WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonresident biological children

  1. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  2. Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

  3. Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

  4. Nonresident fathers' parenting, family processes, and children's development in urban, poor, single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    With dramatic growth in nonrmarital births, an increasing number of children are growing up in single-mother families. This study examines the relationships among nonresident fathers' parenting and children's behavioral and cognitive development in low-income, single-mother families. It also considers the personal characteristics of the children's single mothers as well as family processes and economic circumstances. Analyses use the first three waves of longitudinal data from a subsample of single and noncohabiting mothers in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that nonresident fathers' parenting is indirectly associated with children's behavior problems and cognitive development. The findings further suggest that those estimated associations are transmitted through mothers' parenting. The study also discusses the policy and practice implications of its findings.

  5. Father by law: effects of joint legal custody on nonresident fathers' involvement with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, J A

    1998-05-01

    Family membership and household composition do not always coincide. Joint legal custody after divorce formalizes the relationship between fathers and children who live apart. Policymakers hope that explicit acknowledgment of nonresident fathers' rights and responsibilities will increase their involvement with their children. I use prospective data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the association between joint legal custody and two aspects of nonresident fathers' contributions to their children--the frequency of visits between fathers and children and child-support payments. The analysis examines approximately 160 families in which parents divorced between interviews conducted for Wave 1 (1987-1988) and Wave 2 (1992-1994) of the survey. I investigate the effects of joint legal custody holding constant physical custody or replacement by restricting the analysis to children who live with their mothers most of the year. Controlling for socioeconomic status and the quality of family relationships before separation, fathers with joint legal custody see their children more frequently and have more overnight visits than do other fathers. The positive effect of joint legal custody on frequency of visits persists once unobserved differences among families are taken into account. Although fathers with joint legal custody pay more child support than those without joint legal custody, this difference lacks statistical significance when other family characteristics are taken into account. These findings support the view that joint legal custody may encourage some aspects of paternal involvement after divorce.

  6. Factors Associated with Unmarried, Nonresident Fathers' Perceptions of Their Coparenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of 522 biological, never-married, nonresident fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines the factors associated with fathers' coparenting 36 months after a birth. Ordinary least squares regression models indicate never-married, nonresident fathers are less likely to perceive high…

  7. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…

  8. More about the Dads: Exploring Associations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Child Welfare Case Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Karin; Zielewski, Erica; Chen, Henry

    2008-01-01

    This study follows up on a prior study of child welfare agencies' efforts to identify, locate, and involve nonresident fathers of children in foster care. These analyses use information from the original survey and administrative data on case outcomes to explore three research questions: (1) Is nonresident father involvement associated with case…

  9. Nonresident Fathering and School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick L.

    2006-01-01

    Does involvement by nonresident fathers affect adolescents' propensity to remain in school? If so, is some involvement necessarily better than none, and are changes in involvement with time associated with changes in the odds of school failure? What aspects of involvement matter the most? This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study…

  10. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  11. Cohort Crowding and Nonresident College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a fixed effects panel data framework to examine the effects of cohort crowding and other variables on nonresident enrollment at four-year public colleges and universities. The results suggest that larger cohorts of resident students crowd out nonresident students at flagship universities, but there is inconsistent evidence of crowd…

  12. Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the entrance of a stepfather influences adolescent ties to mothers and nonresident fathers and how prior ties to each biological parent influence the development of stepfather-stepchild ties. Data come from 1,753 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who lived with a single mother in Wave 1 who…

  13. Nonresident parental influence on adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors: similar or different from resident parental influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-10-23

    Many parents do not live with, or have shared custody of, their adolescent children (i.e., nonresident parents). The degree of their influence on their children, as compared to parents who do live with their children the majority of the time (i.e. resident parents) has not been well-studied. The current study aimed to examine whether and how resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Results will inform who may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Resident parents (n = 200; 80% females; mean age =41.8), nonresident parents (n =200; 70% male; mean age =43.1), and adolescents (n =200; 60% girls; mean age =14.2 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Multiple regression models were fit to investigate the association between resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors and adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Both resident and nonresident parents' BMI were significantly associated with adolescents' BMI percentile. Additionally, resident parents' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fruit and vegetable intake (p parent physical activity and adolescent physical activity was marginally significant (p = 0.067). Neither resident nor nonresident parents' fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, or sedentary behaviors were significantly associated with adolescents' same behaviors. These preliminary findings suggest that resident and nonresident parents may have slightly different influences on their adolescent children's weight-related behaviors. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to determine temporality of associations.

  14. Parenting as a "package deal": relationships, fertility, and nonresident father involvement among unmarried parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald; Edin, Kathryn

    2010-02-01

    Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a "package deal" in which a father's relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers' and fathers' subsequent relationship and parenting transitions are associated with declines in fathers' contact with their nonresident biological children. We find that father involvement drops sharply after relationships between unmarried parents end. Mothers 'transitions into new romantic partnerships and new parenting roles are associated with larger declines in involvement than fathers' transitions. Declines in fathers' involvement following a mother's relationship or parenting transition are largest when children are young. We discuss the implications of our results for the well-being of nonmarital children and the quality of nonmarital relationships faced with high levels of relationship instability and multiple-partner fertility.

  15. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.

  16. 76 FR 7757 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathryn Holman at (202...

  17. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters more Disadvantaged than Sons?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; KING, VALARIE

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N=4,663). Results indicate that sons and daughters report equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons report more overnight visits, sports, and movies, and feeling closer to their fathers compared to daughters. Sons and daughters generally benefit from nonresident father involvement in the same way in internalizing and externalizing problem...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of the...

  1. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  2. 19 CFR 141.37 - Additional requirements for nonresident corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations. 141.37 Section 141.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Additional requirements for nonresident corporations. If a nonresident corporation has not qualified to... authority of the grantor designated to execute the power of attorney on behalf of the corporation....

  3. Nonresident fatherhood and adolescent sexual behavior: a comparison of siblings approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present study addresses both questions by comparing the sexual development of siblings discordant for age at father departure from the home and examining results across behavioral (age at first intercourse), biological (pubertal timing), and cognitive (attitudes about childbearing and marriage) sexual outcomes (N = 5,542). Findings indicate that nonresident fatherhood, beginning either at birth or during middle childhood, leads to an earlier sexual debut for girls, but not for boys, an effect likely explained by weak parental monitoring rather than an accelerated reproductive strategy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Vitalistic causality in young children's naive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    2004-08-01

    One of the key issues in conceptual development research concerns what kinds of causal devices young children use to understand the biological world. We review evidence that children predict and interpret biological phenomena, especially human bodily processes, on the basis of 'vitalistic causality'. That is, they assume that vital power or life force taken from food and water makes humans active, prevents them from being taken ill, and enables them to grow. These relationships are also extended readily to other animals and even to plants. Recent experimental results show that a majority of preschoolers tend to choose vitalistic explanations as most plausible. Vitalism, together with other forms of intermediate causality, constitute unique causal devices for naive biology as a core domain of thought.

