WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonresident tuition rates

  1. Nonresident Tuition and Fees at SUNY. Rates, Policies, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig W.; Armour-Garb, Allison

    2010-01-01

    To inform the discussion of out-of-state tuition, SUNY officials asked the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government to conduct a study that addresses three questions. First, how do SUNY's undergraduate nonresident tuition and fees compare to those charged by comparable higher education institutions? Second, what is known about the effects of…

  2. The Heterogeneous Non-Resident Student Body: Measuring the Effect of Out-of-State Students' Home-State Wealth on Tuition and Fee Price Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.

    2017-01-01

    More than 40 years of research has found a positive relationship between increases in the proportion of non-resident students enrolling in an institution and increases in the tuition prices this institution charges to these same students. Notably, this line of research has consistently treated this non-resident student body as if they constitute a…

  3. Tuition Reciprocity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…

  4. 2013-14 Tuition and Fee Rates: A National Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This is the forty-third report prepared in Washington providing tuition and fee data for flagship institutions, comprehensive institutions, and community colleges. Tuition and fee rates for academic year 2013-14 were collected by staff from the Connecticut Office of Higher Education, who developed an online tool to collect these data from the 50…

  5. Price Elasticity of Per-Credit-Hour Tuition Charges and the Effects on Four-Year Graduation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMoranville, Carol W.; O'Donnell, Paula Bogott

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether changing tuition rates to a sliding scale based on the number of credit hours taken will increase 4-year graduation rates. Found that a sliding tuition rate scale does not increase 4-year graduation rates. (EV)

  6. Crowded Out? The Effect of Nonresident Enrollment on Resident Access to Public Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Jaquette, Ozan

    2017-01-01

    Public universities have pursued nonresident enrollment growth as a solution to the stagnation of state funding. Representatives of public universities often argue that nonresident tuition revenue is an important resource in efforts to finance access for resident students, whereas state policymakers are concerned that nonresident enrollment…

  7. Tracking the Discount: Tuition Discount Rates, Net Tuition Revenue, and Efforts to Inform Institutional Practices. Professional File. Article 133, Fall 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Natalie Pullaro; Redd, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses findings from the 2012 Tuition Discounting Study (TDS) conducted by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) to provide a framework for institutional researchers to develop and adapt their own custom tuition discounting definitions and formulas. Under tuition discounting, colleges and…

  8. Using the IPEDS Peer Analysis System to Compare Tuition Discount Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Michael; Mathews, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Tuition discounting began in the 1970s as the practice of using university funds to augment federal, state, and private aid and scholarships. When the 1980s saw a decrease in the number of high school seniors, universities began to compete in the arena of price for the first time, sparking what has been called an "arms race" of tuition discounting…

  9. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  10. Tuition May Outpace the Rate of Inflation for 10th Year in a Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Early announcements show many colleges are raising tuition 5 to 11 percent, squeezed by pressures to keep costs down and spend more to improve educational quality. A federal investigation of possible tuition price-fixing at 56 institutions has also increased anxiety among administrators. (MSE)

  11. The Impacts of Tuition Rate Changes on College Undergraduate Headcounts and Credit Hours Over Time--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chressanthis, George A.

    1986-01-01

    Using 1964-1983 enrollment data for a small Michigan state college, this paper charts tuition rate change impacts on college undergraduate headcounts and credit hours over time. Results indicate that student behavior follows the law of demand, varies with class standing, corroborates human capital investment models, and invalidates uniform tuition…

  12. Aviation Support Equipment Technician (ASE 3 & 2 and ASM 3 & 2). Volume 1, Basics. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jesse R.; And Others

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable aviation support equipment personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements for advancement. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  13. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  14. Tradevman 1 & C. Naval Education and Training Command. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.

    Designed as a self-study text for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve, this rate training manual presents information that is directly related to the professional standards for advancement to Petty Officer Third Class and Petty Officer Second Class in the Tradevman (TD) rating. (Tradevmen install, repair, modify, and maintain…

  15. Ship's Serviceman Laundry Handbook: Rate Training Manual and Non-Resident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual and course form a self study package that enables laundrymen to fulfill the requirements of the Ship's Serviceman (Laundry) rating. Chapter 1 provides information regarding the administration of ship's service activities (equipment maintenance, supervisory responsibilities, and procurement of supplies). Chapters 2 through 12 cover the…

  16. Financial Condition and Tuition in Private Nonprofit Baccalaureate Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruso, Dominick F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of tuition inflation at U.S. colleges and universities is alarming and threatens both access and choice. Private nonprofit baccalaureate colleges often possess the highest tuition rates but routinely face financial challenges. This study was designed to better understand the relationship between tuition and financial condition for the…

  17. The Tuition Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arnold R.

    1990-01-01

    The trend of tuition increases is excessive in terms of both economic standards and the special mission and characteristics of higher education. It is clouding the current state of higher education. Although there are sound reasons for tuition increases, the current approach to setting tuition should be altered and moderated. (MSE)

  18. The Impact of "Tuition-Paying" Policy on Retention and Graduation Rates at the University of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2013-01-01

    African universities over the past decade have developed new modes of financial mobilization in search for fiscal solutions to the declining public support for higher education. The creation of the "tuition-paying" ("dual track" or "fee-paying") admission track policy, a variant of cost sharing, is one of such…

  19. Tuition Elasticity of the Demand for Higher Education among Current Students: A Pricing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Glenn A.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A pricing model is offered, based on retention of current students, that colleges can use to determine appropriate tuition. A computer-based model that quantifies the relationship between tuition elasticity and projected net return to the college was developed and applied to determine an appropriate tuition rate for a small, private liberal arts…

  20. Losing Sleep over Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    With two children already in college and three more in the wings, the Nwanguma family knows about sacrifice. The annual tuition bill for Prince George's Community College typically comes to between $3,500 and $4,000 for the oldest son, Chuka. To afford it, Chuma Nwanguma, a Nigerian immigrant, often works overtime in addition to his regular night…

  1. Low Tuition, Progressive Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy for financing public higher education of using high tuition and student aid assumes, erroneously, that targeting subsidies directly to the needy makes a more equitable system, that the public will support the high-aid end of the equation, and that current and future students can repay debt. (MSE)

  2. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of estimated...

  3. Developing a Model of Tuition Fee Calculation for Universities of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to introduce and evaluate a practicable model for tuition fee calculation of each medical field in universities of medical sciences in Iran.Methods: Fifty experts in 11 panels were interviewed to identify variables that affect tuition fee calculation. This led to key points including total budgets, expenses of the universities, different fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, and education quality. Tuition fees were calculated for different levels of education, such as post-diploma, Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D degrees, Medical specialty, and Fellowship. After tuition fee calculation, the model was tested during 2013-2015. Since then, a questionnaire including 20 questions was prepared. All Universities’ financial and educational managers were asked to respond to the questions regarding the model’s reliability and effectiveness.Results: According to the results, fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, zone distinction and education quality were selected as effective variables for tuition fee calculation. In this model, tuition fees per student were calculated for the year 2013, and, therefore, the inflation rate of the same year was used. Testing of the model showed that there is a 92% of satisfaction. This model is used by medical science universities in Iran.Conclusion: Education quality, zone coefficient, fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, inflation rate, and portion of each level of education were the most important variables affecting tuition fee calculation.Keywords: TUITION FEES, FIELD’S ATTRACTIVENESS, UNIVERSITIES’ ATTRACTIVENESS, ZONE DISTINCTION, EDUCATION QUALITY

  4. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  5. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  6. Taxes, Tuition Fees and Education for Pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2011-01-01

    are unconstrained, the optimal tax/fee system involves regressive income taxes and high tuition fees. A progressive labor income tax system may, on the other hand, be a second-best response to politically constrained, low tuition fees. Finally, the existence of individuals with different abilities will also move...... the optimal income tax system toward progressivity.......The fact that education provides both a productive and a consumptive (nonproductive) return has important and, in some cases, dramatic implications for optimal taxes and tuition fees. Using a simple model, we show that when the consumption share in education is endogenous and tuition fees...

  7. Examining Admission Policy Change at a Private, Tuition-Dependent, Baccalaureate Institution in an Urban Setting: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education in America is resilient; in the face of seemingly insurmountable challenges, higher education manages to weather the storm of change, pressure, doubt, and criticism. Consider the following challenges: shifting demographics, escalating tuition, decreased state funding, retention and graduation rates, flat tuition revenue,…

  8. Returns to Investment in Ontario University Education, 1960-1990, and Implications for Tuition Fee Policy. Discussion Series, Issue 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, David A. A.

    This analysis of Ontario's returns to investment and implications for tuition fee policy updates a 1989 publication titled "Focus on Fees." The paper examines: data on public and private return on investment (ROI) from university education, pattern of ROI rates over time, and impact of tuition fee levels on estimated ROI for various…

  9. 77 FR 23391 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... and is paid to certain nonresident alien individuals. These regulations will affect commercial banks..., securities brokerages, and insurance companies that maintain deposit accounts for nonresident alien...

  10. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  11. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  12. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of the...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section 6013(g...

  14. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident alien...

  15. Preparing the next generation of health care providers: A description and comparison of nurse practitioner and medical student tuition in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Lydia; Litsch, Tyler; Cook, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to describe the average cost of nurse practitioner (NP) tuition based on degree program, program type, and geography; and to compare the cost of NP tuition to medical school tuition. A listing of all NP degree granting universities was obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing during the fall of 2014, and tuition data were obtained from university websites. Medical school tuition data were obtained online during the fall of 2014 from the American Association of Medical Colleges. Average 1-year tuition rates were calculated for NP programs and medical schools and compared across private and public institutions. Average 1-year resident tuition for public university NP programs ranges between $8671 and $11,077 based on type of program. The cost of 1-year NP program tuition at the master's and the doctoral level is much lower than the cost of 1-year medical school tuition at both private and public universities. NPs can perform many of the same services as physicians in the primary care setting with comparable outcomes, yet the cost of educating NPs is much lower. NPs are a cost-effective solution to the healthcare workforce shortage. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice – Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students‘ migratory behavior as indicated by a signicant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...

  17. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice: Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Bjoern; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students' migratory behavior as indicated by a significant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...

  18. Worldwide Tuition Increases Send Students into the Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2000-01-01

    Examines the global trend towards increased tuition and fees in public institutions of higher education. Despite histories of free or very low tuition and student protests, most observers see higher tuition and fees (and financial aid programs for needy students) as invitable. Notes increased demand, enrollment surges, and collapsing systems of…

  19. 29 CFR 1949.1 - Policy regarding tuition fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy regarding tuition fees. 1949.1 Section 1949.1 Labor... Institute § 1949.1 Policy regarding tuition fees. (a) The OSHA Training Institute shall charge tuition fees for all private sector students attending Institute courses. (b) The following private sector students...

  20. The Effect of Tuition Increases on Business Student Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, John; Murray, Kyle B.; Karns, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Tuition increases have become all too common as states have cut spending to public institutions and private schools face declining enrollments. As such, understanding the effects of various methods of framing tuition increases is an important, but infrequently researched topic. The authors examine different ways to frame tuition increases…

  1. Liquidation of wastes as tuition topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, K.; Hysplerova, L.; Holy, I.

    1999-01-01

    Authors deal in this paper with tuition project aimed on the liquidation of wastes. Structure of project includes next thematic complex: classification of inorganic and organic wastes; characterization of wastes and proposition for their liquidation (detoxication) or recyclation; chemical (physical) nature of neutralize of inorganic and organic wastes; general method of neutralize of wastes; analytical methods necessary for control of course of neutralize (detoxication) of wastes. This tuition project allows for students to know manipulation with wastes and methods of their liquidation from ecologic point of view

  2. The Incidence of the Tuition-Free High School Program in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masahiro; Shimizutani, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a tuition-free high school program launched in FY2010 in Japan on the high school enrollment rate and household spending. We have some interesting findings. First, the program contributed to improvement in the high school enrollment rate for poorer households. Second, the program stimulated household spending…

  3. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  4. The Waldorf Tuition and Grant Reduction Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, William E.

    1995-01-01

    Counter to national trends at private colleges, Waldorf College (Iowa) found it could increase enrollment by reducing tuition and institution-based student aid. The context for implementing this policy, short- and long-term results of the decisions, lessons learned, and some more-recent initiatives are reviewed. (MSE)

  5. Tuition fees and sunk-cost effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.; Linde, J.; Oosterbeek, H.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a field experiment testing for sunk-cost effects in an education setting. Students signing up for extra-curricular tutorial sessions randomly received a discount on the tuition fee. The sunk-cost effect predicts that students who pay more will attend more tutorial sessions,

  6. What's Happened to College Tuition and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    Attention focused on increasing college tuition and federal concerns about college cost containment may be obscuring other issues in the rising cost of college education, including accumulated 1970s deficits, faculty salaries, changes in the enrollment mix, the needs for automation and accountability, and instructional facility and equipment…

  7. Recruiting Nonresident Students and the Privatization of Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael S.; Smith, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    As state appropriations for higher education decrease, public universities rely increasingly on student tuition to meet their operating expenses. Many public universities depend on tuition paid by out-of-state students. Institutions maximize revenue-enhancing opportunities resulting from a supportive public policy and cultural environment.…

  8. Resolving the Nonresident Student Problem: Two Federal Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, David B.

    1976-01-01

    Explains and describes the interstate barriers resulting from state tuition, financial aid, and admissions policies and analyzes courses open to states following a 1973 Supreme Court case and 18-year-old adulthood. The author recommends federal legislation to protect national interests in travel and in quality, low-tuition education. (Editor/JT)

  9. The Changing Landscape of Tuition and Enrollment in American Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Hemelt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The costs of public higher education have risen dramatically in recent years, causing anger among students and concern among policymakers worried about falling college completion rates. In this paper, we explore how public tuition costs affect postsecondary enrollment choices. We examine changes over time in the enrollment decisions of students in states where tuition and fees at public four-year institutions increased rapidly, compared with changes for observationally similar students in states with more modest tuition increases. Using student-level data on twelfth graders in 1992 and 2004 linked to institution-level data, we find a relative decline in the likelihood of attending an in-state public four-year institution among high school graduates from states where public tuition costs increased substantially over this period. Students in states where public tuition increased the most were considerably more likely to enroll in a public two-year college than their counterparts in states that adopted more modest increases. We explore heterogeneity in this pattern of substitution between institutions of varying selectivity and control and for students in policy-relevant socio-demographic subgroups, including those in different parts of the twelfth-grade achievement distribution. Generally, large tuition increases at public four-year colleges have weakened the propensity of high school graduates to enroll in such institutions in their state, and increased their likelihood of enrollment in less prestigious in-state public colleges, out-of-state public institutions, or private universities. These effects are most pronounced among students from families of low socioeconomic status, and nonelite students who perform below the 90th percentile on twelfth-grade math tests.

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(19)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3121... 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(19)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a...

  11. 76 FR 1105 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. These proposed regulations affect persons making payments.... bank deposit interest paid to any nonresident alien individual must be reported annually to the IRS. On...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(18)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3306...) § 31.3306(c)(18)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under...

  13. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  14. 26 CFR 1.873-1 - Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.873-1 Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals. (a) General provisions—(1) Allocation of deductions. In...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(6)-1 - Remuneration for services of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services of nonresident alien... services of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. All remuneration paid after December 31, 1966, for services performed by a nonresident alien individual, if such remuneration otherwise constitutes...

  16. Tuition Fees, as User Prices, and Private Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Economides, George; Philippopoulos, Apostolis; Sakkas, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the aggregate and distributional implications of introducing tuition fees for public education services into a tax system with income and consumption taxes. The setup is a neoclassical growth model where agents differ in capital holdings. We show that the introduction of tuition fees (a) improves individual incentives to work and/or save and (b) can be both efficient and equitable. The focus is on the role of tuition fees as an extra price and how this affects private incen...

  17. Tax justice of the reform of higher education: tuition fees or tax relief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the current reform of higher education which is now being discussed in the Czech Republic. The Government and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports propose a tuition fee for students at universities but there is still no clear concept of it. University leaders and students are against the tuition fee because of their fear of getting into debt during their study. The aim of this paper is to show an alternative way of funding higher education without tuition fee loans and from the point of view of tax justice. According to the concept of horizontal justice (Mankiw, 1999 taxpayers should pay taxes at the same rate, but it does not work this way. The result of research is that changes in Act 586/1992 Coll., on income tax and in Act 117/1995 Coll., on state social welfare are required. Abolition of tax relief is proposed where discrimination against other taxpayers and groups of students could occur. By abolition of tax relief for a student and tax relief for a dependent child the amounts of 4,020 CZK and 13,404 CZK respectively could be saved. Changes in legislation could be politically more acceptable than the tuition fee. The solution could also lead to simplification for taxpayers. The target should be equal access to higher education for all students.

  18. Anatomy of a Tuition Freeze: The Case of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexe, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Using two conceptual frameworks from political science--Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams model and the advocacy coalition framework (Sabatier & Jenkins-Smith, 1993)--this case study examines the detailed history of a major tuition policy change in Ontario in 2004: a tuition freeze. The paper explores the social, political, and economic…

  19. Colleges Undermine Their Value when They Put Tuition "On Sale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Drexel University is offering laid-off workers a 50-percent discount on tuition at its new graduate campus in California. Davis & Elkins College reduced its price by nearly $15,000 for residents from its home county and six surrounding ones to match the tuition of the state's flagship West Virginia University. And Southern Illinois University at…

  20. Tuition reimbursement for special education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, P A

    1997-01-01

    The spring 1996 issue of The Future of Children on special education reviewed the legislative and litigation history of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This Revisiting article examines the impact of the two U.S. Supreme Court cases setting forth school districts' responsibility to reimburse parents of students with disabilities for private school tuition under certain circumstances. An extensive examination of published cases reveals that the number of cases litigated has increased but that the courts are no more likely to decide in favor of parents than they were before the Supreme Court rulings.

