syndromes and heart failure, elevated MCP-1 levels have been associated with poor outcomes. Little is known about MCP-1 in cirrhosis.To investigate the relationship between MCP-1 and outcome in decompensated cirrhosis.Prospective study of 218 patients discharged from hospital after an admission for complications of cirrhosis. Urine and plasma levels of MCP-1 and other urine proinflammatroy biomarkers: osteopontin(OPN, trefoil-factor3 and liver-fatty-acid-binding protein were measured at admission. Urine non-inflammatory mediators cystatin-C, β2microglobulin and albumin were measured as control biomarkers. The relationship between these biomarkers and the 3-month hospital readmission, complications of cirrhosis, and mortality were assessed.69 patients(32% had at least one readmission during the 3-month period of follow-up and 30 patients died(14%. Urine MCP-1 and OPN levels, were associated with 3-month probability of readmission (0.85 (0.27-2.1 and 2003 (705-4586 ug/g creat vs 0.47 (0.2-1.1 and 1188 (512-2958 ug/g creat, in patients with and without readmission, respectively; p<0.05; median (IQR. Furthermore, urine levels of MCP-1 were significantly associated with mortality (1.01 (1-3.6 vs 0.5 (0.2-1.1 μg/g creat, in dead and alive patients at 3 months; p<0.05. Patients with higher levels of urine MCP-1 (above percentile 75th had higher probability of development of hepatic encephalopathy, bacterial infections or AKI. Urine MCP-1 was an independent predictive factor of hospital readmission and combined end-point of readmission or dead at 3 months. Plasma levels of MCP-1 did not correlated with outcomes.Urine, but not plasma, MCP-1 levels are associated with hospital readmission, development of complications of cirrhosis, and mortality. These results suggest that in cirrhosis there is an

  17. CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Wen Min; Doucet, Michele; Huang, David; Weber, Kristy L.; Kominsky, Scott L., E-mail: kominsc@jhmi.edu

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co

  18. Role of apolipoprotein A-II in the structure and remodeling of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL): protein conformational ensemble on HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Yuan, Shujun; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gursky, Olga

    2012-06-12

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL, or "good cholesterol") are heterogeneous nanoparticles that remove excess cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. The cardioprotective action of HDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), is well-established, yet the function of the second major protein, apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), is less clear. In this review, we postulate an ensemble of apolipoprotein conformations on various HDL. This ensemble is based on the crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I determined by Mei and Atkinson combined with the "double-hairpin" conformation of apoA-II(dimer) proposed in the cross-linking studies by Silva's team, and is supported by the wide array of low-resolution structural, biophysical, and biochemical data obtained by many teams over decades. The proposed conformational ensemble helps integrate and improve several existing HDL models, including the "buckle-belt" conformation of apoA-I on the midsize disks and the "trefoil/tetrafoil" arrangement on spherical HDL. This ensemble prompts us to hypothesize that endogenous apoA-II (i) helps confer lipid surface curvature during conversion of nascent discoidal HDL(A-I) and HDL(A-II) containing either apoA-I or apoA-II to mature spherical HDL(A-I/A-II) containing both proteins, and (ii) hinders remodeling of HDL(A-I/A-II) by hindering the expansion of the apoA-I conformation. Also, we report that, although endogenous apoA-II circulates mainly on the midsize spherical HDL(A-I/A-II), exogenous apoA-II can bind to HDL of any size, thereby slightly increasing this size and stabilizing the HDL assembly. This suggests distinctly different effects of the endogenous and exogenous apoA-II on HDL. Taken together, the existing results and models prompt us to postulate a new structural and functional role of apoA-II on human HDL.

  19. Comparison of the anti-ulcer activity between the crude and bran-processed Atractylodes lancea in the rat model of gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Cai, Qian; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Ming-Yue; Min, Dong-Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-02-03

    The rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (AL, Compositae, Chinese name: Cangzhu; Japanese name: Sou-ju-tsu) has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases such as digestive disorders, rheumatic diseases, and influenza in China, Korea and Japan. The crude AL and AL bran-processed are both listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, the differences between the effects of the crude and AL bran-processed on gastric ulcer were poorly understood, and the mechanisms for the treatment of gastric ulcer were not clear. This study aimed at comparing the anti-ulcer effects between the crude AL and AL processed in acetic acid induced model in rats and evaluating the mechanisms of action involved in the anti-ulcer properties of AL. The model of gastric ulcer was imitated by acetic acid in rats, and AL was gavaged. The serum and gastric tissues were collected. The levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), trefoil factor2 (TFF2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6, 8 (IL-6, 8) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum and gastric tissues were determined by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA expressions of EGF, TFF2, TNF-α, and IL-8 in stomach were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. The protein expressions of EGF, TFF2, TNF-α, and IL-8 were examined by immunohistochemistry in stomach. The results demonstrated that the damage of gastric tissue was obviously alleviated and the productions of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, and PGE2 and the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, and IL-8 were notably inhibited. Furthermore, the productions of EGF and TFF2 and the mRNA expressions of EGF and TFF2 were significantly stimulated by both crude AL and AL processed in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the crude AL, the processed AL was more effective. The AL processed had more satisfactory