  5. Using Animals to Teach Children Biology: Exploring the Use of Biological Explanations in Children's Anthropomorphic Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdts, Megan; Van De Walle, Gretchen; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Anthropomorphism--the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman entities--has long been a staple of children's media. However, children's experiences with anthropomorphic media may interfere with biological reasoning instead encouraging an anthropocentric view of the natural world. To date, little research has addressed…

  6. ON GLOBAL STABILITY OF A NONRESIDENT COMPUTER VIRUS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiaki MUROYA; Huaixing LI; Toshikazu KUNIYA

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we establish new sufficient conditions for the infected equilibrium of a nonresident computer virus model to be globally asymptotically stable. Our results extend two kind of known results in recent literature.

  7. 77 FR 23391 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This... alien individuals. These regulations will affect commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions... companies that maintain deposit accounts for nonresident alien individuals. An agency may not conduct or...

  8. 76 FR 2852 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a... nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathryn Holman, (202) 622-3840 (not a toll...

  9. 76 FR 22064 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES...

  10. 76 FR 20595 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing... nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public hearing is being rescheduled on Monday, April 25, 2011, at 10...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(19)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3121... 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(19)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(18)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3306...) § 31.3306(c)(18)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under...

  13. 76 FR 1105 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. These... provide that U.S. bank deposit interest paid to any nonresident alien individual must be reported annually...

  14. 26 CFR 1.873-1 - Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.873-1 Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals. (a) General provisions—(1) Allocation of deductions....

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(6)-1 - Remuneration for services of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services of nonresident alien... services of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. All remuneration paid after December 31, 1966, for services performed by a nonresident alien individual, if such remuneration otherwise...

  16. Assortative mating by unwed biological parents of adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K

    1977-04-22

    Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.

  17. Biological Risks and Neurodevelopment in Young North Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kvestad, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background. Children growing up in poverty face multiple biological and psychosocial risks, some of which are primarily found in low to middle income countries. Unfavourable biological circumstances, such as inadequate nutrition and childhood illnesses put children at risk for compromised development. Early child development is a precursor for later cognitive functioning and may have lasting consequences for academic achievement and lifelong quality of life. There is a need to identify modifi...

  18. Engaging Nonresident African American Fathers in Intervention Research: What Practitioners Should Know about Parental Monitoring in Nonresident Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bell, Lee; Brooks, Cassandra L.; Ward, Jasmine D.; Jennings, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of African American nonresident fathers who engaged in parental monitoring and to assess the relationship between engaging in monitoring and race-related socialization with their preadolescent sons on their psychological well-being. We also examined the moderating influences…

  19. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  20. [Special features of biological drug therapy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Kristiina; Leinonen, Sanna; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Lahdenne, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Several new biological drugs, of which TNFα blockers are being used most extensively, have in recent years been adopted for the treatment of pediatric inflammatory diseases such as juvenile arthritis and associated chronic iritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. In special situations the children will be prescribed off-label also other drugs affecting cytokines, e.g. IL-1 and IL-6 blockers. Tailoring of the treatment is possible today with the help of drug level measurements and anti-drug antibody determinations. Severe safety hazards associated with biological drug therapy in children are very rare.

  1. 26 CFR 1.874-1 - Allowance of deductions and credits to nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance of deductions and credits to nonresident alien individuals. 1.874-1 Section 1.874-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.874-1 Allowance of deductions...

  2. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Millions of children visit zoos every year with parents or schools to encounter wildlife firsthand. Public conservation education is a requirement for membership in professional zoo associations. However, in recent years zoos have been criticized for failing to educate the public on conservation issues and related biological concepts, such as animal adaptation to habitats. I used matched pre- and postvisit mixed methods questionnaires to investigate the educational value of zoo visits for children aged 7-15 years. The questionnaires gathered qualitative data from these individuals, including zoo-related thoughts and an annotated drawing of a habitat. A content analysis of these qualitative data produced the quantitative data reported in this article. I evaluated the relative learning outcomes of educator-guided and unguided zoo visits at London Zoo, both in terms of learning about conservation biology (measured by annotated drawings) and changing attitudes toward wildlife conservation (measured using thought-listing data). Forty-one percent of educator-guided visits and 34% of unguided visits resulted in conservation biology-related learning. Negative changes in children's understanding of animals and their habitats were more prevalent in unguided zoo visits. Overall, my results show the potential educational value of visiting zoos for children. However, they also suggest that zoos' standard unguided interpretive materials are insufficient for achieving the best outcomes for visiting children. These results support a theoretical model of conservation biology learning that frames conservation educators as toolmakers who develop conceptual resources to enhance children's understanding of science. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. The impact of fostering a child on biological children of foster parents

    OpenAIRE

    Večeřová, Štěpánka

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the impact of foster care on biological children of foster parents from the perspective of foster parents, biological children of foster parents and experts in their work with the issue of foster care encounter. Aim of this work is to propose options for social work with biological children of applicants for foster care in the way they are not negatively affected. Key words: foster care, biological children of foster parents, accompanying foster families, preparin...

  4. Chemical-biological terrorism and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W, Shannon; Julia A, McMillan

    2006-09-01

    Children remain potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. In recent years, children have even been specific targets of terrorist acts. Consequently, it is necessary to address the needs that children would face after a terrorist incident. A broad range of public health initiatives have occurred since September 11, 2001. Although the needs of children have been addressed in many of them, in many cases, these initiatives have been inadequate in ensuring the protection of children. In addition, public health and health care system preparedness for terrorism has been broadened to the so-called all-hazards approach, in which response plans for terrorism are blended with plans for a public health or health care system response to unintentional disasters (eg, natural events such as earthquakes or pandemic flu or manmade catastrophes such as a hazardous-materials spill). In response to new principles and programs that have appeared over the last 5 years, this policy statement provides an update of the 2000 policy statement. The roles of both the pediatrician and public health agencies continue to be emphasized; only a coordinated effort by pediatricians and public health can ensure that the needs of children, including emergency protocols in schools or child care centers, decontamination protocols, and mental health interventions, will be successful.