  1. Child temperament and paternal transition to non-residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    Using the Millennium Cohort Study data this study showed that, even after adjustment, resident biological fathers of high-regularity children at 9 months were less likely than resident biological fathers of low-regularity children at 9 months to become non-resident by the time these children were 3 years old. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tax on Incomes Obtained from Romania by Non-resident Taxpayers – Computation Methodology and the Fiscal Impact upon the Corporate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina IOVU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Withholding tax for non-resident taxpayers is a tax due to the Romanian state budget by taxpayers, the expense for the amount related to this tax playing a fiscal impact upon the fiscal result and, therefore, upon the corporate tax due within a fiscal period of time. Most of the times, in practice, a series of questions arise, such as: which is the entity having the obligation to compute and pay the tax, respectively the income payer or the one collecting it; is the transaction taxable from the point of view of the tax on non-resident taxpayers’ income, function of the nature and object of the transaction; which is the tax rate owed, in case the operation has a taxable feature; which is the fiscal treatment applicable in case of expenses incurred in the accounting records, with the amount of the tax owed on non-resident taxpayers income. Due to this reason, in practice there are several approaches which could generate fiscal risks, related to the fiscal treatment applicable in case of different types pf transactions concluded with non-resident tax payers, depending on the nature and scope of the respective transaction.

  3. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Karasuda, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  4. WHAT ARE THEY BUYING IN PRIVATE TUITION? MICRO-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE ON THE PRACTICE OF PRIVATE TUITION BY GRADE 9 STUDENTS IN KALE TOWNSHIP, MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Tung Tuang Suante

    2017-01-01

    Private tuition is the practice of academic teaching and learning from outside of the school with a fee but a few of studies acknowledged what private tuition provides to the receivers beyond the teaching of academic subjects. This study explored the intensity and nature of private tuition through 1119 Grade 9 students’ survey reports and 18 interviewees’ responses. The study revealed the common practice of private tuition in Myanmar and 69.5% of the participants are in private boarding tuiti...

  5. 76 FR 2852 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER...

  6. 76 FR 7757 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR...

  7. 26 CFR 1.565-5 - Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations. 1.565-5 Section 1.565-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.565-5 Nonresident aliens...

  8. 76 FR 20595 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public...

  9. 76 FR 22064 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public hearing is being rescheduled from Monday...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17a-7 - Records of non-resident brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers and dealers. 240.17a-7 Section 240.17a-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-7 Records of non-resident brokers and dealers. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each non-resident broker or dealer registered or applying for...

  11. 17 CFR 279.4 - Form ADV-NR, appointment of agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form ADV-NR, appointment of agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non-resident managing agent of an... agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non-resident managing agent of an...

  12. Tuition and Living Accommodation Costs at Canadian Universities, 1978-79 and 1979-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Claude

    Tuition and living accommodation costs for students at most Canadian universities are summarized in this publication from Statistics Canada. Extensive data tables include information on accommodation costs for university-operated residences and housing and tuition fees. The range of tuition fees at the undergraduate level reflects a fee structure…

  13. Pricing and University Autonomy: Tuition Deregulation in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in tuition policies in the wake of tuition deregulation in Texas, which in 2003 transferred tuition-setting authority from the state legislature to institutions. We find that price increases accelerated, particularly at the most selective institutions. Institutions also began differentiating price by undergraduate program, raising relative prices for the most costly and lucrative majors, including engineering, business, nursing, and architecture. Price increases were particularly large for institutions with the highest initial costs and for programs with a high earnings premium within institutions, though lower for institutions with more low-income students. These distinctions suggest that public postsecondary institutions respond to microeconomic incentives when given greater autonomy to set price, and take some measures to alleviate impacts on low-income students. The Texas experience suggests that decentralized price-setting generates greater price differentiation within the public higher education system, both across and within institutions.

  14. What goes around, comes around: a history of medical tuition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2001-01-01

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE ACTUAL AND RELATIVE COSTS OF TUITION AT 3 Ontario medical schools are traced over the past 150 years. In addition, the factors that led to Ontario's nearly 4-decade experiment in private medical education (and to its eventual demise) are presented. In relative terms, tuition was stable for over a century, then declined (after 1960) as government support rose. Access to medical training for students from middle-income families may also have improved steadily until the late 1980s. Because there is no shortage of people wanting to become doctors, there seems to be no limit to the price that could be set for a medical education. The recent hikes in tuition have outstripped inflation and may be reducing accessibility to restrictive levels, similar to those that prevailed in the 19th century. The author invites readers to question current trends. PMID:11202668

  15. What goes around, comes around: a history of medical tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J

    2001-01-09

    In this article the actual and relative costs of tuition at 3 Ontario medical schools are traced over the past 150 years. In addition, the factors that led to Ontario's nearly 4-decade experiment in private medical education (and to its eventual demise) are presented. In relative terms, tuition was stable for over a century, then declined (after 1960) as government support rose. Access to medical training for students from middle-income families may also have improved steadily until the late 1980s. Because there is no shortage of people wanting to become doctors, there seems to be no limit to the price that could be set for a medical education. The recent hikes in tuition have outstripped inflation and may be reducing accessibility to restrictive levels, similar to those that prevailed in the 19th century. The author invites readers to question current trends.

  16. Variability in United States Allopathic Medical School Tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Joseph A; Park, Sarah H; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Over the course of the last generation, the cost of medical school attendance and medical student debt has increased drastically. Medical student debt has been reported as high as $350,000, and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) reports that medical school tuition continues to increase annually. The increasing cost of medical education and associated financial burden is now beginning to deter potential applicants from pursuing a career in medicine. In this study we aimed to assess medical school tuition across the US. We hypothesized that the cost of medical school attendance is variable across all regions of the US, and as a result, the financial burden on medical students is inconsistent. All 123 allopathic medical schools accredited by the AAMC were assessed in this investigation. In-state and out-of-state tuitions for the year 2016 were obtained from U.S. News and World Report. Additionally, medical school size was collected. Regions were defined according to the US Census Bureau definition, with the US being divided into 4 regions: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. There was no difference in average medical school size among the 4 regions (P > .05). Average in-state tuition was $38,291.56 ± $9801.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], $34,658.07-$41,513.46) in the Midwest, $45,923.04 ± $9178.87 (95% CI, $42,566.28-$49,216.78) in the Northeast, $32,287.78 ± $12,277.53 (95% CI, $28,581.90-$35,378.68) in the South, and $37,745.40 ± $11,414.37 (95% CI, $30,063.28-$40,458.99) in the West. In-state tuition in the South was significantly lower than in the Northeast, West, and Midwest (P tuition in the Northeast was significantly higher than in the South, West, and Midwest (P tuition is $54,104.04 ± $8227.65 (95% CI, $51,207.6-$57,000.39) in the Midwest, $53,180.10 ± $3963.71 (95% CI, $51,761.71-$54,598.50) in the Northeast, $48,191.86 ± $12,578.13 (95% CI, $44,595.84-$51,787.89) in the South, and $52,920.47 ± $7400.83 (95% CI, $49

  17. Segregating Schools: The Foreseeable Consequences of Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the effect of a proposed tuition tax credit is school segregation, creating serious constitutional objections under the due process clause. A voucher system would avoid these constitutional objections. Available from the Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. (Author/IRT)

  18. Global Tuition Pricing: An In-Depth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between select pricing schemes used throughout the world and positive social outcomes. The rising costs of college tuition and escalating student debt has raised the concern about how students should pay for financing their education and whether the current system is the most…

  19. Internationalisation as Marketisation? Tuition Fees for International Students in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Jaakko; Medvedeva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Having been on the agenda in Finnish policy-making for a decade, tuition fees for students outside the European Union and the European Economic Area became reality in the beginning of 2016. Drawing on institutional theory the current article tracks this development through the analysis of documents and interviews on different levels. The…

  20. Fixing the Net Tuition Revenue Dilemma: The Dickinson College Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Robert J.; Parker, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how Dickinson College, guided by a strategic plan, addressed its net tuition revenue problem through effective decision support, marketing and branding approaches, and pricing and financial aid strategies. The college's strategic plan guides allocation of resources toward fulfilling the college's purpose of providing an…

  1. Hospital Costs of Foreign Non-Resident Patients: A Comparative Analysis in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Renart-Vicens, Gemma; Saez, Marc; Carreras, Marc

    2017-09-14

    Although patient mobility has increased over the world, in Europe there is a lack of empirical studies. The aim of the study was to compare foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients for the particular Catalan case, focusing on patient characteristics, hospitalisation costs and differences in costs depending on the typology of the hospital they are treated. We used data from the 2012 Minimum Basic Data Set-Acute Care hospitals (CMBD-HA) in Catalonia. We matched two case-control groups: first, foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients and, second, foreign non-resident patients treated by Regional Public Hospitals versus other type of hospitals. Hospitalisation costs were modelled using a GLM Gamma with a log-link. Our results show that foreign non-resident patients were significantly less costly than domestic patients (12% cheaper). Our findings also suggested differences in the characteristics of foreign non-resident patients using Regional Public Hospitals or other kinds of hospitals although we did not observe significant differences in the healthcare costs. Nevertheless, women, 15-24 and 35-44 years old patients and the days of stay were less costly in Regional Public Hospitals. In general, acute hospitalizations of foreign non-resident patients while they are on holiday cost substantially less than domestic patients. The typology of hospital is not found to be a relevant factor influencing costs.

  2. Tuition and Fees in Public Higher Education in the West, 2012-2013. Detailed Tuition and Fees Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This annual report updates the tuition and fee prices published by all of the public higher education institutions in the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) member states. It is the product of an annual survey administered to the State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) offices in each state, with a couple of…

  3. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne REATH WARREN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

  4. 26 CFR 1.871-8 - Taxation of nonresident alien individuals engaged in U.S. business or treated as having...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of nonresident alien individuals engaged in U.S. business or treated as having effectively connected income. 1.871-8 Section 1.871-8...) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-8 Taxation of nonresident alien...

  5. 26 CFR 1.871-7 - Taxation of nonresident alien individuals not engaged in U.S. business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of nonresident alien individuals not engaged in U.S. business. 1.871-7 Section 1.871-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Corporations § 1.871-7 Taxation of nonresident alien individuals not engaged in U.S. business. (a) Imposition...

  6. PATTERNS OF CONTACT AND INVOLVEMENT BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR NON-RESIDENT FATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wit, Estelle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the patterns of contact and involvement between adolescents and their non-resident fathers after divorce. The data were analysed to determine the role of Lamb, Pleck and Levine’s (1986 three constructs in the involvement of non-resident fathers, i.e. interaction, availability and responsibility. The results indicated that the majority of male and female adolescents reported continued direct and indirect contact with their fathers, regardless of paternal remarriage and the lapse of time since the divorce. Boys reported higher levels of communication and feelings of emotional closeness than girls. Overall, the study postulates that non-resident fathers play a less significant role in providing parental guidance to their children.

  7. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

  8. Credit supply and the rise in college tuition: evidence from the expansion in federal student aid programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucca, David O.; Nadauld, Taylor D.; Shen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    When students fund their education through loans, changes in student borrowing and tuition are interlinked. Higher tuition costs raise loan demand, but loan supply also affects equilibrium tuition costs - for example, by relaxing students' funding constraints. To resolve this simultaneity problem, we exploit detailed student-level financial data and changes in federal student aid programs to identify the impact of increased student loan funding on tuition. We find that institutions more expos...

  9. Not Separate, but Not Quite Equal: Undocumented High School Students, Dual Enrollment, Non-Resident College Tuition and the Dream of a College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Immigration status and educational opportunities are at the forefront of the current national conversation regarding "DREAMers": children of immigrants brought to the United States at a young age who lack legal status but are raised and educated in the American system. In 2006, Arizona voters passed Proposition 300, in part prohibiting…

  10. Walking a high beam: the balance between employment stability, workplace flexibility, and nonresident father involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jason T; Welch, Greg W; Sarver, Christian M

    2012-03-01

    Compared with resident fathers, nonresident fathers are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed and less likely, when they are employed, to have access to flexible work arrangements. Although lack of employment stability is associated with lower levels of father involvement, some research shows that increased stability at work without increased flexibility is negatively related to involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 895), the authors examined the relationship between nonresident fathers' employment stability, workplace flexibility, and father involvement. Results indicate that workplace flexibility, but not employment stability, is associated with higher levels of involvement. Policy and practice implications are discussed.

  11. Perceptions of Parents on the Practice of Private Tuition in Public Learning Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Robert B.; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    The practice of private tuition outside normal class hours is a phenomenon which has prevailed in Kenyan basic learning institutions despite the repeated ban by the government. The purpose of the study was to establish parental perceptions on extra tuition in public schools in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 40…

  12. The More, the Better? Intensity of Involvement in Private Tuition and Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Private tuition, or "shadow education", has become a prominent feature in many countries internationally. A number of studies have found that such tuition is associated with improved examination performance and enhanced access to tertiary education. However, these studies have generally not taken into account important attitudinal…

  13. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  14. Buying Your Way into College? Private Tuition and the Transition to Higher Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2009-01-01

    A number of countries, including Ireland, have experienced a recent growth in the prevalence of "shadow education", that is, paid private tuition outside the schooling system. Previous international studies have indicated that such tuition can enhance academic performance and facilitate access to tertiary education. However, such studies…

  15. The First State Dream Act: In-State Resident Tuition and Immigration in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Texas became the first state to pass an in-state resident tuition policy that benefits undocumented immigrant students, a majority of whom are of Latino/a origin. This analysis estimates the effect of the Texas in-state resident tuition policy on students likely to be undocumented. Using a differences-in-differences strategy and two…

  16. In-State-Tuition for Unauthorized Residents: Teaching a Person to Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Joe; Martinez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Illegal immigration has become one of the most important issues we face as a nation, and as greater attention is focused on the sociological and economic impact of illegal immigration, policies related to in-state-tuition for unauthorized residents are in a state of flux. Since 2005, the number of states offering in-state-tuition for unauthorized…

  17. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information…

  18. The International Market for MBA Qualifications: The Relationship between Tuition Fees and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline; Soo, Kwok Tong

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between tuition fees charged by MBA programmes and the number of applications to these programmes, using a panel dataset comprising universities from countries across the world. Using Three-Stage-Least-Squares methods for simultaneous equations, we find a two-way relationship between tuition fees and…

  19. Tuition Fees and the Time to Graduation: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmeier, Kerstin; Fischer, Georg-Benedikt; Wigger, Berthold U.

    2015-01-01

    We used the recent introduction of general tuition fees at public universities in several of the German federal states as a natural experiment to identify whether tuition fees reduce the time to graduation and the extent to which they do so. We employed a difference-in-differences approach with the states that introduced fees as the treatment…

  20. Misplaying the Angles: A Closer Look at the Illinois Tuition Tax Credit Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Wessely, Mike; Mincberg, Elliot

    In 1999, Illinois enacted its tuition tax credit law, which offers tax credits to taxpayers whose own children are attending school, as opposed to tax credits to businesses and/or individuals who contribute to tuition scholarship programs. Recent data suggest that the Illinois tax credit program is benefiting middle- and upper-class families more…

  1. Investigating the status of supplementary tuition in the teaching and learning of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mogari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to investigate the status of supplementary tuition in the teaching and learning of mathematics and mathematical literacy. The study followed a descriptive survey design involving the use of learner and teacher questionnaires. A convenient sample of mathematics and mathematical literacy teachers together with a stratified sample of their Grade 11 learners were drawn from a purposive sample of highperforming high schools in the East London district of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results show that supplementary tuition is popular, especially among girls, and it is in three forms (i.e. private tuition, vacation school and problem-solving classes: Problemsolving classes dominated by working on past/model examination papers is the most preferred; in some instances supplementary tuition is offered for a fee; it is not only confined to poor performing learners; and participation in supplementary tuition is influenced by a variety of factors.

  2. Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979--the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present…

  3. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  4. Changes in Nonresident Father-Child Contact from 1976 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Meyers, Catherine E.; Emery, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    To study changes in nonresident father contact since the 1970s, we pooled data from 4 national surveys: the National Survey of Children (1976), the National Survey of Families and Households (1987 - 1988), the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1996), and the National Survey of America's Families (2002). On the basis of mothers' reports,…

  5. Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404.1089 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self...