  20. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  1. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Imtiaj Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1 and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3, which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic “mytilectin family” in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps, it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF at the 5′ end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5′UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3′UTR and the poly-A signal was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  2. Proteomic View of Interactions of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli with the Intestinal Environment in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

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    Rembert Pieper

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli cause severe intestinal infections involving colonization of epithelial Peyer's patches and formation of attachment/effacement (A/E lesions. These lesions trigger leukocyte infiltration followed by inflammation and intestinal hemorrhage. Systems biology, which explores the crosstalk of Stx-producing Escherichia coli with the in vivo host environment, may elucidate novel molecular pathogenesis aspects.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain 86-24 produces Shiga toxin-2 and belongs to the serotype O157:H7. Bacterial cells were scrapped from stationary phase cultures (the in vitro condition and used to infect gnotobiotic piglets via intestinal lavage. Bacterial cells isolated from the piglets' guts constituted the in vivo condition. Cell lysates were subjected to quantitative 2D gel and shotgun proteomic analyses, revealing metabolic shifts towards anaerobic energy generation, changes in carbon utilization, phosphate and ammonia starvation, and high activity of a glutamate decarboxylase acid resistance system in vivo. Increased abundance of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (PntA and PntB suggested in vivo shortage of intracellular NADPH. Abundance changes of proteins implicated in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis (LpxC, ArnA, the predicted acyltransferase L7029 and outer membrane (OM assembly (LptD, MlaA, MlaC suggested bacterial cell surface modulation in response to activated host defenses. Indeed, there was evidence for interactions of innate immunity-associated proteins secreted into the intestines (GP340, REG3-γ, resistin, lithostathine, and trefoil factor 3 with the bacterial cell envelope.Proteomic analysis afforded insights into system-wide adaptations of strain 86-24 to a hostile intestinal milieu, including responses to limited nutrients and cofactor supplies, intracellular acidification, and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species-mediated stress. Protein and lipopolysaccharide compositions of the OM

  3. Expression Analysis of Barrett’s Esophagus Associated High Grade Dysplasia in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Edmond; Meitner, Patricia A; Tavares, Rosemarie; Corless, Christopher L; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Moss, Steven F; Resnick, Murray B

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Identifying genes differentially expressed in non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) from those expressed in high grade dysplasia (HGD) should be of value in improving our understanding of this transition and may yield new diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. The aim of this study was to determine the differential transcriptome of HGD compared with non-dysplastic BE through gene microarray analysis of epithelial cells microdissected from archival tissue specimens. Experimental Design Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate epithelial cells from adjacent inflammatory and stromal cells. Epithelial mRNA was extracted from areas of non-dysplastic BE and HGD in matched biopsies from 11 patients. mRNA was reverse transcribed and applied on Affymetrix cDNA microarray chips customized for formalin-exposed tissue. For a subset of these genes, differential gene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results There were 131 genes over-expressed by at least 2.5-fold in HGD versus non-dysplastic BE and 16 genes that were under-expressed by at least 2.5-fold. Among the over-expressed genes are several previously demonstrated to be increased in the neoplastic progression of BE, as well as novel genes such as lipocalin-2, S100A9, matrix metallopeptidase 12, secernin 1 and topoisomerase IIα. Genes decreased in dysplastic epithelium include MUC5AC, trefoil factor1 (TFF1), meprin A and CD13. RT-PCR validated the changes in expression in 24 of 28 selected genes. Immunohistochemistry confirmed increased protein expression for topoisomerase IIα, S100A9 and lipocalin-2 and decreased expression of TFF1 across the spectrum of BE associated dysplasia from non-dysplastic BE through adenocarcinoma. Conclusions This is the first study to identify epithelial genes differentially expressed in HGD versus non-dysplastic BE in matched patient samples. The genes identified include several previously implicated in the pathogenesis of Barrett

  4. Effects of Super Absorbent Applied by Different Methods on Soil Moisture,Soil Temperature and Maize Growth%保水剂施用方式对河套灌区土壤水热条件及玉米生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜社妮; 耿桂俊; 于健; 张沛琪; 白岗栓