  5. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region.

  6. Association Between Neighborhood Violence and Biological Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Katherine P.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Dismukes, Andrew R.; Wallace, Maeve; Drury, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Exposure to violence continues to be a growing epidemic, particularly among children. An enhanced understanding of the biological effect of exposure to violence is critical. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between neighborhood violence and cellular and biological stress in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A matched, cross-sectional study of 85 black children aged 5 to 16 years from 52 neighborhoods took place in the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2013. EXPOSURES Density of businesses where individuals can purchase alcohol as measured by rates per capita of liquor or convenience stores, and violence as measured by reports of violent crime and reports of domestic violence, operationalized as reports per capita of crime and domestic violence. Rates of exposure within a 500-, 1000-, and 2000-m radius from the child’s home were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary biological outcomes were telomere length and cortisol functioning. RESULTS Among the 85 children in the study, (mean [SD] age, 9.8 [3.1] years; 50 girls and 35 boys) significant variation in telomere length and cortisol functioning was observed at the neighborhood level, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 6% for telomere length, 3.4% for waking cortisol levels, and 5.5% for peak cortisol levels following a stressor. Density of liquor or convenience stores within a 500-m radius of a child’s home was associated with a decrease in mean telomere length by 0.004 for each additional liquor store or convenience store (β [SE], −0.004 [0.002]; P = .02). The rate of domestic violence was significantly and inversely associated with a decrease in mean telomere length by 0.007 for each additional report of domestic violence in a 500-m radius of a child’s home (β [SE], −0.007 [0.001]; P < .001). The rate of violent crime was significantly associated with a decrease in mean telomere length by 0.006 for each additional report

  7. 26 CFR 1.871-9 - Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to be engaged in U.S. business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to... Corporations § 1.871-9 Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to be engaged in U.S. business. (a) Participants in certain exchange or training programs. For purposes of §§ 1.871-7 and 1.871-8 a nonresident...

  8. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-8 - Taxation of nonresident alien individuals engaged in U.S. business or treated as having...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresident alien individual. (b) Imposition of tax—(1) Income not effectively connected with the conduct of a... income of the nonresident alien individual which is not effectively connected for the taxable year with... consists only of the nonresident alien individual's taxable income which is effectively connected for...

  10. 26 CFR 1.864-3 - Rules for determining income effectively connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or foreign corporations. 1.864-3 Section 1.864-3 Internal... income effectively connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or foreign corporations. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, in the case of a nonresident alien individual or...

  11. 17 CFR 249.509 - Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. This form shall be filed pursuant to Rule 15b1... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. 249.509 Section 249.509 Commodity...

  12. Body and Soul: Do Children Distinguish between Foods When Generalizing Biological and Psychological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Nguyen, Simone P.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: In 2 experiments, we tested whether children generalize psychological and biological properties to novel foods. We used an induction task in which a property (either biological or psychological) was associated with a target food. Children were then asked whether a taxonomically related and a script-related food would also have…

  13. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  14. Walking a high beam: the balance between employment stability, workplace flexibility, and nonresident father involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jason T; Welch, Greg W; Sarver, Christian M

    2012-03-01

    Compared with resident fathers, nonresident fathers are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed and less likely, when they are employed, to have access to flexible work arrangements. Although lack of employment stability is associated with lower levels of father involvement, some research shows that increased stability at work without increased flexibility is negatively related to involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 895), the authors examined the relationship between nonresident fathers' employment stability, workplace flexibility, and father involvement. Results indicate that workplace flexibility, but not employment stability, is associated with higher levels of involvement. Policy and practice implications are discussed.

  15. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  16. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  17. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  18. Short-Term and Long-Term Government Debt and Nonresident Interest Withholding Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Huizinga, H.P.; Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market.The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions.We find that, in general, U.S. dollar yields on

  19. Nonresident Undergraduates' Performance in English Writing Classes-- Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Bergman, Matthew; Fass-Holmes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Do undergraduates whose native language is not English have writing deficiencies leading to academic struggles? The present study showed that the answer to this question was "no" at an American West Coast public university. This university's nonresident undergraduates on average earned B- to B+ in their colleges' English…

  20. Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979--the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present…

  1. Short-Term and Long-Term Government Debt and Nonresident Interest Withholding Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Huizinga, H.P.; Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market.The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions.We find that, in general, U.S. dollar yields on natio

  2. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  3. Conditional Convergence of Nonresident Tuition Rates at Public Research Universities: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; Gupta, Anubha

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how nonresident tuition among public research universities has converged toward a national average over the 1987-2006 time period in the USA. Using dynamic fixed-effect panel modeling estimated via GMM (and instrumental variables fixed-effect model to account for endogeneity), we inquire (1) how do competitive market…

  4. 26 CFR 1.565-5 - Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations. 1... and foreign corporations. (a) Withholding. In the event that a corporation makes a consent dividend... 1441 or 1442 on a distribution of cash or other property, the corporation must remit an amount of...

  5. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects.

  6. Lead Assessment in Biological Samples of Children with Different Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem; Ullah, Naeem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Khan, Ajmal; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Khan, Zahid; Farooq, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) levels have been evaluated in the biological samples of children with different gastrointestinal disorders. Blood, scalp hair, and urine samples of children (of age 4-10 years) complaining about different gastrointestinal disorders were analyzed. For comparison, age matched healthy subjects were also included in this study. Biological samples were digested in a microwave oven prior to Pb determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant differences in Pb profile were found between the diseased and referent children. Elevated Pb contents were observed in case of diseased children than WHO permissible limit, while normal results were obtained for healthy referents. The results were compared with those of healthy children having the same age, socioeconomic status, and residential areas.

  7. Administrative Cicular No. 31 (Rev. 2) - International indemnity and non-resident allowance

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 2) entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 23 June 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208547.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) also entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance" of October 2007. The main changes reflect the decision taken in the framework of the five-yearly review to extend eligibility for international indemnity to all staff members, as well to introduce a distinction between current staff members and those recruited as from 1st September 2016. For the latter, the international indemnity will be calculated as a percentage of the minimum salary of the grade into which they are recruited; the amount granted to the former will not change, and is now expressed ...