  7. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  8. Implications of New Marriages and Children for Coparenting in Nonresident Father Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGene, Juliana; King, Valarie

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has noted that although cooperative coparenting between resident and nonresident parents is beneficial to children, this form of shared parenting is relatively uncommon. Relying on nationally representative data from two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 628), this study examines the importance of…

  9. Short-Term and Long-Term Government Debt and Nonresident Interest Withholding Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Huizinga, H.P.; Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market.The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions.We find that, in general, U.S. dollar yields on

  10. Children's Perspectives on Their Relationships with Their Nonresident Fathers: Influences, Outcomes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; Cheng, Helen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Bridges, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Background: Children's relationships with their nonresident fathers, and associations between these relationships, children's relationships with mothers and stepfathers, and the children's adjustment were studied in 162 children from single-parent and stepfamilies, selected from a representative community sample in the UK, studied at 2 time points…

  11. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliashenko Oksana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  12. Keeping the Bar Low: Why Russia's Nonresident Fathers Accept Narrow Fatherhood Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrata, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Although most Russian nonresident fathers feel torn between old and new ideals of fatherhood, they end up accepting older, narrow ideals. Fathers reproduce the dominant gender discourse, which deems men irresponsible and infantile and diminishes the importance of fathers. On the basis of extensive fieldwork, including in-depth interviews (N = 21)…

  13. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliashenko, Oksana; Krasnov, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  14. Comparison of Emergency Medicine Malpractice Cases Involving Residents to Non-Resident Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kiersten L; Grossman, Shamai A; Janes, Margaret; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Song, Ellen; Tibbles, Carrie D; Shapiro, Nathan I; Rosen, Carlo L

    2018-04-17

    Data are lacking on how emergency medicine (EM) malpractice cases with resident involvement differs from cases that do not name a resident. To compare malpractice case characteristics in cases where a resident is involved (resident case) to cases that do not involve a resident (non-resident case) and to determine factors that contribute to malpractice cases utilizing EM as a model for malpractice claims across other medical specialties. We used data from the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO) Strategies' division Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS) to analyze open and closed EM cases asserted from 2009-2013. The CBS database is a national repository that contains professional liability data on > 400 hospitals and > 165,000 physicians, representing over 30% of all malpractice cases in the U.S (> 350,000 claims). We compared cases naming residents (either alone or in combination with an attending) to those that did not involve a resident (non-resident cohort). We reported the case statistics, allegation categories, severity scores, procedural data, final diagnoses and contributing factors. Fisher's exact test or t-test was used for comparisons (alpha set at 0.05). Eight hundred and forty-five EM cases were identified of which 732 (87%) did not name a resident (non-resident cases), while 113 (13%) included a resident (resident cases) (Figure 1). There were higher total incurred losses for non-resident cases (Table 1). The most frequent allegation categories in both cohorts were "Failure or Delay in Diagnosis/Misdiagnosis" and "Medical Treatment" (non-surgical procedures or treatment regimens i.e. central line placement). Allegation categories of Safety and Security, Patient Monitoring, Hospital Policy and Procedure and Breach of Confidentiality were found in the non-resident cases. Resident cases incurred lower payments on average ($51,163 vs. $156,212 per case). Sixty six percent (75) of resident vs 57% (415) of non-resident cases were high severity claims

  15. Challenges of Tuition fee’s decision: Private Universities case in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Shahini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses Challenges that Private Universities in Kosovo face when employing tuition fee strategies. Data are collected on May - June 2012 through in-depth interview and questioners with supervisors and students of three Private Universities in Kosovo. As of low purchasing power of students and overall economic crises in Kosovo, students are very sensitive to pricing strategies employed and according to fee they evaluate before and after -enrollment assessment. Students’ academic expectations are much higher relative to their low tuition requirements. In transition economies, employing tuition strategies that satisfy both Universities and students is a challenge for higher educational institutions.

  16. TOUCH POINTS IN UNIVERSITY TUITION - CRITICAL REFLECTIONS ON PBL TUITION PRACTICE AT THE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN PROGRAMMES AT AALBORG UNIVERSITY, DENMARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kirkegaard Bejder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper that is based on the didactics reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD programme at Aalborg University. The discussion is moored in two narratives representing two typical student tuition situations. Unfolding two touch points where PBL and architectural and engineering teaching converge, this paper discusses how ‘the problem’ and ‘supervision’ at the A&UD programme are hybrid tuition focus points, where principles of PBL and more traditional tuition styles within architecture and engineering come into contact and cause didactic friction. This friction necessitates teachers and supervisors to critically reflect upon their teaching and supervision styles, and upon how ‘the problem’ is put into play in their tuition of students. The paper argues that teachers and supervisors have a heightened obligation and responsibility to monitor, assess, reflect and adjust the integration of the different teaching approaches in their hybrid tuition practices at A&UD.

  17. Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2011-01-01

    Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...

  18. Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Private Tuition regarding Educational Attainment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Amer Atta; Shabnam Razzaq Khan; Shehla Sheikh; Fahmida Akbar

    2014-01-01

    This research work was focused on the “comparative study of parental involvement and private tuition regarding educational attainments of students at secondary school level”. A sample of 80 students of 10th class from ten different secondary schools was taken. To analyze the results t-test was used. In this comparison it was conducted that parental involvement turn out significant effect on student educational attainments as compared to private tuition. On the bases of results researcher has ...

  19. The Effect of Tuition Reimbursement on Turnover: A Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen N. Flaherty

    2007-01-01

    Tuition reimbursement programs provide financial assistance for direct costs of education and are a type of general skills training program commonly offered by employers in the United States. Standard human capital theory argues that investment in firm-specific skills reduces turnover, while investment in general skills training could result in increased turnover. However, firms cite increased retention as a motivation for offering tuition reimbursement programs. This rationale for offering t...

  20. Factors affecting students’ attitude towards introduction of tuition fees for higher education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zámková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of tuition fees has been much discussed in the Czech Republic over the recent years. Unfortunately, the current system of non-discriminate higher-education funding is no longer supportable, that is, provided that we do not want all universities to be evenly “mediocre”. A well configured tuition-fee system with low payments, suitably complemented by student loans covering not only the tuition fees but also the subsistence costs could be an acceptable vision of the future higher education. The obligation to pay for the study should also prevent from enrolment those applicants that only enter a university to avoid having to cater for themselves in real life. A survey was conducted to find out the views of Czech university students on the introduction of tuition fees and the possible methods of their payment. A subsequent analysis was made to see whether the introduction of tuition fees would aggravate students’ financial situation, whether they would be more motivated to complete the studies in due time, and whether they would be more concerned with the quality of teaching. The survey also analysed the relationship between a respondent’s view on the introduction of tuition fees and the current methods of financing the studies (accommodation, transport, meals, textbooks, …, the household income, and the gender. It also takes into account the attitude of respondents on the system of student loans proposed. In order to interpret the results correspondence and dependence analysis were used.

  1. Administrative Cicular No. 31 (Rev. 2) - International indemnity and non-resident allowance

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 2) entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 23 June 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208547.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) also entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance" of October 2007. The main changes reflect the decision taken in the framework of the five-yearly review to extend eligibility for international indemnity to all staff members, as well to introduce a distinction between current staff members and those recruited as from 1st September 2016. For the latter, the international indemnity will be calculated as a percentage of the minimum salary of the grade into which they are recruited; the amount granted to the former will not change, and is now expressed ...

  2. Nonresident fatherhood and adolescent sexual behavior: a comparison of siblings approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present study addresses both questions by comparing the sexual development of siblings discordant for age at father departure from the home and examining results across behavioral (age at first intercourse), biological (pubertal timing), and cognitive (attitudes about childbearing and marriage) sexual outcomes (N = 5,542). Findings indicate that nonresident fatherhood, beginning either at birth or during middle childhood, leads to an earlier sexual debut for girls, but not for boys, an effect likely explained by weak parental monitoring rather than an accelerated reproductive strategy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Self-perceived Coparenting of Nonresident Fathers: Scale Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, W Justin; Fagan, Jay; Kaufman, Rebecca; Pearson, Jessica; Cabrera, Natasha

    2017-11-16

    This study reports on the development and validation of the Fatherhood Research and Practice Network coparenting perceptions scale for nonresident fathers. Although other measures of coparenting have been developed, this is the first measure developed specifically for low-income, nonresident fathers. Focus groups were conducted to determine various aspects of coparenting. Based on this, a scale was created and administered to 542 nonresident fathers. Participants also responded to items used to examine convergent and predictive validity (i.e., parental responsibility, contact with the mother, father self-efficacy and satisfaction, child behavior problems, and contact and engagement with the child). Factor analyses and reliability tests revealed three distinct and reliable perceived coparenting factors: undermining, alliance, and gatekeeping. Validity tests suggest substantial overlap between the undermining and alliance factors, though undermining was uniquely related to child behavior problems. The alliance and gatekeeping factors showed strong convergent validity and evidence for predictive validity. Taken together, results suggest this relatively short measure (11 items) taps into three coparenting dimensions significantly predictive of aspects of individual and family life. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  4. Breaking the ice! Predictors about communication between nonresident African American fathers and sons about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jade C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2016-02-01

    Research on communication between resident and nonresident African American fathers and their sons about sex has been understudied. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of parenting variables, specifically, racial socialization and father involvement on nonresident African American father-son communication about sex. Data for this study are from the Fathers and Sons Project. This intervention study is designed to enhance relationships between nonresident African American fathers and their 8-12 year old sons and to prevent risky health behaviors among sons. The present study is based on 345 African American boys who completed baseline face-to-face interviews. The average age of the sons was 10.2 years old (SD = 1.4), with an average of two siblings (SD = 1.53). Age and sons' perceptions of more parental monitoring by their fathers were predictive of increased communication about sex. Racial socialization messages explained additional variance in communication about sex above other parenting variables and controls. Findings suggest when working with African American families, providers who counsel parents, and in particular provide outreach to fathers regarding communication about sex, are in a unique position to enhance parenting communication skills about sexuality. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Analyzing the Market for Shadow Education in Pakistan: Does Private Tuition Affect the Learning Gap between Private and Public Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Bisma Haseeb Khan; Sahar Amjad Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Pakistan has seen the rapid growth of a third sector in education: shadow education. According to the Annual Survey of Education Report (2013), 34 percent of private school students and 17 percent of public school students undertake private tuition in Punjab. Anecdotal evidence suggests that private tuition has a positive impact on learning outcomes. Keeping this in view, it is possible that private tuition, rather than a difference inschooling quality, is driving the ob...

  6. Higher education: free tuition vs. quotas vs. targeted vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares theoretically three alternative university systems: the current one adopted in Brazil, in which students who perform better in the entering exam obtain the right to attend the public university without paying the full tuition; a system of affirmative action quotas in public universities, to benefit low income students; and a targeted vouchers system that can be used either to pay private or public university tuiton. The comparison indicates that the last system leads to: (i a higher quality of the labor force; (ii a more efficient allocation of resources; and (iii a greater social mobility.Este trabalho compara, do ponto de vista teórico, três sistemas universitários alternativos: o atual adotado pelo Brasil, no qual os alunos das universidades públicas, que são praticamente gratuitas, são escolhidos através de um processo seletivo; um sistema de quotas nas universidades públicas para beneficiar estudantes de baixa renda; e um sistema de vouchers direcionados para estudantes de baixa renda que podem ser utilizados nas universidades privadas ou públicas. A comparação destes três sistemas indica que o último é o mais eficiente, pois gera: (i maior qualidade da mão de obra; (ii alocação mais eficiente dos recursos; e (iii maior mobilidade social.

  7. 17 CFR 249.510 - Form 10-M, consent to service of process by a nonresident general partner of a broker-dealer firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., consent to service of process by a nonresident general partner of a broker-dealer firm. This form shall be... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 10-M, consent to service of process by a nonresident general partner of a broker-dealer firm. 249.510 Section 249.510...

  8. 17 CFR 249.508 - Form 8-M, consent to service of process by a corporation which is a nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to service of process by a corporation which is a nonresident broker-dealer. This form shall be filed... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 8-M, consent to service of process by a corporation which is a nonresident broker-dealer. 249.508 Section 249.508 Commodity...

  9. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center.

  10. The impact of tuition fees amount on mental health over time in British students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T; Elliott, P; Roberts, R

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between debt and mental health problems in students. This study aimed to examine the effect of differences in tuition fees amount on changes in mental health over time. A prospective cohort study followed 390 first-year British students who differed on their tuition fees level at 4 time points across their first 2 years at university. Participants completed measures of global mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol-related problems at up to four time points in their first two years at university. Mixed-factorial ANOVAs were used to assess the impact of tuition fees amount on changes in scores over time. There was no difference based on fees at Time 1 for anxiety, stress, depression and global mental health. At Time 2, those charged £0-2.9k or £3-4k improved while those charged £8-9k stayed the same. However, this trend reversed by Times 3 and 4. Undergraduates mental health is partially affected by the level of tuition fees; however, the recent increase in tuition fees does not appear to have had a lasting impact at present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Role of Tuition Centers in the Performance and Achievement of Students: A Case of Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Zafarullah; Khawaja, Mumtaz; Siddiqui, Abida; Shaheen, Anjum; Saeed, Humera

    2017-01-01

    This research is designed to explore the importance of tuition centers in the perception of students. It tries to find out the role, supporting methods, environment and good characteristics of tuition centers, their owners and management to support the student to learn effectively and bring good grades in their board examinations. A qualitative…

  12. Tuition and Fees and Tax Revolt Provisions: Exploring State Fiscal Policy Impacts Using Fixed-Effects Vector Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Gabriel Ramom

    2012-01-01

    It is arguably the case that one of the most pressing issues in higher education finance is the increasing price of obtaining a college education, and, more specifically, rising tuition and fees. Because state support to public higher education and tuition and fees at publicly supported colleges and universities have been shown to share an inverse…

  13. Didactic friction – challenges and reflections n interlinking PBL and discipline-specific tuition practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Wind, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This is a discussion paper that is based on the didactics reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD) programme at Aalborg University. The discussion is moored in two narratives representing two typical student tuition situations. Unfolding two touch points...... didactic friction. This friction necessitates teachers and supervisors to critically reflect upon their teaching and supervision styles, and upon how ‘the problem’ is put into play in their tuition of students. The paper argues that teachers and supervisors have a heightened obligation and responsibility...

  14. Correcting for catchment area nonresidency in studies based on tumor-registry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposto, R.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-05-01

    We discuss the effect of catchment area nonresidency on estimates of cancer incidence from a tumor-registry-based cohort study and demonstrate that a relatively simple correction is possible in the context of Poisson regression analysis if individual residency histories or the probabilities of residency are known. A comparison of a complete data maximum likelihood analysis with several Poisson regression analyses demonstrates the adequacy of the simple correction in a large simulated data set. We compare analyses of stomach-cancer incidence from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation tumor registry with and without the correction. We also discuss some implications of including cases identified only on the basis of death certificates. (author)

  15. 16 CFR 1608.4 - Guaranties furnished by nonresidents of the U.S. no bar to prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... U.S. no bar to prosecution. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... § 1608.4 Guaranties furnished by nonresidents of the U.S. no bar to prosecution. A guaranty furnished... as a bar to prosecution under section 7 of the act for a violation of section 3 of the act. ...

  16. 17 CFR 249.507 - Form 7-M, consent to service of process by an individual nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 7-M, consent to service of process by an individual nonresident broker-dealer. 249.507 Section 249.507 Commodity and... Forms for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.507 Form 7-M, consent to service...

  17. 17 CFR 249.509 - Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. 249.509 Section 249.509 Commodity and... Forms for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.509 Form 9-M, consent to service...

  18. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  19. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  20. Improving Quality: How Leaders Advance Student Engagement at Private, Tuition-Driven Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    Students and families, lawmakers, and the general public have become increasingly concerned about the quality of U.S. higher education. Given the competitive higher education landscape, private, tuition-driven colleges and universities are particularly vulnerable to concerns about quality. This study investigates how faculty and administrative…

  1. The Price of Higher Education: How Rational Is British Tuition Fee Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the introduction of variable tuition fees for university students in the UK--an initiative that has become totemic in British higher education policy. The article seeks to identify the origin of this policy, using the work of Michael Oakeshott (1962) as a framework for discussing the rationality of new Labour. The rhetoric of…

  2. Florida's Prepaid College Tuition Program: Marketing a Pre-Need Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauff, Joseph F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Florida's college tuition prepayment program describes the plan and its options and examines its marketing implications as a preneed service. It is concluded that the program makes saving for college easy, economical, and completely safe but requires rethinking of conventional marketing strategies and mix. (MSE)

  3. Tuition Tax Credits and Vouchers: Political Finance Alternatives Rather than Rational Alternatives to Education Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert G.

    This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…

  4. Singing in Primary Schools: Case Studies of Good Practice in Whole Class Vocal Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Daubney, Alison; Spruce, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of British initiatives in music education such as the Wider Opportunities programme in England and the recommendations of the Music Manifesto emphasising the importance of singing in primary schools, the current paper explores examples of good practice in whole-class vocal tuition. The research included seven different primary…

  5. Elasticity of Demand for Tuition Fees at an Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelett, George; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Ola' Akinfenwa, Samson; Jorgensen, Nicholas; Bhattarai, Kopila

    2015-01-01

    Using a conjoint survey of 161 students at South Dakota State University (SDSU), we mapped a probability-of-enrolment curve for SDSU students, consistent with demand theory. A quasi-demand curve was created from the conditional-logit model. This study shows that along with the price of tuition fees, distance from home, availability of majors, and…

  6. Tuition Pricing and Aid Strategies: A Practical Approach. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul L.

    This paper examines the applicability of net tuition revenue models for a highly selective, elite priced, private research university in the southern U.S. Pricing and aid strategies for this university seem to be driven by intuitive assumptions about the economy, market forces, needs-blind admissions, student satisfaction, net price…

  7. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  8. State Dream Acts: The Effect of In-State Resident Tuition Policies and Undocumented Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of in-state resident tuition legislation across the United States on the college enrollment odds of individuals likely to be undocumented Latino immigrants. The study employs a differences-indifferences strategy using data from the Current Population Survey's Merged Outgoing Rotation Groups. Foreign-born noncitizen…

  9. Students' Voices: A Report of the Student View of Dyslexia Study Skills Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Bernadette; Leather, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research using case studies of 22 university students receiving study skills development funded by the Disabled Student's Allowance at an independent dyslexia consultancy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. The students identify the primary benefits of the tuition as: developing an understanding of dyslexia…

  10. College Financial Aid and the Employee Tuition Benefit Programs of the Fortune 500 Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Joseph P.

    Ways are discussed that internal changes in pricing, tuition collection, and cash-flow management might be sources of financial aid for college students ineligible for state and federal assistance programs. The experiences described are the result of two FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education) projects, one dealing with…

  11. The Evolution of Student Activism and Its Influence on Tuition Fees in South Korean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Kim, Hoon-Ho; Choi, Hong-Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the student movement working for political democratisation during the authoritarian governments in South Korea. The article focuses on how student activism has changed as a reflection of political developments from the dictatorship through to the civilian democratic governments. Further, it analyses how tuition-fee…

  12. Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education. NASFAA Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education Task Force was convened in July 2016. Charged by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators's (NASFAA's) Board of Directors with evaluating the existing landscape of state and local promise programs with a focus on scaling such models to the national level, the task force…

  13. Who Gets the Credit? Who Pays the Consequences? The Illinois Tuition Tax Credit. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Keenan, Nancy

    In 1999, Illinois enacted a tuition tax credit program. Tax credit supporters suggest tax credits help low-income students. However, opponents argue that they disproportionately benefit higher-income families whose children are already attending private schools and may decrease already limited resources available to public schools. New data from…

  14. The Impact of Tuition Fees and Support on University Participation in the UK. CEE DP 126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Lorraine; Fitzsimons, Emla; Wyness, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how policy can affect university education is important for understanding how governments can promote human capital accumulation. This paper exploits historic changes to university funding policies in the UK to estimate the impact of tuition fees and maintenance grants on university participation. Previous work on this, which largely…

  15. The Issue of Private Tuition: An Analysis of the Practice in Mauritius and Selected South-east Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foondun, A. Raffick

    2002-11-01

    Private tuition is an issue of growing concern and is practised in both developed and developing countries. Although it has certain positive effects, it imposes a considerable financial burden on parents and often gives rise to abuses. The present study, which focuses on the primary level, addresses a number of questions, such as the extent of the practice, its implications, the various forms that it takes, attitudes towards it, why children take private tuition, why teachers provide it, and policies to deal with the issue. The discussion ends with a plea for more research on private tuition in order to provide a basis for policies to address the problem.

