WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonrestricted budget conditions

  1. Evaporation of grass under non-restricted soil moisture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.; Stricker, J.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of various formulas for evapotranspiration of grass in non-restricted soil water conditions is considered. These are the expressions based on the Penman formula, i.e. "old" Penman, Penman-Monteith, Thom-Oliver and the version recommended more recently by the FAO. Moreover, the

  2. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  3. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  4. Conditional political budget cycles: a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  5. Conditional political budget cycles : a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  6. Conditional political budget cycles: a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  7. Conditional political budget cycles : a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  8. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically....... First, by modeling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms, we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Second, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the development of labor productivity, we find...

  9. Outcomes analysis of hospital management model in restricted budget conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virsavia Vaseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Facing conditions of market economy and financial crisis, the head of any healthcare facility has to take adequate decisions about the cost-effective functioning of the hospital. Along with cost reduction, the main problem is how to maintain a high level of health services. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of healthcare services after the implementation of control over expenses due to a reduction in the budgetary resources in Military Medical Academy (MMA, Sofia, Bulgaria. Data from the hospital information system and the Financial Department about the incomes and expenditures for patient treatment were used. We conducted a retrospective study on the main components of clinical indicators in 2013 to reveal the main problems in the hospital management. In 2014, control was imposed on the use of the most expensive medicines and consumables. Comparative analysis was made of the results of the medical services in MMA for 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that despite the limited budget in MMA over the last year, the policy of control over operational costs succeeded in maintaining the quality of healthcare services. While reducing the expenses for medicines, consumables and laboratory investigations by ∼26%, some quality criteria for healthcare services were observed to be improved by ∼9%. Financial crisis and budget reduction urge healthcare economists to create adequate economical instruments to assist the normal functioning of hospital facilities. Our analysis showed that when a right policy is chosen, better results may be achieved with fewer resources.

  10. Water and chemical budgets in an urbanized river system under various hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.

    2017-04-01

    Since historical times, riversides are preferential settlement places for human life and activities, ultimately leading to the development of Cities. Available water resources are not only essential to ensure human's vital functions, they are also used for the production of food, goods, and energy, as transport routes and as evacuation ways for domestic and industrial waste products. All these activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. An extreme example of strongly modified river system is the river Zenne crossing the city of Brussels. In and around the city, the river together with its connected navigation canal, determine a small vertical urbanized area (800 km2) combining extreme land-use landscapes. While the southern upstream part of this area lies in a region of intensive agricultural activities, the central part is occupied by a dense cityscape including a forested area, and the downstream part is mainly under industrial influence. In this context, we established a box-model representation of water and selected polluting chemicals (N and P, biological oxygen demand, and a selection of metals, pesticides and PAHs) budgets for the studied area under variable hydrological conditions. We first have identified the general distribution of water and pollutant tracers in the various background sources of the system: waters in streams located in the very upstream parts of the catchment, and untreated and treated sewage. Secondly we have assessed the distribution of water flows, and pollutant tracer concentrations at the boundaries of the studied water systems for different stable hydrological conditions and during flood events. Finally we will discuss water budgets and pollution tracer budgets for a yearly average hydrological situation and for dry and wet weather conditions in order

  11. Conditional budgets of second-order statistics in nonpremixed and premixed turbulent combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macart, Jonathan F.; Grenga, Temistocle; Mueller, Michael E.

    2016-11-01

    Combustion heat release modifies or introduces a number of new terms to the balance equations for second-order turbulence statistics (turbulent kinetic energy, scalar variance, etc.) compared to incompressible flow. A major modification is a significant increase in viscosity and dissipation in the high-temperature combustion products, but new terms also appear due to density variation and gas expansion (dilatation). Previous scaling analyses have hypothesized that dilatation effects are important in turbulent premixed combustion but are unimportant in turbulent nonpremixed combustion. To explore this hypothesis, a series of DNS calculations have been performed in the low Mach number limit for spatially evolving turbulent planar jet flames of hydrogen and air in both premixed and nonpremixed configurations. Unlike other studies exploring the effects of heat release on turbulence, the turbulence is not forced, and detailed chemical kinetics are used to describe hydrogen-air combustion. Budgets for second-order statistics are computed conditioned on progress variable in the premixed flame and on mixture fraction in the nonpremixed flame in order to locate regions with respect to the flame structure where dilatation effects are strongest.

  12. Midterm results of diagnostic treatment and repair strategy in older patients presenting with nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect and severe pulmonary artery hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Aijun; Li Zhiqiang; Li Xiaofeng; Fan Xiangming; Su Junwu; Zhang Jing; He Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH),previously thought to have irreversible pulmonary vascular disease (PVD),has been recently successfully corrected using diagnostic treatment and repair strategy by our surgery team.This study aimed to evaluate the midterm results of a selected cohort of older patients with nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect (VSD) and SPAH using diagnostic treatment and repair strategy.Methods The records of 56 patients older than six years with nonrestrictive VSD and SPAH undergoing diagnostic treatment and repair strategy from 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.All patients received advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapy and radical repairs were performed when transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SPO2) increased up to 93%.Results There were no operative deaths.SPO2 and baseline six-minute walk test (SMWT) distance of all selected patients increased significantly and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) regressed significantly after diagnostic treatment and at late follow-up (P <0.01).The incidence of late postoperative PAH was seen in six (10.7%) patients and by Logistic regression analysis,early postoperative PAH was an independent risk factor related to late postoperative PAH.Conclusions Diagnostic treatment and repair strategy was effective and safe for treatment of nonrestrictive VSD and SPAH and the midterm results were excellent.Diagnostic treatment strategy was effective in assessing the reversibility of SPAH in older patients associated with nonrestrictive VSD and the PVD in these selective patients is generally reversible.

  13. Managing budget emphasis through the explicit design of conditional budgetary slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, Tony; Wouters, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Budgetary slack plays an important role in the functioning of budgets in organizations. While theory has found negative as well as positive elements associated with its presence, the empirical literature has interpreted it as being dysfunctional to organizations. In this paper, we present empirical

  14. Effects and mechanisms of non-restrictive external stent for prevention of vein graft restenosis in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Nai-kang; LI Bo-jun; XIAO Cang-song; LIU Xi; LIANG Chao-yang; ZHANG Tao; GAO Chang-qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Among various treatments preventing vein graft restenosis, external stent is receiving more and more attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-restrictive external stent on the prevention of vein graft restenosis and the potential mechanisms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the process of restenosis.Methods Thirty-six "New Zealand white rabbits" were randomly divided into two groups, stented group (group S) and control group (non-stented group, group NS). Each rabbit underwent a reversed autologous external jugular vein into common carotid artery bypass grafting. In group S, the vein grafts were surrounded by a non restrictive stent which was 6 mm in diameter (a kind of Dacron vascular prosthesis); and in group NS, there was no stent to support the vein grafts.The grafts were harvested at the first week (1W), second week (2W) and fourth week (4W) after surgery respectively. The dimensions (including the thickness and area of the intima and media, luminal area) were measured by computer-aided image analysis system, and the intimal hyperplasia ratio was defined as the percentage of the area enclosed by the internal elastic lamina occupied by the intima.Results At 1W, the difference of the thickness and area of the intima between groups S and NS was not significant (P >0.05); at 2W and 4W, the thickness and area of the intima and the intimal hyperplasia ratio in group S were less significant than those in group NS (P <0.05); from 1W to 4W, the thickness and area of the media in group S were smaller than those in group NS (P<0.05). Immunocytochemistry staining of PDGF-B showed that the percentage of positive cells of intima in both two groups was peaked at 2W, and a significantly smaller percentage was detected in group S compared with that in group NS at 2W and 4W (P <0.05); the percentage of PDGF-B positive cells of media in both two groups was also peaked at 2W, and that in group S was smaller than that in group NS

  15. Optimal Budget Spending for Software Testing under the Condition of Nonlinear Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩用明; 吴相林; 岳超源

    2003-01-01

    Software testing is a very important phase of the software development process. It is a very difficult job for a software manager to allocate optimally the financial budget to a software project during testing. In this paper the problem of optimal allocation of the software testing cost is studied. There exist several models focused on the development of software costs measuring the number of software errors remaining in the software during testing. The purpose of this paper is to use these models to formulate the optimization problems of resource allocation: Minimization of the total number of software errors remaining in the system. On the assumption that a software project consists of some independent modules, the presented approach extends previous work by defining new goal functions and extending the primary assumption and precondition.

  16. On the "Non-Restricted special Relativity" theory (NRR), and further comments on "Cherenkov vs X-waves"

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Besieris, Ioannis M

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to recall some essential points of "Extended special Relativity", now more correctly called "Non-Restricted special Relativity" theory (NRR), and in particular of the extended Maxwell Equations; as well as to set forth some further comments on the basic differences between Cherenkov Radiation and the so-called X-shaped Waves, met within the more recent realm of the Non-diffracting Waves (also known as Localized Waves). The occasion is furnished by some very recent Seshadri's comments[1] on a previous article of ours, titled "Cherenkov radiation versus X-shaped localized waves" (see[2], and arXiv:0807.4301[physics.optics]), and not less on NRR itself. OCIS codes: 320.5550; 350.7420; 070.7345; 350.5500; 070.0070; 100.7410; 050.050; 000.1600; 000.2690; 000.6800; 250.5530; 260.0260. PACS nos.: 41.60.Bq; 03.50.De; 03.30.+p; 41.20;Jb; 04.30.Db; 42.25.-p; 42.25.Fx; 47.35.Rs. Keywords: Non-diffracing Waves; Localized Waves; Cherenkov radiation; X-shaped waves; Wave equations; Bessel beams; Su...

  17. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P modifications in feral horses.

  18. Wavelet Analysis of the Conditional Vorticity Budget in Fully Developed Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, M; Friedrich, R [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kadoch, B [Aix-Marseille Universite and M2P2-CNRS Ecole Centrale de Marseille, 38 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Schneider, K [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, 39 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Farge, M, E-mail: mwilczek@uni-muenster.de [LMD-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-12-22

    We study the conditional balance of vortex stretching and vorticity diffusion of fully developed three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with respect to coherent and incoherent flow contributions. This decomposition is achieved by the Coherent Vorticity Extraction based on orthogonal wavelets applied to DNS data, which yields insights into the influence of the different contributions as well as their interaction.

  19. The role of seasonal and hydrological conditions in regulating dissolved inorganic nitrogen budgets in a forested catchment in SW Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Simon; Vidmar, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    During two consecutive years the monitoring of rainfall nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) concentrations, combined with high-frequency measurements of streamwater NO3(-) concentrations, provided insight into the mechanisms controlling the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) budgets of the forested Padež stream catchment in SW Slovenia. During both years, the catchment's annual wet atmospheric DIN deposition (12.6 and 13.8kg-N/ha) exceeded the annual DIN export (10.7kg-N/ha and 8.8kg-N/ha). The analysis of the monthly DIN budgets discloses seasonal patterns. In winter and early spring, the catchment behaves as a net source of DIN, whereas during late spring, summer, and early fall the catchment generally behaves as a net sink of the atmospheric DIN. Due to large evapotranspiration in the growth period, most of the DIN remains in the catchment and is flushed during the dormant season. Despite high evapotranspiration and consequently low runoff coefficients characteristic for the Mediterranean climate, large rainfall events in the growth period can cause intensive washout of DIN from the catchment. At a monthly basis, the DIN flushing might exceed the catchment's DIN retention capacity and the catchment might behave as a net source of DIN. Therefore, the hydrological conditions have the ability to shift the catchment's role in regulating the DIN budgets. The high responsiveness of the streamwater NO3(-) concentration in the growth period indicates a large pool of DIN in the forest soils which can become mobile by runoff formation. Wet atmospheric DIN deposition at the Padež catchment is considerable; highest DIN inputs can be expected when air masses approach the catchment from the southwest to southeast where there are extensive urban areas along the Italian, Slovenian and Croatian coast. However, the Padež catchment does not appear to be approaching N saturation, presumably due to strong internal N cycle in the forest soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  20. Underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages: are humorous responsible drinking campaign messages effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements. The authors conducted a posttest-only control group experiment with 91 teenagers and college-aged participants. For underage moderate drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans (e.g., "Don't drink") increased participants' perceived risk of excessive drinking and increased a level of intention to change their drinking behavior. However, for underage binge drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans lowered participants' risk perception of excessive drinking and intention to change their drinking behavior.

  1. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of drought conditions (1998-2002 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  2. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of average climate conditions (1978-2007 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  3. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  4. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  5. Applying Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to simulate growth and bio-energetics of blue mussels under low seston conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, R.; Strand, Ø.; Alunno-Bruscia, M.; Bacher, C.; Strohmeier, T.

    2009-08-01

    A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for simulation of growth and bioenergetics of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) has been tested in three low seston sites in southern Norway. The observations comprise four datasets from laboratory experiments (physiological and biometrical mussel data) and three datasets from in situ growth experiments (biometrical mussel data). Additional in situ data from commercial farms in southern Norway were used for estimation of biometrical relationships in the mussels. Three DEB parameters (shape coefficient, half saturation coefficient, and somatic maintenance rate coefficient) were estimated from experimental data, and the estimated parameters were complemented with parameter values from literature to establish a basic parameter set. Model simulations based on the basic parameter set and site specific environmental forcing matched fairly well with observations, but the model was not successful in simulating growth at the extreme low seston regimes in the laboratory experiments in which the long period of negative growth caused negative reproductive mass. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model was moderately sensitive to changes in the parameter and initial conditions. The results show the robust properties of the DEB model as it manages to simulate mussel growth in several independent datasets from a common basic parameter set. However, the results also demonstrate limitations of Chl a as a food proxy for blue mussels and limitations of the DEB model to simulate long term starvation. Future work should aim at establishing better food proxies and improving the model formulations of the processes involved in food ingestion and assimilation. The current DEB model should also be elaborated to allow shrinking in the structural tissue in order to produce more realistic growth simulations during long periods of starvation.

  6. Heat budget for a waste lift placed under freezing conditions at a landfill operated in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonany, James E; Van Geel, Paul J; Burak Gunay, H; Burkan Isgor, O

    2013-05-01

    A landfill operated in Ste. Sophie, Québec, Canada was instrumented to better understand the waste stabilization process in northern climates. Instrument bundles were placed within the waste to monitor temperature, settlement, oxygen, moisture content, total load, mounding of leachate and electrical conductivity. A finite element model was developed to simulate the heat budget for the first waste lift placed in the winter months and was calibrated using the first 10.5 months of collected temperature data. The calibrated model was then used to complete a sensitivity analysis for the various parameters that impact the heat budget. The results of the analysis indicated that the heat required for phase change to thaw the liquid fraction within frozen waste had a significant impact on the heat budget causing sections of waste to remain frozen throughout the simulation period. This was supported by the data collected to date at Ste. Sophie and by other researchers indicating that frozen waste placed during the winter months can remain frozen for periods in access of 1.5 years.

  7. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  8. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  9. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  10. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  11. Augmentation by interleukin-18 of MHC-nonrestricted killer activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S M; Yanagawa, H; Hanibuchi, M; Miki, T; Okamura, H; Sone, S

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a novel cytokine with pleiotropic functions. In the present study, we examined the induction of the killer activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) against lung cancer cell lines upon treatment with IL-18 in combination with IL-12. Cytotoxic activity was measured by standard (51)Cr release assay. IL-18 (100 ng/ml) was found to significantly augment IL-12-induced killer activity in a MHC-nonrestricted manner against allogeneic NK-resistant Daudi cells and lung cancer cell lines: SBC-3, RERF-LC-AI and A549. IL-18 could augment IL-12-induced killer activity both at the optimal as well as suboptimal doses of the latter. However, IL-18 was found to have little effect on the killer activity of MNC induced by optimal or suboptimal dose of IL-2 or IL-15. Treatment of MNC with IL-18 in combination with IL-12 for a period of more than 4 days was observed to optimally induce the killer activity. As for induction of IFN-gamma production by MNC, IL-18 augmented that induced by IL-2 and IL-15, as well as that induced by IL-12. These results show the potential of IL-18 in combination with IL-12 for clinical application in treatment of cancer.