  8. Parenting quality and children's mental health: biological mechanisms and psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings. Biological indices of stress, such as C-reactive protein, show that prenatal anxiety is a significant determinant of later outcomes for children, and abusive parenting of young children has lasting biological effects into adulthood. Increasingly, specific genes, especially those that code for neurotransmitter synthesis and functions, are being identified that moderate parenting effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that harsh parenting affects the expression of genes by epigenetic processes.Parenting programmes are effective in increasing the security of infant children's attachments, and reducing conduct problems/antisocial behaviour in childhood, and they can be effective at a population level in preventing abuse. These programmes are now widening their reach to cover a broader range of children's outcomes such as literacy and obesity. We are learning much more about the biological impact of poor parenting and the need for interventions that are crafted to improve the quality of parent-child relationships in many settings. Hopefully, they will also ameliorate the biological effects of poor parenting.

  9. Organ transplantation for nonresidents of the United States: a policy for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, A K; Danovitch, G M; Delmonico, F L

    2014-08-01

    A policy proposal relating to transplantation of deceased donor organs into nonresidents of the United States was jointly sponsored by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) International Relations and Ethics Committees and approved by the OPTN/UNOS Board in June 2012. The proposal followed prior acceptance by the Board of the definitions of "travel for transplantation" and "transplant tourism" and the introduction in March 2012 of revised data collection categories for transplant candidates who are neither citizens nor residents. The most important aspect of the new policy concerns replacement of the previous so-called "5% rule" with the review of all residency and citizenship data and the preparation of a public annual report. The new policy does not prohibit organ transplantation in nonresidents. However, the policy and public data report will ensure transparency and support transplant center responsibility to account for their practices. Since the adoption of the policy, the first 19 months of data show that less than 1% of new deceased donor waitlist additions and less than 1% of transplantation recipients were non-US citizen/nonresidents candidates who traveled to the United States for purposes of transplantation. By adopting this policy, the US transplant community promotes public trust and serves as an example to the international transplant community.

  10. Burn Injuries in Children and the Use of Biological Dressings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    is the subcutaneous fat, which con- tains free nerve endings and the roots of hair follicles . Burns are classified as first, second, or third degree...and hair follicles , is also destroyed, third-degree burns appear dry, white, charred, or leathery, and the tissue has no sensation. Burns that extend...Emer Care 2013;29: 939Y948) TARGET AUDIENCE This CME activity is intended for physicians who care for children. Pediatricians, emergency physicians

  11. 20 CFR 25.203 - How is the Special Schedule applied to non-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam? 25.203 Section 25.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Compensation § 25.203 How is the Special Schedule applied to non-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam? (a... on or after July 1, 1971 in the Territory of Guam to non-resident alien employees recruited...

  12. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological age as a basis for determining prenozological states in elementary school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko T.G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of determining the biological age (BA in elementary school-age children as an important criterion for prenozological diagnostics is justified from the theoretical as well as practical prospective. The classification of prenozological states based on the BA is presented. The experiment features data of 159 children aged 7-10 years. Analyses of the obtained mean functional age (FA data shows deviation from the calendar age (CA in all age and gender groups which enables to diagnose prenozological state of elementary school-age children.

  14. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Do Not Preferentially Attend to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Campbell, Ruth; Coleman, Mike; Milne, Elizabeth; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    Preferential attention to biological motion can be seen in typically developing infants in the first few days of life and is thought to be an important precursor in the development of social communication. We examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-7 years preferentially attend to point-light displays depicting…

  15. [Biologicals for children and adolescents in the treatment of rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, H-I

    2012-09-01

    Following pharmacolegal measures several biologic agents have been tested in children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases, mainly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), in controlled trials and have been introduced into treatment algorithms. This was achieved by international research cooperation and after introduction of well-defined criteria for disease entities, disease activity, improvement and deterioration. Etanercept, adalimumab, abatacept, tocilizumab and canakinumab have obtained limited licenses. Etanercept is the longest available biologic agent. Etanercept or adalimumab are the treatment of choice when methotrexate is not sufficient or toxic in children with polyarthritis. Tocilizumab is given to patients with systemic JIA when glucocorticoids fail or become toxic. These and other biologic agents including anakinra and rituximab are effectively applied also off label; however, there is a lack of long-term studies. These drugs should be prescribed only by pediatric rheumatologists.

  16. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  17. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G.O. Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1 examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2 to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34. Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%. Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges.

  18. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G.O.; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P.; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D.D.; Carmo, Bruno C.M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. PMID:26972616

  19. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studwell, Anna J; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004-2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  20. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L.; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004–2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  1. Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romanian tax legislation continues to contain contradictory provisions that give it a strong ambiguity and which often generates controversy in interpretation and application. The authors of the research show the situations of tax income from royalties obtained by a French non-resident from a Romanian beneficiary. Thus, are addresses the taxation from the perspective of (i the law, (ii the avoidance of double taxation (CEDI concluded by Romania with other countries and (iii the EU legislation. Also, the authors present one of the cases of controversy generated by the Romanian tax legislation, which create controversy and maintain a high level of uncertainty in the business environment.

  2. The effect of parents' conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observation of biological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberbach, Catherine

    This study was designed to better understand how children begin to make the transition from seeing the natural world to scientifically observing the natural world during shared family activity in an informal learning environment. Specifically, this study addressed research questions: (1) What is the effect of differences in parent conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observations of biological phenomena? (2) What is the relationship between parent disciplinary knowledge and conversational style to children's observations of biological phenomena? and (3) Can parents, regardless of knowledge, be trained to use a teaching strategy with their children that can be implemented in informal learning contexts? To address these questions, 79 parent-child dyads with children 6-10 years old participated in a controlled study in which half of the parents used their natural conversational style and the other half were trained to use particular conversational strategies during family observations of pollination in a botanical garden. Parents were also assigned to high and low knowledge groups according to their disciplinary knowledge of pollination. Data sources included video recordings of parent-child observations in a garden, pre-post child tasks, and parent surveys. Findings revealed that parents who received training used the conversational strategies more than parents who used their natural conversational style. Parents and children who knew more about pollination at the start of the study exhibited higher levels of disciplinary talk in the garden, which is to be expected. However, the use of the conversational strategies also increased the amount of disciplinary talk in the garden, independent of what families knew about pollination. The extent to which families engaged in disciplinary talk in the garden predicted significant variance in children's post-test scores. In addition to these findings, an Observation Framework (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009

  3. Pathways to Prevention: Improving Nonresident African American Fathers' Parenting Skills and Behaviors to Reduce Sons' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonakos, Cathy L.; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E. Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8-to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group…

  4. [Septic arthritis in children with normal initial C-reactive protein: clinical and biological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, R; Ilharreborde, B; Bonacorsi, S; Kahil, M; Mallet, C; Aupiais, C; Doit, C; Dugué, S; Lorrot, M