  16. MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF THE FISCALITY OF REVENUES OBTAINED BY NON-RESIDENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian Sorin Dudaş

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical analysis we performed demonstrated that concluding any convention withthird-party states for avoiding double taxation puts Romania at advantage, as the fiscalmultiplier is confirmed, at the present stage of economic development of the country, theeffects generated by signing conventions for eliminating double taxation with third-partystates, are superior to those by which the internal gross product liberates fiscal revenues.The advantages that maximise fiscal incomes on the basis of conventions for eliminatingdouble taxation are determined by the high number of people Romania has in third-partystates, as non-residents, a fact that enables Romania to obtain a large part of the taxablematter, and also by the type of method used for alleviating the effects of double taxation.

  17. Inequality in healthcare costs between residing and non-residing patients: evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu M

    2017-05-12

    Place of residence has been shown to impact health. To date, however, previous studies have only focused on the variability in health outcomes and healthcare costs between urban and rural patients. This study takes a different approach and investigates cost inequality facing non-residing patients - patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located. Understanding the sources for this inequality is important, as they are directly related to healthcare accessibility in developing countries. The causal impact of residency status on individual healthcare spending is documented with a quasi-experimental design. The propensity score matching method is applied to a unique patient-level dataset (n = 900) collected at public general and specialist hospitals across North Vietnam. Propensity score matching shows that Vietnamese patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located are expected to pay about 15 million Vietnamese dongs (approximately 750 USD) more than those who do, a sizable gap, given the distribution of total healthcare costs for the overall sample. This estimate is robust to alternative matching specifications. The obtained discrepancy is empirically attributable to the differences in three potential contributors, namely spending on accompanying relatives, "courtesy funds," and days of hospitalization. The present study finds that there is significant inequality in healthcare spending between residing and non-residing patients at Vietnamese hospitals and that this discrepancy can be partially explained by both institutional and non-institutional factors. These factors signal practical channels through which policymakers can improve healthcare accessibility.

  18. Tuition reduction is the key factor determining tax burden of graduate students under the Tax Cuts and Job Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M; Parker, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Background : The proposed Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R.1) has stirred significant public debate on the future of American economics.  While supporters of the plan have championed it as a necessity for economic revitalization, detractors have pointed out areas of serious concern, particularly for low- and middle-income Americans.  One particularly alarming facet of the plan is the radical change to education finance programs and taxation of students in higher education.  Methods :  By analyzing actual income and tuition of a public and a private university student, as well as the 'average' graduate student, we investigated the effect of both the House and Senate versions of H.R. 1 on taxation of students of various family structures.  Results :  Our findings indicate that taxable tuition would be the greatest contributor to graduate student tax burden across all four categories of filing status.  However, when tuition reduction is upheld or a student is on sustaining fees rather than full tuition, graduate students would realize decreases in taxation. Conclusions :  Overall, we conclude that removal of tuition reduction would result in enormous tax burdens for graduate students and their families and that these effects are dependent not only on the status of the student in their degree program but also on their tuition and stipend, and therefore the institution they attend.

  19. ATTITUDES TOWARDS TUITION FEES PAYMENT IN TERTIARY EDUCATION: A SURVEY OF SUNYANI POLYTECHNIC MARKETING STUDENTS IN SUNYANI GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asuamah Yeboah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at contributing to knowledge in the area of educational finance by assessing student’s attitude towards tuition fees payment. The research is based on quantitative research design and a survey of the marketing students in Sunyani polytechnic that were selected using convenience sample method for a sample of 149. Data were analysed using percentages and one-ANOVA using the SPSS. The findings indicate that student’s knowledge on tuition fees and user fees are low. Respondents did not know that they do not pay tuition fees which are constitutional provision. Respondents consider it appropriate to contribute to the financing of their education but are not will to pay tuition. Parents of students should fund the education of their wards. Students face inadequate funding in their education and that result in worrying which affect their concentration while studying. Respondents are not willing to pay tuition fees and also the current user fees are high. Sources of funding students education are remittance from parents/friends/relative and scholarship. Those who are beneficiaries of the loan spend the amount mostly on course of study and on living expenses. This study should be replicated in other departments in the school and in other tertiary school to assess if these findings will be replicated. Since parents are the major financiers of education future study should target them to assess their attitude towards tuition fee payment.

  20. Administrators' Pay Rises Less than Inflation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1990-01-01

    For the second time in three years, raises for administrators have fallen behind the inflation rate, says a survey conducted by the College and University Personnel Association. At public institutions increases have remained stable. At private institutions, which rely on tuition to finance their payroll, raises tended to vary more. (MLW)

  1. Much Ado about €500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective students…

  2. "If I Play My Sax My Parents Are Nice to Me": Opportunity and Motivation in Musical Instrument and Singing Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the factors which motivate children to take up music tuition, or their reasons for giving up. In part, this is a reflection of the limited extent to which children have been consulted directly in relation to issues exclusively affecting them. This study considered opportunity and motivation for young people…

  3. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  4. Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income,…

  5. Undocumented Immigrants and State Higher Education Policy: The Politics of In-State Tuition Eligibility in Texas and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Nienhusser, H. Kenny; Vega, Blanca E.

    2010-01-01

    Every year about 65,000 undocumented students graduate from U.S. high schools. A major obstacle to their attending college is not being eligible for in-state tuition. Today, nine states permit it while four prohibit it. Even if the federal DREAM Act passes, state policy decisions will continue to strongly shape college opportunities for…

  6. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-5 - Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident government securities brokers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... Government Securities Dealers § 240.15Ca2-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident... government securities dealer by the service of process upon the Commission and the forwarding of a copy...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15b1-5 - Consent to service of process to be furnished by nonresident brokers or dealers and by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... § 240.15b1-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by nonresident brokers or dealers and by...) stipulates and agrees that any such civil suit or action may be commended by the service of process upon the...

  8. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax

  9. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption method.

  10. Effects of Private Tuition on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Subject of Mathematics in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Suleman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research reveals that private or home tuition after school time plays a crucial role in strengthening and improving student’s academic achievement. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. All the students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to the students of Government High School Ahmadi Banda Karak only. Fifty students of class 09 were selected as sample of the study. Sample students were divided into two groups i.e. control group and experimental group by equating them on the basis of their previous knowledge in subject of mathematics as determined through a pre-test. Each group was composed of 25 students. Students of the experimental group were engaged in tuition for two hours after school time. The study was experimental in nature therefore, “The pre-test-post-test Equivalent Groups Design” was used for the collection of data. Statistical tools i.e. the mean, standard deviation and differences of means were computed for each group. Significance of difference between the mean scores of both the experimental and control groups on the variable of pre-test and post test scores was tested at 0.05 levels by applying t-test. After statistical analysis of the data, the researchers concluded that there is significant positive effect of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents should arrange private tuition for their children to move up their achievement level in subject of mathematics.

  11. 38 CFR 21.9640 - Rates of payment of educational assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... semester by the public institution of higher learning having the highest rate of regularly-charged fees in... States dollars using the foreign exchange conversion rate as published by the Federal Reserve effective... by the public institution of higher learning having the highest rate of regularly-charged tuition per...

  12. Tuition reduction is the key factor determining tax burden of graduate students under the Tax Cuts and Job Act [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Lawston

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proposed Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R.1 has stirred significant public debate on the future of American economics.  While supporters of the plan have championed it as a necessity for economic revitalization, detractors have pointed out areas of serious concern, particularly for low- and middle-income Americans.  One particularly alarming facet of the plan is the radical change to education finance programs and taxation of students in higher education.  Methods:  By analyzing actual income and tuition of a public and a private university student, as well as the ‘average’ graduate student, we investigated the effect of both the House and Senate versions of H.R. 1 on taxation of students of various family structures.  Results:  Our findings indicate that taxable tuition would be the greatest contributor to graduate student tax burden across all four categories of filing status.  However, when tuition reduction is upheld or a student is on sustaining fees rather than full tuition, graduate students would realize decreases in taxation. Conclusions:  Overall, we conclude that removal of tuition reduction would result in enormous tax burdens for graduate students and their families and that these effects are dependent not only on the status of the student in their degree program but also on their tuition and stipend, and therefore the institution they attend.

  13. The Language of the Internet – The Use of Concessive Conjunctions in Blogs by Companies Providing Private Tuition

    OpenAIRE

    Jindřiška Kraťkova

    2017-01-01

    Concessions are said to be a key aspect of English semantics because concessive constructions create a place for contrast, i.e. contradicting relations. Several studies have been carried out on this topic (i.e. on the positioning of conjunctions, linguistic interference, etc.). The aim of this paper is to focus on the frequency of use of the most common concessive conjunctions in Internet discussions with native speakers who give private tuition. The focus is primarily on the main, most commo...

  14. The student and the ovum: The lack of autonomy and informed consent in trading genes for tuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Alexa T

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rising tuition costs have forced university students to become creative in finding ways to fund their education. Some female university students have decided that ova donation may be an acceptable alternative in which to pay for their tuition. This alternative presents itself because of the insufficient number of ova available for assisted reproduction and emerging stem cell technologies. Young female university students are encouraged by Internet sources and respectable electronic and print media to donate their ova in the cause of assisted reproduction for monetary compensation. While university students generally exhibit autonomy, the constraining influence of their financial predicament compromises the elements of informed consent (voluntariness, competence, capacity, understanding, and disclosure as to their making an autonomous decision in regard to egg donation. Thus, any moral possibility of giving informed consent is negated. Informed consent can only occur through autonomy. A female university student in need of financial resources to pay for her education cannot make an autonomous choice to trade her genes for tuition. Donated ova are not only needed for assisted reproduction, but for stem cell technologies. While the long-term health of women who donate their ova is of concern (a potential risk of cancer after long term use of ovulation induction, of equal concern is the possibility of a growth in the trade of ova targeting third world and Eastern European women where the precedence for autonomy and informed consent is not well established.

  15. Effects of rising tuition fees on medical school class composition and financial outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jeff C; Dhalla, Irfan A; Streiner, David L; Baddour, Ralph E; Waddell, Andrea E; Johnson, Ian L

    2002-04-16

    Since 1997, tuition has more than doubled at Ontario medical schools but has remained relatively stable in other Canadian provinces. We sought to determine whether the increasing tuition fees in Ontario affected the demographic characteristics and financial outlook of medical students in that province as compared with those of medical students in the rest of Canada. As part of a larger Internet survey of all students at Canadian medical schools outside Quebec, conducted in January and February 2001, we compared the respondents from Ontario schools with those from the other schools (control group). Respondents were asked about their age, sex, self-reported family income (as a direct indicator of socioeconomic status), the first 3 digits of their postal code at graduation from high school (as an indirect indicator of socioeconomic status), and importance of financial considerations in choosing a specialty and location of practice. We used logistic regression models to see if temporal changes (1997 v. 2000) among Ontario medical students differed from those among medical students elsewhere in Canada apart from Quebec. Responses were obtained from 2994 (68.5%) of 4368 medical students. Across the medical schools, there was an increase in self-reported family income between 1997 and 2000 (p = 0.03). In Ontario, the proportion of respondents with a family income of less than $40,000 declined from 22.6% to 15.0%. However, compared with the control respondents, the overall rise in family income among Ontario students was not statistically significant. First-year Ontario students reported higher levels of expected debt at graduation than did graduating students (median $80,000 v. $57,000) (p financial situation was "very" or "extremely" stressful and to cite financial considerations as having a major influence on specialty choice or practice location. These differences were not observed in the control group. At Canadian medical schools, there are fewer students from low

  16. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiqing; De Loney, E Hill; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-09

    Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  17. Cost Benefit Analyses of Developing a Legislation to Attract Non-Resident High Net Worth Individuals to Use Estonian Private Foundation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Kaarlep

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global level, the high net worth population is expanding, and the wealth of high net worth individuals (HNWI is increasing rapidly. For various reasons, high net worth families and individuals are searching for vehicles to assist them in safeguarding and conveniently managing their wealth. Private foundations represent one useful avenue for achieving this end, and the use of private foundations has become increasingly popular in recent years, particularly in European countries. Many countries have laws which regulate private foundations and several are looking for adjusting or introducing legislation. In this article, authors analysing benefits for a country like Estonia in case the country increases the attractiveness of its jurisdiction for non-residents who are looking for establishment of a private foundation. The article comes to the conclusion that to be competitive, a country cannot collect tax revenues from private foundations established by non-residents except from income originated in the very same country. However, the country can earn benefits from revenues received by companies rendering services to non-residents and their private foundations. The article demonstrates that service fees a country earns and taxes collected from these fees would be substantial enough to make necessary changes to legislation beneficial for a country.

  18. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Qian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonresident African American (AA fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers’ residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers’ pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son’s mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention’s effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  19. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions. PMID:28469587

  20. A Polychoric Correlation to Identify the Principle Component in Classifying Single Tuition Fee Capabilities on the Students Socio-Economic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustanti, W.; Anistyasari, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The government has issued the regulation number 55 of 2013 about the enactment of a single tuition fee based on the socio-economic conditions of each student. All public universities are required to implement this policy. Therefore, each university needs to create a formulation that can be used to categorize a student into which cost group. The results of the data collection found that the parameters used to determine the classification of tuition fees between one universities with another are different. In this research, taken a sampling of student data at one public university which is using 43 predictor variables and 8 categories of single tuition. The sample data used are socioeconomic data of students of 2016 and 2017 classes received through public university entrance selections. The results of this study reveal that from 43 variables, there are 16 variables which are the most significant in influencing single tuition category with goodness-of-fit index is 0.866. This value means that the proposed model can indicate student’s ability to pay the tuition fee.

  1. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions.

  2. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the "Conventional Instruction" (CI) study group or to the "Video-based Instruction" (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, pvideo-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video instruction. In this study, the use of the video-based instruction emerged as the more effective teaching method for learning surgical hand disinfection for medical students and is preferable to conventional instruction. The video instruction is associated with a higher learning effectiveness, efficiency

  3. The Language of the Internet – The Use of Concessive Conjunctions in Blogs by Companies Providing Private Tuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Kraťkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Concessions are said to be a key aspect of English semantics because concessive constructions create a place for contrast, i.e. contradicting relations. Several studies have been carried out on this topic (i.e. on the positioning of conjunctions, linguistic interference, etc.. The aim of this paper is to focus on the frequency of use of the most common concessive conjunctions in Internet discussions with native speakers who give private tuition. The focus is primarily on the main, most commonly used concessive conjunctions in tutoring blogs.

  4. The tuition fee ‘shock’: Analysing the response of first-year students to a spatially discontinuous policy change in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    students. Second, changes in migration behaviour are sensitive to geographical distance. Finally, comparing different types of higher education institutions, we find that the migration effect is larger for universities compared to technical colleges and colleges of arts or music....... variation in tuition fee regimes as a result of a Federal Constitutional Court decision. Our empirical results show that the introduction of tuition fees had a particular impact on student migration. We observe three effects: first, male students show a stronger migration response compared to female...

  5. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  6. The Crowd in Mind and Crowded Minds: An Experimental Investigation of Crowding Effects on Students' Views Regarding Tuition Fees in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jens H.; Jucks, Regina

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, just amounts of tuition fees are often a topic of heated debate among different groups such as students, university teachers, administrative staff, and policymakers. We investigated whether unpleasant situations that students often experience at university due to social crowding can affect students' views on the justified…

  7. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  8. Slight Decline in Use of Private School Tuition Vouchers in 2010-2011: Loss of Schools Results in Fewer Students. Research Brief. Volume 99, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…

  9. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  10. Inclusive Democracy: Franchise Limitations on Non-Resident Citizens as an Unjust Restriction of Rights under the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fraser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Public International Law and Policy Group (PILPG advises parties in peace negotiations, on drafting post-conflict constitutions, and assists in prosecuting war criminals. As part of this work, PILPG assists States in establishing and implementing electoral systems that meet international standards for democratic elections, and undertakes election monitoring. Free and fair elections are crucial for the legitimacy of democratic States and are protected by human rights law. The present article focuses on the issue of the franchise and on the restrictions permitted under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR. Specifically, this article addresses franchise restrictions on non-resident citizens across ECHR member States. Setting out the protections for the franchise in Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 ECHR, this article analyses the permissible limitations on those rights according to the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR. The article presents a comparative analysis of other voting rights cases, such as the limitations on prisoners’ franchise. After considering whether residency-based limitations pursue legitimate and proportionate aims, it questions whether blanket restrictions disenfranchising non-resident citizens should be permissible today. The article concludes by advocating the importance of an inclusive franchise for the legitimacy of democratic systems as well as the protection of individual rights, and inviting the ECtHR to revisit its jurisprudence on this topic.