  12. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  14. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  15. Purposeful use of a non-restrictive, asynchronous public Web-based forum for facilitating reflective discourse with preservice science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec Michael

    The purpose of this research has been to investigate the purposeful use of asynchronous telecommunications in a science education methods/curriculum course involving the use of a non-restrictive, public Web based forum for facilitating reflective discourse with preservice science teachers. Thirty-two preservice secondary school science teachers participated in a public science teaching forum on the World Wide Web during their student teaching internship. The forum was designed with NetForum software to be a place where science teachers share ideas, reflections and conversations on teaching and implementation of technology in the classroom and other instructional pedagogy, while also providing support for each other as members of an electronic professional community. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to explore interaction patterns that facilitated collaborative preservice teacher reflective discourse on the forum and participants' attitudes towards using asynchronous telecommunications during their student teaching internship. Data from forum discourse analysis, interviews, and survey instruments illustrate that the use of this asynchronous Web-based forum provided the participants the opportunity to discuss and examine science concepts and reflect on classroom issues that were directly relevant to their student teaching experiences. The findings revealed that most participants had positive attitudes with respect to interacting with the Web-based forum. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in attitude between participants who had access to a networked computer and those who did not have access. An analysis of the forum postings showed that saturation in the discourse can occur with large groups participating in online asynchronous conversations.

  16. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    policy official. Volume and structure of public debt will strike in the future state finances and income citizens who in turn will pay these debts. Regarding payment of public debt in the future, in literature often put morality issue grevarii income of future generations of rulers moment. Another issue addressed in this paper is that of public debt issuance conditions in international financial markets, the international financial institutions or domestic. Substantiating the link between the amount borrowed and realizing their destination in credit is needed to determine the economic and social effects on the budget and on income taxpayers will bear the burden of public debt.

  17. Evaluation of long-term trends in hydrologic and water-quality conditions, and estimation of water budgets through 2013, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2017-06-02

    An evaluation of trends in hydrologic and water quality conditions and estimation of water budgets through 2013 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority. Long-term hydrologic, meteorologic, and biologic data collected in Chester County, Pennsylvania, which included streamflow, groundwater levels, surface-water quality, biotic integrity, precipitation, and air temperature were analyzed to determine possible trends or changes in hydrologic conditions. Statistically significant trends were determined by applying the Kendall rank correlation test; the magnitudes of the trends were determined using the Sen slope estimator. Water budgets for eight selected watersheds were updated and a new water budget was developed for the Marsh Creek watershed. An average water budget for Chester County was developed using the eight selected watersheds and the new Marsh Creek water budget.Annual and monthly mean streamflow, base flow, and runoff were analyzed for trends at 10 streamgages. The periods of record at the 10 streamgages ranged from 1961‒2013 to 1988‒2013. The only statistically significant trend for annual mean streamflow was for West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, Pa. (01480300) where annual mean streamflow increased 1.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) per decade. The greatest increase in monthly mean streamflow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 47 ft3/s per decade. No statistically significant trends in annual mean base flow or runoff were determined for the 10 streamgages. The greatest increase in monthly mean base flow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 26 ft3/s per decade.The magnitude of peaks greater than a base streamflow was analyzed for trends for 12 streamgages. The period of record at the 12 stream gages ranged from 1912‒2012 to 2004–11. Fifty percent of the streamgages showed a

  18. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu,...

  19. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu,...

  20. Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for recent conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 2008 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for Hawaii Island, Hawaii....

  1. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 1870 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Kauai,...

  2. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 1870 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu,...

  3. Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 1870 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for Hawaii Island, Hawaii....

  4. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Kauai,...

  5. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu,...

  6. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Maui, Hawaii, for recent conditions, 1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Maui,...

  7. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Maui, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Maui,...

  8. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, for recent conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Kauai,...

  9. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Maui, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1978–2007 rainfall and 1870 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Maui,...

  10. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  11. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  12. The "Fame Effect" or How the syntactic choices of writers can be explained by their assumptions about their addressees' state of knowledge: the case of relevance-oriented, non-restrictive noun modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Loock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we would like to explore, within Vallduví’s (1992, 1993 information packaging theory, how writers’ assumptions about their addressees’ state of knowledge can account for the choice writers make between competing syntactic structures, which we call “allostructures”, to convey the same informational content. The assumed old/new informational status has then an influence on the grammatical choices made by the writers. In particular we investigate here, using the web as corpus, the constraints that govern writers’ choice between the following non-restrictive modifiers of nouns that aim at optimizing the relevance (as defined by Sperber & Wilson of the referents denoted by the nouns they modify: nominal appositives, appositive relative clauses, non-restrictive pre-modifiers.Cet article explore la façon dont les hypothèses de l’énonciateur sur les connaissances de son / ses destinataire(s peuvent avoir une influence sur ses choix entre des structures syntaxiques concurrentes (ou « allostructures » afin de véhiculer un contenu informationnel donné. Le statut informationnel ancien / nouveau supposé aura alors une influence sur les choix grammaticaux effectués par celui-ci. Dans le cadre de la théorie de l’information packaging telle que développée par Vallduví (1992, 1993 et à partir d’une étude de corpus qui utilise l’internet comme source principale, nous étudions en particulier les contraintes qui régissent le choix entre des modifieurs non restrictifs à visée de pertinence (au sens de Sperber et Wilson, à savoir les propositions subordonnées relatives appositives, les appositions nominales, et les prémodifieurs.

  13. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  14. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  15. Estimating long-term evolution of fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir using a simplified method based on classification of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The Iffezheim reservoir is the last of a series of reservoirs on the Upper Rhine in Germany. Since its construction in 1977, approximately 115,000 m3 of fine sediments accumulate annually in the weir channel (WSA Freiburg, 2011). In order to obtain detailed information about the space-time development of the topography, the riverbed evolution was measured using echo sounding by the German Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration (WSV). 37 sets of sounding data, which have been obtained between July 2000 and February 2011, were used in this research. In a previous work, the morphodynamic processes in the Iffezheim reservoir were investigated using a high-resolution 3D model. The 3D computational fluid dynamic software SSIIM II (Olsen, 2014) was used for this purpose (Zhang et al., 2015). The model was calibrated using field measurements. A computational time of 14.5 hours, using 24 cores of a 2.4 GHz reference computer, was needed for simulating a period of three months on a grid of 238,013 cells. Thus, the long-term (e.g. 30 years) simulation of morphodynamics of the fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir with this model is not feasible. A low complexity approach of "classification of the boundary conditions of discharge and suspended sediment concentration" was applied in this research for a long-term numerical simulation. The basic idea of the approach is to replace instationary or quasi-steady simulations of deposition by a limited series of stationary ones. For these, daily volume changes were calculated considering representative discharge and concentration. Representative boundary conditions were determined by subdividing time series of discharge and concentration into classes and using central values per class. The amount of the deposition in the reservoir for a certain period can then be obtained by adding up the calculated daily depositions. This approach was applied to 10 short-term periods, between two successive echo sounding measurements

  16. 民营医院预算管理的现状及思考%Present Condition and Thinking of Budget Management in Hospital Run by Private Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑天; 张立贵

    2012-01-01

    医院预算管理是医院先进管理的核心,有利于资源的优化配置.目前,大多民营医院中存在观念淡薄,编制方法落后等问题.民营医院已经成为我国医疗队伍中的重要组成部分,如欲做大做强,就应加强计划目标管理,优化支出结构,提高医院资金的使用效果,提升医院管理水平作为预算管理目标.只有实行全面科学的预算管理,民营医院才能健康有序的发展.%Budget management in the hospital is the core of advanced management in the hospital manages, and is advantageous to optimal allocation of resources. Currently, for most of private hospital, their consciousness is weak, and budgeting method is backward. Hospital run by private capital has become the important component of national medical service. If we want to develop the private hospital, we should strengthen plan and target management, optimize expenditure architecture, improve the use effectiveness of hospital funds, and enhance the hospital management level. Only implement comprehensive and scientific budget management, can the private hospital develops healthily.

  17. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  18. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  19. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  20. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  1. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  2. A collaborative vendor-buyer production-inventory systems with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, and stochastic demand under budget capacity constraint: a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Nurhayati, R. A.; Wiyono, S. B.; Handajani, S. S.; Martini, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated inventory model considering the imperfect quality items, inspection error, controllable lead time, and budget capacity constraint. The imperfect items were uniformly distributed and detected on the screening process. However there are two types of possibilities. The first is type I of inspection error (when a non-defective item classified as defective) and the second is type II of inspection error (when a defective item classified as non-defective). The demand during the lead time is unknown, and it follows the normal distribution. The lead time can be controlled by adding the crashing cost. Furthermore, the existence of the budget capacity constraint is caused by the limited purchasing cost. The purposes of this research are: to modify the integrated vendor and buyer inventory model, to establish the optimal solution using Kuhn-Tucker’s conditions, and to apply the models. Based on the result of application and the sensitivity analysis, it can be obtained minimum integrated inventory total cost rather than separated inventory.

  3. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  4. Budgeting for PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lh

    2008-10-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.

  5. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  6. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  7. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  8. Deficit of the budget: essence, reasons and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashko, Andriy Ivanovych

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of deficit of the state budget in the conditionsof forming the socially directed market economy. The economic essence and the basic factors ofexistence of negative balance of the budget have been interpreted and identified. The conditions ofthe use of deficit of the state budget as the instrument of influence on economic processes have beendetermined.The purpose lies in principles of forming the deficit of budget and developingrecommendations in relation to the increasing management efficiency.The basic task of the scientific article is to investigate the economic essence and identify theprincipal reasons for deficit of budget.

  9. Assessing body condition and energy budget components by scoring abdominal profiles in free-ranging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    An abdominal profile index (API) was developed for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus as a measure of body condition. On basis of carcass analysis of 56 adult geese with known API prior to collection, we found significant linear relationships between API against body mass, abdominal fat and tota

  10. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    .3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.5 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. For year 2015 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, showing a slowdown in growth of these emissions compared to the average growth of 1.8 % yr-1 that took place during 2006-2015. Also, for 2015, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.3 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 1.9 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was higher in 2015 compared to the past decade (2006-2015), reflecting a smaller SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 399.4 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2015. For 2016, preliminary data indicate the continuation of low growth in EFF with +0.2 % (range of -1.0 to +1.8 %) based on national emissions projections for China and USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. In spite of the low growth of EFF in 2016, the growth rate in atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to be relatively high because of the persistence of the smaller residual terrestrial sink (SLAND) in response to El Niño conditions of 2015-2016. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2016, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach 565 ± 55 GtC (2075 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2016, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2016).

  12. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  13. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  14. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  15. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  16. A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens

    We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....

  17. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  18. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  19. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  20. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  1. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  2. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  3. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  4. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  5. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  6. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  7. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  8. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  9. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  10. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  11. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  12. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  13. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  14. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  15. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  16. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  17. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  18. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  19. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  20. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  1. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  2. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    such conditions, when there are no opportunities to reduce investments, spending on housing and utilities and on the economy, the compensational sources can be found only in the budget sector and the existing measures of social support; such a situation will cause the reduction of domestic demand, creating not only economic but also political risks for the regional authorities. The article analyses the execution of budgets of the RF subjects for 2014, substantiates practical recommendations for the stabilization of territorial budgetary systems and proposes measures to lead them out of the crisis. The study is based on the official data of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation [7], the Federal Treasury [8], the Federal Tax Service [9], and the Federal State Statistics Service [10

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  4. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  5. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  6. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  7. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  8. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  9. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  10. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  11. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  12. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  13. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  14. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principal and agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in-depth interviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget.

  15. To Improve the Budget or Beyond the Budget%改进预算还是超越预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the problems of traditional budget, this paper introduces two kinds of popular modes to make up the drawbacks of traditional budget management, namely"improve the budget"and"beyond the budget". Aiming at the existing problems in the budget management in China, combined with the research of foreign scholars and analysis of the market environment Chinese enterprises are facing, this paper attempts to explore a budget reform direction that suitable for China's national conditions.%本文通过对传统预算存在的问题进行分析,引出了当前较为流行的两种弥补传统预算管理缺陷的模式,即“改进预算”和“超越预算”。针对我国预算管理中存在的问题,结合国外学者的研究及我国企业目前面临的市场环境分析,试图探索出适合我国国情的预算改革方向。

  16. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  17. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  18. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  19. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  20. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  1. Budgeting for Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John P.; Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia, runs a food service operation responsible for serving 100,000 student lunches at 179 school locations each day. In addition, meals are provided by contractual agreement to day care centers and private schools. The budget process is explained and illustrated with a chart. (MLF)

  2. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  3. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  4. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  5. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  6. 45 CFR 233.22 - Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.22 Determining... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting. 233.22 Section 233.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY...

  7. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.27 Supplemental... budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... relocation assistance, (d) on educational grants or loans and (g) on payments for certain services. ...

  8. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  9. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  10. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  11. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  12. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  14. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  15. Budget Allocation in a Competitive Communication Spectrum Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hua; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Ye, Yinyu

    2009-12-01

    This study discusses how to adjust "monetary budget" to meet each user's physical power demand, or balance all individual utilities in a competitive "spectrum market" of a communication system. In the market, multiple users share a common frequency or tone band and each of them uses the budget to purchase its own transmit power spectra (taking others as given) in maximizing its Shannon utility or pay-off function that includes the effect of interferences. A market equilibrium is a budget allocation, price spectrum, and tone power distribution that independently and simultaneously maximizes each user's utility. The equilibrium conditions of the market are formulated and analyzed, and the existence of an equilibrium is proved. Computational results and comparisons between the competitive equilibrium and Nash equilibrium solutions are also presented, which show that the competitive market equilibrium solution often provides more efficient power distribution.

  16. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  17. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  18. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  19. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  20. New York State budget update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The New York State Assembly proposed a 1999-2000 spending plan that rejected Governor George Pataki's sweeping cuts in funding for AIDS and other health-related programs. The proposal would add $12.4 million to AIDS services, including $10 million for community-based HIV-related services. The State Senate has not yet issued its proposed budget. The Governor is expected to be the biggest obstacle to the funding; he used his veto power extensively last year.

  1. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  2. THE NATIONAL BUDGET BALANCING IN THE CONTEXT OF GOVERNMENTAL ANTIRECESSIONARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyshleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers international experience of balancing national budget under crisis conditions. Scientific approaches to achieving fiscal balance are examined. Some proposals are put forward to undertake anti-crisis activities as to fiscal policy in Ukraine.

  3. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  5. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies being synthesised in RECCAP. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: Net Primary Production (NPP; Net Ecosystem Production (NEP; fire; Land Use Change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial.

    The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 29 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 31 ± 5 Tg C yr−1 and 18 ± 7 Tg C yr−1 respectively. The resultant Net Biome Production (NBP of 31 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 Tg C yr−1 by 32 ± 36%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  6. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Nankakishore [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  7. Development of an integrated system of budgeting machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Polischuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is reasonably argued the complex of theoretical and methodological principles for creating an integrated budgeting system designed to create flexible and efficient management system. As part of this goal the problems of investigation of links between budgeting and strategic management of the machine-building enterprises and conditions for integration of budgeting and strategic planning are solved. Definition of the notion of integrated budgeting and implementation stages are given. The result of the comprehensive study of the principles of creating the integrated budgeting system in the machine-building enterprises is a possibility of implementation of strategic initiatives while saving company’s resources, as well as mutually coordination and link of the budgets at all levels for both strategic management and budgeting levels, and for the company as a whole implementing strategic objectives. It is argued that for evaluation of company results in implementation of strategic goals it is necessary to transform strategy into developed action plans with defined key performance indicators reflected in budgets in quantitative and quality figures that can measure depth of the achievement of strategic and tactical goals.

  8. Water Budget, 1983-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Mark (Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1986-10-01

    This report encompasses the first three years (1983, 1984, and 1985) of operation. It includes: (1) background and history of the development of the Water Budget concept including a discussion of Water Budget manager positions; (2) implementation of the Water Budget since its formulation by the Council in 1983; (3) a discussion of the research and monitoring funded by BPA; and (4) a discussion of Section 304 of the Council's Program.

  9. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Nichols Act reforms (1986) were intended to rectify this situation. Then, with the drawdown after the fall of the Soviet Union, budget offices were...significant constraint as a variable in analyses of the effectiveness and suitability of systems. CAIV is intended to reduce acquisition costs. After ...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns

  10. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  11. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  12. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  13. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  14. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  15. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  16. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning After Solis 2004, 28 However, the story that these diagrams...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation: would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns...notes that after nearly twenty years of reform since the Packard Commission Report and Goldwater-Nichols, “major weapons systems still cost too much

  17. Budget preparation, execution and methods at the major claimant/budget submitting office level

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, James E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the current Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) process at a Navy Major Claimant/Budget Submitting Office (BSO) by examining the overall navy process and the processes employed at a major claimant/BSO, COMPACFLT (CPF). The thesis begins by describing the scope of the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting requirements at CPF by describing its Area of Responsibility (AOR) and the major sub-claimants who rely on CPF for program and budget submissions and subse...