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of super absorbent applied by different methods on soil moisture,soil temperature and maize growth,field experiments were conducted in the Hetao irrigation district,Inner Mongolia.Super absorbent was applied using the four methods of furrowing,mixing,broadcasting and holing in contrast to the case without super absorbent applied.Results showed that all application methods increased soil moisture,particularly there were significant effects at drought stage when maize is in tasseling-silking and grain filling.All application methods decreased soil temperature at seedling and trefoil stage and inhibited the growth of maize seedling.All application methods promoted maize growth from jointing to maturing,extended maize growing period,and increased maize yields and biomass,water use efficiency,water production rate and irrigation water production rate.Among the four application methods,the effect of furrowing was better and the effect of broadcasting was worse.Optimum application method of super absorbent should be the furrowing in Hetao irrigation district in maize production.%为了鉴别保水剂不同施用方式对土壤水分、土壤温度和玉米生长的影响,在内蒙古河套灌区以不施保水剂为对照,开展了沟施、混施、撒施、穴施的田间试验。结果表明,不同施用方式提高了土壤水分,特别是在干旱的抽雄吐丝期、灌浆期具有显著作用。幼苗期、三叶期不同施用方式的土壤温度上升缓慢,抑制了玉米幼苗的生长。拔节期到收获期不同施用方式促进了玉米生长,延长了玉米生长期,提高了玉米产量及生物量,提高了水分利用效率、水分产出率和灌溉水产出率。不同施用方式中,沟施的效果相对较好,撒施较差。研究表明,河套灌区玉米生产中施用保水剂应以沟施为主。

  5. Etiopathogenetic principles and peptic ulcer disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, G N J

    2011-01-01

    Ulceration corresponds to tissue loss, breaching the muscularis mucosae. When ulcers develop in the acid-peptic environment of the gastroduodenum, they are traditionally called peptic ulcer (PUD). Ulcers never develop spontaneously in a healthy gastroduodenal mucosa. Ulceration is the ultimate consequence of a disequilibrium between aggressive injurious factors and defensive mucosa-protective factors. The dominant aggressors are strong acid and high proteolytic (pepsin) activity in gastric secretions. The dominant defensors are the phospholipid surfactant layer, covering the mucus bicarbonate gel, the mucus bicarbonate layer covering the epithelium, the tight junctional structures between the epithelial cells, restricting proton permeability, and the epithelial trefoil peptides, contributing to healing after injury. Initially, acid-peptic aggression was considered the overwhelming cause of PUD, supported by the pioneering work of Schwartz, launching the dictum 'no acid, no ulcer'. This led to the universal therapy directed against intragastric acidity, also interfering with peptic activity when the pH was >4. The therapeutic sequence went from large doses of antacids to H(2)-receptor antagonists and finally to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The longer the intragastric pH was >3, the quicker ulcer healing was seen. Unfortunately, ulcers often recurred after stopping therapy, demanding maintenance therapy to keep the ulcers healed and to prevent the need for surgery (vagotomy, partial gastric resection). Later on, the emphasis gradually shifted to weakening/failing of the defensive factors, raising the vulnerability of the gastroduodenal mucosa to luminal secretions. Leading injurious mechanisms jeopardizing the mucosal integrity are numerous: infections, especially Helicobacter pylori, drug-induced injury, particularly acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), physicochemical and caustic injury, vascular disorders, interfering

  6. Long-term outcomes of limbal relaxing incisions during cataract surgery: aberrometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaspare Monaco, Antonio ScialdoneDepartment of Ophthalmology, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milan, ItalyPurpose: To compare the final changes in corneal wavefront aberration by limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs after cataract surgery.Methods: This prospective cumulative interventional nonrandomized case study included cataract and astigmatic patients undergoing LRIs and phaco with intraocular lens implantation. LRIs were planned using Donnenfeld nomogram. The root mean square of corneal wave aberration for total Z(n,i(1≤n≤8, astigmatism Z(2,±1, coma Z(3–5–7,±1, trefoil Z(3–5–7,±2, spherical Z(4–6–8,0, and higher-order aberration (HOA Z(3≤n≤8 was examined before and 3 years after surgery (optical path difference-Scan II [OPD-Scan II]. Uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA for distance, keratometric cylinder, and variations in average corneal power were also analyzed.Results: Sixty-four eyes of 48 patients were included in the study. Age ranged from 42 to 92 years (70.6±8.4 years. After LRIs, uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity improved statistically (P<0.01. The keratometric cylinder value decreased by 40.1%, but analysis of KP90 and KP135 polar values did not show any decrease that could be statistically confirmed (P=0.22 and P=0.24. No significant changes were detected in root mean square of total (P=0.61 and HOAs (P=0.13 aberrations. LRIs did not induce alteration in central corneal power confirming a 1:1 coupling ratio.Conclusion: LRIs determined a nonsignificant alteration of corneal HOA. Therefore, LRIs can be still considered a qualitatively viable mean in those cases where toric intraocular lenses are contraindicated or not available. Yet, the authors raise the question of nonpersonalized nomograms, as in the present study, LRIs did not reach the preset target cylinder. Keywords: astigmatism, ocular wavefront, intraocular