    2014-11-01

    Septic arthritis has to be suspected in children with joint effusion and fever so as to perform joint aspiration, which will confirm the diagnosis by bacteriological methods, and to perform surgical treatment by joint lavage. Since development of current molecular methods, such as real-time PCR, Kingella kingae has become the first microbial agent of osteoarticular infections in young children, whereas Staphylococcus aureus is second. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an aid used to diagnose septic arthritis, but its elevation could be moderate. In a previous study, conducted at our hospital, 10% of children hospitalized for S. aureus or K. kingae septic arthritis had a CRP levelseptic arthritis could be made by other parameters, we analyzed the clinical and biologic features of these patients and compared them to those of children hospitalized for septic arthritis with initial CRP ≥10 mg/L. Among the 89 children with septic arthritis, 10% (n=9) had initial CRPkingae, n=5/63 ; S. aureus, n=4/26). Initial temperature and fibrinogen were significantly lower in the CRPseptic arthritis had no fever, CRP elevation, or fibrinogen elevation. In the CRP-negative group, three of four children with S. aureus arthritis and one of five with K. kingae arthritis had a high CRP level (34, 40, 61, and 13 mg/L, respectively) 3 days after surgery and antibiotic treatment. One child with K. kingae septic arthritis and initial CRParthritis. In the S. aureus arthritis group, none of the children with initial CRP10 mg/L during septic arthritis in children, it could be negative in up to 20% of patients in different studies. However, a mild inflammatory syndrome or even a CRPseptic arthritis. Therefore, a first episode of monoarthritis in children has to be considered as septic arthritis and treatment should not be delayed.

  5. Children's looking preference for biological motion may be related to an affinity for mathematical chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Joshua L; Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Fisher, Wayne; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of biological motion is pervasive in early child development. Further, viewing the movement behavior of others is a primary component of a child's acquisition of complex, robust movement repertoires, through imitation and real-time coordinated action. We theorize that inherent to biological movements are particular qualities of mathematical chaos and complexity. We further posit that this character affords the rich and complex inter-dynamics throughout early motor development. Specifically, we explored whether children's preference for biological motion may be related to an affinity for mathematical chaos. Cross recurrence quantification analysis (cRQA) was used to investigate the coordination of gaze and posture with various temporal structures (periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic) of the motion of an oscillating visual stimulus. Children appear to competently perceive and respond to chaotic motion, both in rate (cRQA-percent determinism) and duration (cRQA-maxline) of coordination. We interpret this to indicate that children not only recognize chaotic motion structures, but also have a preference for coordination with them. Further, stratification of our sample (by age) uncovers the suggestion that this preference may become refined with age.

  6. Differential patterns of whole-genome DNA methylation in institutionalized children and children raised by their biological parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Oksana Yu; Lee, Maria; Koposov, Roman; Szyf, Moshe; Dozier, Mary; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies with nonhuman species have shown that animals exposed to early adversity show differential DNA methylation relative to comparison animals. The current study examined differential methylation among 14 children raised since birth in institutional care and 14 comparison children raised by their biological parents. Blood samples were taken from children in middle childhood. Analysis of whole-genome methylation patterns was performed using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip assay (Illumina), which contains 27,578 CpG sites, covering approximately 14,000 gene promoters. Group differences were registered, which were characterized primarily by greater methylation in the institutionalized group relative to the comparison group, with most of these differences in genes involved in the control of immune response and cellular signaling systems, including a number of crucial players important for neural communication and brain development and functioning. The findings suggest that patterns of differential methylation seen in nonhuman species with altered maternal care are also characteristic of children who experience early maternal separation.

  7. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  8. Experiences of the foster care process in the Republic of Ireland: retrospective accounts from biological children of foster carers

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the experiences of the biological children of foster carers. In particular it explores their experiences in relation to inclusion, consultation and decision-making. The study also examines the support and training needs of birth children in foster families. Using a qualitative methodology in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen birth children of foster carers aged between 18 and 30 years. The research findings show that for the majority of birth c...

  9. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.

  10. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  11. [Optimization of treatment of children with acute intestinal infections by application of Russian biological microbial preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feklisova, L V

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the results of long-term (several years) use of Russian bifido- and lactocontaing probiotics and data on the clinicolaboratory effectiveness of bifidumbacterin forte, probifor, bifidin, bifilis, calcidum, florin forte, acipol and acilact in children with various intestinal infections of known and unknown etiology. The presented results were obtained by studies conducted according to the requirements of The Governmental Program of L. A. Tarasevich State Institute of Standartization and Medical Biological Preparation Control, which included randomization of groups of patients receiving codified preparations or placebo according to their age, nosology, the degree of the process severity, premorbid status, and the time when the treatment was started. Each of the programs included several hundreds of children, receiving probiotics; in which of the programs the studies were multicentered. The courses of treatment with probiotics were short (1 to 2 weeks). No significant adverse effects were observed.

  12. Family structure and wellbeing of out-of-wedlock children: The significance of the biological parents' relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley H. Liu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the relationship between the biological parents in determining child wellbeing using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS. We extend prior research by considering children born to unmarried parents in an investigation of the effect of the relationship structure between the biological parents on infant health and behavior. The main findings are that children born to cohabiting biological parents (i realize better outcomes, on average, than those born to mothers who are less involved with the child's biological father, and (ii whose parents marry within a year after childbirth do not display significantly better outcomes than children of parents who continue to cohabit. Furthermore, children born to cohabiting or visiting biological parents who end their relationship within the first year of the child's life are up to 9 percent more likely to have asthma compared to children whose biological parents remain (romantically involved. The results are robust to a rich set of controls for socioeconomic status, health endowments, home investments, and relationship characteristics.

  13. Osteoarticular infections in Belgian children: a survey of clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmont, Quentin; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to report the pathogens which were found most frequently to be responsible for osteo-articular infections in infants and children in Belgium, and to propose an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy applicable before identification of the responsible pathogen. Clinical presentation, imaging and blood biology are also reviewed and analysed. Fifty-six cases of osteo-articular infections (acute/subacute osteomyelitis, osteo-arthritis, septic arthritis, spondylodiscitis, sacro-iliitis) treated between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on clinical, biological, microbiological and radiological data. Septic arthritis, acute osteomyelitis, septic osteoarthritis and sacro-iliitis often have a loud clinical (fever, pain, inflammatory signs) and biological presentation. Subacute osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis are almost asymptomatic, but for functional impairment. The responsible pathogen was isolated in 38% of the cases. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus, followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus A and B, Kingella Kingae, and Haemophilus. None of them were resistant to usual antibiotics. Functional impairment is the only constant symptom of osteo-articular infections. Other clinical and biological symptoms may be absent, making diagnosis often difficult. We recommend oxacillin (> 5 years) or a combination of oxacillin with cefotaxime (< 5 years) in the empirical treatment of osteo-articular infection, and a total of 4 weeks of treatment.