  11. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…

  12. Exploring the Impact of the Increased Tuition Fees on Academic Staffs’ Experiences in Post-92 Universities: A Small-Scale Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bates

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the new tuition fee regime in the UK academic session 2012–2013 has resulted in concerns in the Higher Education (HE community that students’ expectations may become unmanageable. Previous research has explored the expectations and experiences of undergraduate psychology students; the current study extended this by considering whether the increased tuition fees have changed the experiences of academic staff in HE. To achieve this, five semi-structured interviews with psychology staff in two post-92 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs were undertaken. Results suggested staff perceptions have undergone minimal change in their day-to-day experiences. However, perceptions of the wider HE issues, such as meeting targets and fulfilling requirements of the role, appear to be enhanced following the contextual changes of HE. Finally, the results reported here suggest generally good staff satisfaction, regardless of these changing times within the sector. Future research and the need for more widespread, large scale studies are discussed.

  13. Are tuition-free primary education policies associated with lower infant and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, Amm; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Heymann, Jody; Kaufman, Jay S; Nandi, Arijit

    2014-11-01

    Robust evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal education is associated with better child health outcomes. However, whether or not policies aimed at increasing access to education, including tuition-free education policies, contribute to lower infant and neonatal mortality has not been empirically tested. We joined country-level data on national education policies for 37 LMICs to information on live births to young mothers aged 15-21 years, who were surveyed as part of the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys. We used propensity scores to match births to mothers who were exposed to a tuition-free primary education policy with births to mothers who were not, based on individual-level, household, and country-level characteristics, including GDP per capita, urbanization, and health expenditures per capita. Multilevel logistic regression models, fitted using generalized estimating equations, were used to estimate the effect of exposure to tuition-free primary education policies on the risk of infant and neonatal mortality. We also tested whether this effect was modified by household socioeconomic status. The propensity score matched samples for analyses of infant and neonatal mortality comprised 24,396 and 36,030 births, respectively, from 23 countries. Multilevel regression analyses showed that, on average, exposure to a tuition-free education policy was associated with 15 (95% CI=-32, 1) fewer infant and 5 (95% CI=-13, 4) fewer neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. We found no strong evidence of heterogeneity of this effect by socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Policy Considerations for Enhancing Student Access and Persistence in a World in Which Tuition Keeps Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2007-01-01

    The United States no longer leads the world in college completion rates. Inequality in college access rates by income have barely narrowed over the last 25 to 30 years and inequality in college completion rates have narrowed even less. The groups in the population that are growing the most rapidly are those that have historically been…

  15. Invasibility of a nutrient-poor pasture through resident and non-resident herbs is controlled by litter, gap size and propagule pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lutz Eckstein

    Full Text Available Since inference concerning the relative effects of propagule pressure, biotic interactions, site conditions and species traits on the invasibility of plant communities is limited, we carried out a field experiment to study the role of these factors for absolute and relative seedling emergence in three resident and three non-resident confamilial herb species on a nutrient-poor temperate pasture. We set up a factorial field experiment with two levels each of the factors litter cover (0 and 400 g m(-2, gap size (0.01 and 0.1 m(2 and propagule pressure (5 and 50 seeds and documented soil temperature, soil water content and relative light availability. Recruitment was recorded in spring and autumn 2010 and in spring 2011 to cover initial seedling emergence, establishment after summer drought and final establishment after the first winter. Litter alleviated temperature and moisture conditions and had positive effects on proportional and absolute seedling emergence during all phases of recruitment. Large gaps presented competition-free space with high light availability but showed higher temperature amplitudes and lower soil moisture. Proportional and absolute seedling recruitment was significantly higher in large than in small gaps. In contrast, propagule pressure facilitated absolute seedling emergence but had no effects on proportional emergence or the chance for successful colonisation. Despite significantly higher initial seedling emergence of resident than non-resident species, seed mass and other species-specific traits may be better predictors for idiosyncratic variation in seedling establishment than status. Our data support the fluctuating resource hypothesis and demonstrate that the reserve effect of seeds may facilitate seedling emergence. The direct comparison of propagule pressure with other environmental factors showed that propagule pressure affects absolute seedling abundance, which may be crucial for species that depend on other

  16. Study protocol for a randomized clinical trial of a fatherhood intervention for African American non-resident fathers: Can we improve father and child outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julion, Wrenetha A; Sumo, Jen'nea; Bounds, Dawn T; Breitenstein, Susan M; Schoeny, Michael; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis

    2016-07-01

    African American (AA) fathers who live apart from their children face multiple obstacles to consistent and positive involvement with their children. Consequently, significant numbers of children are bereft of their father's positive involvement. Intervention research that is explicitly focused on promoting the positive involvement of non-resident AA fathers with their young children is limited. The purpose of this article is to describe the study protocol of a randomized trial (RCT) designed to test the Building Bridges to Fatherhood program against a financial literacy comparison condition; and discuss early implementation challenges. Fathers (n=180) are recruited to attend 10 group meetings, reimbursed for transportation, given dinner and activity vouchers for spending time with their child, and incentivized with a $40 gift card at each data collection time point. Mothers are incentivized ($40 gift card) at data collection and must be amenable to father child interaction. Intervention targets include father psychological well-being, parenting competence, communication, problem-solving ability; father-mother relationship quality; and child behavioral and emotional/social development. To date, 57 fathers have been randomized to study condition. Recruitment has been influenced by father and mother hesitancy and the logistics of reaching and maintaining contact with participants. Strategies to surmount challenges to father and mother recruitment and engagement have been developed. The prospective benefits of positive father involvement to children, fathers and families outweigh the challenges associated with community-based intervention research. The findings from this RCT can inform the body of knowledge on engaging AA non-resident fathers in culturally relevant fatherhood programming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuition Assistance Programs for Foster Youth Pursuing Postsecondary Education. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Sarubbi, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Many students have concerns about the affordability of college, which may interfere with their potential success. However, foster care alumni have unique needs when making the transition into postsecondary enrollment. Compared to completion rates for the general population, postsecondary education outcomes for youth with foster care experience lag…

  18. Psychological trauma and help seeking behaviour amongst resettled Iraqi refugees in attending English tuition classes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan M; Bussion, Elise; Melkonian, Maral; Mohammad, Yaser; Dover, Hanan; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2015-01-01

    To examine levels of psychological distress and help seeking behaviour in resettled refugees attending English tuition classes in Australia, and their associations with participants' demographic characteristics. Data was collected by bilingual interviewers between March and November 2013. A volunteer sample of attendees of Adult Migrant English Programs (AMEP) in Western Sydney were recruited. Participants were two hundred and twenty five Iraqi refugees resettled in Western Sydney, who had left Iraq no earlier than 1991, were fluent in Arabic and/or English, and were between the ages of 18 and 70. The chief outcome measures used were the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as well as The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). On the K-10, 39.8% of participants had severe psychological distress, 19.4% moderate distress, and 40.7% had low to mild distress. Ninety-five percent of participants reported having experienced one or more potentially traumatic event (PTE) as defined by the HTQ prior to leaving Iraq, with a mean of 14.28 events (SD = 8.69). Thirty-one percent of participants met the threshold (≥2.5) for clinically significant PTSD symptomatology, with a significantly higher occurrence among participants with lower education attainment (χ (2) (3) = 8.26, p = .04). Of those participants with clinically significant PTSD symptomatology according to the HTQ, only 32.9% reported ever having ever sought help for a mental health problem. The high level of distress found in this sample, combined with low uptake of mental health care, highlights the need for programs targeted to promote help-seeking among Iraqi refugees who have resettled in Australia. Further, the higher level of PTSD symptomatology found amongst those with lower education attainment has mental health promotion and treatment implications. Specifically, in designing service and treatment programs, consideration should be given to the possible impact excessive levels of psychological

  19. Capital Controls, Two-tiered Exchange Rate Systems and the Exchange Rate Policy : The South African Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaling, E.

    2005-01-01

    South Africa's 40 years of experience with capital controls on residents and non-residents (1961-2001) reads like a collection of examples of perverse unanticipated effects of legislation and regulation.We show that the presence of capital controls on residents and non-residents, enabled the South

  20. Basic Student Charges at Postsecondary Institutions: Academic Year 1994-95. Tuition and Required Fees and Room and Board Charges at 4-Year, 2-Year, and Public Less-Than-2-Year Institutions. Statistical Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbett, Samuel F.; And Others

    This document lists the typical tuition and required fees and room and board charges assessed to college students in 1994-95 based on a national "Institutional Characteristics" survey which is part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. The data were collected from over 5,000 of the 5,775 4-year, 2-year, and public…

  1. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  2. The Tuition Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Gary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is time to drop the "zero sum style" that has public and private institutions divisively arguing over private and public funds, and adopt a posture of mutual support. The president of the Council for the Advancement of Small Colleges (CASC) emphasizes that both independent and state-owned colleges and universities are needed and an educational…

  3. Attitude towards working in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhang, Kun; Mao, Ying

    2018-05-02

    Attracting and recruiting health workers to work in rural areas is still a great challenge in China. The rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education (RTME) programme has been initiated and implemented in China since 2010. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) in Shaanxi towards working in rural areas and the related influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 among 232 RTMSs in two medical universities from the first group of students enrolled in the RTME programme in Shaanxi. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used for the data analyses. Of the 230 valid responses, 92.6% expressed their intentions of breaking the contract for working in rural township hospitals for 6 years after their graduation under the RTME programme. After the contract expired, only 1.3% intended to remain in the rural areas, 66.5% had no intention of remaining, and 32.2% were unsure. The factors related to a positive attitude among the RTMSs towards working in rural areas (no intention of breaking the contract) included being female, having a mother educated at the level of primary school or below, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the policy. The factors related to a positive attitude of the RTMSs towards remaining in rural areas included being female, having a rural origin, having no regular family monthly income, having a father whose occupation was farmer, having a mother educated at the level of postsecondary or above, having the RTMSs be the final arbiter of the policy choice, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the educational scheme. Related policy makers and health workforce managers may benefit from the findings of this study. Appropriate strategies should be implemented to stimulate the RTMSs

  4. Relationship between the quality of children's handwriting and the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration after one year of writing tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duiser, Ivonne H F; van der Kamp, John; Ledebt, Annick; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether the three subtests of the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration predicted quality of handwriting across and within groups of boys and girls classified as proficient, at risk or non-proficient writers according to the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting. The Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration and the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting tests were administered to 240 grade 2 children. Proficient writers scored better on the visuomotor integration subtest than non-proficient writers, while proficient and at risk writers scored better than non-proficient writers on the motor coordination subtest. No differences were found on the visual perception subtest. Girls were more often classified as proficient writers than boys, and they scored better on the motor coordination subtest. Across groups, regression indicated that gender and both the visuomotor integration subtest and the motor coordination subtest were significant predictors for the quality of handwriting (i.e., accounted for 17% of the variance). After one year of writing tuition, the visuomotor integration subtest (and to a lesser extent the motor coordination subtest) but not the visual perception subtest significant relates to quality of children's handwriting as measured with the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting. However, the relatively little variance explained also points to other abilities and/or task constraints that underlie quality of handwriting. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  6. Dampak Biaya Kuliah Tunggal Terhadap Kualitas Layanan Pendidikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarno Sumarno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in the number of single tuition fees and non-single tuition; the proportion of resources and the allocation of funds before and after the single tuition policy; and the quality of educational services by single tuition and non-single tuition college students. The data was collected from students and leaders at the University of Riau through questionnaires, documentation, and interviews. Data were analyzed descriptively and different test. The results show that the amount of a single tuition fee is not much different from the non-single tuition fee. The proportion of funding sources from the public increased after a single tuition policy, but the proportion of allocations for operational costs decreased. Single tuition college students rated the quality of educational services lower than the non-single tuition of students with significant differences. Single tuition does not significantly affect the quality of education services.

  7. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  8. Catalog of Nonresident Training Courses, 1994 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    place of two old courses; General PHARMA CO THERAPEUTICS Oral Surgical Procedures and Exodontia; NAVPERS IN DENTAL PRACTICE 10729-A; and Special Oral...PRIVATE TUTOR - BASIC NUMBERS CONCEPTS C U G ST 5-4 SHIPBOARD TRAINING ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM INDEX OF SHIPBOARD TRAINING ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM PACKAGES...Continued) MEDIA CLASSIFICATION SUBJECT AREA TITLE FEATURES PRIVATE TUTOR - MATH COMPUTATION SKILLS C U G ST PRIVATE TUTOR - PREPARING FOR GEOMETRY AND

  9. Streamflow ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous direct determination of a continuous time series of streamflow is not economically feasible at present (2014). As such, surrogates are used to derive a continuous time series of streamflow. The derivation process entails developing a streamflow rating, which can range from a simple, single-valued relation between stage and streamflow to a fully dynamic one-dimensional model based on hydraulics of the flow.

  10. Rate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, S.; Skorek, R.; Maugis, P.; Dumont, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO 2 . It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)

  11. 48 CFR 831.7001-1 - Tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 831.7001-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 831... the Federal Government pay a portion of the cost (e.g., Smith-Hughes or other laws, excluding Federal...

  12. Americans Split on Government Control of Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Nearly seven months before the November election, a plurality of Americans favor Barack Obama to tackle what they consider the most pressing issue in higher education: the runaway cost of a bachelor's degree. According to a new nationwide survey conducted through The Chronicle/Gallup Panel, 42 percent of Americans think that controlling college…

  13. NSU Undergraduate Student Tuition and Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of Psychology Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of , dentistry, law, and psychology. Certificate Receive a graduate level certificate to enhance your skills Institute Core Services & Equipment HPD Research Undergraduate Research Community Community Outreach

  14. University of Maryland MRSEC - For Members: Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    operation. This site remains as a history of the center, but will not be actively maintained. University of . Crystals are made up of layers, or "planes" of atoms, perfectly stacked in an ordered pattern . Because this surface has been cut at a slight angle to the crystal planes, it appears "stepped"

  15. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  16. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  17. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  18. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  19. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  20. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  1. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  2. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  3. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  4. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  5. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  6. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  7. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  8. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  9. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  10. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  11. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  12. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  13. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  14. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  15. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  16. Understanding Rig Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Osmundsen; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Terje Skjerpen

    2013-01-01

    We examine the largest cost component in offshore development projects, drilling rates, which have been high over the last years. To our knowledge, rig rates have not been analysed empirically before in the economic literature. By econometric analysis we examine the effects on Gulf of Mexico rig rates of gas and oil prices, rig capacity utilization, contract length and lead time, and rig specific characteristics. Having access to a unique data set containing contract information, we are able ...

  17. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  18. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  19. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  20. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  2. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  3. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  4. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  5. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  6. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  7. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  8. Throughput rate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.; Bailey, W.; Gottlieb, P.; Emami, F.; Fleming, M.; Robertson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor, has completed a study to analyze system wide impacts of operating the CRWMS at varying throughput rates, including the 3000 MTU/year rate which has been assumed in the past. Impacts of throughput rate on all phases of the CRWMS operations (acceptance, transportation, storage and disposal) were evaluated. The results of the study indicate that a range from 3000 to 5000 MTU/year is preferred, based on system cost per MTU of SNF emplaced and logistics constraints

  9. 26 CFR 301.6362-5 - Qualified nonresident tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which bears the same ratio to such sum as the amount described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph... tracing of the profitability of each phase and aspect of the partnership's operations, and shows the State...

  10. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  11. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  12. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  13. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  14. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  15. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  16. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  17. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  18. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  19. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  20. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  1. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  2. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  4. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  5. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  6. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  7. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  8. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  9. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  10. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  11. Rate of Speed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Rate of spread was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  12. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  13. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W

    2011-01-01

    and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...... studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  14. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  15. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  16. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  17. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  18. Ratings are Overrated!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios N. Yannakakis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Are ratings of any use in human-computer interaction and user studies at large? If ratings are of limited use, is there a better alternative for quantitative subjective assessment? Beyond the intrinsic shortcomings of human reporting, there are a number of supplementary limitations and fundamental methodological flaws associated with rating-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rate their level of agreement with a given statement such as a Likert item. While the effect of these pitfalls has been largely downplayed, recent findings from diverse areas of study question the reliability of using ratings. Rank-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rank two or more options --- appear as the evident alternative that not only eliminates the core limitations of ratings but also simplifies the use of sound methodologies that yield more reliable models of the underlying reported construct: user emotion, preference, or opinion. This paper solicits recent findings from various disciplines interlinked with psychometrics and offers a quick guide for the use, processing and analysis of rank-based questionnaires for the unique advantages they offer. The paper challenges the traditional state-of-practice in human-computer interaction and psychometrics directly contributing towards a paradigm shift in subjective reporting.

  19. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may [[Page 17454

  20. Predicting Agency Rating Migrations with Spread Implied Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jianming Kou; Dr Simone Varotto

    2005-01-01

    Investors traditionally rely on credit ratings to price debt instruments. However, rating agencies are known to be prudent in their approach to rating revisions, which results in delayed ratings adjustments to mutating credit conditions. For a large set of eurobonds we derive credit spread implied ratings and compare them with the ratings issued by rating agencies. Our results indicate that spread implied ratings often anticipate future movement of agency ratings and hence could help track cr...

  1. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  2. Calculating graduation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, Patricia L; Love, Karen; McPherson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the focus has been on increasing the number of registered nurse (RN) graduates. Numerous states have initiated programs to increase the number and quality of students entering nursing programs, and to expand the capacity of their programs to enroll additional qualified students. However, little attention has been focused on an equally, if not more, effective method for increasing the number of RNs produced-increasing the graduation rate of students enrolling. This article describes a project that undertook the task of compiling graduation data for 15 entry-level programs, standardizing terms and calculations for compiling the data, and producing a regional report on graduation rates of RN students overall and by type of program. Methodology is outlined in this article. This effort produced results that were surprising to program deans and directors and is expected to produce greater collaborative efforts to improve these rates both locally and statewide.

  3. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  4. Homicide Rates in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Laima, Sigitas; Andriuskeviciute, Gerda; Jurolaic, Eleonora; Jasulaitis, Algimantas

    2018-05-01

    Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0.97, p homicide distribution (p homicides were carried out indoors, 57% in urban area. The presented findings help decide which prevention programs may be the most effective in homicide rate reduction. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This [[Page...