  18. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  19. Indexation of the Expenditure Budget during the LHC Construction Period

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document contains information relating to price escalation of the LHC project and a proposal concerning a procedure for indexation for the period 2003 to the end of the construction period. The procedure would be reviewed as from 2007-2008, unless economic conditions affecting the LHC project change considerably before that date. The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council to approve the proposals set out in section 5 of this document, in connection with the expenditure part of the budget.

  20. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  1. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  2. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands: Beyond Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); J.J.A. Posseth (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its applicat

  3. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  4. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  5. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  6. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  7. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  8. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertaintie

  9. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  10. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  11. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  12. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  13. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  14. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  15. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  16. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  17. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  18. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  19. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  20. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  1. Improvement of Information Support to Socialisation of Budget Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hvasaliia Diana S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new approaches to assessment of social direction of expenditures and social security of population, which allow conduct of a complex assessment of the social state of the society. It justifies urgency of improvement of a methodical approach to information support of realisation of budget relations by means of development of the system of ratios of assessment of social direction of expenditures and social security of population with the use of elements of cluster and integral analysis for interpretation of the obtained data. The article offers a model of results of cluster and integral analysis of the state of the social sphere, which takes into account all author’s ratios that allows diagnostics of the state of the social sphere and conduct leading impact on justified indicators and, thereby, achieve improvement of the state of the social sphere under conditions of a limited social budget.

  2. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  3. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  4. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  5. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  6. Element budgets in an Arctic mesocosm CO2 perturbation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Boxhammer, T.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Büdenbender, J.; Engel, A.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Nachtigall, K.; Nondal, G.; Niehoff, B.; Siljakova, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining the temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air/sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification using KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation) all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down some of the mentioned uncertainties. Water column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic constituents were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution, as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in 2 of the 3 experimental phases but did not significantly affect particle elemental composition. Enhanced carbon consumption appears to result in accumulation of dissolved organic compounds under nutrient recycling summer conditions. This carbon over-consumption effect becomes evident from budget calculations, but was too small to be resolved by direct measurements of dissolved organics. The out-competing of large diatoms by comparatively small algae in nutrient uptake caused reduced production rates under future ocean CO2 conditions in the end of the experiment. This CO2 induced shift away from diatoms towards smaller phytoplankton and enhanced cycling of

  7. Element budgets in an Arctic mesocosm CO2 perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siljakova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining the temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air/sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification using KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down some of the mentioned uncertainties. Water column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic constituents were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution, as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in 2 of the 3 experimental phases but did not significantly affect particle elemental composition. Enhanced carbon consumption appears to result in accumulation of dissolved organic compounds under nutrient recycling summer conditions. This carbon over-consumption effect becomes evident from budget calculations, but was too small to be resolved by direct measurements of dissolved organics. The out-competing of large diatoms by comparatively small algae in nutrient uptake caused reduced production rates under future ocean CO2 conditions in the end of the experiment. This CO2 induced shift away from diatoms towards smaller phytoplankton and

  8. Beam positioning error budget in ICF driver

    CERN Document Server

    Shi Zhi Quan; Su Jing Qin

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the method of linear weight sum to beam positioning budget on the basis of ICF request on targeting, the approach of equal or unequal probability to allocate errors to each optical element. Based on the relationship between the motion of the optical components and beam position on target, the position error of the optical components was evaluated, which was referred to as the maximum range. Lots of ray trace were performed, the position error budget were modified by law of the normal distribution. An overview of position error budget of the components is provided

  9. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  10. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  11. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  12. Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført en kvalitativ ...

  13. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism (P.105-118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principaland agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in depthinterviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989 Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values   in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget. Keywords: budget, capitalist, symbolic interactionism,principal,agent

  14. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    compared to the 2002–2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013.

  15. Metaphorical Accounting: How Framing the Federal Budget Like a Household's Affects Voting Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Flusberg, Stephen J

    2017-01-31

    Political discourse is saturated with metaphor, but evidence for the persuasive power of this language has been hard to come by. We addressed this issue by investigating whether voting intentions were affected by implicit mappings suggested by a metaphorically framed message, drawing on a real-world example of political rhetoric about the federal budget. In the first experiment, the federal budget was framed as similar to or different from a household budget, though the information participants received was identical in both conditions. When the federal budget was described as similar to a household's, people considered the personal finances of a presidential candidate more relevant-a finding we replicated in a larger, pre-registered study. In a follow-up experiment, we presented participants with a more explicit rhetorical argument and found a similar effect, moderated by political affiliation. These studies illuminate how metaphorical comparison affects cognition for important real-world issues, sometimes in unintended ways.

  16. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  17. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  18. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  19. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  20. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Document Server

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  1. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  2. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  3. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  4. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  5. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    VBA ) script was created that would read the model - based output and corresponding sounding data for each message type (METCM or METB3), output type...produce artillery MET error budget tables that account for expected errors when using MET model -based systems. Representatives of the US and other...nations within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization expressed a need for shareable model -based MET error budgets. Use of an openly available civilian

  6. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  7. INTERNET MARKETING BUDGET ALLOCATION: FROM PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LAN ZHAO; JISHAN ZHU

    2010-01-01

    Consider a firm promotes its products through several Internet media with a fixed Internet marketing budget and models the budget allocation decisions as a competitive game, in which each firm formulates its own optimization model that is influenced by the competitors' moves as well. One challenge to the application of such model in practice is how to deal with asymmetric information. In this paper, we discuss several issues that are often asked by the practitioners that are related to dealin...

  8. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  9. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  10. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  11. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  12. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  13. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  14. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; And Others

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the genesis of the FY 1978 budget; (2) a brief look at the overall budgets for FY 1978; (3) a description of the policies underlying the R&D budgets for FY 1978; (4) a discussion of the future…

  15. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  16. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  17. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  18. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  19. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  20. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  1. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  2. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  3. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  4. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  5. The Fundamentals of Formation of the State Budget and Tax Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichniy Mykola D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation and development of the theoretical and methodological definitions as to formation of the State budget and tax policy in the current conditions of economic transformations. The issues of developing the directions and measures of fiscal policy in line with the priorities of social and economic development of the country and its administrative-territorial units have been explored. Attention has been focused on the importance of assessing the impacting of the economic growth by not the tax burden only, but the tax structure as well, in the context of the major classifications. The article substantiates the importance of enhancing the efficiency of use of budgetary funds, separation of social and economic efficiency of the budget expenditures. Of particular interest are the issues relating to strengthening of the institutional foundations of the budget and tax policy, implementation of measures for introduction of the medium-term budget planning. Priorities of the budget policy in the sphere of the inter-budgetary relations and regulation of the budget deficit have been allocated.

  6. Energy Budget on Various Land Use Areas Using Reanalysis Data in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy budget is closely related to the hydrological cycle through evapotranspiration (ET or latent heat. Hence, quantifying the energy budget on different land uses is critical for understanding the water budget and providing useful land use information for decision makers. However, traditional methods, including in situ measurements and model-only approaches, have deficiencies in data availability, and we have still not yet fully realized how well the energy budgets presented in reanalysis data sets. Therefore, in this study, North American regional reanalysis (NARR data set from 1992 to 2002 were employed to investigate the energy budget on various land uses (lake, wetland, agriculture, forest, and urban at a regional scale in Florida. The results showed that the lake and urban areas had high values of energy budget, evaporation, and low Bowen ratio, while the wetland areas have the opposite treads because of the lowest evaporation rate. During drought periods, Bowen ratio, surface temperature, and sensible heat were becoming higher than those of normal years conditions. Finally, by comparing with the observed data, we found NARR had better assimilation of precipitation observations and demonstrated the land use effects from the different coefficient of correlation relationships.

  7. Managing the Cash and Liquidity of the Croatian Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Anto Bajo

    2005-01-01

    The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a gov...

  8. A Methodological Review of US Budget-Impact Models for New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Josephine; Earnshaw, Stephanie

    2016-11-01

    A budget-impact analysis is required by many jurisdictions when adding a new drug to the formulary. However, previous reviews have indicated that adherence to methodological guidelines is variable. In this methodological review, we assess the extent to which US budget-impact analyses for new drugs use recommended practices. We describe recommended practice for seven key elements in the design of a budget-impact analysis. Targeted literature searches for US studies reporting estimates of the budget impact of a new drug were performed and we prepared a summary of how each study addressed the seven key elements. The primary finding from this review is that recommended practice is not followed in many budget-impact analyses. For example, we found that growth in the treated population size and/or changes in disease-related costs expected during the model time horizon for more effective treatments was not included in several analyses for chronic conditions. In addition, all drug-related costs were not captured in the majority of the models. Finally, for most studies, one-way sensitivity and scenario analyses were very limited, and the ranges used in one-way sensitivity analyses were frequently arbitrary percentages rather than being data driven. The conclusions from our review are that changes in population size, disease severity mix, and/or disease-related costs should be properly accounted for to avoid over- or underestimating the budget impact. Since each budget holder might have different perspectives and different values for many of the input parameters, it is also critical for published budget-impact analyses to include extensive sensitivity and scenario analyses based on realistic input values.

  9. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  10. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  11. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  12. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  13. Maintaining collections with a flat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the various processes, methods and tough decisions made by the University of Kansas Libraries to provide library materials while maintaining a flat collections budget for over eight years. During this period, those responsible for the Libraries’ collections have implemented quick stop- gap measures, picked all the ‘low-hanging fruit’, and eventually canceled a large journal package. This case study will help other librarians facing the reality of maintaining collections at a time when budgets, changing formats and publication practices are all obstacles to providing patrons with what they need.

  14. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  15. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  16. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  17. Beyond budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast : hvilken sammenheng har styringsmodellen beyond budgeting og ledelse?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført...

  18. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  19. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and t

  20. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Soest, van Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate an

  1. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  2. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan de Brugh, J.M.J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.J.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.A.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestima

  3. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  4. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  5. The Proposed Homeland Security Budget for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. CBO 6 THE PROPOSED HOMELAND SECURITY BUDGET FOR 2013 CBOFigure 2. Homeland Security Funding Requested by the...Marshals Service Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Federal Bureau of Investigation Miscellaneousa Food and Drug Administration...Administration National Security Division Food and Drug Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco

  6. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  7. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  8. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  9. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  10. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  11. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, Matthias; Andersen, David; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  12. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, Matthias; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  13. 45 CFR 233.23 - When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.23 When assistance... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. 233.23 Section 233.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY...

  14. 45 CFR 233.21 - Budgeting methods for OAA, AB, APTD, and AABD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....21 Section 233.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.21 Budgeting methods for OAA...

  15. 45 CFR 233.26 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months. 233.26 Section 233.26 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  16. 45 CFR 233.24 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.24 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and...

  17. GUIDELINES FOR OPTIMAL PURCHASING OF CONSTRUCTION WITH THE USE OF BUDGETING BASED ON TDABC ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZANTOWICZ Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates on the optimal purchasing process with the use of budgeting based on TimeDriven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC. It has been defined the basic assumptions of the TDABC model. Collected by vehicle examination, has been identified indications are conditioning the use of TDABC, as well as the factors and barriers that prevent the use of TDABC.

  18. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A data mining approach. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Budget is used by the Government as a guiding tool for planning and management of its resources to aid in ...

  19. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  20. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  1. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1992 fiscal year. Detailed budget proposals, projections, and summaries are...

  2. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  3. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  4. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  5. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  6. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  7. The Scope and Structure of the General EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the scope and structure of the general budget of the European Union. EU general budget is constructed in accordance with the budgetary principles that are set out in Regulation No 966/2012. The scope of the budget is related to entities whose income and expenses are accounted for in the budget. It is connected with the principle of unity and budget accuracy. The structure and content of the budget, however, are associated with the data exhibited in the budget and the way they are presented. Of particular importance in the context of the structure and content of the budget are principles such as universality, balance, specification.

  8. TREASURY EXECUTION OF LOCAL SPENDING BUDGETS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dema, Dmitry; Feshchenko, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of using a treasury management system for servicing of local budgets are considered; the role of treasury bodies in routine management of local finances is defined. Current problems of treasury-based execution of local spending budgets are investigated and main deregulating factors affecting the procedure of cash execution of budgets are arranged in a system.Ways to improve budget funds management at the local level are proposed including: improvement of ...

  9. Organisation of Internal Control in a Budget Institution: Applied Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan Larysa V.; Deyneko Yevgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The article proves urgency and necessity of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It graphically depicts a general structure of the organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It offers and substantiates a model of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It proves that the key principles of organisation of internal control in budget institutions are principles of effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, the effectiveness principle is connected w...

  10. Restructuring the budget for the Fleet Modernization Program (FMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    Management The Fleet Modernization Program (FMP) provides a systematic structure for planning, programming, budgeting, and installing improvements to ships of the active and reserve fleets. The procedures for budgeting and executing the FMP are governed by the rules of the current FMP Fiscal Appropriation. Since Fiscal Year (FY) 1989, a series of FMP appropriation decisions has resulted in each budget year program being budgeted and executed differently. These decisions have directly affec...

  11. Closing the gap between budget formulation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Erainust

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a case study analysis of the Resource Management Office of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (PERS-02). Specifically, an analysis of projected versus actual budget figures was conducted. The purpose of the research was to explain anomalies in the budget formulation figures as compared to actual budget execution figures and define ways to improve the protocol between budget activities. Based on model comparisons, document rev...

  12. THE CONCEPTUAL CONTENT OF STATE BUDGET PROCESS IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Žubule, Ērika; Puzule, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the role of the budget in economy we may declare that the budget process should favour the social economic development of the state. The aim of the research is to explore and evaluate theoretical aspects of the state budget process as a component of the state financial policy and to work out proposals for improvement of the state budget process, based on the theoretical and empirical findings. The main objectives of the research were to study the foreign economic scientific literat...

  13. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    impaired. The malady of the program phase also infected the budget phase. Decision making late in the budget process becomes shrouded in urgency...chair.(b Iude o s t dote bi nniu e alatly, aiebu deIt reviewedlon annuimicfo ally mratf ilont Commite and f~iwsoeemmntatiee, caipminted bytj ’peuh r...Budget Committee, became infected . In 1984, he observed "I dn think there needs to be some (budget) reform. But there is no reform that can substitute fur

  14. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  15. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  16. Elaboration of Public Budget – A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a different way to manage public money, and to engage people in government. Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It enables taxpayers to work with government to make the budget decisions that affect their lives.

  17. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  18. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  19. Deficit Prevention: Budget Control Model for Enrollment-Dependent Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing system of short-term budget controls that test actual performance against budget forecasts is essential for enrollment-dependent independent colleges. The budget control model presented here is a tool to inform the management continuously of changes in the all-important tuition revenue stream. (Author/MSE)

  20. Managing Highway Maintenance: Budget Preparation, Unit 9, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the essential steps in developing a maintenance budget, or performance budget, based on the work to be done. It is designed for field engineers and supervisors who assist department officials in preparing work programs and budgets. The format is a programed,…

  1. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  2. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  3. California's Budget Problems Leave Community Colleges Holding IOU's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    When California approved its budget last month, the community-college system managed to escape the sharp budget cuts that befell most other agencies. But the state's fiscal troubles have nonetheless created a cash crisis for two-year colleges. As part of its plan to close a $41-billion budget deficit, California will delay providing $540-million…

  4. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and...

  5. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  6. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  7. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  8. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  9. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  11. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided...

  12. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  13. Managing the Cash and Liquidity of the Croatian Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a government institution, were taken over by the banks; the financial operations of budgetary spending agencies were channelled via the Single Account of the Treasury; and government deposits were gradually transferred from numerous commercial banks to the Single Account of the Treasury in the Croatian National Bank and the state-owned Croatian Postal Bank. Unfortunately, however, the Ministry of Finance, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, still carries out no operation of cash and liquidity management within the government Treasury system, nor does it operate on the money market with its surplus budgetary resources. Because of this state of affairs, management of the cash and liquidity of the central government budget is within the purview of the commercial banks.

  14. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  15. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  16. The effect of agency budgets on minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from road rehabilitation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-11-01

    Transportation agencies are being urged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One possible solution within their scope is to alter their pavement management system to include environmental impacts. Managing pavement assets is important because poor road conditions lead to increased fuel consumption of vehicles. Rehabilitation activities improve pavement condition, but require materials and construction equipment, which produce GHG emissions as well. The agency’s role is to decide when to rehabilitate the road segments in the network. In previous work, we sought to minimize total societal costs (user and agency costs combined) subject to an emissions constraint for a road network, and demonstrated that there exists a range of potentially optimal solutions (a Pareto frontier) with tradeoffs between costs and GHG emissions. However, we did not account for the case where the available financial budget to the agency is binding. This letter considers an agency whose main goal is to reduce its carbon footprint while operating under a constrained financial budget. A Lagrangian dual solution methodology is applied, which selects the optimal timing and optimal action from a set of alternatives for each segment. This formulation quantifies GHG emission savings per additional dollar of agency budget spent, which can be used in a cap-and-trade system or to make budget decisions. We discuss the importance of communication between agencies and their legislature that sets the financial budgets to implement sustainable policies. We show that for a case study of Californian roads, it is optimal to apply frequent, thin overlays as opposed to the less frequent, thick overlays recommended in the literature if the objective is to minimize GHG emissions. A promising new technology, warm-mix asphalt, will have a negligible effect on reducing GHG emissions for road resurfacing under constrained budgets.