  14. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.

  15. Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of malaria among children in Niamey, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Maman

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria takes a heavy toll in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries. Previous evaluations conducted in the context of the strategy for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, showed that 84% of severe malaria cases and 64 % of ordinary cases are not correctly managed. The aim of this survey was to describe epidemiological, clinical and biological features of malaria among Methods The study was performed in 2003 during the rainy season from July 25th to October 25th. Microscopic diagnosis of malaria, complete blood cell counts and measurement of glycaemia were performed in compliance with the routine procedure of the laboratory. Epidemiological data was collected through interviews with mothers. Results 256 children aged 3–60 months were included in the study. Anthropometrics and epidemiological data were typical of a very underprivileged population: 58% of the children were suffering from malnutrition and all were from poor families. Diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by microscopy in 52% of the cases. Clinical symptoms upon admission were non-specific, but there was a significant combination between a positive thick blood smear and neurological symptoms, and between a positive thick blood smear and splenomegaly. Thrombopaenia was also statistically more frequent among confirmed cases of malaria. The prevalence of severe malaria was 86%, including cases of severe anaemia among Conclusions The study confirmed that malaria was a major burden for the National Hospital of Niamey. Children hospitalized for malaria had an underprivileged background. Two distinctive features were the prevalence of severe malaria and a high mortality rate. Medical and non-medical underlying factors which may explain such a situation are discussed.

  16. Biological monitoring involving children exposed to mercury from a barometer in a private residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Ballegooij-Gevers, Marieke; Jans, Henk

    2014-12-15

    A small spill of approximately 3 mL of mercury from a broken barometer in a residential setting resulted in blood values of 32 μg/L in a boy of 9 months and 26 μg/L in a girl of 2.5 years in samples collected within 6h after the start of the incident. A nanny who attempted to remove the spill had a blood mercury value of 20 μg/L at the same time point. These elevated blood values were attributed to inhalation rather than dermal uptake or ingestion. Exposure was aggravated by the use of a vacuum cleaner in an early attempt to remove the spill and incomplete decontamination of involved persons, leading to a continuation of exposure. Over a period of three months general cleaning was followed by targeted cleaning of hot spots until the indoor air mercury levels reached a median value of 0.090 μg/m(3) with a range of 0.032-0.140 μg/m(3). Meanwhile the family was staying in a shelter home. Human biological monitoring (HBM) was motivated by the complex exposure situation and the involvement of young children. Initially high blood values triggered alertness for clinical signs of intoxication, that (as it turned out) were not observed in any of the exposed individuals. Despite continued exposure from hair and clothes, within six weeks after the incident, blood levels returned to a background level normally seen in children. HBM contributed to reassurance of the parents of the young children that quick elimination of the mercury did not require medical treatment.

  17. Neural processing of intentional biological motion in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Alex A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2013-12-01

    Despite often showing behaviorally typical levels of social cognitive ability, unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been found to show similar functional and morphological deficits within brain regions associated with social processing. They have also been reported to show increased activation to biological motion in these same regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), relative to both children with autism and control children. It has been suggested that this increased activation may represent a compensatory reorganization of these regions as a result of the highly heritable genetic influence of autism. However, the response patterns of unaffected siblings in the domain of action perception are unstudied, and the phenomenon of compensatory activation has not yet been replicated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural responses to intentional biological actions in 22 siblings of children with autism and 22 matched controls. The presented actions were either congruent or incongruent with the actor's emotional cue. Prior studies reported that typically developing children and adults, but not children with autism, show increased activation to incongruent actions (relative to congruent), within the pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We report that unaffected siblings did not show a compensatory response, or a preference for incongruent over congruent trials, in any brain region. Moreover, interaction analyses revealed a sub-region of the pSTS in which control children showed an incongruency preference to a significantly greater degree than siblings, which suggests a localized deficit in siblings. A sample of children with autism also did not show differential activation in the pSTS, providing further evidence that it is an area of selective disruption in children with autism and siblings. While reduced activation to both conditions was unique to the autism sample

  18. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  19. Stability of core language skill across the first decade of life in children at biological and social risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L

    2016-12-01

    Command of language is a fundamental skill, a cornerstone of multiple cognitive and socioemotional aspects of development, and a necessary ingredient of successful adjustment and functioning in society. Little is known about the developmental stability of language in at-risk youth or which biological and social risk factors moderate stability. This four-wave 10-year prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of core language skill in 1,780 children in varying categories of biological and social risk in a multiage, multidomain, multimeasure, and multireporter framework. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of diverse age-appropriate measures of child language on single latent variables of core language skill at 15 and 25 months and 5 and 11 years, respectively. Core language skill was stable over the first decade of life; significant and comparable stability coefficients were obtained for children with diverse biological and social risks, including poor health, welfare status, teen motherhood, ethnicity, gender, birth order, and families that changed in income and maternal education over the study period; stability in language was strong even accounting for child nonverbal intelligence and social competence, maternal education and language, and the family home environment. Core language skill varies in stability with age but is robustly stable in children regardless of multiple biological and social risk factors. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Aviation Support Equipment Technician (ASE 3 & 2 and ASM 3 & 2). Volume 1, Basics. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jesse R.; And Others

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable aviation support equipment personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements for advancement. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  1. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(7)-1 - Remuneration paid before January 1, 1967, for services performed by nonresident alien individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration paid before January 1, 1967, for services performed by nonresident alien individuals who are residents of a contiguous country and who enter and leave the United States at frequent intervals. 31.3401(a)(7)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(7)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...

  2. Hearing children in court disputes between parents.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Kirsteen

    2013-01-01

    The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 gives children the right to have their views taken into account when their parents take a dispute over the child to court. This is consistent with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The most common dispute concerning children which comes before the court is over the amount of contact a child should have with the non-resident parent. This briefing reports key findings from a recent study that examined court cas...

  3. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  4. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  5. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso: e0146810

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yves Martin-Prevel; Pauline Allemand; Laetitia Nikiema; Kossiwavi A Ayassou; Henri Gautier Ouedraogo; Mourad Moursi; Fabiana F De Moura

    2016-01-01

    .... Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36-59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study...