  6. Estimating Discount Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Booth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Discount rates are essential to applied finance, especially in setting prices for regulated utilities and valuing the liabilities of insurance companies and defined benefit pension plans. This paper reviews the basic building blocks for estimating discount rates. It also examines market risk premiums, as well as what constitutes a benchmark fair or required rate of return, in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the U.S. Federal Reserve’s bond-buying program. Some of the results are disconcerting. In Canada, utilities and pension regulators responded to the crash in different ways. Utilities regulators haven’t passed on the full impact of low interest rates, so that consumers face higher prices than they should whereas pension regulators have done the opposite, and forced some contributors to pay more. In both cases this is opposite to the desired effect of monetary policy which is to stimulate aggregate demand. A comprehensive survey of global finance professionals carried out last year provides some clues as to where adjustments are needed. In the U.S., the average equity market required return was estimated at 8.0 per cent; Canada’s is 7.40 per cent, due to the lower market risk premium and the lower risk-free rate. This paper adds a wealth of historic and survey data to conclude that the ideal base long-term interest rate used in risk premium models should be 4.0 per cent, producing an overall expected market return of 9-10.0 per cent. The same data indicate that allowed returns to utilities are currently too high, while the use of current bond yields in solvency valuations of pension plans and life insurers is unhelpful unless there is a realistic expectation that the plans will soon be terminated.

  7. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  8. Estimating NHL Scoring Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buttrey, Samuel E.; Washburn, Alan R.; Price, Wilson L.; Operations Research

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1334 We propose a model to estimate the rates at which NHL teams score and yield goals. In the model, goals occur as if from a Poisson process whose rate depends on the two teams playing, the home-ice advantage, and the manpower (power-play, short-handed) situation. Data on all the games from the 2008-2009 season was downloaded and processed into a form suitable for the analysis. The model...

  9. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  11. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  12. Openings for Zero Rating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Preta (Augusto); P. Peng (Peng)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractZero rating (toll-free data) is the practice of internet service providers (ISPs) and mobile operators not charging end users for data usage of specific internet content and applications of content providers through their network. On one hand it may benefit consumers from using the

  13. Rating of environmental criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, K; Krasser, G

    1980-01-01

    After a general theoretical discussion on the question of rating within a framework of cost-benefit studies, first trials as to the quantification and standardisation of twelve selected environmental criteria by means of an indicator system are worked out and compiled. The selection includes the criteria exhaust gas, dust, micro climate, water pollution, water regime, land requirement, vibrations, traffic noise, landscape scene, urban scene, effect of separation and safety risks. An insight is given of the rating practice using an evaluation of the available literature, of a household interview and of an interview of experts. The interviewing of 156 experts as to their rating conception of ten criteria in the second round has provided contributions to the general problem of the evaluation estimate based on multi criteria analysis as well as differentiation of the twelve or ten environmental criteria. The following criteria ratings given by the experts and which are averaged and smoothed are: traffic noise 20,0% +- 8,5; air pollution 15,0% +- 7,0; safety risk 13,0% +- 7,0; soil and water pollution 8,5% +- 5,0; landscape scene 8,0% +- 4,5; urban scene 8,0% +- 4,5; water regime 6,5% +- 3,5 and vibrations 4,5% +- 2,5.

  14. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  15. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  16. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Columbia. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  17. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  18. Time, rate, and conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Gibbon, J

    2000-04-01

    The authors draw together and develop previous timing models for a broad range of conditioning phenomena to reveal their common conceptual foundations: First, conditioning depends on the learning of the temporal intervals between events and the reciprocals of these intervals, the rates of event occurrence. Second, remembered intervals and rates translate into observed behavior through decision processes whose structure is adapted to noise in the decision variables. The noise and the uncertainties consequent on it have both subjective and objective origins. A third feature of these models is their timescale invariance, which the authors argue is a very important property evident in the available experimental data. This conceptual framework is similar to the psychophysical conceptual framework in which contemporary models of sensory processing are rooted. The authors contrast it with the associative conceptual framework.

  19. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  20. On multiple discount rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Christopher P.; Echenique, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theory of intertemporal choice that is robust to specific assumptions on the discount rate. One class of models requires that one utility stream be chosen over another if and only if its discounted value is higher for all discount factors in a set. Another model focuses on an average discount factor. Yet another model is pessimistic, and evaluates a flow by the lowest available discounted value.

  1. VAP rates unchanged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  2. Neonatal heart rate prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Yumna; Jeremic, Aleksander; Tan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have caused a decrease in the number of infant deaths. Pre-term infants now have a substantially increased chance of survival. One of the mechanisms that is vital to saving the lives of these infants is continuous monitoring and early diagnosis. With continuous monitoring huge amounts of data are collected with so much information embedded in them. By using statistical analysis this information can be extracted and used to aid diagnosis and to understand development. In this study we have a large dataset containing over 180 pre-term infants whose heart rates were recorded over the length of their stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). We test two types of models, empirical bayesian and autoregressive moving average. We then attempt to predict future values. The autoregressive moving average model showed better results but required more computation.

  3. Money market rates and implied CCAPM rates: some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    New Neoclassical Synthesis models equate the instrument of monetary policy to the implied CCAPM rate arising from an Euler equation. This paper identifies monetary policy shocks within six of the G7 countries and examines the movement of money market and implied CCAPM rates. The key result is that an increase in the nominal interest rate leads to a fall in the implied CCAPM rate. Incorporating habit still yields the same result. The findings suggest that the movement of these two rates implie...

  4. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without regard...

  5. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  6. 48 CFR 871.207 - Payment of tuition or fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prorated on the basis of attendance, regardless of the refund policy. (3) If an institution customarily charges for the amount of credit or number of hours of attendance for which a trainee enrolls, payment may... policy providing for a graduated scale of charges for purposes of determining refunds may be paid part or...

  7. Rising Student Employment: The Role of Tuition Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christine

    2015-01-01

    In 1979, less than 30% of full-time university students in Canada worked for pay during the academic year. By the mid-2000s, this had risen to 45%. This trend to increasing work among full-time students is also evident in other countries, and may be a concern if it reduces students' investment in human capital during their studies. I find that,…

  8. Choice in Schooling: A Case for Tuition Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, David W.

    The educational reform movement produced only incremental improvements in student achievement, prompting a need for greater focus on structural and cultural aspects of school organization. Parental choice is the necessary element for successful school reform in the future. The public educational system that has evolved in America is widely…

  9. Tuition and Student Aid: Their Relation to College Enrollment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Thomas M., Ed.; Kent, Laura, Ed.

    Presentations and critiques include these topics: determinants of college decisions; supply and demand in postsecondary education; shortcomings of models and data bases; effects of price and nonprice characteristics; and some methodoligical considerations. Discussion questions include: Is there a middle-income squeeze?; How can nonapplicants be…

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Childcare Tuition Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This system collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies for this data.

  11. Decomposing the social discount rate

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Recent modelling of the costs and benefits of climate change has renewed debate surrounding assumptions regarding the social discount rate in analysing the impacts of environmental change. Previous literature segments the social discount rate into being influenced by two key factors; the rate of pure time preference and the elasticity of marginal utility of future consumption. These components of the social discount rate reinforce the linkages between the choice of social discount rate and in...

  12. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  13. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  15. The influence of sovereign credit ratings on corporate credit ratings.

    OpenAIRE

    Umutoni, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Credit ratings have a key role in modern financial markets as they communicate crucial information on the creditworthiness of a debt issuer to investors and regulators. These credit ratings are mostly determined by three rating agencies, namely Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch, even though, the credit rating industry counts a dozen of recognized rating agencies. Indeed, the three agencies have become the market leaders with a market share of 94.3% on the U.S market (Bloomberg, 2015) and 9...

  16. Content and ratings of mature-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  18. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  19. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. The Citadel. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  20. Using a Merit-Based Scholarship Program to Increase Rates of College Enrollment in an Urban School District: The Case of the Pittsburgh Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Engberg, John

    2015-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Promise is a scholarship program that provides $5,000 per year toward college tuition for public high school graduates in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who earned a 2.5 GPA and a 90% attendance record. This study used a difference-in-difference design to assess whether the introduction of the Promise scholarship program directly…

  1. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. South Carolina State University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  2. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Francis Marion University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  3. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. College of Charleston. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  4. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Lander University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  5. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Winthrop University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Upstate. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Aiken. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  8. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Beaufort. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  9. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Coastal Carolina University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  10. 76 FR 7879 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for... part 518, the preliminary fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the...

  11. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian..., that the National Indian Gaming Commission has adopted its 2013 preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00... self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the 2013 preliminary fee rate on Class II revenues shall be one...

  12. 75 FR 5342 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for... part 518, the preliminary fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the...

  13. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for... part 518, the preliminary fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the...

  14. 75 FR 44807 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted final annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar... 518, the preliminary fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the...

  15. 76 FR 38207 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted final annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar... 518, the final fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the annual...

  16. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION... Commission has adopted final annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar... 518, the final fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the annual...

  17. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Beenish M.

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone?s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ?Unique Heart Rate Monitor?, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal ...

  18. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Beenish M

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone's camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, 'Unique Heart Rate Monitor', you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider.

  19. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  20. Aggregate Social Discount Rate Derived from Individual Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. Reinschmidt

    2002-01-01

    In the economic evaluation of large public-sector projects, an aggregate social discount rate may be used in present worth comparison of alternatives. This paper uses the assumptions that individual discount rates are constant over time and approximately Normally distributed across the affected population, with mean \\mu and variance \\sigma 2 , to derive an aggregate discount function that is exponential in form but with time-dependent aggregate discount rate \\rho (t) = \\mu - \\sigma 2 t/2, whe...

  1. Female literacy rate is a better predictor of birth rate and infant mortality rate in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educated women are known to take informed reproductive and healthcare decisions. These result in population stabilization and better infant care reflected by lower birth rates and infant mortality rates (IMRs, respectively. Materials and Methods: Our objective was to study the relationship of male and female literacy rates with crude birth rates (CBRs and IMRs of the states and union territories (UTs of India. The data were analyzed using linear regression. CBR and IMR were taken as the dependent variables; while the overall literacy rates, male, and female literacy rates were the independent variables. Results: CBRs were inversely related to literacy rates (slope parameter = -0.402, P < 0.001. On multiple linear regression with male and female literacy rates, a significant inverse relationship emerged between female literacy rate and CBR (slope = -0.363, P < 0.001, while male literacy rate was not significantly related to CBR (P = 0.674. IMR of the states were also inversely related to their literacy rates (slope = -1.254, P < 0.001. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant inverse relationship between IMR and female literacy (slope = -0.816, P = 0.031, whereas male literacy rate was not significantly related (P = 0.630. Conclusion: Female literacy is relatively highly important for both population stabilization and better infant health.

  2. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    challenges in high rate character- isation of polymers. The most important is that, owing to their low stress wavespeed, the structural response of...box’ tool, to provide supporting date for the rate dependent mechanical character- isation . Experiments were performed on a TA instruments Q800

  3. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  4. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn Strøier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...

  5. Rate My Stake: Interpretation of Ordinal Stake Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Grant Kirker

    2014-01-01

    Ordinal rating systems are commonly employed to evaluate biodeterioration of wood exposed outdoors over long periods of time. The purpose of these ratings is to compare the durability of test systems to nondurable wood products or known durable wood products. There are many reasons why these systems have evolved as the chosen method of evaluation, including having an...

  6. The foreign exchange rate rate exposure of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984) we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  7. The optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikkers, F.; Thibeault, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs, and to describe the consequences of the chosen philosophy on several related aspects. As to our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies the considerations of financial institutions on what

  8. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  9. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  10. Management of interest rate risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest rate risk is one of the biggest and most dangerous risks that a bank is exposed to. When a change of interest rates occurs, the incomes of a bank based on credits and securities endure significant changes. Banks resources also endure some changes. The change of interest rates changes the value of the assets and liabilities of the bank and it's net and investment worth . The change of interest rates also affects bank's balance sheet, income sheet statement and bank's share capital.

  11. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  12. Failure Rates in Introductory Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2007-01-01

    It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses...

  13. Nontraditional Student Graduation Rate Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    The prominence of discourse on postsecondary degree completion, student persistence, and retention has increased in the national dialogue. Heightened attention to college completion rates by the federal government and pressure to tie state funding to performance metrics associated with graduation rates are catalysts for the discussion.…

  14. Can you Trust Online Ratings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Julie; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Do user populations differ systematically in the way they express and rate sentiment? We use large collections of Danish and U.S. reviews to investigate this question, and we find evidence of important systematic differences: first, positive ratings are far more common in the U.S. data than in th...

  15. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  16. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  17. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  18. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  19. The Logic of Collective Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  20. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  1. Tutor Trust Primary: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Emily; Worth, Jack; Aston, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one to one tuition to schools. The Trust recruits university students and recent graduates, which enables it to provide tuition at a competitive rate. It predominantly aims to support schools in challenging communities and pupils who are looked-after or…

  2. Tutor Trust Secondary: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Emily; Morrison, Jo; Walker, Matthew; Aston, Helen; Cook, Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Tutor Trust is a Manchester-based charity that aims to provide affordable small group and one-to-one tuition, predominantly to disadvantaged pupils in schools in challenging communities. The tutors are university students and recent graduates, enabling tuition to be provided at a competitive rate on a not-for-profit basis. This three-year…

  3. Trends in College Pricing, 2016. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer; Baum, Sandy; Pender, Matea; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    In 2016-17, published tuition and fee prices rose slightly less than the year before. The rapid price growth observed during the Great Recession has abated, as typically happens when the economy recovers, but the rate of increase in tuition and fees continues to exceed inflation. More notable, however, is the pattern of the net prices students…

  4. Implantation rate effects on microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyke, W.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.; Wood, S.; Doyle, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report a detailed TEM study of rate effects in a metal (304 SS) where we dope with an insoluble atom (He) and create the displacement damage with high energy Si. The rates of doping and the rates of producing lattice damage are independently varied during dual implantation. In addition to varying the doping rates of the He the magnitude of the displacement damage prior to He implantation is also varied (beam history). We find that the beam history has virtually no effect on maximum bubble size but it has a major effect on the average cavity diameter. A weak dependence of cavity number density on helium implantation rate is found. The total dislocation density is relatively independent of the doping rate and beam history at 550 and 700 0 C, whereas the loop fraction is sensitive to beam history at these temperatures. Acicular precipitate formation is weakly dependent on doping, doping rate and more strongly dependent on doping concentration and temperature. This form of solute segregation is very sensitive to beam history. (orig.)

  5. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  7. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  8. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Nov 13,2017 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  9. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  10. Rate Adaptive OFDMA Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the varying nature of the wireless channels, adapting the transmission parameters, such as code rate, modulation order and power, in response to the channel variations provides a significant improvement in the system performance. In the OFDM systems, Per-Frame adaptation (PFA) can be employed where the transmission variables are fixed over a given frame and may change from one frame to the other. Subband (tile) loading offers more degrees of adaptation such that each group of carriers (subband) uses the same transmission parameters and different subbands may use different parameters. Changing the code rate for each tile in the same frame, results in transmitting multiple codewords (MCWs) for a single frame. In this thesis a scheme is proposed for adaptively changing the code rate of coded OFDMA systems via changing the puncturing rate within a single codeword (SCW). In the proposed structure, the data is encoded with the lowest available code rate then it is divided among the different tiles where it is punctured adaptively based on some measure of the channel quality for each tile. The proposed scheme is compared against using multiple codewords (MCWs) where the different code rates for the tiles are obtained using separate encoding processes. For bit interleaved coded modulation architecture two novel interleaving methods are proposed, namely the puncturing dependant interleaver (PDI) and interleaved puncturing (IntP), which provide larger interleaving depth. In the PDI method the coded bits with the same rate over different tiles are grouped for interleaving. In IntP structure the interleaving is performed prior to puncturing. The performance of the adaptive puncturing technique is investigated under constant bit rate constraint and variable bit rate. Two different adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) selection methods are examined for variable bit rate adaptive system. The first is a recursive scheme that operates directly on the SNR whereas the second

  11. Risk, ambiguity and sovereign rating

    OpenAIRE

    Di Caro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decisions of investing in sovereign assets involve both risk and ambiguity. Ambiguity arises from unknown elements characterizing the value of a generic sovereign. In presence of ambiguity, ambiguity-averse investors are prone to pay for obtaining summary information such as ratings which reduces ambiguity. Ambiguity-neutral and ambiguity-averse investors, then, make decisions on the basis of different informative sources. By presenting a simple model of sovereign rating under ambiguity, thre...

  12. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2011-10-01

    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rating af banker og banksystemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Banksystemer over hele verdenen er med nød og næppe blevet reddet af diverse statslige hjælpepakker. Derfor er der i disse år øget fokus på banker og banksystemers rating. Denne interesse bliver ikke mindre af, at de statslige garantier til bankerne i mange lande udløber i de kommende år. Rating ...

  14. Evaporation rate of nucleating clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadinsky, Evgeni

    2011-11-21

    The Becker-Döring kinetic scheme is the most frequently used approach to vapor liquid nucleation. In the present study it has been extended so that master equations for all cluster configurations are included into consideration. In the Becker-Döring kinetic scheme the nucleation rate is calculated through comparison of the balanced steady state and unbalanced steady state solutions of the set of kinetic equations. It is usually assumed that the balanced steady state produces equilibrium cluster distribution, and the evaporation rates are identical in the balanced and unbalanced steady state cases. In the present study we have shown that the evaporation rates are not identical in the equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. The evaporation rate depends on the number of clusters at the limit of the cluster definition. We have shown that the ratio of the number of n-clusters at the limit of the cluster definition to the total number of n-clusters is different in equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. This causes difference in evaporation rates for these cases and results in a correction factor to the nucleation rate. According to rough estimation it is 10(-1) by the order of magnitude and can be lower if carrier gas effectively equilibrates the clusters. The developed approach allows one to refine the correction factor with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations.