  17. Potential of green infrastructure to restore predevelopment water budget of a semi-arid urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youcan; Burian, Steven; Pomeroy, Christine

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a study of the potential for green infrastructure (GI) to restore the predevelopment hydrologic cycle in a semi-arid urban catchment. Simulations of stormwater runoff from a 0.11-km2 urban catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA for predeveloped (Natural Hydrology, NH), developed (Baseline, BL), and developed with GI (Green Infrastructure, GI) conditions were executed for a one-year period. The study was repeated for a relatively dry year, wet year, and an average year based on precipitation amounts in the year. Bioretention and green roofs were chosen for the GI plan. Results showed that the water budget of the catchment with the GI plan implemented more closely matches the NH water budget compared to the BL scenario, for all three years (dry, wet, average). The BL and GI scenarios showed more significant modifications to the water budget than what has been found by studies in humid climates. Compared to the BL condition, GI annually reduces surface runoff by 35%, 45%, and 43% and restores evapotranspiration by 18%, 19%, and 25% for the dry, average, wet years, respectively. Based on the introduced water budget restoration coefficient (WBRC), the water budget of the study catchment was restored by the GI plan to 90%, 90%, and 82% of the predevelopment state in the dry, average, and wet years, respectively. By comparing the WBRC estimated for other studies, it is further inferred that the water budget is more significantly affected by development and GI restoration in semi-arid than humid climates, but the differences lessen as the precipitation amount increases.

  18. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  19. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  20. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  1. Capital budgeting practices in Indian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali Batra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of the global economy, changing business practices, and academic developments have created a need to re-examine Indian corporate capital budgeting practices. Our research is based on a sample of 77 Indian companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. Results reveal that corporate practitioners largely follow the capital budgeting practices proposed by academic theory. Discounted cash flow techniques of net present value and internal rate of return and risk adjusted sensitivity analysis are most popular. Weighted average cost of capital as cost of capital is most favoured. Nevertheless, the theory-practice gap remains in adoption of specialised techniques of real options, modified internal rate of return (MIRR, and simulation. Non-financial criteria are also given due consideration in project selection.

  2. Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.

    2009-07-01

    Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.

  3. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  4. Keynote: Beyond Budgeting in a Lean and Agile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogsnes, Bjarte

    We suggest that we need a fundamentally different philosophy and a concept for how organisations are led and managed. We believe that it is time to challenge the traditional management myths. The main goal of Beyond Budgeting is not get rid of budgets. The budget must go, but it is more the budgeting mindset we need to get rid of, because it represents the old thinking that needs to be changed. Based on the works of The Beyond Budgeting Round Table, we review a set of 12 principles for a new style of contemporary leadership and management.

  5. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study's premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  6. Using CLV concept for marketing budgets allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Oyner, Olga K.; Sukhorukove, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the usefulness of customer lifetime value (CLV) as a metric for marketing budget allocation by developing a framework that enables managers to maintain customer relationships proactively through different elements of marketing mix, in order to maximize CLV. The analysis is based on data from a hardware components PC B2B company and suggests that there is a potential for increased sales and CLVs when managers design resource allocation rules that maximize CLV. Managers can ...

  7. The 2014 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    which was released yesterday. Between 2009 and 2012, the federal government recorded the largest budget deficits relative to the size of the economy since...1946, causing its debt to soar. The total amount of federal debt held by the public is now equivalent to about 74 percent of the economy s annual...be on an upward path relative to the size of the economy , a trend that could not be sustained indefinitely.

  8. Budgeting and forecasting application development : an evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Passoja, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ultimate benefits of what a Finnish stock listed company achieved as the result of a cost budgeting and cost forecasting application development project. Two separate development projects were carried out for the case company’s Finnish and Russian organizations. The starting point for the project was the case company’s initial need to start using rolling cost forecasting, so that the company could adjust its fixed and variable costs in accordance w...

  9. Studies on carbon budget score remarkable progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 23 November, 2006, a key CAS research project on carbon budget passed the review by a panel of experts under the joint auspices of the CAS Bureau of Comprehensive Planning and the CAS Bureau of Science and Technology for Resourc es and Environment. The panel was made up of 11 prestigious experts, led by CHEN Yiyu, a CAS Member and President of National Natural Sciences Foundation of China.

  10. Recherche sans budget, Europe sans avenir

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Latest developments Negotiations in Brussels in early February 2013 to define the long-term budget 2014 − 2020 of the European Union (EU) could result in a significant loss for the European research program 2020. It could be that the research program of the EU would have to face a decrease from the already low 80 billion euros proposed by the Commission in late 2012 to 69 billion euros (a decrease of almost 12 % or even more considering that the European Parliament had initially proposed a budget of 100 billion euros for Horizon 2020). Nevertheless let us hope that this will not be the "last word" on the funding of Horizon 2020 and that the European Parliament, which co-decides on the budget together with the European Council, which is composed of heads of government and tends to promote national interests, will reduce somewhat the significant loss of funds for research. Indeed, Parliament is generally more favorable to European research policy. In particular, the President of t...

  11. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  12. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The global methane budget 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Castaldi, Simona; Jackson, Robert B.; Alexe, Mihai; Arora, Vivek K.; Beerling, David J.; Bergamaschi, Peter; Blake, Donald R.; Brailsford, Gordon; Brovkin, Victor; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crevoisier, Cyril; Crill, Patrick; Covey, Kristofer; Curry, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Gedney, Nicola; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Ishizawa, Misa; Ito, Akihiko; Joos, Fortunat; Kim, Heon-Sook; Kleinen, Thomas; Krummel, Paul; Lamarque, Jean-François; Langenfelds, Ray; Locatelli, Robin; Machida, Toshinobu; Maksyutov, Shamil; McDonald, Kyle C.; Marshall, Julia; Melton, Joe R.; Morino, Isamu; Naik, Vaishali; O'Doherty, Simon; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Peters, Glen P.; Pison, Isabelle; Prigent, Catherine; Prinn, Ronald; Ramonet, Michel; Riley, William J.; Saito, Makoto; Santini, Monia; Schroeder, Ronny; Simpson, Isobel J.; Spahni, Renato; Steele, Paul; Takizawa, Atsushi; Thornton, Brett F.; Tian, Hanqin; Tohjima, Yasunori; Viovy, Nicolas; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; van Weele, Michiel; van der Werf, Guido R.; Weiss, Ray; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Wilton, David J.; Wiltshire, Andy; Worthy, Doug; Wunch, Debra; Xu, Xiyan; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-12-01

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (˜ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr-1, range 540-568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios

  14. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance. Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social and administrative conditions put up a series of problems which impose an extremely serious approach of the potential adverse impact by sizing of budget deficits and public debt over the real possibilities of noninflationary financing. In Romania, in the highly complex framework in which the economic activity takes place, in the attempt to show the place held by the budget deficit, a special role is assigned to determine the share of public financial deficit in the consolidated budget revenue and expenditure. Currently, knowledge and concern for reducing the budget deficit are still of great importance, especially as Romania is facing great difficulties in economic development. Amid deepening structural crisis phenomena, increasing budget deficits financed over a non-inflationary limits comes as an additional factor that contributes to imbalances of the economy. In addition, where budgetary expenditures are targeted to satisfy, primary, the redistribution function and to state subsidies, because of the lack of a real multiplier coefficient, the state budget deficit worsens. Influences such as introducing economic disturbance in the mechanisms which cause them to increase budget deficits can be summarized and grouped into two broad categories: economic influences and psychological influences. Regarding economic influences, we can say that they act strongly and strictly determined by how meanings used to cover budget deficit. The modalities used are subject to an analysis by direct or indirect

  15. New estimates of the large-scale Arctic atmospheric energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David F.; Cassano, John J.; Serreze, Mark C.; Kindig, David N.

    2010-04-01

    New estimates of the current energy budget of the north polar cap (the region north of 70°N) are synthesized by combining data from new atmospheric reanalyses and satellite retrievals. For the period 2000-2005, monthly means from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite data set are considered to provide the most reliable top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. The remaining components of the energy budget, comprising of the energy storage, horizontal convergence of energy, and the net surface flux between the atmospheric and subsurface columns, are compiled using data from the Japanese 25 Year Reanalysis Project (JRA) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Reanalysis (NRA). The annual cycles of energy budget components for the polar cap are fairly consistent between the JRA and NRA, but with some systematic differences. JRA depicts an annual mean surface flux of 14 W m-2 (upward), compared to only 5 W m-2 in NRA. Most of this disparity appears to be due to differences in sea ice and albedo. Horizontal atmospheric energy flux divergence calculated using mass-corrected flux values contains artifacts leading to unphysical results. We argue that backing out the energy flux convergence as a residual from the net surface heat flux and time change in energy storage from each reanalysis, and the TOA radiation budget from CERES, provides for more physically realistic results in the Arctic. Monthly mean anomalies of budget terms, used to examine conditions leading to the extreme seasonal sea ice extent minimum of September 2005, point to the importance of albedo feedback.

  16. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions. The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that deposition increases at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning account for 27% at the most, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization. Deposition fluxes are dominated by gaseous dry deposition processes (58% of the total, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems ranges from 8.6 to 10.9 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the other 70% attributed to NHx. The average emission flux ranges from 7.8 to 9.7 kgN ha−1 yr−1, dominated by NH3 volatilization (67% and biogenic emission from soils (24%. The annual budget is then

  17. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  18. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  19. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  20. Soft budget constraint and the parastatal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of soft budget constraints (SBC) to development studies by examining the parastatal sector. The political ingredient of the SBC is discussed by focusing on two examples: 1) religious and military foundations in Iran; and 2) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. It presents two main findings. First, the SBC of the parastatal sector can be understood as the political economy of a predator state or state’s rent-seeking activity. Second, the state sector is more prone to t...

  1. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study’s premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  2. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    cooking skills, and a supporting social network compared to interviewees who had more negative coping experiences. We propose that Zygmunt Bauman's metaphors of the tourist and the vagabond can inspire us towards an improved understanding of different experiences of and reactions to restrained food...... restriction increased. The qualitative study revealed important factors that link strategies toeither positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of coping with food budget restraint reported extra resources in the shape of e.g. more secure life circumstances, higher...

  3. Strategies for Dealing with the Defense Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-17

    UNCLASSIFIED ItCUWIfV CUAWICATIOH O^ T>"» *»C« C.»lt— Omm gnt REPORT D0ajM6NTATI0N PAGE READ rNSTRUCTIO.NS OSFOPC COMWLETTNG FORM DSSW BOA ...documentation. \\ STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH THE DEFENSE BUDGET for Defense Systems Management College DSSW BOA No. MDA 903-82-G-0047 BOOZ ALLEN...Frisch, Franz A. and Acker, David D., "Financing Defense System Programs," Concepts (J. Def. Sys. Acq. Mgmt.), Vol. 4, No. 4, Autumn 1981, pp. 7

  4. Immunizing complex networks with limited budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi

    2012-05-01

    In this letter we studied the epidemic spreading on scale-free networks assuming a limited budget for immunization. We proposed a general model in which the immunity of an individual against the disease depends on its immunized friends in the network. Furthermore, we considered the possibility that each individual might be eager to pay a price to buy the vaccine and become immune against the disease. Under these assumptions we proposed an algorithm for improving the performance of all previous immunization algorithms. We also introduced a heuristic extension of the algorithm, which works well in scale-free networks.

  5. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  6. Why Is the Self-Sufficiency of Urban Districts Budgets Not Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban districts occupy a special place in the system of municipalities due to their potential and role in the implementation of governmental economic policy. Possessing the most developed infrastructure, facilities and a good financial basis, large and medium-sized cities accumulate the major part of budget revenues. However, the predominant part of their revenues that amounts, according to various estimates, to 70–85% [1, 6, 15] goes to superior budgets. As a consequence of the reforms of intergovernmental fiscal relations and local government that were held in 2000–2009, cities were left without stable, legislated fiscal revenue sources that were sufficient to fulfill their obligations to the population. Currently, city government can fully dispose of single tax on imputed income, individual property tax and land tax. Significant imbalances in the distribution of budget revenues make cities dependent on the financial assistance of higher levels of public authority and lead to an accumulation of problems. The Federal Treasury data on the execution of urban districts budgets show the stagnation of own revenues in 2011–2014. According to the calculations made by ISEDT RAS, in 2014, the availability of own budget revenues per capita was below the average value in 60% of the capital cities of Russia’s constituent entities (regardless of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. This affected even major centers like Voronezh, Volgograd, Ufa, Chelyabinsk and Omsk. In the Vologda Oblast, the fiscal capacity of residents in urban districts that include the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets was 17% below the national average due to the reduction in the amount of receipts of own budget sources since 2012. In the conditions of acute shortage of financial resources to meet the growing obligations to support citizens, local authorities are forced to make borrowings; this fact limits the possibility of conducting a responsible fiscal policy and implementation of

  7. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  8. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  9. Budget Deficit and Macroeconomics Fundamentals: The case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahnim Farajova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emergence of rising budget deficit is the main reason forcing economists to investigate the reasons for changes in fiscal balances. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic fundamentals using data from Azerbaijan. The empirical analysis applies ARDL Cointegration methodology in conjunction with Granger causality tests to provide evidence for both the long and short run dynamics between the variables involved in the analysis. Using the Error Correction specification, there was found evidence of long-run causality running from current account, real interest rate, GDP, inflation and exchange rate to budget deficit. There was also found evidence of short-run Granger causal effects running from current account and real interest rate towards budget deficit and a rather weak causal effect from inflation to budget deficit. However, there is no short – run causality running from interest rate to budget deficit.

  10. Radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond. [earth radiation budget satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development of systems for obtaining radiation budget and cloud data is discussed. Instruments for measuring total solar irradiance, total infrared flux, reflected solar flux, and cloud heights and properties are considered. Other topics discussed include sampling by multiple satellites, user identification, and determination of the parameters that need to be measured.

  11. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  12. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. ...

  13. Is it time to make kids a higher budget priority?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuerle, C. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The children’s share of the federal budget is scheduled to decline from 10% of the federal budget in 2013 to 8% in 2024, despite 1.4 trillion in new annual government spending. Spending on children’s education, tax provisions, income security, and nutrition will decline, and the only federal expenditures on children’s health will increase. C. Eugene Steuerle argues that the next decade presents the opportunity to invest in children by carefully reassessing our current budget priorities.

  14. An analysis of budget execution in Zimbabwe and suggested improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Mudzinganyama, Morgan.

    2001-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the Government has been experiencing problems with budget formulation and control of expenditures by Ministries and departments. Through the adoption of a three-year-rolling budget in 1995, ministries were forced to forecast, focus and justify their requirements hence better planning. Despite this forward planning approach, budget execution problems have persisted as evidenced by over-expenditures, fraudulent activities and other related problems leading to centralize expenditure...

  15. TRANSFORMATIONS OF BUDGET DEFICIT BETWEEN 1980 AND 2012 IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A budget deficit finds itself among the issues most often discussed in the field of the public finance. A budget deficit is influenced by factors of a varied character. It can result from excessive budgetary expenditure on the militarization of economy, on developed state administration, transfers, public investments, or from the domestic and foreign debts service. In Poland a budget deficit appeared for the first time in 1980 and since then has been an inseparable element of the Polish publi...

  16. A multi-layer land surface energy budget model for implicit coupling with global atmospheric simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Earth system modelling, a description of the energy budget of the vegetated surface layer is fundamental as it determines the meteorological conditions in the planetary boundary layer and as such contributes to the atmospheric conditions and its circulation. The energy budget in most Earth system models has long been based on a "big-leaf approach", with averaging schemes that represent in-canopy processes. Such models have difficulties in reproducing consistently the energy balance in field observations. We here outline a newly developed numerical model for energy budget simulation, as a component of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems – CANopy. This new model implements techniques from single-site canopy models in a practical way. It includes representation of in-canopy transport, a multilayer longwave radiation budget, height-specific calculation of aerodynamic and stomatal conductance, and interaction with the bare soil flux within the canopy space. Significantly, it avoids iterations over the height of tha canopy and so maintains implicit coupling to the atmospheric model LMDz. As a first test, the model is evaluated against data from both an intensive measurement campaign and longer term eddy covariance measurements for the intensively studied Eucalyptus stand at Tumbarumba, Australia. The model performs well in replicating both diurnal and annual cycles of fluxes, as well as the gradients of sensible heat fluxes. However, the model overestimates sensible heat flux against an underestimate of the radiation budget. Improved performance is expected through the implementation of a more detailed calculation of stand albedo and a more up-to-date stomatal conductance calculation.