  7. The expression and significance of ⅡA sPLA2 and TFF3 in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions%ⅡA sPLA2、TFF3在胃癌及癌前病变中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宣义; 郑伟伟; 胡建平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨ⅡA分泌型磷脂酶A2 (secretory phospholipase A2 groupⅡA,ⅡAsPLA2)、三叶因子3(trefoil factor 3,TFF3)在胃癌及癌前病变中的表达及其意义.方法 采用免疫组化法检测二者在90例胃癌、80例胃黏膜异型增生及30例正常胃黏膜组织中的表达.结果 ⅡA sPLA2、TFF3在轻度、中度+重度异型增生胃黏膜、早期胃癌、进展期胃癌各组中的表达均高于正常胃黏膜组,它们之间存在统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 ⅡA sPLA2表达降低可能与胃癌的侵袭性以及转移间存在着某种相关性,其低表达是胃癌预后评估的一个潜在指标.TFF3可能是胃黏膜恶性变过程中的早期分子事件,在胃黏膜恶性变及其以后的恶性演进过程中起作用,对胃癌早期诊断、治疗以及预测胃癌发生癌周组织转移可能具有重要的提示作用,二者在胃癌的发生、发展及演变过程中起着协同的作用,并对胃癌的预后存在一定的指导作用.

  8. 胃癌早期诊断血清学指标研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    分类概括国内外近年来血清学方法诊断胃癌的研究情况,为胃癌的早期诊断提供依据.酶类指标中,胃蛋白酶原是近年来研究较热指标,诊断胃癌敏感度>60%,特异性>90%;脂肪酸合酶则是新近发现在胃癌患者血清中增高,诊断敏感度及特异性均>90%.蛋白类指标中,糖类抗原724仍是诊断特异性比较高的指标,其在诊断进展期胃癌中价值高,其他如monoclonal gastric cancer 7 antigen(MG7-Ag)以及新发现指标诊断胃癌也有较好价值,如细胞角蛋白18片段诊断胃癌特异性>90%,敏感度较高的有血清Dickkopf-1(DKK-1)、三叶草因子3(trefoil factor family 3,TFF3).激素类及细胞因子类指标对胃癌诊断具有一定价值,尤以内皮细胞特异性分子-1诊断胃癌敏感度及特异性最高.另外一些新的指标如血清miRNA在胃癌及早期胃癌中的诊断价值也较高.循环肿瘤细胞及血清代谢组学检测也为胃癌血清学诊断开辟了新途径.

  9. 甲状腺癌的分子标志物%Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳华

    2011-01-01

    甲状腺癌是常见的内分泌腺恶性肿瘤.灵敏度高、特异性强的肿瘤标志物有助于甲状腺癌的早期诊断,并为制定更合理的治疗方案提供帮助.近年来研究较多的肿瘤标志物主要有β-半乳糖结合蛋白、间皮细胞表面微绒毛抗原-1、三叶因子、细胞角蛋白、端粒酶反转录酶、血管内皮生长因子、降钙素、基质金属蛋白酶、组织蛋白酶及鼠类肉瘤滤过性毒菌致癌同源体B1、过氧化物酶增殖物激活受体、微小RNA以及转染重排/甲状腺乳头状癌等基因,其灵敏度及特异性对不同类型的甲状腺癌有所差别,可以作为细针穿刺细胞学的辅助手段.%Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. Tumor markers with high sensitivity and strong specificity are helpful for thyroid cancer early diagnosis and therapy. Recendy, many of tumor markers have been reported. It includes galectin-3, Hector battifora mesothelial antigen-1, trefoil factor-3, cytokeratin, human telomerase reverse transcriptase, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, MicroRNA, and rearranged during transfection/ papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity of these tumor markers are different in various types of thyroid carcinoma and could be used as an adjuvant to the fine needle aspiration cytology.

  10. Characterization of renal biomarkers for use in clinical trials: biomarker evaluation in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brott DA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available David A Brott,1 Scott H Adler,1 Ramin Arani,2 Susan C Lovick,3 Mark Pinches,4 Stephen T Furlong1 1Translational Patient Safety and Enabling Sciences, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA; 3AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, 4Global Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK Background: Several preclinical urinary biomarkers have been qualified and accepted by the health authorities (US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency for detecting drug-induced kidney injury during preclinical toxicologic testing. Validated human assays for many of these biomarkers have become commercially available, and this study was designed to characterize some of the novel clinical renal biomarkers. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical renal biomarkers in a typical Phase I healthy volunteer population to determine confidence intervals (pilot reference intervals, intersubject and intrasubject variability, effects of food intake, effect of sex, and vendor assay comparisons. Methods: Spot urine samples from 20 male and 19 female healthy volunteers collected on multiple days were analyzed using single analyte and multiplex assays. The following analytes were measured: α-1-microglobulin, β-2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, connective tissue growth factor, creatinine, cystatin C, glutathione S-transferase-α, kidney injury marker-1, microalbumin, N-acetyl-β-(D glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, trefoil factor 3, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Results: Confidence intervals were determined from the single analyte and multiplex assays. Intersubject and intrasubject variability ranged from 38% to 299% and from 29% to 82% for biomarker concentration, and from 24% to 331% and from 10% to 67% for