  6. Determination of lead in biological samples of children with different physiological consequences using cloud point extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Ullah, Naeem; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2013-06-01

    In present study, lead (Pb) level in biological samples of children with physiological disorders (liver, bone, and gastrointestinal; age ranged 1-10 years) have been assessed. For comparison purpose, age-matched healthy children were also selected. Cloud point extraction (CPE) was employed for preconcentration of Pb in acid-digested biological samples prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 (TX-114) were used as complexing reagent and extractant, respectively. The effects of several experimental variables on proposed CPE were evaluated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the observed detection limit (LOD) and the enhancement factor (EF) were 0.08 μg L(-1) and 53, respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 10 μg L(-1) Pb was 3.4 %. It was observed that children with liver-, bone-, and gastrointestinal-related disorders had three- to fourfold higher Pb level in blood and scalp hair samples.

  7. Preschool Teachers' Explanations for Hygiene Habits and Young Children's Biological Awareness of Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschools have many norms and rules children are supposed to follow. Among them, behavioral norms associated with mealtime are of great consequence because eating is an essential life function. The present study examined young Japanese children's understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime from the standpoint of their…

  8. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  9. Young Children's Learning and Transfer of Biological Information from Picture Books to Real Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Ma, Lili; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and…

  10. Essentialist Reasoning and Knowledge Effects on Biological Reasoning in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; French, Jason A.; DeHart, Ganie B.; Rosengren, Karl S.

    2013-01-01

    Biological kinds undergo a variety of changes during their life span, and these changes vary in degree by organism. Understanding that an organism, such as a caterpillar, maintains category identity over its life span despite dramatic changes is a key concept in biological reasoning. At present, we know little about the developmental trajectory of…

  11. [Formation of biological and sociopsychological adaptation in weak-eyed and weak-eared children living in boarding schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashennikova, E A; Ivzhenko, E V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the specific features of formation of biological and sociopsychological adaptation in primary boarding school children with poor vision and poor hearing, by examining their physical development and the functioning of major organs and systems of the body, as well as the level of schooling uneasiness (anxiety) in the pupils. The studies established that the educational environmental factors of specialized boarding schools had a considerable complex influence on the pupils' body, by reducing school performance and adaptability, and lower reserve capacities, which is likely to result in worse health and progression of the existing hearing and visual disturbances.

  12. 长宁区0~6岁非户籍儿童保健现状及对策研究%Status of health care among floating children under 7 years old of Changning district and intervention strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 鲁巧珍; 周文莉; 黄璧琨

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand and provide references for health care policy aimed at non-resident children,which may help these children to get equal health care service. [Methods] 219 non-resident children and 217 local children from Beixinjing community were chosen with random cluster sampling. Their parents were surveyed with structured questionnaire. [ Results] The rate of systematic management of non-resident children was 19. 18%, which was lower than that of local children significantly, and the latter's was 80. 65 %. The level of physical growth and development of nonresident children was inferior than that of local children. Among non-resident children, the proportion of children whose height values were below the 10th percentile was higher than local ones. So was weight. There was difference between parents of non-resident children and local ones for understanding of necessity about physical examination regularly. The knowledge about nutritional diseases and child health care of non-resident parents was less than local parents, except for vaccination. [Conclusions] The status of health care among non-resident children is worse than that of local ones, so we should strengthen propaganda about child health care toward non-resident parents. The model of child health care should be changed to localized management model and all non-resident children should get basic and equal heath care service.%[目的]了解长宁区0~6岁非户籍儿童的卫生保健现状与需求.[方法]采用随机整群抽样,按照1:1配对的方法,抽取长宁区北新泾街道0~6岁户籍与非户籍儿童共计436例,对家长进行统一的问卷调查.[结果]非户籍儿童的系统保健管理率低,仅19.18%,户籍儿童系统保健管理率高达80.65%,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);非户籍儿童的体格生长发育较户籍儿童差,非户籍儿童体重、身高低于P10的儿童明显较户籍儿童多;户籍儿童与非户籍儿童家长对儿童系统

  13. Clinical Value of Molecular Biological Methods in Respiratory Tuberculosis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulia Ovchinnikova; Anna Starshinova; Irina Dovgalyuk; Natalia Kornev; Viacheslav Zhuravlev

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of clinical forms of respiratory tuberculosis in children shows a preponderance of intrathoracic lymph node tuberculosis (89.4%) that is characterized by a complicated process in every third child under present-day conditions. Positive result of PCR closely correlates with the severity and extent of the specific process in children. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was ascertain to exhibit the highest sensitivity in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in children with primary generalized tuberculosis (62.5%) and in those with a disseminated specific process (55.6%), which was much higher than conventional bacteriological study of diagnostic materials. By taking into account the findings, the RT-PCR detection of M. tuberculosis was considered as a substantial criterion for evaluating the magnitude of specific changes and the degree of tuberculosis infection activity in children.

  14. [Biological adaptation of children of preschool age with retardation of mental development (RMD) in conditions of pre-school correctional educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, L P; Sebirzyanov, M D

    2013-01-01

    The present study was devoted to the investigation of biological adaptation of children aged 6-7 years with retardation of mental development (RMD) in pre-school correctional educational institutions. Under supervision there were 69 children, out of them 34 RMD cases and 35 children in whom mental development corresponds to age-control group--35 persons. The increase in sympatico-adrenergic effects and centralized heart rhythm control was revealed in children of both groups under comparison, but in RMD cases these effects were more pronounced. Adaptation reserves in RMD children appeared to be lower than in children in whom mental development corresponds to the age. Gender differences of adaptive reserves in children have been established

  15. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  16. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfeld Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  17. The Analysis of Offshore Finance and Offshore Accounts, Non-Resident Account%浅析离岸金融与离岸账户、NRA账户

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翊平

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization and integration of economy and finance, the rapid development of offshore ifnance based on offshore accounts and Non-Resident accounts. This paper analyzes the current situation of the management of China's offshore ifnance, the difference and relationship between offshore accounts and Non-Resident accounts. And it is pointed out that the Non-Resident accounts can basically achieve offshore accounts of function. The author puts forward the policy suggestions to promote the orderly development of the offshore ifnance.%随着经济金融全球化、一体化的发展,以离岸账户、非居民机构账户为载体的离岸金融迅速发展。本文阐述了当前我国离岸金融的管理现状,分析了离岸账户和非居民机构账户存在的区别与联系,指出非居民机构账户可基本实现离岸账户的功能,提出了促进离岸金融规范有序发展的政策建议。

  18. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10 years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study.