  17. Atmospheric photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: OH budgets during SAPHIR chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, S.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H.-P.; Fuchs, H.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Li, X.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2014-07-01

    Current photochemical models developed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons tend to underestimate OH radical concentrations. In order to analyse OH budgets, we performed experiments with benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. Experiments were conducted under low-NO conditions (typically 0.1-0.2 ppb) and high-NO conditions (typically 7-8 ppb), and starting concentrations of 6-250 ppb of aromatics, dependent on OH rate constants. For the OH budget analysis a steady-state approach was applied in which OH production and destruction rates (POH and DOH) have to be equal. The POH were determined from measurements of HO2, NO, HONO, and O3 concentrations, considering OH formation by photolysis and recycling from HO2. The DOH were calculated from measurements of the OH concentrations and total OH reactivities. The OH budgets were determined from DOH/POH ratios. The accuracy and reproducibility of the approach were assessed in several experiments using CO as a reference compound where an average ratio DOH/POH = 1.13 ± 0.19 was obtained. In experiments with aromatics, these ratios ranged within 1.1-1.6 under low-NO conditions and 0.9-1.2 under high-NO conditions. The results indicate that OH budgets during photo-oxidation experiments with aromatics are balanced within experimental accuracies. Inclusion of a further, recently proposed OH production via HO2 + RO2 reactions led to improvements under low-NO conditions but the differences were small and insignificant within the experimental errors.

  18. Evaluation of Mediterranean Sea water and heat budgets simulated by an ensemble of high resolution regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Gomez, E. [CERFACS/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex (France); Somot, S.; Dubois, C.; Deque, M. [CNRM/GAME, Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Josey, S.A. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Elguindi, N. [LA, CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    boundary conditions (ERA40 and sea surface temperatures) and have the same horizontal resolution and spatial domain, the reason for the large spread must reside in the physical parameterizations. To conclude, improvements are urgently required to physical parameterizations in state-of-the-art regional climate models, to reduce the large spread found in our analysis and to obtain better water and heat budget estimates over the Mediterranean Sea. (orig.)

  19. Effects of globalization on state budgeting system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobukh S.О.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When writing the scientific article the scientific approaches of scientists concerning the essence of budgeting have been described. The paper deals with the principles of budgeting on the basis of which three main methodological components are singled out. It also analyzes the budgeting goals. The author investigates the impact of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine, its positive and negative effects. Despite significant achievements it is necessary to explore the effects of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine. Budgeting is the management technology that provides the formation of budgets for the selected objects and their use to ensure optimal structure and correlation of profits and expenses, income and expenditure, assets and liabilities of the organization or its components to achieve the set goals taking into account the influence of the environment. It should be emphasized that budgeting in no way replaces the control system, but only creates a new approach to management from the standpoint of the balance of incomes and expenditures, profits and expenses, assets and liabilities of the organization as a whole or its components. The state budgeting of the country as the part of the financial system is the channel through which economic globalization, namely financial globalization, affects economic development of the state. Favorable global effect occurs, in particular, in terms of the impact on financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to + the nature of the relationship between these two processes.

  20. Geophysical science in the 1995 U.S. Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 7, President Clinton released his fiscal year 1995 budget of $1.52 trillion. At $16.9 billion, the overall budget for science and space will be 2% lower in 1995. Since science is “discretionary” funding—spending for programs other than entitlements and payments on the national debt—it is among the first to be cut. But considering other budget areas, science is faring relatively well. Agriculture's budget is being cut by a hefty 24%, energy is being cut by 8%, and defense is down 3%.

  1. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  2. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  3. Visibility of Public Budget Burdens and Benefits in New European Union Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The size and pattern of any public budget depend, among other factors, on the visibility of both the burdens and benefits of public revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, such visibility is a necessary - not a sufficient - condition for an efficient allocation of resources between the private and public sectors of an economy. The aim of this contribution, based on a recent research, is to apply fiscal visibility indicators to territorial government levels of new European Union member countries...

  4. Analysis of Camp Pendleton California Medical Treatment Facility Budget and Execution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Supervisor), Navy Medicine West, BUMED, and literature review of BUMED instructions and manuals . Naval Hospital (NH) Camp Pendleton FY-08 Budget Annual...hospitals during that time, set the conditions for the implementation of a nationally standardized fee schedule, RBRVS ( Bergey , 1991). The initial...service, the higher the worth ( Bergey , 1991). To calculate a simple RVU, an administrator adds physician work (RVUw), practice expense (RVUpe), and

  5. Hydrologic budget of the Beaverdam Creek basin, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Andreasen, Gordon E.

    1959-01-01

    A hydrologic budget is a statement accounting for the water gains and losses for selected periods in an area. Weekly measurements of precipitation streamflow, surface-water storage, ground-water stage, and soil resistivity were made during a 2year period, April 1, 1950, to March 28, 1952, in the Beaverdam Creek basin, Wicomico County, Md. The hydrologic measurements are summarized in two budgets, a total budget and a ground-water budget, and in supporting tables and graphs. The results of the investigation have some potentially significant applications because they describe a method for determining the annual replenishment of the water supply of a basin and the ways of water disposal under natural conditions. The information helps to determine the 'safe' yield of water in diversion from natural to artificial discharge. The drainage basin of Beaverdam Creek was selected because it appeared to have fewer hydrologic variables than are generally found. However, the methods may prove applicable in many places under a variety of conditions. The measurements are expressed in inches of water over the area of the basin. The equation of the hydrologic cycle is the budget balance: P= R+E+ASW+ delta SW + delta SM + delta GW where P is precipitation; R is runoff; ET is evapotranspiration; delta SW is change in surface-water storage; delta SM is change in soil moisture; and delta GW is change in ground-water storage. In this report 'change' is the final quantity minus the initial quantity and thus is synonymous with 'increase.' Further, ,delta GW= delta H .x Yg, in which delta H is the change in ground-water stage and Yg is the gravity yield, or the specific yield of the sediments as measured during the short periods of declining ground-water levels characteristic of the area. The complex sum of the revised equation P ? R - delta SW ? ET - delta SM, which is equal to delta H. x Yg, has been named the 'infiltration residual'; it is equivalent to ground-water recharge. Two

  6. Usability Evaluation of www.budget.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    This report presents the results of a usability evaluation of the budget.com website. The evaluation was carried out by a team of 4 HCI experts, and it involved 10 potential users. The evaluation is based on measurement of (1) task completion time, (2) task completion, (3) user satisfaction and (4......) perceived workload. We have also analyzed the user interaction with the website for (5) usability problems. Through the evaluation, we have found the following weaknesses of the website:   Reservation takes considerably more time than promised. The website indicates that a reservation can be made in 60...... browse around in the menu and try other measures. The information on the website is difficult to access and use. There is a large amount of information with very little structure on it; it is accessed through a long list of links. The structure is not supporting the user, and the information...

  7. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Military Construction, Navy Reserve 21,708 26,299 26,299 26,299 Military Construction, Air Force Reserve 25,986 33,620 33,620 33,620 Chemical Demil ...Air Force Reserve 7,634 Chemical Demil Construction, Defense 75,312 13,071,701 Appropriation 13,071,701 Budget Authority 13,071,701 TOA...7.00 3.00 Defense Prod Act 59.00 25.00 16.00 Chemical Demil 53.00 30.00 15.00 2.00 RDT&E Army 34.28 48.72 11.33 3.17 1.70 0.80 Navy 36.87 50.51 9.82

  8. Simulated wood budgets in two mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Bird, Stephen; Reid, David; Hogan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Large wood (LW) recruitment, transport, and storage were evaluated over a century in Gregory and Riley creeks (Haida Gwaii, British Columbia) by modeling a reach-scale LW budget using two frameworks for output: LW loss through decay and downstream transport, and loss through depletion. At reach and at watershed scales, mass movement and bank erosion dominated inputs, and fluvial transport was an important flux term in several reaches. Large wood recruitment by mortality was relatively minor in comparison. Large proportions of the in-channel LW were stored in jams with a mean age of 40-50 years. Overall, both modeling approaches yielded reasonable stored LW predictions in the study creeks, with the omission/inclusion of transport responsible for the largest differences between models. Modeled storage generally was within 30% of that measured in the field, and our results illustrate the large temporal variation in storage resulting from episodic inputs of LW from hillslopes.

  9. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations and from simulated dry deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta. Uncertainties are calculated for each contribution of the budget.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions.The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that emission and deposition increase at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning of oxidized compounds account for 0 to 13% at the most at the annual scale, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization from soils. At the annual scale, the average gaseous dry deposition accounts for 47% of the total estimated deposition flux, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average estimated wet plus dry deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems is 7.5±1.8 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with approximately 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the rest attributed

  10. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel. The purpose of this study were 1 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3 to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5  to analyze the influence of the Customer Satisfaction Brand Image, 6 to analyze the effect of Customer Loyalty to Brand Image. The design of this research using primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 250 respondents eligible stayed at the Budget Hotel at least 1 time in last 12 months. Respondents were selected using purposive sampling method and the data were analyzed using AMOS version 22.0 and SPSS version 22.0. The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and analyzed using AMOS. This study shows that 1 Service Quality found to have an influence on Customer Satisfaction, 2 Service Quality found to have an influence on Customer Loyalty, 3 Customer Satisfaction is found to have an influence on Customer Loyalty, 4 Service Quality found to have an influence on brand image, 5 Customer Satisfaction is found to have an influence on Brand Image, 6 Customer Loyalty found to have an influence on the Brand Image. The results of this study concluded that there is a positive influence of the Service Quality on Brand Image through the Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. Future researches are recommended to increase the factor of First Impression, Favorable Location, Hotel Core

  11. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  12. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  13. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Principles of Budget Allocation at the Institutional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Several types of institutional budgeting systems are examined, focusing on one type, revenue attribution budgeting. Implementation of such a system at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) is described. Approaches to decentralization of operational units in the institution, as a means of reducing costs, and its advantages and disadvantages, are…

  15. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  16. How Career Centers Are Responding to the Budget Crunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Paul B.; Step, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed career services offices (n=42) to determine effects of current budget crisis and strategies used to make up for deficits in operating budget and to produce a profile of services and population served. Found offices were raising fees, refining focus and efficiency, soliciting outside support, using paraprofessionals more, and doing more…

  17. Power in University Budgeting: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Moore, William L.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the determinants of power and budget allocations on two campuses of a large, state university system. Faculty positions and budget allocations were a function of student enrollment and departmental power, and departmental power was related to the amount of a department's grant and contract funds as well as to its enrollment. (Author/IRT)

  18. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds to be used. The budget shall show, as applicable, amounts for central offices, outside plant and..., vehicles and work equipment, office equipment, operating funds, refinancing with loan funds, debt... Telephone Bank (RTB) or concurrently with RTB, the budget shall include the amount required for the...

  19. Advanced Budget Technology in Education: The Future Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Nisonoff, Philip; Speakman, Sheree T.

    2001-01-01

    The techno-revolution is arriving in school business officials' domain. This article discusses four major effects of technology on budgeting and financial management of schools: enhanced strategic planning and mission building, budget standards without standardized spending, movement from system to student, and integration of multiple reporting…

  20. Personal healthcare budgets: What can England learn from the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, E. van; Groenewegen, P.P.; McKee, M.

    2012-01-01

    The English Department of Health wants to give patients more control over the care they receive. One way they propose to do this is through personal healthcare budgets for people eligible for NHS continuing care. The health secretary, Andrew Lansley, says the “budgets will give them more control ove

  1. Accounting for hybridity: Accrual budgeting in the Dutch central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Nico P.; de Kruijf, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Dutch central government (following countries like New Zealand, Australia and the UK) a system of resource budgeting is being developed as a substitute for its present dual system of cash/commitment budgeting for core departments and accrual accounting for executive agencies. Advocates of

  2. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  3. Proposed budget cuts threaten to short-circuit Grid network

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    2001-01-01

    Changes to the budget for the European sixth Framework programme may jeapardize the Grid project. The EU Parliament have asked to cut the budget for infrastructure to 500 million euros from 900 and of this 150 million will probably be allocated to Ge the pan-European research network (1 page).

  4. Personal healthcare budgets: What can England learn from the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, E. van; Groenewegen, P.P.; McKee, M.

    2012-01-01

    The English Department of Health wants to give patients more control over the care they receive. One way they propose to do this is through personal healthcare budgets for people eligible for NHS continuing care. The health secretary, Andrew Lansley, says the “budgets will give them more control

  5. Proposed State Budget Lacks Needed Focus on Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2014-15 state budget projects a surplus, due to painful budget cutting in recent years combined with the economic recovery and voter approval of new revenues. While the proposal invests some of the additional revenue in children, it falls well short of what is needed. California's kids have borne a…

  6. State Budgets and Federal Stimulus: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    U.S. has slipped into a recession greater and deeper than anyone expected. At least 47 states are grappling with budget shortfalls, and 46 states already anticipate problems into 2010 and 2011. State legislatures have the daunting task of balancing budgets as revenues drop and the need for services increases. Whether one participates in a child…

  7. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  8. Performance Budgeting in Practice: the Case of Danish Hospital Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth; Pallesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Danish public hospitals to see how performance budgeting works in the regions where the fundamental problems of performance information are negligible and the regions statutorily obligated to increase public sector efficiency by performance budgeting. The analysis shows that the regions in general have...

  9. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  10. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    at the Beginning of the Year Changes to Debt Held by the Public Deficit or surplus (-) CHAPTER ONE THE BUDGET OUTLOOK 21Figure 1-5. Debt Subject to...Standardized- Budget Deficit (-) or Surplusa Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Standardized

  11. 2020 Vision: Rethinking Budget Priorities under the LCFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    After years of painful budget cuts, new revenues will begin to flow to California school districts in 2014. Thanks to the voters' approval of Proposition 30 and the adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF), nearly all districts can expect budget increases over the next several years. In this report PACE offers guidance on…

  12. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 60.4140 Section 60.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4140 State trading budgets. The State...

  13. Zero-Base Budgeting for Libraries: A Second Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, William J.

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews the key features of zero base budgeting as a budgeting/planning system, discusses the applications of ZBB reported in the literature, and summarizes its special benefits and problems for libraries. Fifteen references are included. (Author/RAA)

  14. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  15. 7 CFR 1221.112 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1221.112 Section 1221.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... budget shall include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1218.50 Section 1218.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... budget shall include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1209.50 Section 1209.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... subpart. Each such budget shall include: (i) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan...

  18. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  19. Capital Budgeting Management Practices in Japan : A Focus on the Use of Capital Budgeting Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Tomonari

    2010-01-01

    Capital budgeting is one of the most important factors in the process of corporate decision-making. Data from numerous previous studies show that managers prefer the simple payback period method (non-discounted payback model) over the net present value method (discounted cash flow model), which academics consider as superior. In particular, almost all investigative research in Japan has shown that the managers of Japanese firms tend to prefer a non-discounted cash flow model, such as a simple...

  20. Draving Up a Budget Using The Activity Based Budgeting Methodology Through The Simulation Of Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Janíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a connection between financial and quality management systems. These departments only rarely cooperate on projects, which could be a loss, because this connection has many improvement opportunities. The author shows through the simple example of catering deliveries a possible procedure of how to reach a more realistic evaluation of production costs for each product and how to connect budgeting and process analysis.

  1. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  2. Army Corps of Engineers: Budget Formulation Process Emphasizes Agencywide Priorities, but Transparency of Budget Presentation Could be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    used for specific projects, and projects are classified mainly into these accounts. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ( FUSRAP ) is...weapons and relatively small size (the fiscal year 2010 budget request for the Corps included 24 FUSRAP projects). To understand the Corps’ budget

  3. An Inspection on the Gini Coefficient of the Budget Educational Public Expenditure per Student for China's Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingxiu, Yang

    2006-01-01

    Using statistical data on the implementing conditions of China's educational expenditure published by the state, this paper studies the Gini coefficient of the budget educational public expenditure per student in order to examine the concentration degree of the educational expenditure for China's basic education and analyze its balanced…

  4. 45 CFR 233.25 - Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one or two months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one or two months. 233.25 Section 233.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to...