  11. Characterization of renal biomarkers for use in clinical trials: effect of preanalytical processing and qualification using samples from subjects with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brott DA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available David A Brott,1 Stephen T Furlong,1 Scott H Adler,1 James W Hainer,2 Ramin B Arani,2 Mark Pinches,3 Peter Rossing,4–6 Nish Chaturvedi7 On behalf of the DIRECT Programme Steering Committee1Enabling Safety Sciences, 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA; 3Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Alderley Park, UK; 4Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; 5Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, 6University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London, UK Background: Identifying the potential for drug-induced kidney injury is essential for the successful research and development of new drugs. Newer and more sensitive preclinical drug-induced kidney injury biomarkers are now qualified for use in rat toxicology studies, but biomarkers for clinical studies are still undergoing qualification. The current studies investigated biomarkers in healthy volunteer (HV urine samples with and without the addition of stabilizer as well as in urine from patients with normoalbuminuric diabetes mellitus (P-DM.Methods: Urine samples from 20 male HV with stabilizer, 69 male HV without stabilizer, and 95 male DM without stabilizer (39 type 1 and 56 type 2 were analyzed for the following biomarkers using multiplex assays: α-1-microglobulin (A1M, β-2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, creatinine, cystatin-C, glutathione s-transferase α (GSTα, kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1, microalbumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, Tamm–Horsfall urinary glycoprotein (THP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3, and vascular endothelial growth factor.Results: CTGF and GSTα assays on nonstabilized urine were deemed nonoptimal (>50% of values below assay lower limits of quantification. “Expected values” were determined for HV with stabilizer, HV without stabilizer, and P-DM without stabilizer. There was a

  12. Biochemical Mechanism of Resistance against Soybean Cyst Nematode Induced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Soybean%根际促生菌诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫的生化机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉玺; 张禹; 朱晓峰; 刘大伟; 李颂; 陈立杰; 王媛媛

    2011-01-01

    为揭示由根际促生细菌[Sneb207(Bacillus megaterium),Sneb482(Bacillus megaterum)]诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫(Heterodera glycines Inhinhe)的生化机理.使用菌株Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液包衣处理大豆种子,在豆苗三叶期时接种大豆胞囊线虫卵悬液,分别于接种后6、12、18、24、30 d取样,测定大豆根内防御酶系活性(PAL,PP0,POD)、总酚含量和几丁质酶活性的动态变化.结果表明:大豆种子经Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液处理后,根内PAL、PP0、POD活性较对照均表现上升趋势,总酚含量也有所提高.与菌株SneB482相比,菌株Sneb207表现出对大豆胞囊线虫病更好的诱导抗病潜力.%It has been a new research focus on biological control that the induction of disease resistance and growth response in plants is elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR). This study aimed to examine the biochemical mechanism of the resistance to soybean cyst nematode ( Heterodera glycines Ichinohe ) in soybean induced by PGPR [ Sneb207 ( Bacillus megaterium) and Sneb482 (Bacillus megaterium) ]. Seed bacterization with Sneb207 and Sneb482 were utilized in the experiment. The soybean plants were inoculated with eggs of soybean cyst nematode after soybean trefoil stage and the samples of roots were obtained 6,12,18,24 and 30 days later. Activities of plant resistance correlated enzymes including defense enzymes, namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and chitinase were measured, the content of total phenolics was also determined. The results showed that both the activities of PAL, PPO, POD,chitinase and the contents of total phenolics could be increased significantly by seed coating with fermentation liquid of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Sneb207, Sneb482) in the soybean roots than those in control. Sneb207 showed greater potential in induced resistance against soybean cyst nematode in the soybean plants than Sneb482.