  15. Community Rates of Breastfeeding Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding initiation rates vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups, maternal age, and education level, yet there are limited data concerning the influence of geography on community rates of breastfeeding initiation. This study aimed to describe how community rates of breastfeeding initiation vary in geographic space, highlighting "hot spots" and "cool spots" of initiation and exploring the potential connections between race, socioeconomic status, and urbanization levels on these patterns. Birth certificate data from the Kentucky Department of Health for 2004-2010 were combined with county-level geographic base files, Census 2010 demographic and socioeconomic data, and Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to conduct a spatial statistical analysis of community rates of breastfeeding initiation. Between 2004 and 2010, the average rate of breastfeeding initiation for Kentucky increased from 43.84% to 49.22%. Simultaneously, the number of counties identified as breastfeeding initiation hot spots also increased, displaying a systematic geographic pattern in doing so. Cool spots of breastfeeding initiation persisted in rural, Appalachian Kentucky. Spatial regression results suggested that unemployment, income, race, education, location, and the availability of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants are connected to breastfeeding initiation. Not only do spatial analytics facilitate the identification of breastfeeding initiation hot spots and cool spots, but they can be used to better understand the landscape of breastfeeding initiation and help target breastfeeding education and/or support efforts.

  16. Inflation Rate Modelling in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzy Eko Caraka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyse: (i Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia with parametric regression. (ii Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia using non-parametric regression spline multivariable (iii Determining the best model the inflation rate in Indonesia (iv Explaining the relationship inflation model parametric and non-parametric regression spline multivariable. Based on the analysis using the two methods mentioned the coefficient of determination (R2 in parametric regression of 65.1% while non-parametric amounted to 99.39%. To begin with, the factor of money supply or money stock, crude oil prices and the rupiah exchange rate against the dollar is significant on the rate of inflation. The stability of inflation is essential to support sustainable economic development and improve people's welfare. In conclusion, unstable inflation will complicate business planning business activities, both in production and investment activities as well as in the pricing of goods and services produced.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3260

  17. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  18. Automatic Strain-Rate Controller,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    D—AO37 9~e2 ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER GRIFFISS AFB N 1’ FIG 13/ 6AUTOMATIC STRAIN—RATE CONTROLLER, (U) DEC 76 R L HUNTSINGER. J A ADAMSK I...goes to zero. CONTROLLER, Leeds and Northrup Series 80 CAT with proportional band , rate , reset, and approach controls . Input from deviation output...8) through ( 16) . (8) Move the set-point slowl y up to 3 or 4. (9) If the recorder po inter hunts , adjust the func t ion controls on tine Ser

  19. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  20. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  1. [Awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Wang, Li-min; Mi, Sheng-quan; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Yu; Dai, Meng; Wang, Lin-hong

    2012-08-01

    To explore the awareness, treatment and control rates of dyslipidemia among Chinese adults aged over 18 in 2010, and to analyze the prevalent features. 97 409 subjects aged over 18 were recruited from 162 monitoring sites around 31 provinces in China mainland in 2010, applying multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Information about subjects' history of dyslipidemia, treatment and control were collected by face-to-face interview; and each subject's fasting venous blood was drawn in the morning before having food, to test total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In total, 51 818 cases of dyslipidemia ever or now, including 2235 subjects who once suffered from dyslipidemia but had their blood lipid controlled to normal, were screened out. And the awareness, treatment and control rates were calculated by complex weighting. The awareness rate of dyslipidemia among Chinese adults was 10.93%, while the stratified rates were 6.00%, 16.75% and 18.74% in the groups of subjects aged 18 - 44, 45 - 59 and over 60 years old, respectively (χ² = 1293.02, P China, respectively (χ² = 117.04, P China, respectively (χ² = 50.71, P control rate of dyslipidemia was 3.53% among total subjects, while whose stratified rates were 1.64%, 5.49% and 6.94% in the groups of subjects aged 18 - 44, 45 - 59 and over 60 years old, respectively (χ² = 554.12, P China, respectively (χ² = 91.45, P control rates of dyslipidemia have been comparatively low among Chinese adults, especially among the population who were young, or who were from rural area or western China.

  2. 76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... settled derivative securities). See Simplification of Registration of Reporting Requirements for Foreign... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 [Release No. 33-9245; 34-64975; File No. S7-18-08] RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...

  3. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  4. True mean rate measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)

  5. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  6. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  7. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine perce...

  9. Publication rates following pancreas meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, A; Blum, T; Lankisch, P G

    2001-08-01

    Publication rates and determinants of publication were studied based on abstracts presented at pancreatic meetings. All abstracts presented at the 1994 and 1995 annual meetings of the European Pancreatic Club (EPC) and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) were followed up by searching MEDLINE. Publication rates were compared using log-rank tests and multiple logistic regression. The prestige of the publishing journals was compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests on scientific impact factors (SIF). Overall, 340 abstracts were presented at the EPC, and 254 were presented at the APA. Of these, 203 (59.7%, EPC) and 138 (54.3%, APA) were later published in peer-reviewed journals. Publication rates did not differ by study type or country region of origin. In addition, median SIFs were similar by conference (APA vs. EPC) and research type (basic science vs. clinical studies) (overall, 1.7). However, North American and North/West European articles were published in higher impact journals as compared with those from other countries. Publication rates and median journal SIFs in pancreas research are similar to those reported from other medical specialty meetings. There is no difference by conference, type of research, or origin (North American vs. European).

  10. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  11. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  12. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  13. 78 FR 15973 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in the second column, in the eighth line from the bottom of the page, ``Dated...

  14. The dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents calculations that illustrate two conclusions; for any particular cell type there will be a critical radius at which tumor control breaks down, and the radius at which this occurs is strongly dependent upon the low-dose-rate radiosensitivity of the cells

  15. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  16. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  17. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  18. The influence of interest rates on the exchange rate and exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Florin MAVRIS; Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic of interest rates has been the subject of attention by both traders and researchers. We see in what manner different factors that depend on the actions of central banks that influence them by using a GARCH type model and we compare its performance with other models to see what approach explains and predicts the movement of the exchange rate. To better understand the type of model that is applicable the data is tested for heteroskedasticity, and only after that the model is impleme...

  19. Content and ratings of teen-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-02-18

    Children's exposure to violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in the media remains a source of public health concern. However, content in video games played by older children and adolescents has not been quantified or compared with the rating information provided to consumers by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). To quantify and characterize the content in video games rated T (for "Teen") and to measure the agreement between the content observed in game play and the ESRB-assigned content descriptors displayed on the game box. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of ESRB-assigned content descriptors. We randomly sampled 80 video game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, quantitatively assessed the content, and compared the content we observed with the content descriptors assigned by the ESRB. Depictions of violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, and alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; whether injuring or killing characters is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; characterization of gender associated with sexual themes; and use of profanity in dialogue, lyrics, or gestures. Analysis of all content descriptors assigned to the 396 T-rated video game titles showed 373 (94%) received content descriptors for violence, 102 (26%) for blood, 60 (15%) for sexual themes, 57 (14%) for profanity, 26 (7%) for comic mischief, 6 (2%) for substances, and none for gambling. In the random sample of 81 games we played, we found that 79 (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play, 73 (90%) rewarded or required the player to injure characters, 56 (69%) rewarded or required the player to kill, 34 (42%) depicted blood, 22 (27%) depicted sexual themes

  20. Optimal Discount Rates for Government Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangkyun

    2012-01-01

    Project selection based on the net present value can be optimal only if the discount rate is optimal. The optimal discount rate for a government project can be a risk-free rate, a comparable market rate (market interest rate corresponding to the risk of cash flows to the government), or an adjusted market rate, depending on circumstances. This paper clarifies the conditions for each case. Provided that the optimal discount rate is the comparable market rate, it varies across intervention meth...

  1. Financial markets and interest rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudić Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper 'Financial Markets and Interest Rate' originated from the thesis paper. This topic is very interesting and more and more present in the recent few years. Various changes in the market, increased competition, the development of information technologies, application of innovations, all these contribute to the rapid expansion of scope and use of financial derivatives. Therefore, under these influences, oscillations in various markets are present on a daily basis, so that the vast expansion of financial contracts is present, which is mainly related to interest rates. What are the world's best-known stock markets? What are the instruments most actively traded on stock exchanges? The words LIBOR and BBA LIBOR are frequently heard in today's media. What is LIBOR? What is BBA LIBOR? How and when is it determined? Where is LIBOR used?.

  2. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  3. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  4. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  5. Injury rates in Shotokan karate

    OpenAIRE

    Critchley, G. R.; Mannion, S.; Meredith, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were su...

  6. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  7. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-01-01

    In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Ital...

  8. Extended Power Up-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Ball

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  9. Rates for the competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, B.; Watson, I.; Snelson, K.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion panel consisted of Bruce Ander of Pamco Atlas, Ian Watson, Chair of the Ontario Chamber of Commerce Energy Committee, and Ken Snelson, Principal of Snelson International Energy. Ian Watson shared his membership's views on the future supply of electric power under a competitive energy system in Ontario, stressing the need for the government to instruct Ontario Hydro to bring forward a transmission rate to the Ontario Energy Board in 1997, and for legislation to allow independent buyers and sellers to contract with one another to use that transmission rate outside the control of Ontario Hydro. He also expressed concern about Ontario Hydro's anti-competitive load retention rate which was an obvious bid to retain its major customers. Ken Snelson reported on a review of the effects of competition on Canada's long-term energy outlook. He predicted that in a competitive market with full retail access, customers can expect a lot more choice; independent producers also will have many more options for selling power

  10. Status of rates and rate equations for thermal leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, S.; Bödeker, D.; Brambilla, N.; Garny, M.; Ghiglieri, J.; Hohenegger, A.; Laine, M.; Mendizabal, S.; Millington, P.; Salvio, A.; Vairo, A.

    2018-02-01

    In many realizations of leptogenesis, heavy right-handed neutrinos play the main role in the generation of an imbalance between matter and antimatter in the early Universe. Hence, it is relevant to address quantitatively their dynamics in a hot and dense environment by taking into account the various thermal aspects of the problem at hand. The strong washout regime offers an interesting framework to carry out calculations systematically and reduce theoretical uncertainties. Indeed, any matter-antimatter asymmetry generated when the temperature of the hot plasma T exceeds the right-handed neutrino mass scale M is efficiently erased, and one can focus on the temperature window T ≪ M. We review recent progress in the thermal field theoretic derivation of the key ingredients for the leptogenesis mechanism: the right-handed neutrino production rate, the CP asymmetry in the heavy-neutrino decays and the washout rates. The derivation of evolution equations for the heavy-neutrino and lepton-asymmetry number densities, their rigorous formulation and applicability are also discussed.

  11. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Heart rate variability in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorka, K; Lehotska, Z; Kozar, M; Uhrikova, Z; Kolarovszki, B; Javorka, M; Zibolen, M

    2017-09-22

    Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns is influenced by genetic determinants, gestational and postnatal age, and other variables. Premature infants have a reduced HRV. In neonatal HRV evaluated by spectral analysis, a dominant activity can be found in low frequency (LF) band (combined parasympathetic and sympathetic component). During the first postnatal days the activity in the high frequency (HF) band (parasympathetic component) rises, together with an increase in LF band and total HRV. Hypotrophy in newborn can cause less mature autonomic cardiac control with a higher contribution of sympathetic activity to HRV as demonstrated by sequence plot analysis. During quiet sleep (QS) in newborns HF oscillations increase - a phenomenon less expressed or missing in premature infants. In active sleep (AS), HRV is enhanced in contrast to reduced activity in HF band due to the rise of spectral activity in LF band. Comparison of the HR and HRV in newborns born by physiological vaginal delivery, without (VD) and with epidural anesthesia (EDA) and via sectio cesarea (SC) showed no significant differences in HR and in HRV time domain parameters. Analysis in the frequency domain revealed, that the lowest sympathetic activity in chronotropic cardiac chronotropic regulation is in the VD group. Different neonatal pathological states can be associated with a reduction of HRV and an improvement in the health conditions is followed by changes in HRV what can be use as a possible prognostic marker. Examination of heart rate variability in neonatology can provide information on the maturity of the cardiac chronotropic regulation in early postnatal life, on postnatal adaptation and in pathological conditions about the potential dysregulation of cardiac function in newborns, especially in preterm infants.

  13. Global warming and interest rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco C.

    1999-01-01

    The socio-economical growth of our country will yield unavoidably a sustained growth on the energy demand, particularly on the electricity demand. If the expected assumptions are fulfilled, the needed power needed to cover the electrical demand between 1997 and 2020 will almost triple, and the natural gas consumption by the generating facilities and CO 2 emissions in that sector will multiply by five. If the emissions of other sector grow at the same rate as those of the electric sector the level of the emissions in our country will be equivalent to those of the developed countries at present. It is imperative to put limits to the growth of those emissions. In order to avoid that limiting of the emissions to be just a declaration, it is necessary to find and implement mechanisms that will lead to that goal. In the electric sector, and in order to promote the use of energy sources free of those emissions, the possible measures are: Application of an emission tax of U$ 10 (or higher) per ton of CO 2 and use of the resulting funds to cause a decrease in the interest rate applied to electric generation projects which do not emit greenhouse gases. Contributions by the countries responsible for the present level of CO 2 in the atmosphere to lower the incidence of the initial capital costs on the generation costs for the same type of projects (via low rate loans or subsidies). Being active any one of these two mechanisms (or both), will provoke those clean generation sources to compete successfully and will allow them to be a valuable tool to effectively diminish the growth of the emissions of those gases from the electric sector. Besides, a tax of such magnitude would not provoke an important increase on the electric energy prices. If any mechanism is implemented which intends to effectively diminish the CO 2 emissions, the first important project to be completed is the completion of the Atucha II power station. (author)

  14. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  15. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, O.; Ryba, J.; Slezak, V.; Svobodova, B.; Viererbl, L.

    1984-10-01

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137 Cs, 241 Am and 109 Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10 -2 to 10 3 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  16. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  17. Reaction rates for neutrino processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalitin, D.

    1978-01-01

    Some integrals involved in neutrino processes are evaluated by transformation to a special system of reference - usually to the center of mass system (CM). Rather simple analytic expressions are obtained for reaction rates and, though less simple, for moments. An interesting result thus obtained is for an isotropic interaction (in CM) of a neutrino with a monoenergetic isotropic gas of extreme relativistic electrons: it is found that the probability of the scattered neutrino to have energy in a certain range is independent of this energy. (Auth.)

  18. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  19. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  20. Rating prediction using textual reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    NithyaKalyani, A.; Ushasukhanya, S.; Nagamalleswari, TYJ; Girija, S.

    2018-04-01

    Information today is present in the form of opinions. Two & a half quintillion bytes are exchanged today in Internet everyday and a large amount consists of people’s speculation and reflection over an issue. It is the need of the hour to be able to mine this information that is presented to us. Sentimental analysis refers to mining of this raw information to make sense. The discipline of opinion mining has seen a lot of encouragement in the past few years augmented by involvement of social media like Instagram, Facebook, and twitter. The hidden message in this web of information is useful in several fields such as marketing, political polls, product review, forecast market movement, Identifying detractor and promoter. In this endeavor, we introduced sentiment rating system for a particular text or paragraph to determine the opinions polarity. Firstly we resolve the searching problem, tokenization, classification, and reliable content identification. Secondly we extract probability for given text or paragraph for both positive & negative sentiment value using naive bayes classifier. At last we use sentiment dictionary (SD), sentiment degree dictionary (SDD) and negation dictionary (ND) for more accuracy. Later we blend all above mentioned factor into given formula to find the rating for the review.

  1. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nishio, Souma; Honza, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    rate by 210 Pb(22 y) and 137 Cs(30 y). The depth profiles of the Sta.2 which is about 10 km away form the mouth of the Chikugo river showed almost constant 210 Pb concentration at upper several cm and subsequent decrease in concentration in deeper layers down to 24 cm. The sedimentation rate of 0.11 g/cm 2 /y was obtained by the decline of excess 210 Pb, yielding 0.24 cm/y sedimentation rate at the sediment surface. Another core at Sta. 4 which is south west of the Sta. 2 showed very slow sedimentation rate. The 137 Cs supplied by atmospheric nuclear tests was detected down to 34 cm at Sta. 2, the year calculated for 34 cm depth using the 210 Pb sedimentation rate was older than 1954 for the initiation of 137 Cs contamination by nuclear tests. The 137 Cs profile at Sta. 4 showed very slow sedimentation rate as observed for 210 Pb, suggesting necessity of thinner sectioning the core. There are several rivers are flowing into the Ariake sea and the Chikugo river is one of the major rivers. The Sta. 2 would be affected mostly by the Chikugo river and thus would record historical change of the environmental condition related to the Chikugo river. Anti-clockwise current is flowing in inner area of the Ariake sea, which would bring suspended materials supplied from the Chikugo river to the west of the Ariake sea. Larger materials would be accumulated at closer area to the mouth of the Chikugo river and less would be transported to the West. The slower accumulation rate at Sta. 4 than Sta. 2 is reasonable considering the situation mentioned above. The model calculation on 137 Cs and 210 Pb distribution for Sta. 2 suggests that assumption of a constant mixing at upper layers for 210 Pb and 137 Cs gives inconsistency with the observed distribution, 137 Cs was observed at deeper depth that estimated from 210 Pb sedimentation rate. The inventory of 137 Cs at Sta. 2 decay corrected to 2003 was 17.8% of total deposition at ground surface and 2.8% at Sta. 4, this would be related to

  2. Bypass flow rate control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyama, Yoichi.

    1997-01-01

    In a PWR type reactor, bypass flow rate is controlled by exchanging existent jetting hole plugs of a plurality of nozzles disposed to the upper end of incore structures in order to flow a portion of primary coolants as a bypass flow to the upper portion of the pressure vessel. Two kinds of exchange plugs, namely, a first plug and a second plug each having a jetting out hole of different diameter are used as exchange plugs. The first plug has the diameter as that of an existent plug and the second plug has a jetting out hole having larger diameter than that of the existent plug. Remained extent plugs are exchanged to a combination of the first and the second plugs without exchanging existent plugs having seizing with the nozzles, in which the number and the diameter of the jetting out holes of the second plugs are previously determined based on predetermined total bypass flow rate to be jetted from the entire plugs after exchange of plugs. (N.H.)