  5. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr−1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1

  6. Study on Surface Heat Budget of Various Pavements for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface heat budgets of various pavement surfaces are studied with the aim of mitigating the urban heat island effect. In this study, the thermal characteristics of pavements are examined using data from observations. The net radiation, surface temperature, temperature under the surface, conduction heat flux, and core weight for each experimental surface are recorded, together with the weather conditions at the time of observation. The latent heat flux is estimated from the observed weight of the cores. The surface heat budget under the same weather conditions is examined, and the sensible heat flux from each target surface is calculated. The parameters that influence the surface heat budget, for example, solar reflectance (albedo, evaporative efficiency, heat conductivity, and heat capacity, are examined. On a typical summer day, the maximum reduction in the sensible heat flux from that on a normal asphalt surface is about 150 W/m2 for an asphalt surface with water-retaining material and about 100 W/m2 for a cement concrete surface with water-retaining material, depending on the albedo of each surface.

  7. A trait based dynamic energy budget approach to explore emergent microalgal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Karaoz, U.; Geng, H.; Lane, T.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae play important roles in the global carbon budget. Phytoplankton, including microalgae, are responsible for around 50% of global primary production, and also hold promise as a viable renewable biofuel source. Research has been underway for decades to realize the full potential of algal biofuels at the commercial scale, however, uni-algal ponds are typically threatened by collapse due to microalgal grazing and parasite invasions. Recently, it has been proposed that functionally diverse microalgal-bacterial communities can achieve high biomass and/or lipid yields, and are more stable (less susceptible to invasion) than a monoculture. Similar positive diversity-productivity relationships have been observed in a wide range of ecosystem studies, but the purposeful maintenance of a diverse microbiome is less common in managed systems. In our work, a trait based dynamic energy budget model was developed to explore emergent microalgal community structure under various environmental (e.g. light, temperature, nutrient availability) conditions. The complex algal community can be reduced into functional groups (guilds). Each guild (algae or bacteria) is characterized by distinct physiological traits (e.g. nutrient requirement, growth rate, substrate affinity, lipid production) constrained by biochemical trade-offs. These trait values are derived from literature and information encoded in genomic data. Metabolism of the algae and the bacterial species (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) are described within a dynamic energy budget framework. The model offers a mechanistic framework to predict the optimal microalgal community assemblage towards high productivity and resistance to invasion under prevailing environmental conditions.

  8. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  9. Centralization versus Delegation in an Experimental Capital Budgeting Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus C. Arnold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment, we model two stylized facts about capital budgeting practice, budgetary slack creation and delegation of decision-making authority. In our setting, under centralization, headquarters announces a budget, the division manager gives a cost report, and headquarters decides on the project. Under delegation, headquarters allocates a budget to the manager, and the manager is authorized to make the investment decision. We argue that the ability of headquarters to commit to a budget moderates the effect of delegation, and we find evidence in favor of our argument as there is an interaction effect of delegation and commitment to budgets. The effects of delegation are particularly strong when budgets are non-binding as delegation serves as a substitute for commitment in this case. This leads to smaller expenditures and to a higher headquarters’ payoff under delegation than under centralization. In contrast, when headquarters can commit to the budget, the descriptive data are consistent with our conjectures about the effects of honesty preferences, but the effects are too small to be significant.

  10. The institutional logics of local government budget in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Ade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study asks how and why a local government settings budget. It aims to deliver an understanding on how a government entity perceives that budget is important element to manage public expenditures. It uses the S local government in Indonesia as a case study. This study applies Institutional Logics Theory as a theoretical framework in order to analyze data. Data is collected by interviewing seven key persons who directly involves in budgeting process. This research shows that the budgeting process includes determining the purposes of annual budget, setting up planned programs and actvities, determining the amount of revenue that will be collected, allocating resources to expenditures and setting up standar pricing. Some important points in the budgeting process are identified. Those are considering political aspect to determine local tax rate, focusing on competition with other local governments, fulfilling the political promise of local government leader to the constituents, involving community to determine planned program and activities, and allocating resources based on community basic needs. This study concludes that those points develop the institutional logics of politic and managerial in budget setting process.

  11. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  12. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  13. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  14. Drivers and predictions of coral reef carbonate budget trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of coral-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Coral bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for coral reef growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of coral mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of reef carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of reef growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles reefs from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these reefs lost more than 90% of coral cover. All 21 reefs had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven reefs were comparable with 1994, but on all reefs where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. Reefs with higher massive coral cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of corals from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight reefs with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that reef accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of coral reefs that support resilient carbonate budgets. PMID:28123092

  15. Drivers and predictions of coral reef carbonate budget trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T

    2017-01-25

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of coral-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Coral bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for coral reef growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of coral mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of reef carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of reef growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles reefs from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these reefs lost more than 90% of coral cover. All 21 reefs had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven reefs were comparable with 1994, but on all reefs where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. Reefs with higher massive coral cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of corals from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight reefs with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that reef accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of coral reefs that support resilient carbonate budgets. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Pedogenetic processes and carbon budgets in soils of Queretaro, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Calderón, Norma Eugenia; Fuentes Romero, Elizabeth; Hernandez Silva, Gilberto

    2014-05-01

    Pedogenetic processes have been investigated in two different physiographic regions of the state of Querétaro in order to assess the carbon budget of soils, looking into the gains and losses of organic and inorganic carbon: In the mountain region of the natural reserve Sierra Gorda (SG) with soils developed on cretaceous argillites and shales under sub-humid temperate to semi-arid conditions, and in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) with soils developed on acid and intermediate igneous rocks under humid temperate climate in the highlands and semi-arid and subhumid subtropical conditions in the lowlands. The analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) of the SG region, including additional physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations were based on 103 topsoils in an area of 170 km2. The analyses in the TMVB region were based on the profiles of a soil toposequence from high mountainous positions down to the plains of the lowlands. The results show a SOC accumulation from temperate to semi-arid forest environments, based on processes of humification and clay formation including the influence of exchangeable Ca and the quantity and quality of clay minerals. The turnover rates of SOC and SIC depended largely on the rock parent materials, especially the presence of carbonate rocks. Moreover, we found that the SOC content and distribution was clearly depending on land use, decreasing from forests to agricultural land, such as pasture and cropping areas and were lowest under mining sites. The highest SIC pools were found in accumulation horizons of soils under semi-arid conditions. On all investigated sites SOC decreased the mobility of cations and especially that of heavy metals, such as As, Hg, Sb, Pb, and Cd.

  17. The Strategic stakes of budget policies after 2008-financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma ZAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the current budget policies during sub primes crisis answering two original issues: bring together the principal theoretical arguments and the analysis of events the most remarkable of crisis. Then, we tackle matters of budget policy from many points of view. Here, the challenge is to highlight the current stakes and future challenges of budget policies on one hand, to smooth economic cycle in the short term; and to back up growth and employment in the long term on the other.

  18. Role of Customs Duties in the Formation of Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela - Anca Postole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union, starting price and trade exchange liberalization, alongside a strong exchange rate reform, required a depth rethinking of the customs duty system and also influenced the role of this category of tax in establishing budgetary resources.This study reviews the impact of customs duties on changing levels of revenues collected at the state budget. The analysis used is the econometric modeling based on a single- factor regression model.But in Romania, customs duties do not have any major impact on budget revenues and the effects of their collection on the state budget revenues are felt within two months of collection.

  19. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  20. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  1. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Afendulis PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC, in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications.

  2. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  3. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  4. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  5. Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James Robert

    2009-10-01

    This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

  6. Impact of decadal cloud variations on the Earth's energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-12-01

    Feedbacks of clouds on climate change strongly influence the magnitude of global warming. Cloud feedbacks, in turn, depend on the spatial patterns of surface warming, which vary on decadal timescales. Therefore, the magnitude of the decadal cloud feedback could deviate from the long-term cloud feedback. Here we present climate model simulations to show that the global mean cloud feedback in response to decadal temperature fluctuations varies dramatically due to time variations in the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. We find that cloud anomalies associated with these patterns significantly modify the Earth's energy budget. Specifically, the decadal cloud feedback between the 1980s and 2000s is substantially more negative than the long-term cloud feedback. This is a result of cooling in tropical regions where air descends, relative to warming in tropical ascent regions, which strengthens low-level atmospheric stability. Under these conditions, low-level cloud cover and its reflection of solar radiation increase, despite an increase in global mean surface temperature. These results suggest that sea surface temperature pattern-induced low cloud anomalies could have contributed to the period of reduced warming between 1998 and 2013, and offer a physical explanation of why climate sensitivities estimated from recently observed trends are probably biased low.

  7. Cell energy budget platform for assessment of cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Zhdanov, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in bioenergetic parameters report on metabolic rearrangement, dysfunction of major pathways, and regulatory processes within the cell, adaptation to energy stress, or new physiological condition. A combined measurement of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolytic flux, the Krebs cycle activity, ATP levels, and total biomass allows detailed metabolic assessment. We describe a simple methodology for high-throughput multiparametric assessment of cell bioenergetics, called cell energy budget (CEB) platform, and demonstrate its practical use with cell models. The CEB relies on a standard multi-label reader with time-resolved fluorescence capabilities, the lanthanide probe pH-Xtra™ to measure extracellular acidification (ECA) associated with lactate (L-ECA) and combined lactate/CO2 (T-ECA) extrusion, the phosphorescent probe MitoXpress®-Xtra to measure oxygen consumption rate (OCR), the bioluminescent total ATP assay, and absorbance-based total protein assay. This approach can be further extended with the measurement of other cellular parameters, such as NAD(P)H, Ca(2+), mitochondrial pH, membrane potential, and redox state, using the corresponding fluorescent or luminescent probes.

  8. Dynamic energy budget approaches for modelling organismal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Ingeborg M M; Vera, Julio; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2010-11-12

    Ageing is a complex multifactorial process involving a progressive physiological decline that, ultimately, leads to the death of an organism. It involves multiple changes in many components that play fundamental roles under healthy and pathological conditions. Simultaneously, every organism undergoes accumulative 'wear and tear' during its lifespan, which confounds the effects of the ageing process. The scenario is complicated even further by the presence of both age-dependent and age-independent competing causes of death. Various manipulations have been shown to interfere with the ageing process. Calorie restriction, for example, has been reported to increase the lifespan of a wide range of organisms, which suggests a strong relation between energy metabolism and ageing. Such a link is also supported within the main theories for ageing: the free radical hypothesis, for instance, links oxidative damage production directly to energy metabolism. The Dynamic Energy Budgets (DEB) theory, which characterizes the uptake and use of energy by living organisms, therefore constitutes a useful tool for gaining insight into the ageing process. Here we compare the existing DEB-based modelling approaches and, then, discuss how new biological evidence could be incorporated within a DEB framework.

  9. Assay Stability, the missing component of the Error Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Mark; Hegedus, Gabe; Badrick, Tony

    2017-07-19

    Gaining a better understanding of Quality Control (QC) processes is a key requirement to improving performance and reducing patient risk. Detecting analytical error is dependent on a QC strategy that reliably detects a critical shift in a result away from the true value. Recently the concept of Six Sigma has been used by diagnostic laboratories to assess the performance of assays and to assist in the selection of QC rules. The sigma metric is one measure of an assay's ability to perform within specification. However an additional dimension to managing an assay is its stability in bias over time. The concept of long term stability is the same as measured QC drift (SEdrift) which is the effect of numerous calibrations, changes in reagent lots and other conditions i.e. a long term effect. This implies that the standard error budget is wrong because it is modelled on short term QC and misses this SEdrift stability component. We show that SEdrift provides a measure of Assay Stability that should be included in Quality Planning and that by including an allowance for this drift, determining target imprecision appropriate for matched QC algorithms that provide high error detection is as simple as dividing the Allowable Performance Specification by 4, 5 or 6. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  11. News and Views: Meetings of minds; Budgeting for the budget; Cosmochemistry at home in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    In a time of tight belts and political uncertainty in the UK, a budget settlement that does not decrease money awarded to science has to be a good step, but it is clear that the maintenance of funding announced last month has a price for the research councils. Extraterrestrial chemistry, a UK research strength, is now reinforcing community links through the Cosmochemical Analysis Network (CAN), which allows members access to world-class analytical facilities, enabling UK scientists to study extraterrestrial materials in all its forms and prepare for samples returned by future missions.

  12. Contemporary Social Work: an Analysis based on the federal budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janaina Albuquerque de Camargo Schmidt; Mossicléía Mendes da Silva

    2015-01-01

      This study presents a critical reflection about Social Assistance policy, based on considerations about funds allocated to this policy in the federal budget highlighting the years of 2005, a landmark...

  13. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  14. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  15. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  16. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Data and Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  17. Public Budget Database - Outlays and offsetting receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...

  18. R&D budget request reverses long decline

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, A

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to revitalise Spain's science community the government has announced plans to ask for a major increase in research funding in the 1999 budget. The increase should be around 8 per cent excluding military programs (4 paragraphs).

  19. FY 2012 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The yearly Supplement to the President`s Budget for the NITRD Program is designed to present a succinct technical summary of the research activities planned and...

  20. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1993 fiscal year. The document offers summaries for each Task as outlined in...

  1. EVOLUTION OF APPROACHES TO FINANCE THE BUDGET DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cherkashyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the causes and existence of the state budget deficit are defined. The main source of budget deficit financing in historical retrospective are considered. The most popular government securities which issued in foreign countries are compared in the article. The dynamics of the budget deficit in Ukraine and the sources of its coverage are analyzed in the article. There are three main types of government securities in Ukraine, such as: national currency-denominated government bonds, foreign currency-denominated government bonds and target government bonds. The main market maker of the government bonds' market is National Bank of Ukraine. The volume of resources, which are mobilized from the issue of the national currency-denominated government bonds are major then the volume of resources, which are mobilized from the issue of the foreign currency-denominated government bonds The necessity of further improvement of government securities as an important source of budget deficit financing is emphasized.

  2. [FY 1994 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1994 fiscal year. Included are a series of memorandums between USFWS and U.S....

  3. Energy and helicity budgets of solar quiet regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tziotziou, K; Georgoulis, M K; Kontogiannis, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of solar quiet regions. Using a novel non-linear force-free method requiring single solar vector magnetograms we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 55 quiet-Sun vector magnetograms. As in a previous work on active regions, we construct here for the first time the (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of quiet-Sun regions. We find that quiet-Sun regions have no dominant sense of helicity and show monotonic correlations a) between free magnetic energy/relative helicity and magnetic network area and, consequently, b) between free magnetic energy and helicity. Free magnetic energy budgets of quiet-Sun regions represent a rather continuous extension of respective active-region budgets towards lower values, but the corresponding helicity transition is discontinuous due to the incoherence of the helicity sense contrary to active regions. We further estimate the instantaneous free...

  4. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  5. The Cash Flow Budget. Part I--Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehm, Rudy

    1978-01-01

    With the cash flow budget a college store manager can prepare himself and the business office to meet current obligations during periods of cash shortfall. Its development is described and guidelines are offered. (LBH)

  6. 7 CFR 3015.114 - Budgets-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions... for each share. (b) Subdivision by programmatic segments. Some grants, subgrants, and cooperative agreements contain two or more programmatic segments (such as discrete programs, projects, functions,...

  7. [FY 1995 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1995 fiscal year. The memorandums on pages 1-5 outline the request of approval...

  8. [FY 1991 Budget Summary & Revisions : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1991 fiscal year. The memorandum included on pages 1-2, authored by the refuge...

  9. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    The University of Montreal's choice of the rational model of decision-making in managing budget cutbacks is explored and compared with other approaches, including the bureaucratic, garbage can, political, and collegial models. (MSE)

  10. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required by...

  11. [Budget Summary Forms : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains three detailed budget summaries for terrestrial mammal studies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal; American Badger, European Starling, and Deer...

  12. Anytime Prediction: Efficient Ensemble Methods for Any Computational Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Streeter and Golovin , 2008, Das and Kempe, 2011] typically used in the submodular optimization and sparse approximation domains. We will use a cost...Krause and Golovin [2012]. Most relevant to our work are the approaches for the budgeted or knapsack constrained sub- modular maximization problem. In... Golovin [2008], which gives an approximation guarantee for certain budgets dependent on the problem. Finally, our work will build off of previous work

  13. A Descriptive and Normative Analysis of Marketing Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Marketing budgeting is one of the most important aspects of management and of highly relevance for business success. Due to rising competitive pressure and a considerable increase in marketing investments the importance of this subject has additionally grown in the last years. For this reason, marketing budgeting receives a huge amount of attention by research and practitioners alike. Accordingly, it is stated in the CMO Council Report of 2007: „The number-one challenge for most chief marketi...