  13. Visual outcome after correcting the refractive error of large pupil patients with wavefront-guided ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa MA

    2012-12-01

    .02. Magnitudes of primary coma and trefoil did not change significantly (P ≥ 0.34, with a small but statistically significant increase in primary spherical aberration.Conclusion: Wavefront-guided LASIK provides an effective correction of low to moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism in large pupil patients without deterioration of visual quality.Keywords: large pupil, wavefront, LASIK

  14. RNA sequencing shows transcriptomic changes in rectosigmoid mucosa in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: a pilot case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Nair, Asha A; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico; Klee, Eric W

    2014-06-15

    Our aim was to conduct a pilot case-control study of RNA expression profile using RNA sequencing of rectosigmoid mucosa of nine females with -diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with accelerated colonic transit and nine female healthy controls. Mucosal total RNA was isolated and purified, and next-generation pair-end sequencing was performed using Illumina TruSeq. Analysis was carried out using a targeted approach toward 12 genes previously associated with IBS and a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the 12 targeted genes tested, patients with IBS-D had decreased mRNA expression of TNFSF15 (fold change controls to IBS-D: 1.53, P = 0.01). Overall, up- and downregulated mRNA expressions of 21 genes (P = 10(-5) to 10(-8); P values with false detection rates are shown) were potentially relevant to IBS-D including the following: neurotransmitters [P2RY4 (P = 0.001), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, P = 0.02)]; cytokines [CCL20 (P = 0.019)]; immune function [C4BPA complement cascade (P = 0.0187)]; interferon-related [IFIT3 (P = 0.016)]; mucosal repair and cell adhesion [trefoil protein (TFF1, P = 0.012)], retinol binding protein [RBP2 (P = 0.017)]; fibronectin (FN1, P = 0.009); and ion channel functions [guanylate cyclase (GUCA2B, P = 0.017), PDZ domain-containing protein 3 (PDZD3, P = 0.029)]. Ten genes associated with functions related to pathobiology of IBS-D were validated by RT-PCR. There was significant correlation in fold changes of the selected genes (Rs = 0.73, P = 0.013). Up- or downregulation of P2RY4, GUC2AB, RBP2, FNI, and C4BPA genes were confirmed on RT-PCR, which also revealed upregulation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter (IBAT/ASBT). RNA-Seq and RT-PCR analysis of rectosigmoid mucosa in IBS-D show transcriptome changes that provide the rationale for validation studies to explore the role of mucosal factors in the pathobiology of IBS-D.

  15. Comparison of the ORK-CAM corneal wavefront-guided and the conventional LASIK for myopic correction%ORK-CAM角膜像差引导与传统切削模式近视LASIK手术比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元力; 何燕玲; 黎晓新

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨ORK-CAM角膜波阵面像差引导的近视LASIK手术的临床效果并与传统近视切削模式相比较.方法 回顾性分析接受近视LASIK手术的患者75例149只眼的临床资料.其中ORK-CAM角膜像差引导切削组4l例81只眼,常规切削组34例68只眼.统计患者术前和术后6个月的临床资料并进行手术前后以及两组间对比.主要观察指标包括裸眼视力、屈光度、角膜非球而系数、RMSh、RMS3-RMS7、球差、慧差以及三叶草像若值等.结果 两组术后角膜形态均由术前的长椭圆形变为扁椭圆形,ORK-CAM组角膜非球面系数改变较常规IASIK组小.两组术后角膜高阶像差均较术前显著增加.术后ORK-CAM组RMSh、RMS3、RMS4、球差以及三叶草像差值较常规IASIK组低,差异有统计学意义;术后ORK-CAM组6阶像差值较常规LASIK组高,二次球差是影响RMS6变化的主要因素.角膜Q值与球差值成正相关.结论 ORK-CAM角膜像差引导的个体化切削能够减小近视LASIK手术后角膜高阶像差的异常增加,术后角膜非球面性更接近于术前,有利于患者获得更好地术后视觉质量.%Objective To evaluate the outcomes of ORK-CAM corneal wavefi'ont-guided myopic LASIK and compare with the results after conventional ablation.Methods This retrospective study involved 149 eyes of 75 patients that underwent LASIK treatments for myopia and myopic astigmatism.Eighty-one eyes of 41 patients were treated with corneal wavefront-guided ablation managed by ORK-CAM 2.0.The other 68 eyes of 34 patients underwent conventional ablations.The corneal topographies were obtained with the OPTIKON SCOUT 2000 topography system.The patients' information were record preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively respectively including UCVA,refractive error,corneal asphericity,RMSh,RMS3-RMS7,spherical aberration,coma and trefoil.The difference of these items before and after treatment,also between groups was analyzed.Results The