  3. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Italian Legal System bounds it, within the meaning of article 4 of Worker’s Statutory. On the other hand, the customer rating can be considered as a type of control on the business organization, in observance of limits established by the same article.Moreover, the paper’s purpose is to inquire about the feedback positive impact on workers: customer satisfaction could provide business bonus, or it could become an evidence against employer in a court case.

  4. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base shall...

  5. 78 FR 44459 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... the interest rate. A simple multiplication of the nominal rate by the portion of the year covered by... makes technical changes to the full and simplified rate procedures; changes the interest rate that... allocation methodology for cross-over traffic. Part IV sets out the change in the interest rate carriers must...

  6. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... annual percentage rate of interest will exceed the prescribed rate of interest. (b) Applicability of...

  7. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120... fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates.... Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in similar circumstances in the ordinary...

  9. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture... Interest rates. The interest rate for the guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and...

  11. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575.33 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates...

  12. 7 CFR 1714.4 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1714.4 Section 1714.4 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.4 Interest rates. (a) Municipal rate loans. Each advance of funds on a municipal rate loan shall bear interest at a single rate...

  13. Winning the rate base battle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigelmann, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In most states, all costs associated with building new power plants and other facilities are born by the owning utility until the facility becomes useful to customers. For a nuclear plant, this means that a utility must raise several billion dollars in capital over a period of 10 to 20 years, often undergrowing pressures to cancel the project. None of the possible ways of mitigating rate shock is free of controversy, but the objective should be to do that which is most equitable and has least adverse effects. The basic options are discussed, and all but one involves phasing in over time the full economic effects of the new plant. The impacts on average electricity price of three of the seven approaches are illustrated

  14. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  15. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary dynamics of firm entry, and the subsequent consolidation of market share and industry shake-out is considered, then during early epochs of industry evolution, one would tend to observe systematic differences in growth rates associated with firm’s competitive fitness. Thus, it is only......A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences...... component, but for much of an industry’s and firm’s history should have a random pattern consistent with the Gibrat property. The intuition is as follows. In a Cournot equilibrium, firms of better “type” (i.e., lower cost) realize a larger market share, but act with some restraint on their choice...

  16. Flow, diffusion, and rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, S.; Salamon, P.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains recent results obtained for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport and rate processes are reviewed. Kinetic equations, conservation laws, and transport coefficients are obtained for multicomponent mixtures. Thermodynamic principles are used in the design of experiments predicting heat and mass transport coefficients. Highly nonstationary conditions are analyzed in the context of transient heat transfer, nonlocal diffusion in stress fields and thermohydrodynamic oscillatory instabilities. Unification of the dynamics of chemical systems with other sorts of processes (e.g. mechanical) is given. Thermodynamics of reacting surfaces is developed. Admissible reaction paths are studied and a consistency of chemical kinetics with thermodynamics is shown. Oscillatory reactions are analyzed in a unifying approach showing explosive, conservation or damped behavior. A comprehensive review of transport processes in electrolytes and membranes is given. Applications of thermodynamics to thermoelectric systems and ionized gas (plasma) systems are reviewed

  17. Creep at very low rates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info nabarro_2002.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31615 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name nabarro_2002.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creep at Very Low Rates F... to the necessary condition: vol. 29, p. 1285. 10. J.E. Harris, R.B. Jones, G.W. Greenwood, and M.J. Ward: J. Aust.L/b . m/2psp [5] Inst. Met., 1969, vol. 14, p. 154. 11. G.B. Gibbs: Mem. Sci. Rev. Met., 1965, vol. 62, p. 781.Even if this condition is satisfied, H...

  18. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from the... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of...

  19. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  20. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United... programs, including the Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for...

  1. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing locality rates and special... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special rates...

  2. Energy reviews: the expense rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The threats against energy supplies push the prices of energy increasingly and lasting/ higher. Therefore it is important to establish the energy balance of an energy industry, which is more accurate than a too global financial balance. Life Cycle Analyses could be finely tuned using a method and tool suggested here: the T expense rate, the ratio between dissipated or spent energies, and extracted energy. T is a profitability indicator based on thermodynamics principles with 1 or 100 % as a theoretical limit. T is convenient too, because it can be broken down between the various steps or processes, and their D expenses. T also allows for a finely tuned analysis, to identify physical and technical parameters impacting the balance sheet. Uncertainties and arbitrary assumptions are explained, after having been boiled down to a minimum amount. A comparison between industries is thus possible for a given use (transportation, electrical production) depending on the form of energy extracted and the processes used. The energy balance is supplemented by the resource availability balance, different from the first one, even though availability may depend on it. (authors)

  3. Failure rate analysis using GLIMMIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.M.; Hemphill, G.M.; Martz, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates use of a recently developed SAS macro, GLIMMIX, for implementing an analysis suggested by Wolfinger and O'Connell (1993) in modeling failure count data with random as well as fixed factor effects. Interest in this software tool arose from consideration of modernizing the Failure Rate Analysis Code (FRAC), developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the early 1980's by Martz, Beckman and McInteer (1982). FRAC is a FORTRAN program developed to analyze Poisson distributed failure count data as a log-linear model, possibly with random as well as fixed effects. These statistical modeling assumptions are a special case of generalized linear mixed models, identified as GLMM in the current statistics literature. In the nearly 15 years since FRAC was developed, there have been considerable advances in computing capability, statistical methodology and available statistical software tools allowing worthwhile consideration of the tasks of modernizing FRAC. In this paper, the approaches to GLMM estimation implemented in GLIMMIX and in FRAC are described and a comparison of results for the two approaches is made with data on catastrophic time-dependent pump failures from a report by Martz and Whiteman (1984). Additionally, statistical and graphical model diagnostics are suggested and illustrated with the GLIMMIX analysis results

  4. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  5. Shapley ratings in brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kötter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent applications of network theory to brain networks as well as the expanding empirical databases of brain architecture spawn an interest in novel techniques for analyzing connectivity patterns in the brain. Treating individual brain structures as nodes in a directed graph model permits the application of graph theoretical concepts to the analysis of these structures within their large-scale connectivity networks. In this paper, we explore the application of concepts from graph and game theory toward this end. Specifically, we utilize the Shapley value principle, which assigns a rank to players in a coalition based upon their individual contributions to the collective profit of that coalition, to assess the contributions of individual brain structures to the graph derived from the global connectivity network. We report Shapley values for variations of a prefrontal network, as well as for a visual cortical network, which had both been extensively investigated previously. This analysis highlights particular nodes as strong or weak contributors to global connectivity. To understand the nature of their contribution, we compare the Shapley values obtained from these networks and appropriate controls to other previously described nodal measures of structural connectivity. We find a strong correlation between Shapley values and both betweenness centrality and connection density. Moreover, a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicates that approximately 79% of the variance in Shapley values obtained from random networks can be explained by betweenness centrality alone. Finally, we investigate the effects of local lesions on the Shapley ratings, showing that the present networks have an immense structural resistance to degradation. We discuss our results highlighting the use of such measures for characterizing the organization and functional role of brain networks.

  6. Heart rate variability and swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Jarczok, Marc N; Wasner, Mieke; Hillecke, Thomas K; Thayer, Julian F

    2014-10-01

    Professionals in the domain of swimming have a strong interest in implementing research methods in evaluating and improving training methods to maximize athletic performance and competitive outcome. Heart rate variability (HRV) has gained attention in research on sport and exercise to assess autonomic nervous system activity underlying physical activity and sports performance. Studies on swimming and HRV are rare. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the application of HRV in swimming research and draws implications for future research. A systematic search of databases (PubMed via MEDLINE, PSYNDEX and Embase) according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (a) empirical investigation (HRV) in humans (non-clinical); (b) related to swimming; (c) peer-reviewed journal; and (d) English language. The search revealed 194 studies (duplicates removed), of which the abstract was screened for eligibility. Fourteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the review. Included studies broadly fell into three classes: (1) control group designs to investigate between-subject differences (i.e. swimmers vs. non-swimmers, swimmers vs. other athletes); (2) repeated measures designs on within-subject differences of interventional studies measuring HRV to address different modalities of training or recovery; and (3) other studies, on the agreement of HRV with other measures. The feasibility and possibilities of HRV within this particular field of application are well documented within the existing literature. Future studies, focusing on translational approaches that transfer current evidence in general practice (i.e. training of athletes) are needed.

  7. 77 FR 36585 - Postal Rate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Service notice of rate and changes affecting Inbound Air Parcel Post at Universal Postal Union (UPU) rates... United States Postal Service of Filing Changes in Rates Not of General Applicability and Application for... the Postal Service's explanation of Inbound Air Parcel Post (at UPU Rates) provided in the initial...

  8. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  9. Dynamic half-rate connections in GSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Wieland, J.; Sanders, B.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic half-rate is an optional feature that allows a Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) cell to switch new incoming half-rate capable calls to half-rate speech coding, when the cell is nearly congested. Since two half-rate speech calls can be put together in one single-time slot, dynamic

  10. 24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee. (b) Adjustable interest...

  11. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks... Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct lender association shall bear interest at a rate or rates as may be determined by the institution board. The board...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4280.124 Section 4280.124 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.124 Interest rates. (a) The interest rate for the... in similar circumstances in the ordinary course of business. The interest rate charged is subject to...

  13. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4274.325 Section 4274.325 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.325 Interest rates. (a) Loans made by the Agency pursuant to this subpart shall bear interest at a fixed rate of 1 percent per annum over the term of the loan. (b) Interest rates charged by...

  14. 7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture... rate. (a) The Soldiers and Sailors Relief Act requires that the effective interest rate charged a... Supervisor will send the borrower a letter which states that the interest rate on the borrower's FmHA or its...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rates. 1980.423 Section 1980.423 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.423 Interest rates. (a) Guaranteed... variable as long as they are legal. Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in...

  16. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not established... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704...

  17. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Contract No... Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative... ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD TO SAM RAYBURN DAM...

  18. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rating factor. 650.707 Section 650.707 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The.... ER15OC02.010 The lower the rating factor, the higher the priority for selection and funding. (b) The terms...

  19. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.

  20. Rate design in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wathen, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Innovative rate designs used by several United States utilities to become more competitive, were presented. Considerations of retail wheeling and other services for increasing competitiveness were debated. The process for designing specialized rate programs was described, along with descriptions of special rate types, including economic development rates, load retention/anti-bypass rates, cogeneration/self-generation rates, distressed industry rates, load management rates and special situation rates. The existence of special provisions in state legislation allowing special rates to be offered was noted. Confidentiality and the need for a review process to ensure fairness of special agreements was discussed. The efficacy of using individual customer contracts to allow full recognition of the special characteristics and needs of individual customers and the effects of such contracts on the industry, were considered

  1. Corporate financing and anticipated credit rating changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chi-Hsiou D.; Banerjee, Anurag; Meng, Qingrui

    2017-01-01

    Firm circumstances change but rating agencies may not make timely revisions to their\\ud ratings, increasing information asymmetry between firms and the market. We examine\\ud whether firms time the securities market before a credit rating agency publicly reveals\\ud its decision to downgrade a firm's credit rating. Using quarterly data, we show that\\ud firms adjust their financing structures before credit rating downgrades are publicly\\ud revealed. More specifically, firms on average increase t...

  2. Exchange rate stabilization under imperfect credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Guillermo; Vegh, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes stabilization policy under predetermined exchange rates in a cash-in-advance, staggered-prices model. Under full credibility, a reduction in the rate of devaluation results in an immediate and permanent reduction in the inflation rate, with no effect on output or consumption. In contrast, a non-credible stabilization results in an initial expansion of output, followed by a later recession. The inflation rate of home goods remains above the rate of devaluation throughout...

  3. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  4. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  5. Intergenerational equity and the social discount rate

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Recent modelling of the costs and benefits of climate change has renewed debate regarding assumptions for the social discount rate in analysing the impacts of environmental change. Previous literature suggests two key factors influence estimates of the social discount rate: the rate of pure time preference and the elasticity of marginal utility of future consumption. These components of the social discount rate reinforce the linkages between the choice of social discount rate and intergenerat...

  6. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate... General § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. (a) RUS will post on the RUS website, Electric Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans at the beginning...

  7. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  8. What does self rated mental health represent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Levinson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health

  9. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  10. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  11. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY... American Electric Reliability Corporation and to cover increased investments and replacements in..., prepared a Current Power Repayment Study using existing system rates. The Study indicates that Southwestern...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  13. Predicting Performance Ratings Using Motivational Antecedents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zazania, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This research examined the role of motivation in predicting peer and trainer ratings of student performance and contrasted the relative importance of various antecedents for peer and trainer ratings...

  14. Stochastic interest rates model in compounding | Galadima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic interest rates model in compounding. ... in finance, real estate, insurance, accounting and other areas of business administration. The assumption that future rates are fixed and known with certainty at the beginning of an investment, ...

  15. Mortality rates in people with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Williams

    2017-04-01

    National English data confirm that patients with ID have higher mortality rates than those without. Mortality rates for patients with ID were higher across all age/sex groups and causes, with almost half of deaths classified as avoidable.

  16. 77 FR 44571 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... current T-bill rate to the U.S. Prime Rate, as published in The Wall Street Journal. Additional... ``exponential'' approach, the total cumulative reparations payment (including interest) is calculated by...

  17. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  18. Dose-rate dependence of thermoluminescence response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Chen, R.; Groom, P.J.; Durrani, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The previously observed dose-rate effect of thermoluminescence in quartz at high dose-rates is given at theoretical formulation. Computer calculations simulating the experimental conditions yield similar results to the experimental ones. (orig.)

  19. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  20. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  1. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)

  2. The Neutral Interest Rate: Estimates for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Fuentes S; Fabián Gredig U.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the neutral real interest rate for Chile, we use a variety of methods that can be classified into three categories: those derived from economic theory, the neutral rate implicit in financial assets, and statistical procedures using macroeconomic data. We conclude that the neutral rate is not constant over time, but it is closely related with—though not equivalent to—the potential GDP growth rate. The application of the different methods yields fairly similar results. The neutral r...

  3. Measuring Implicit Rental Rates for Farm Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubovcak, James

    1986-01-01

    Developing implicit rental rates for capital inputs is an Important step in understanding the Impact of tax law changes on agricultural investments This article develops a methodology for estimating implicit rental rates and presents annual estimates of rental rates for seven categories of farm equipment and structures from 1955 to 1979 This article also compares these rental rates With those estimated under a no-tax alternative The author developed a method for estimating marginal Federal In...

  4. The local authority rating of independent generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of the rating is given covering the public utilities. Formula rating of the nationalised electricity supply industry is described with independent generators' rates, the effect of privatisation and the longer term outlook considered. The need to convince the UK government that power generating machinery should no more be rated than any manufacturing or process machinery, and that all power producers should be treated the same is noted. (Author)

  5. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  6. Atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m{sup -2}s{sup -1} was obtained, which is lower than mean {sup 36}Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  7. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.140 - Rated power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rated power. 1033.140 Section 1033.140... EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.140 Rated power. This section describes how to determine the rated power of a locomotive for the purposes of this part. (a) A locomotive...

  9. 76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY... regulations to require Federally insured credit unions to have a written policy addressing interest rate risk... Risk Management for Credit Unions with Large Positions in Fixed Rate Mortgages; 06-CU-16 Inter-Agency...

  10. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 563e.28 Section 563e.28 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b... performance under the lending, investment and service tests, the community development test, the small savings...

  11. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  12. Smoking, Discount Rates, and Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersterer, Josef; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Individual time preference determines schooling enrolment. Moreover, smoking behavior in early ages has been shown to be highly related to time preference rates. Insofar as discount rates are uncorrelated to ability, predicting school enrolment by discount rates can get rid of the ability bias in an earnings regression. Accordingly, we use smoking…

  13. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a) The interest rate to be used in plan formulation and evaluation for discounting future benefits and computing...

  14. Currency crises and the interest rate defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, T.

    2008-01-01

    While virtually all modern models of exchange rate crises recognise that the decision to abandon an exchange rate peg depends on how harshly policy makers are willing to defend the regime, they virtually never model how the exchange rate is defended. We argue that incorporating both the mechanics of

  15. Uncertain discount rates in climate policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, R.G.; Pizer, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Consequences in the distant future - such as those from climate change--have little value today when discounted using conventional rates. This result contradicts our 'gut feeling' about such problems and often leads to ad hoc application of lower rates for valuations over longer horizons - a step facilitated by confusion and disagreement over the correct rate even over short horizons. We review the theory and intuition behind the choice of discount rates now and, importantly, the impact of likely variation in rates in the future. Correlated changes in future rates imply that the distant future should be discounted at much lower rates than suggested by the current rate, thereby raising the value of future consequences - regardless of opinions concerning the current rate. Using historic data to quantity the likely changes and correlation in changes in future rates, we find that future valuations rise by a factor of many thousands at horizons of 300 years or more, almost doubling the expected present value of climate mitigation benefits relative to constant 4% discounting. Ironically, uncertainty about future rates reduces the ratio of valuations based on alternate choices of the current rate

  16. 24 CFR 232.560 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 232.560 Section 232... Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.560 Interest rate. (a) The loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the lender and the borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  18. 24 CFR 200.83 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 200.83 Section 200... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.83 Interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) Interest shall be...

  19. 8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens... CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury has determined that effective from date of deposit occurring after April 27, 1966, the interest rate shall be 3...

  20. 5 CFR 1655.7 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 1655.7 Section 1655.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.7 Interest rate. (a... interest rate established by the Department of the Treasury in effect on the date the TSP record keeper...