  14. Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    Senate versions of the bill would have done). The ships for which most of the total cost is authorized in FY2012 include two Virginia -class submarines, a...New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions, by Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations...Missile Defense and Offensive Arms Reductions: A Review of the Historical Record, by Steven A. Hildreth and Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget

  15. Ways to improve conceptual aspects of balancing the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodon Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the various concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different periods by different countries in order to balance state budget. There are analyzed positive parts and deficiencies at legislative level of different concepts concerning budgetary balance and as a result are developed a series of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova

  16. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Discovery and New Frontiers Project Budget Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs are multi-project, uncoupled programs that currently comprise 13 missions in phases A through F. The ability to fly frequent science missions to explore the solar system is the primary measure of program success. The program office uses a Budget Analysis Tool to perform "what-if" analyses and compare mission scenarios to the current program budget, and rapidly forecast the programs ability to meet their launch rate requirements. The tool allows the user to specify the total mission cost (fixed year), mission development and operations profile by phase (percent total mission cost and duration), launch vehicle, and launch date for multiple missions. The tool automatically applies inflation and rolls up the total program costs (in real year dollars) for comparison against available program budget. Thus, the tool allows the user to rapidly and easily explore a variety of launch rates and analyze the effect of changes in future mission or launch vehicle costs, the differing development profiles or operational durations of a future mission, or a replan of a current mission on the overall program budget. Because the tool also reports average monthly costs for the specified mission profile, the development or operations cost profile can easily be validate against program experience for similar missions. While specifically designed for predicting overall program budgets for programs that develop and operate multiple missions concurrently, the basic concept of the tool (rolling up multiple, independently-budget lines) could easily be adapted to other applications.

  18. Research on the application of performance budget in the project budget of universities and colleges%绩效预算在高校项目预算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳燕

    2015-01-01

    At present, with the development of our country's economics, the strategic and annual plan for universities and departments are in constant change and adjustment, and the conditions of comprehensive budget reform of total and trans-department performance is not mature. Therefore, based on the budget and performance evaluation as a breakthrough point, annual project plans and performance objectives should be improved, and major project budget editing should be strengthened, to solve some key problems of performance budget in project budget application. Thus it will be helpful to improve the budget management system and efficiency in the use of funds, strengthen performance concept, and ultimately achieve the goal of development planning of colleges and universities.%目前我国所处的经济社会发展阶段决定了学校及部门的战略规划和年度计划是在不断的变化和调整当中的,进行综合预算的整体绩效改革和跨部门绩效改革条件尚不成熟。因此,当前应以项目的预算和绩效评价为突破口,从完善单位或部门的年度项目计划和绩效目标着手,加强对重大项目的预算编审工作,解决好绩效预算在项目预算应用中的几个关键性问题,从而进一步完善预算管理体制,提高资金使用效益,强化绩效理念,最终更好的实现学校的发展规划目标。

  19. Relationship between metallurgical works and the budget: debt increases, taxes decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large enterprises of ferrous metallurgy consolidate a significant share of cash flows and are important taxpayers for the budget. In 2008–2013 two-thirds of the aggregate profit tax from the ferrous metallurgical industry were provided by seven largest plants: Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK; Cherepovets Steel Mill (CherMK; Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works (NTMK; Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (MMK; Oskol Electrometallurgical Plant (OEMK; West-Siberian Metallurgical Plant (ZSMK and Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant (ChMK. All these plants are the key assets of the largest multinational corporations; therefore, the analysis of their statements makes it possible to assess the financial condition not only of individual corporations, but also of the whole ferrous metallurgy. The article presents the results of the analysis of the financial statements of the leading domestic enterprises of ferrous metallurgy for 2008–2013. Particular emphasis is placed on their relations with the budget in the field of profit tax administration. The author investigates the factors in the formation of profit before tax and reveals the destructive impact of the existing tax legislation on the mobilization of budget revenues. The article draws a conclusion about the role of large enterprises in the economic development of the country and its regions. The author proposes several options to change the tax policy in relation to large taxpayers

  20. Generalized sediment budgets of the Lower Missouri River, 1968–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.

    2016-09-13

    determine a suspended-sediment budget for selected annual, monthly, and daily time increments. The temporal changes in the cumulative annual budget residuals were poorly correlated with the comparatively steady 1968–2011 annual stage trends at the Missouri River at Nebraska City, Nebr., station. An accurate total sediment budget is developed by having concurrent data available for all primary suspended and bedload components for a reach of interest throughout a period. Such a complete budget, with concurrent record for suspended-sediment load and bedload components, is unavailable for any reach and period in the Lower Missouri River. The primary data gaps are in bedload data, and also in suspended-sediment gains and losses including ungaged tributary inputs and sediment storage. Bedload data gaps in the Missouri River Basin are much more prevalent than suspended-sediment data gaps, and the first step in the development of reach bedload budgets is the establishment of a standardized bedload monitoring program at main-stem stations.The temporal changes in flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations analyzed at main-stem Missouri River stations indicated an overall downward change in concentrations between 1968 and 2014. Temporary declines in flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations during and following large floods were evident but generally returned to near pre-flood values within about 6 months.Data uncertainties associated with the development of a sediment budget include uncertainties associated with the collection of suspended-sediment and bedload data and the computation of suspended-sediment loads. These uncertainties vary depending on the frequency of data collection, the variability of conditions being represented by the discrete samples, and the statistical approach to suspended-sediment load computations. The coefficients of variation of suspended-sediment loads of Missouri River tributary stations for 1968–2014 were greater, 75.0 percent, than the

  1. Generalized sediment budgets of the Lower Missouri River, 1968–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.

    2016-09-13

    determine a suspended-sediment budget for selected annual, monthly, and daily time increments. The temporal changes in the cumulative annual budget residuals were poorly correlated with the comparatively steady 1968–2011 annual stage trends at the Missouri River at Nebraska City, Nebr., station. An accurate total sediment budget is developed by having concurrent data available for all primary suspended and bedload components for a reach of interest throughout a period. Such a complete budget, with concurrent record for suspended-sediment load and bedload components, is unavailable for any reach and period in the Lower Missouri River. The primary data gaps are in bedload data, and also in suspended-sediment gains and losses including ungaged tributary inputs and sediment storage. Bedload data gaps in the Missouri River Basin are much more prevalent than suspended-sediment data gaps, and the first step in the development of reach bedload budgets is the establishment of a standardized bedload monitoring program at main-stem stations.The temporal changes in flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations analyzed at main-stem Missouri River stations indicated an overall downward change in concentrations between 1968 and 2014. Temporary declines in flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations during and following large floods were evident but generally returned to near pre-flood values within about 6 months.Data uncertainties associated with the development of a sediment budget include uncertainties associated with the collection of suspended-sediment and bedload data and the computation of suspended-sediment loads. These uncertainties vary depending on the frequency of data collection, the variability of conditions being represented by the discrete samples, and the statistical approach to suspended-sediment load computations. The coefficients of variation of suspended-sediment loads of Missouri River tributary stations for 1968–2014 were greater, 75.0 percent, than the

  2. Specific Features of Formation of the Budget Strategy Under Conditions of Global Growth of the State Debt Особенности формирования бюджетной стратегии в условиях глобального роста государственного долга

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada Tatiana Anatolievna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article determines specific features of formation of the budget strategy under conditions of global growth of the state debt, reveals risks in the budget sphere in the process of realisation of approved concepts of socio-economic development of the country. A necessity to develop budget strategy scenarios within the framework of various variants of the world and national economies is substantiated.В статье определены особенности формирования бюджетной стратегии в условиях глобального роста государственного долга, выявлены риски в бюджетной сфере при реализации утвержденных концепций социально-экономического развития страны. Обоснована необходимость разработки сценариев бюджетной стратегии в рамках разных вариантов развития мировой и отечественной экономики.

  3. Toward a Framework for a Budget Law for Economies in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Allan

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses basic principles underlying budget law and reviews key features of budget legislation in several OECD countries as a basis for development of budget legislation in economies in transition to a market environment (EITs). It recommends a broad structure and a number of specific provisions that could be included in budget law for EITs.

  4. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    4. We talk about the managerial state because we want to locate managerialism as a cultural formation and a distinctive set of ideologies and...Tuesday of May. The Government presents the Budget Papers and budget-related documents. The Treasurer summarises the budget in his Budget Speech

  5. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Budgets. Each monthly Energy Cost Budget is the product of the monthly Building Energy Consumption of each... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.502... Cost Budget BECONmi = The monthly Budget Energy Consumption of the ith type of energy ECOSmi =...

  6. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  7. Methods for Determining the Advertising Budget and its Distribution in Different Media

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Comanescu Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining and establishing the necessary advertising budget is approached based on the situations that precede it. There will be virtually no easy task for marketers, with the risk overvaluation or undervaluation of the budget. To avoid broader range of situations, the company uses specific tools and methods for determining the advertising budget. An advertising budget is established for each product.

  8. Atmospheric moisture budget during winter seasons in the western Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2017-02-01

    Winter precipitation in the western Himalayas occurs under the influence of western disturbances (WDs) that move in synoptic timescale from west to east across the Himalayan region. The main objective of the study is to examine the water vapor budget during life cycles of WDs using the high-resolution global climate forecast system reanalysis data. It is found that over western Kashmir, even in climatological mean, a westerly trough is seen in moisture flux. Precipitation exceeds evaporation over most of Jammu and Kashmir, Hindukush region and the region to the west in winter seasons. Large interannual variability is noticed in all components of the moisture budget in the region. In order to understand the mechanism of moisture transport and atmospheric moisture budget over study area during the life cycle of WDs, an EOF analysis has been carried out using geopotential height at 500 hPa. The first two leading modes represent eastward moving WDs. Composite analysis of moisture budget (both atmospheric and surface) has been made using the dates from the EOF analysis. It is found that large variations in moisture transport occur during different phases of the WDs. When a cyclonic circulation is around 72°E, strong meridional moisture transport (from Arabian Sea) occurs and moisture convergence over western Himalayas enhances precipitation over the region. After the circulation moves further east, moisture convergence decreases and precipitation reduces. However, evaporation amount increases marginally due to clear sky conditions. During the life cycle of WDs, large variation in meridional transport of moisture flux is noticed as compared to zonal transport.

  9. Step by step error assessment in braided river sediment budget using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallias-Tacon, S.; Liébault, F.; Piégay, H.

    2014-06-01

    Sequential airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct the sediment budget of a 7-km-long braided river channel in southeastern France following a 14-year return period flood and to improve its accuracy step by step. Data processing involved (i) surface matching of the sequential point clouds, (ii) spatially distributed propagation of uncertainty based on surface conditions of the channel, and (iii) water depth subtraction from the digital elevation models based on water depths measured in the field. The respective influence of each processing step on sediment budget computation was systematically documented. This showed that surface matching and water depth subtraction both have a considerable effect on the net sediment budget. Although DEM of difference thresholding based on uncertainty analysis on absolute elevation values had a smaller effect on the sediment budget, this step is crucial for the production of a comprehensive map of channel deformations. A large independent data set of RTK-GPS checkpoints was used to control the quality of the LiDAR altimetry. The results showed that high density (7-9 points/m2) airborne LiDAR surveys can provide a very high level of detection of elevation changes on the exposed surfaces of the channel, with a 95% confidence interval level of detection between 19 and 30 cm. Change detection from LiDAR data revealed that 54% of the pre-flood active channel was reworked by the flood. The braided channel pattern was highly disturbed by the flood owing to the occurrence of several channel avulsions.

  10. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  11. EU BUDGET – THE POLICY OF SHARING THE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella GERTH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the EU budget aiming at casting light on the relationship between political and economic matters and on the importance that they function as a mechanism. Somehow the budget could be compared to a barometer showing the political pressure and the level of integration inside the European Union. Discussing the structure of the budget, where the EU money come from and how are the funds distributed afterwards, and also referring to important moments in the historical development of the European Union’s budget, the paper emphasizes the same idea of financial matters strong related to the political choices. It argues also, by describing the complexity of the budgetary procedure and the importance of financial control, that the budget is an important interplay between actors, is an important balance of power trying to reach equilibrium and efficiency. The paper also reviews the main issues of the present budgetary debates, the positions taken by European actors, counting their losses and gains, and to which extent their choices are more a national concern or following the European interest, aiming at presenting the actual state of the European Union taking into account both the economic and the political integration. The budget being one of the key elements forming the structure of the big edifice, the European Union, it is of great importance when discussing budgetary matters to have in mind the present context as a whole, determined by issues like the failure of the summit for setting a new budgetary framework, or the rejection of the European Constitution by the citizens of two of its founding members. Though, it is important when discussing the budget, economical matters to put them in a political context and also to see them in the present context.

  12. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  13. Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.; Noone, David; Persson, P. Ola G.; Steffen, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet surface temperatures are controlled by an exchange of energy at the surface, which includes radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes. Data collected by multiple projects are leveraged to calculate all surface energy budget (SEB) terms at Summit, Greenland, for the full annual cycle from July 2013 to June 2014 and extend to longer periods for the radiative and turbulent SEB terms. Radiative fluxes are measured directly by a suite of broadband radiometers. Turbulent sensible heat flux is estimated via the bulk aerodynamic and eddy correlation methods, and the turbulent latent heat flux is calculated via a two-level approach using measurements at 10 and 2 m. The subsurface heat flux is calculated using a string of thermistors buried in the snow pack. Extensive quality-control data processing produced a data set in which all terms of the SEB are present 75 % of the full annual cycle, despite the harsh conditions. By including a storage term for a near-surface layer, the SEB is balanced in this data set to within the aggregated uncertainties for the individual terms. November and August case studies illustrate that surface radiative forcing is driven by synoptically forced cloud characteristics, especially by low-level, liquid-bearing clouds. The annual cycle and seasonal diurnal cycles of all SEB components indicate that the non-radiative terms are anticorrelated to changes in the total radiative flux and are hence responding to cloud radiative forcing. Generally, the non-radiative SEB terms and the upwelling longwave radiation component compensate for changes in downwelling radiation, although exact partitioning of energy in the response terms varies with season and near-surface characteristics such as stability and moisture availability. Substantial surface warming from low-level clouds typically leads to a change from a very stable to a weakly stable near-surface regime with no solar radiation or from a weakly stable to neutral

  14. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  15. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  16. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  17. Assimilation impacts on Arctic Ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Mugford, Ruth I.; Haines, Keith; Smith, Gregory C.

    We investigate the Arctic basin circulation, freshwater content (FWC) and heat budget by using a high-resolution global coupled ice-ocean model implemented with a state-of-the-art data assimilation scheme. We demonstrate that, despite a very sparse dataset, by assimilating hydrographic data in and near the Arctic basin, the initial warm bias and drift in the control run is successfully corrected, reproducing a much more realistic vertical and horizontal structure to the cyclonic boundary current carrying the Atlantic Water (AW) along the Siberian shelves in the reanalysis run. The Beaufort Gyre structure and FWC and variability are also more accurately reproduced. Small but important changes in the strait exchange flows are found which lead to more balanced budgets in the reanalysis run. Assimilation fluxes dominate the basin budgets over the first 10 years (P1: 1987-1996) of the reanalysis for both heat and FWC, after which the drifting Arctic upper water properties have been restored to realistic values. For the later period (P2: 1997-2004), the Arctic heat budget is almost balanced without assimilation contributions, while the freshwater budget shows reduced assimilation contributions compensating largely for surface salinity damping, which was extremely strong in this run. A downward trend in freshwater export at the Canadian Straits and Fram Strait is found in period P2, associated with Beaufort Gyre recharge. A detailed comparison with observations and previous model studies at the individual Arctic straits is also included.

  18. Optimal Referral Reward Considering Customer’s Budget Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP. RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM. We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards.