  16. Recombinant adenovirus containing human TFF3 gene regulates migration in human biliary epithelial cells%构建人三叶因子3腺病毒载体对胆管上皮细胞迁移的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田驹; 程哲; 郊树国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct a recombinant adenovirus vector of human trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) and to determine its effect on the migration in human biliary epithelial cells. Methods The genomic fragment of target gene TFF3 was amplified with PCR with genomic DNA of liver cancer tissue as template. The obtained product was subcloned into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct vector pAdTrack-CMV-TFF3 after sequencing. Homologous recombination was performed by transfering the vector to E. coli BJ5183 containing the backbone pAd-Easy. The correct recombinant pAdEasy-TFF3 was selected and linearized with Pac I , then transfected into 293 cells for packaging and amplification. The titration of the recombinant adenovirus was determined. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of TFF3 at mRNA and protein levels in human biliary epithelial cells after transfection. Finally, cell scratch test was performed to observe the effect on cell migration before and after transfection. Results The target fragment of TFF3 with 458 bp was successfully amplified, which was completely the same as the sequence published GenBank by DNA sequencing. The TFF3 homologous recombination adenovirus vector was successfully constructed with a titer of 1.3×109CPU/mL. RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated significant increased expression of TFF3 at mRNA and protein levels in human biliary epithelial cells after transfection. Cell scratch test showed that cell migration was obviously activated and enhanced after transfection. Conclusion Recombinant adenovirus vector containing TFF3 gene is successfully constructed, which provides a satisfactory transduction vector to research the role of TFF3 in human biliary epithelium wound healing.%目的 构建含有人三叶因子3(trefoil factor family 3,TFF3)基因的腺病毒载体,并观察其对胆管上皮细胞迁移的调控作用.方法 利用PCR技术对目的基因TFF3全长进行扩增,测序后亚克隆至腺病毒穿梭

  17. Expressions of TFF3 and NF-κB in Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastric Diseases and the Sig-nificance%TFF3和 NF-κB 在幽门螺杆菌相关性胃病中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 郭文有

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨三叶因子3(TFF3)和核转录因子-κB NF-κB)在胃癌中表达的意义与幽门螺杆菌(Hp)感染的关系。[方法]胃癌组(GC组)70例,肠上皮化生组(IM 组)30例,浅表性胃炎组(CSG组)30例,应用免疫组化方法测定TFF3和NF-κBp65的表达,同时检测Hp感染。[结果]CSG、IM、GC各组织中 TFF3和NF-κB表达水平呈逐渐增强趋势,GC组中 TFF3和 NF-κBp65表达水平均高于CSG 组( P <0.01或0.05)。IM组中 Hp阳性感染率高于CSG组( P <0.05)。IM组中Hp感染者NF-κBp65、TFF3表达显著高于Hp阴性病例( P <0.05),CSG组、GC组中Hp阳性和阴性病例NF-κBp65、TFF3表达差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。[结论]NF-κB、TFF3高表达可能是胃癌发生的早期事件,联合检测NF-κBp65、TFF3和 Hp感染对胃癌预防及早期诊断有重要的提示作用。%[Objective] To explore the significance of the expression of trefoil factor family-3(TFF3) and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) in gastric cancer and its correlation with the Helicobacter pylori (H .pylori) in-fection .[Methods]The expression of TFF3 and NF-κBp65 were detected by immunohistochemistry method in gastric cancer group(group GC ,n=70) ,intestinal metaplasis group(group IM ,n=30) and superficial gastri-tis group(group CSG ,n = 30) .Meanwhile H .pylori infection was detected .[Results] The expression of TFF3 and NF-κB in CSG ,IM and GC tissues had a increasing tendency .The expression of TFF3 and NF-κBp65 in group GC were higher than those in group CSG( P 0 .05) .[Conclusion] The expression of TFF3 and NF-κB may be an early event of gastric carcinoma .Combination de-tection of NF-κB ,TFF3 and H .pylori infection is of great significance for the prevention and early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma .

  18. Evaluation of repeatability of higher-order aberrations measurement, in pseudophakic eyes by I-Trace wavefront analyzer%i-Trace像差分析仪在人工晶体眼高阶像差测量的可重复性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐力; 刘奕志; 何明光; 柳夏玲; 曾明兵

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the repeatability in measuring higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in intraocular lens (IOL)eyes by a ray trace wavefront analyzer. Methods HOAs were consecutively examined 3 times across a 5.0 ram aperture diameter in 47 intraoeular lens (IOL) eyes using a ray trace wavefront analyzer. Root-mean-square (RMS) values of total higher-order aberrations (THOA), total coma-like aberrations (TC), total spherical-like aberrations (TSA) and total trefoil-like aberrations (TT) were recorded. The repeatability of measurements was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis between each pair of measures and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) among the 3 measurements. The mirror symmetry of HOAs between each pair of the eyes was studied using Pearson correlation analysis. Results In IOL eyes HOAs measurements, all ICC>.73 (P .57 (P 0.05). But the mean RMS values of THOA,TT had low correlation between right and left eyes. Conclusions The repeatability of i-Trace wavefi'ont analyzer in measuring HOAs in IOL eyes is better. There have good symmetry in the TSA mean RMS values between fight and left eyes, while the mean RMS values of THOA, TC and TT have bad symmetry between right and left eyes.%目的 评价i-Trace波前像差分析仪测量人工晶体眼高阶像差的可重复性.方法 随机选取47只人工晶体眼,连续3次测量5.0mm扫描直径下高阶像差,包括总高阶像差(THOA),总慧差(TC),总球差(TSA),总三叶草(TT),以均方根(RMS)表示.3次测量的可重复性用组间相关系数(ICC)评价,两次测量间的重复性以Pearson相关系数评价.用Pearson相关系数分析左右眼高阶像差的对称性.结果 高阶像差测量3次测量ICC均大于0.73(P<0.01),两次测量间Pearson相关系数r均大于0.57(P<0.01).双眼RMS值对称性分析,左右眼TSA有相关性,而THOA、TC、TT无相关性.结论 i-Trace像差分析仪在人工晶体眼高阶像差测量的可重复性较强.TSA的RMS值双眼对称性显著,而THOA、TC、TT双眼对称性较差.

  19. Rigid gas-permeable contact lens fitting after corneal refractive surgery%透气硬性角膜接触镜在角膜屈光手术后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 栗莉; 马莹; 亢晓丽

    2011-01-01

    with larger diameter. BCLCVA was much higher than UCVA and BSCVA. Spherical aberration, coma and trefoil were reduced by 88.7%, 92.9% and 18.9% respectively after RGP fitting. Visual symptoms of all patients after RGP fitting were improved. The main complication was corneal staining of iatrogenic keratoconus. All patients can tolerate wearing RGP in the day time after an average follow-up of 21.5 months. Conclusions Specially designed RGP fitted after corneal refractive surgery can raise the best corrected visual acuity and improve the quality of vision. No serious complications related to RGPwearing are observed.

  20. The Serbian Redaction of the Church Slavonic Language: From St. Clement, the Bishop of the Slavs, to St. Sava, the Serbian Archbishop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Savić

    2016-12-01

    and the southeastern boundary of Raška (roughly in Poibarje, near the fortress of Zvečan and the early medieval settlement of Čečan. Miroslav’s Gospel is dated to the period between 1161 and 1170 (ca. 1165 and is linguistically associated with the territory of the Bishopric of Raška because its scribes were the bearers of a dialect typical of this region: the manuscript either originates from Raška or it was written by Rascian scribes in some other area. Based on a rather large number of literary monuments, it is possible to get insight into the third stage in the life of this form of literacy in Polimlje, where the hereditary estates of the Nemanjićs and their relatives were located. From the early Middle Ages this area witnessed lively ecclesiastical activities, though they were based on the Roman Rite. One of the cultural centers must have been located around the trefoil church of St. John at Zaton (9th–11th centuries. In this wider area, a more conservative Serbian literary tradition, which can be traced in the Mihanović Fragment, could have persisted slightly longer. The Mihanović Fragment was the purest representative of the Serbian redaction, without secondary shadings typical of the innovative southern Slavic areas in the 11th century (with the mildest divergence from the vernacular variety when pronouncing the literary language, and it was still based on the linguistic background shaped by St. Clement. The linguistic picture of this literary monument indicates that it could have originated from an area where an ancient linguistic redaction dating back to the early 10th century, or perhaps an even older variety of a literary language from the 9th century (associated with the Roman Rite combined with a later South Slavic layer of undetermined age (10th–11th centuries, persisted.

  1. PAM施用方式对土壤水热及玉米生长的影响%Effects of PAM with different application methods on soil moisture, soil temperature and growth of Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 于健; 耿桂俊; 李晶晶; 白岗栓

    2013-01-01

    为了探寻PAM在玉米生产中的最佳施用方式,在河套灌区玉米播种时,以不施PAM为对照,研究PAM沟施、混施、撒施、穴施对土壤水分、土壤温度和玉米生长的影响.结果表明:1)在玉米生长的不同时期,PAM都可提高土壤水分,特别是在干旱的玉米抽雄吐丝期、灌浆期具有显著作用;2)PAM可延缓玉米幼苗期、三叶期的土壤温度回升,抑制玉米幼苗生长;3)从玉米拔节期开始,PAM可促进玉米生长,在玉米抽雄吐丝期、灌浆期效果最为显著;4)PAM沟施、混施、撒施、穴施的玉米产量分别较对照提高30.6%、39.3%、40.2%和31.7%,水分利用效率分别提高18.97%、25.43%、29.69%和20.46%,水分产出率分别提高31.36%、40.71%、42.15%和32.32%;5)在河套灌区,PAM撒施是玉米播种时相对适宜的施用方法.%In order to probe the best application methods of PAM in Zea mays production in Hetao Irrigation District,Inner Mongolia,PAM was applied with four methods of furrowing,mixing,broadcasting and holing,taken plots without PAM at Zea mays sowing as control.Effects of PAM on soil moisture,soil temperature and Zea mays growth status were studied at different growth stages of Zea