  19. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  20. Perspectives On The Global Budget of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. K.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Shearer, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Early budgets of methane focused on the emissions from individual sources but the estimates had large uncertainties. These uncertainties have been reduced considerably in recent years, but we need an understanding of the trends in the sources as well as their spatial distributions if we are to use methane to control global warming. A nearly 30 year long time series of global atmospheric methane concentrations has accumulated that can provide some of the answers. One of the most dramatic findings is that the increase of methane has nearly stopped in the last decade. But the record also shows that the trend was falling ever since systematic measurements were taken, and perhaps even before that. This finding has led to some puzzles. There is a belief that the anthropogenic sources of methane are increasing but to explain the falling trend we need decreasing sources (or increasing sinks). In fact, the atmospheric measurements show only that the most probable explanation for the decreasing trend and the present near constancy of concentrations is that the global source of methane has been more or less constant over the last 30 years with many short-term ups and downs. Moreover, there is good evidence that some of the major man-made sources of methane, such as cattle, biomass burning and possibly others, have stopped increasing some time back and other sources such as rice agriculture may have decreased over the last 30 years. This allows some smaller energy based sources to have increased, consistent with expectations, and balance out the decreasing sources to keep the total more or less constant. A credible quantitative case can be made for a stable global source based on available information on the trends of the various sources and sinks of methane, but uncertainties remain. We will argue that the stability of sources and sinks is the most likely explanation of the methane concentration trends. We will use this result to re-evaluate the future of man- made methane

  1. A simple method for air/sea gas exchange measurement in mesocosms and its application in carbon budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesocosms as large experimental vessels principally provide the opportunity of performing elemental budget calculations e.g. to derive net biological turnover rates. However, the system is in most cases not closed at the water surface and gases can exchange with the atmosphere. Previous attempts to budget carbon pools in mesocosms relied on educated guesses concerning the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Nevertheless, net primary production rates derived from these budget calculations were, despite large uncertainties in air/sea gas exchange, often more reasonable than cumulative extrapolations of bioassays. While bioassays have limitations representing the full spectrum of trophic levels and abiotic conditions inside the mesocosms, calculating dissolved inorganic carbon uptake inside the mesocosms has the potential to deliver net community production rates representative of the enclosed system. Here, we present a simple method for precise determination of air/sea gas exchange velocities in mesocosms using N2O as a deliberate tracer. Beside the application for carbon budgeting, exchange velocities can be used to calculate exchange rates of any gas of known concentration, e.g. to calculate aquatic production rates of climate relevant trace gases. Using an arctic (Kiel Off Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation mesocosm experiment as an exemplary dataset, it is shown that application of the presented method largely improves accuracy of carbon budget estimates. Methodology of manipulation, measurement, data processing and conversion to CO2 fluxes are explained. A theoretical discussion of prerequisites for precise gas exchange measurements provides a guideline for the applicability of the method under various experimental conditions.

  2. Further Studies Of Atmospheric Turbulence In Layers Near The Surface: Scaling The Tke Budget Above The Roughness Sublayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzen, Paul; Vogel, Christoph A.

    The second of two experimental studies of the TKE budget conducted on sites of different roughness is described, and results are compared. The first took place within a shallow layer above a small field of mostly bare, cultivated soil; the second was carried out above a roughness sublayer of significant depth on an extensive plain of tall dry grass. Budget terms observed in the second study were scaled with a modified u which compensated for effects of an unusually large stress gradient and ensured that the m functions would be collinear. By showing that the modification becomes negligible in smaller gradients, it is demonstrated that in normal conditions, budgets observed above significant roughness sublayers should be normalized by scaling in terms of the unreduced Reynolds stress at the sublayer's upper surface. This procedure is shown to be consistent with the expectation that TKE budgets in layers near the surface all scale in fundamentally the same way.Other findings include: (1) the fact that most m functions previously reported are not quite collinear is attributed to a type of overspeeding known to affect three-cup anemometers; (2) revised m functions, collinear and largely free of the effects of overspeeding, are determined from a well-established characteristic of the linear φm relation for the stable case; (3) data that define collinear φm functions can also be represented with single hyperbolic curves; (4) dissipation is found to be 10 to 15% too small to balance total TKE production in unstable and neutral conditions and to decrease with increasing z/L in thestable regime; and (5) new relations for φ based on the observed behaviour of the dissipation deficit provide an improved closure for the set of equations that express the budget terms as functions of φm and z/L.

  3. Impacts of Green Infrastructure on the Water Budget and Other Ecosystem Services in Subhumid Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Pomeroy, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    explore the necessary GI elements to approach pre-development water budget conditions.

  4. Global budgeting in Germany: lessons for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, K D; Murray, M A; Ade, C

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 Germany implemented significant health reform legislation that, among other things, strengthened the global budgeting of physicians and instituted global budgeting of pharmaceutical expenditures. German physician expenditures are now capped at the growth in income of members of the sickness funds, in contrast to prior years, in which some growth above a targeted level was allowed. For the first time, dental services also are subject to the budget cap. The new reform legislation also limits growth in pharmaceutical expenditures by increasing the level of copayments and by placing physicians as a group at financial risk for growth over the limit. This paper examines the effect of these reforms during the first year and offers lessons for reform of the U.S. system.

  5. A note on India’s water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Narasimhan

    2008-06-01

    Some recent analyses of India ’s water budget are based on information attributed to the Ministry of Water Resources.An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapotranspiration estimate that is significantly lower than what one may expect based on information from other sources.If such is the case,India ’s water resources situation may be more dire than is otherwise perceived.For,higher evapotranspiration implies correspondingly reduced availability of water for human use.It should be worthwhile to investigate and reconcile the apparent discrepancy between water budget and evapotranspiration,considering the importance of water in the national context.

  6. Obama Budget Proposal Would Increase Science Agency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Although the Obama administration’s $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 2011, announced on 1 February, would push the federal deficit to $1.6 trillion and include a 3-year budget freeze for a number of nondefense programs, science and technology “are doing very well,” according to John Holdren, assistant to the president for science and technology. While President Barack Obama announced in his State of the Union speech his intention to hold down costs, it “did not mean he was imposing a mindless across-the-board freeze,” Holdren said at a 2 February briefing. “In making the tough decisions embodied in the 2011 budget, he managed to preserve and expand what most needed to be preserved and expanded in the government's investments in research and development, and in science, technology, engineering, and math education.”

  7. TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING PROJECTS RISK IN CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real problems that can arise in capital budgeting process. Trough case study in article we analyzed risks that may emerge from different techniques. Conclusion that emerges from analyzing different methods of risk techniques is that only with right combination of these techniques corporate manager could decide correctly to choose optimal capital project.

  8. Line-item Budgeting and Film-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity. Design/methodology/approach – Using Elster’s (2000) constraint theory as a basis for the research, this paper...... options from hampering the creative process. Originality/value – The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects...... of line-item budgeting, adding greater insight into the interrelations between creativity and control. By exploring the ways in which line-item budgeting might take on the role of pre-commitment advice and devices in the creative process, this paper further exposes the links between accounting constraints...

  9. Fulfill Your Digital Preservation Goals with a Budget Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill digital preservation goals, many institutions use high-end scanners for in-house scanning of historical print and oversize materials. However, high-end scanners’ prices do not fit in many small institutions’ budget. As digital single-lens reflex (DSLR camera technologies advance and camera prices drop quickly, a budget photography studio can help to achieve institutions’ preservation goals.  This paper compares images delivered by a high-end overhead scanner and a consumer level DSLR camera, discusses pros and cons of using each method, demonstrates how to set up a cost efficient shooting studio, and presents a budget estimate for a studio.

  10. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  11. INTEGRATION OF SHIP HULL ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  12. Monitoring the Efficiency of Budget Management of Trade Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Larysa V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the actuality of carrying out the monitoring of budget management efficiency at trade enterprises in Ukraine. It has been found that the efficiency of each trade enterprise management system, in particular the efficiency of budget management system, is determined by several factors, among which there considered the enterprise business profile, the competitive situation in the market and the standard of living of the population. The efficiency of budget management and, as a result, the efficiency of trade enterprises’ activity is reflected in the results of the effectiveness of the main indicators of the financial budgets of enterprises. Therefore, using the method of fuzzy sets, there carried out an integral evaluation of the efficiency of budget management based on the efficiency of financial budgets: the budget revenues and expenditures, cash flow budget and budgeted balance sheet. The study is carried out for Ukraine as a whole, and its most developed regions.

  13. Reorienting programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA towards disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i specification of the budget constraint, (ii scope of the programme budget, (iii composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise

  14. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  15. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 2: A simple TKE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nilsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple model for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and the TKE budget is presented for sheared convective atmospheric conditions based on observations from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST field campaign. It is based on an idealized mixed-layer approximation and a simplified near-surface TKE budget. In this model, the TKE is dependent on four budget terms (turbulent dissipation rate, buoyancy production, shear production and vertical transport of TKE and only requires measurements of three input available (near-surface buoyancy flux, boundary layer depth and wind speed at one height in the surface layer. This simple model is shown to reproduce some of the observed variations between the different studied days in terms of near-surface TKE and its decay during the afternoon transition reasonably well. It is subsequently used to systematically study the effects of buoyancy and shear on TKE evolution using idealized constant and time-varying winds during the afternoon transition. From this, we conclude that many different TKE decay rates are possible under time-varying winds and that generalizing the decay with simple scaling laws for near-surface TKE of the form tα may be questionable. The model's errors result from the exclusion of processes such as elevated shear production and horizontal advection. The model also produces an overly rapid decay of shear production with height. However, the most influential budget terms governing near-surface TKE in the observed sheared convective boundary layers are included, while only second order factors are neglected. Comparison between modeled and averaged observed estimates of dissipation rate illustrate that the overall behavior of the model is often quite reasonable. Therefore, we use the model to discuss the low turbulence conditions that form first in the upper parts of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition and are only apparent later near the surface. This

  16. Ecohydrological controls over water budgets in floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Verhoef, Anne; Macdonald, David M. J.; Gardner, Cate M.; Punalekar, Suvarna M.; Tatarenko, Irina; Gowing, David

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain meadows are important ecosystems, characterised by high plant species richness including rare species. Fine-scale partitioning along soil hydrological gradients allows many species to co-exist. Concerns exist that even modest changes to soil hydrological regime as a result of changes in management or climate may endanger floodplain meadows communities. As such, understanding the interaction between biological and physical controls over floodplain meadow water budgets is important to understanding their likely vulnerability or resilience. Floodplain meadow plant communities are highly heterogeneous, leading to patchy landscapes with distinct vegetation. However, it is unclear whether this patchiness in plant distribution is likely to translate into heterogeneous soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) rates of water and heat, or whether floodplain meadows can reasonably be treated as internally homogeneous in physical terms despite this patchy vegetation. We used a SVAT model, the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plants (SWAP) model by J.C. van Dam and co-workers, to explore the controls over the partitioning of water budgets in floodplain meadows. We conducted our research at Yarnton Mead on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, one of the UK's best remaining examples of a floodplain meadow, and which is still managed and farmed in a low-intensity mixed-use manner. We used soil and plant data from our site to parameterise SWAP; we drove the model using in-situ half-hourly meteorological data. We analysed the model's sensitivity to a range of soil and plant parameters - informed by our measurements - in order to assess the effects of different plant communities on SVAT fluxes. We used a novel method to simulate water-table dynamics at the site; the simulated water tables provide a lower boundary condition for SWAP's hydrological submodel. We adjusted the water-table model's parameters so as to represent areas of the mead with contrasting topography, and so different

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  18. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  19. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  20. The current state of NCAA Division I collegiate strength facilities: size, equipment, budget, staffing, and football status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Petersen, Jeffrey C; Bellar, David M; Craig, Bruce W; Cottingham, Michael P; Gilreath, Erin L

    2014-08-01

    Strength and conditioning training programs are essential components of athletic performance, and the effectiveness of these programs can be linked to the strength and conditioning facilities (SCFs) used by athletes. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a statistical overview of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I SCFs, equipment and maintenance budget, and the relationship between SCF budget and staffing space, and equipment. The secondary purpose was to note differences in SCFs between those schools with and without football programs. An 84-item online survey instrument, developed with expert input from certified strength professionals, was used to collect data regarding the SCFs in NCAA Division I universities. A total of 110 valid and complete surveys were returned for a response rate of 38.6%. Results of Pearson's χ2 analysis demonstrated that the larger reported annual equipment budgets were associated with larger SCFs (χ2 = 451.4, p ≤ 0.001), greater maximum safe capacity of athletes using the facility (χ2 = 366.9, p ≤ 0.001), increased numbers of full-time coaches (χ2 = 224.2, p ≤ 0.001), and increased number of graduate assistant or intern coaches (χ2 = 102.9, p ≤ 0.001). Based on these data, it can be suggested to athletic administrators and strength and conditioning professionals at the collegiate level that budgets need to be re-evaluated as the number of personnel available to monitor student-athletes and the size and safe capacity of the facility are related to the ability of the strength and conditioning staff to safely and adequately perform their duties.

  1. Detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries using non-restricted post-Newtonian approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Sintes, A M

    2000-01-01

    The set up of matched filters for the detection of gravitational waves from in-spiraling compact binaries is usually carried out using the restricted post-Newtonian approximation: the filter phase is modelled including post-Newtonian corrections, whereas the amplitude is retained at the Newtonian order. Here we investigate the effects of the introduction of post-Newtonian corrections also to the amplitude and we discuss some of the implications for signal detection and parameter estimation.

  2. Prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark - in a contingency perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

    spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt de største danskevirksomheder. Konklusionen er at 4,5% har afskaffet det traditionelle årsbudget (eller er igang med at gøre det) og 7,7% overvejer at afskaffe det. Disse "Beyond Budgeting" virksomheder er endvidere mere kritiske overfor det traditionelle årsbudget end andre virksomheder...

  3. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  4. U.S. Homeland Security R&D Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorson, C S

    2009-03-30

    The FY09 budgets for homeland security research and development programs in the U.S. are summarized. Homeland security policy developments that can influence future efforts are discussed. Initial indications of the new administration direction on homeland security R&D are summarized. An overview of the Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V conference is presented.

  5. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  6. Photon budget analysis for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Q.; Young, I.T.; De Jong, J.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a mathematical model to analyze the photon efficiency of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The power of the light source needed for illumination in a FLIM system and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector have led us to a photon “budget.” These

  7. Cinematic Creativity and Production Budgets: Does Money Make the Movie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although filmmaking requires substantial capital investment, it is not known whether cinematic creativity is positively correlated with the size of the film's budget. Therefore, budgetary impact was investigated in a sample of feature films released between 1997 and 2001. Although production costs were positively related to box office success (as…

  8. Topics in Finance Part VI--Capital Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series on the theory of financial management offers insight into the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts as they apply to major topics in finance. The current article investigates capital budgeting. Much literature addresses this topic, with a number of articles challenging mainstream…

  9. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to $800 for each setup, which is cost prohibitive for most classroom budgets. This article…

  10. FY 2005 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Supplement to the President`s FY 2005 Budget reports on the FY 2004 research and development R and D activities and FY 2005 plans of the multiagency Networking...

  11. Library Budgets in the Independent Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, David H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of 43 liberal arts colleges' library budgets for the first half of the 1970s is described. The combined effects of inflation and financial crunch have led to a materials v staff struggle which could result in an improper balance between these two items. (Author/MLW)

  12. 7 CFR 1216.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... project to another. Shifts of funds which do not cause an increase in the Board's approved budget and...) Assessments collected, less pro rata administrative expenses, from the gross sales of contract export...

  13. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have

  14. Ray D. Nixon plant built below budget. [Colorado Springs, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlasson, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Ray D. Nixon plant was built in Colorado Springs at about $250,000 below the $100 million budgeted. Permit and operating deadlines provided important incentives to maintain the construction schedule, requiring intensive management efforts to keep cooperation and productivity high. The plant is also a model for environmental and wildlife protection. (DCK)

  15. The manager and equipment decisions: the capital budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    As part of his or her role in preparing a departmental budget, a manager must often become involved in budgeting for capital expenditures, those purchases that are of a type and sufficient dollar value to be capitalized and depreciated. Depending on the value of a proposed purchase, the department manager may have only a partial voice in the process; some significant purchases will require administrative approval, whereas some major acquisitions will require approval by the board of directors. Planning for possible capital purchases should begin well before the start of the annual budget exercise. Listing a capital item in the department's budget request does not imply approval; often, there are many more "needs" than there are capital funds available. Therefore, there must be a consistent process for identifying the proposed purchases that will be funded, such process necessarily including detailed specification of the need for a particular capital purchase, identification of all reasonable alternatives, consideration of any constraints, detailed financial comparison of alternatives, assessment of intangible factors, and a recommended choice.

  16. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have pur

  17. Doing More with Less: Coping with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Budget cuts are common in education, but nothing like the scale that schools have seen in the last two years. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan calls the current situation "the New Normal," meaning that schools will see increasing demands for performance in a climate of declining resources. Most of the literature suggests that schools cannot…

  18. Budgets come first as Bush chooses NASA head

    CERN Multimedia

    Schrope, M

    2001-01-01

    President Bush has nominated a budget expert with no aerospace or scientific background as the agency's administrator. Sean O'Keefe, formerly scrutinized overspending in the International Space Station programme. If appointed, he will have to implement reforms he himself recommended (1/2 page).

  19. Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction setting

  20. Budget constraint and vaccine dosing: A mathematical modelling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Standaert, Baudouin A.; Curran, Desmond; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing the number of vaccine doses may potentially improve overall efficacy. Decision-makers need information about choosing the most efficient dose schedule to maximise the total health gain of a population when operating under a constrained budget. The objective of this study is to