  19. Efficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in the treatment of uveitis associated with rheumatic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Neroyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of incorporating genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs into a combination treatment regimen for rheumatic diseases (RD (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behcet's disease in relation to associated uveitis of varying severity was studied in 92 children aged 2 to 17 years. The follow-up lasted 1.5 to 49 months. Twenty-three patients took consecutively 2 to 5 GEBAs. When infliximab was used, remission of uveitis occurred in 21% of 38 children and the disease activity and/or recurrence rates reduced in an additional 21%. These were in 45 and 38.6% of 44 patients on adalimumab (ADA and in 27.8 and 27.8% of 18 patients on abatacept, respectively. There was an association of the efficiency of therapy with the severity of uveitis at the start of treatment. The use of ADA induced a steady remission of panuveitis resistant to therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in both patients with Behcet's disease. One of 4 rituximab-treated patients achieved a steady remission. Tocilizumab therapy caused an exacerbation of uveitis in 1 patient. The postoperative period showed no inflammatory complications in most cases (37 operations, 26 eyes, 20 patients. No local adverse reactions were seen; systemic reactions occurred in 14% of the patients, this caused GEBAs to be discontinued in 7%. There is evidence for a need for further investigations into the efficacy of GEBAs in RD-associated uveitis in children in order to define success criteria, differentiated indications, and therapy regimens.

  20. Biological Systems of Vitamin K: A Plasma Nutriproteomics Study of Subclinical Vitamin K Deficiency in 500 Nepalese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kerry J.; Cole, Robert N.; Wu, Lee S. F.; Yager, James D.; Groopman, John; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble vitamin whose deficiency disrupts coagulation and may disturb bone and cardiovascular health. However, the scale and systems affected by VK deficiency in pediatric populations remains unclear. We conducted a study of the plasma proteome of 500 Nepalese children 6–8 years of age (male/female ratio = 0.99) to identify proteins associated with VK status. We measured the concentrations of plasma lipids and protein induced by VK absence-II (PIVKA-II) and correlated relative abundance of proteins quantified by mass spectrometry with PIVKA-II. VK deficiency (PIVKA-II >2 μg/L) was associated with a higher abundance of low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (p 10% of the children, five proteins were associated with PIVKA-II and seven proteins were differentially abundant between VK deficient versus sufficient children, including coagulation factor-II, hemoglobin, and vascular endothelial cadherin, passing a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 10% (q PIVKA-II or VK deficiency at a less stringent FDR (q  0.7). Untargeted proteomics offers a novel systems approach to elucidating biological processes of coagulation, vascularization, and erythrocyte oxidative stress related to VK status. The results may help elucidate subclinical metabolic disturbances related to VK deficiency in populations. PMID:26913649

  1. Biological Systems of Vitamin K: A Plasma Nutriproteomics Study of Subclinical Vitamin K Deficiency in 500 Nepalese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Eun; Schulze, Kerry J; Cole, Robert N; Wu, Lee S F; Yager, James D; Groopman, John; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble vitamin whose deficiency disrupts coagulation and may disturb bone and cardiovascular health. However, the scale and systems affected by VK deficiency in pediatric populations remains unclear. We conducted a study of the plasma proteome of 500 Nepalese children 6-8 years of age (male/female ratio = 0.99) to identify proteins associated with VK status. We measured the concentrations of plasma lipids and protein induced by VK absence-II (PIVKA-II) and correlated relative abundance of proteins quantified by mass spectrometry with PIVKA-II. VK deficiency (PIVKA-II>2 μg/L) was associated with a higher abundance of low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (p10% of the children, five proteins were associated with PIVKA-II and seven proteins were differentially abundant between VK deficient versus sufficient children, including coagulation factor-II, hemoglobin, and vascular endothelial cadherin, passing a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 10% (qPIVKA-II or VK deficiency at a less stringent FDR (q0.7). Untargeted proteomics offers a novel systems approach to elucidating biological processes of coagulation, vascularization, and erythrocyte oxidative stress related to VK status. The results may help elucidate subclinical metabolic disturbances related to VK deficiency in populations.

  2. Relationship between the order of immune-biological administration and pain management in children during vaccination procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilana López Borbón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research had been in evidence if the administrative order of the immune-biological has implications in the pain response from an infant during vaccination. The pain could promote a negative perspective related to the immunization, especially in children and their parents. For that reason, an adequate pain management during vaccination could have as a consequence a better acceptance of the immunization program by the society. During the research, the methodology that had been applied was based evidence clinical practice. Firstly, It had been necessary formulated a PICO question. Secondly, the best articles had been found after searching in databases as PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and Tripdata base. These five articles had been evaluated through the critical analysis using CASPe template. As a result, the order in the administration of immune-biological has consequences in the pain response of the child. To conclude, it is important to note that the order of immune-biological and child pain response have relating. So, it is necessary to administrate the painful vaccine at the end in order to have a better management of childhood pain. Additionally, it is important to do more researches about the specific order that vaccines would be administrated.

  3. The Effects of a Structured Learning Sequence on Children's Correlative Thinking About Biological Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nous, Albert; Raven, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of using a Piaget-based structured program to enhance correlative thinking of fifth, seventh, and ninth grade children. Concluded that ninth grade students profited from learning of logical operations although some had difficulty with the equivalence and reciprocal exclusion operations. (CC)

  4. Young Children's Understanding of a Biological Basis for Parent-Offspring Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Results of two experiments indicated that preschoolers expected adopted babies to share physical properties, but not preferences with their biological parents; and recognized that a baby who looks like and lives with a woman but who grew inside another woman's body is not the first woman's baby. (BC)

  5. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: TEACHING AND CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina KALMAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modes of teaching and assessment need to take cognisance of all aspects of "special education needs" for these students to reach their potential and some talent shown by these children is not lost to society. Attitudes, practices, values and beliefs about that every student belongs and feels membership in the community are essential for the inclusive school. Curriculum for these children needs some principles: course delivery modes and learning activities should take account the outcomes and the learning capacities of students with special education needs; course study materials should be made available in appropriate formats and, students with disabilities should not be disadvantaged by the time taken for learning; teaching and strategies should be adjusted to meet the learning needs of disabled students, including the provision of additional support; some activities conducted in non-classroom settings, such as field trips, should be designed.

  6. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective.

  7. Independent and Combined Effects of Sex and Biological Maturation on Motor Coordination and Performance in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Cumming, Sean P; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Almeida, Maria J; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Padez, Cristina; Carmo, Bruno Cleiton M; Santos, Rute; Seabra, André; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2016-04-01

    Sex differences and maturation-associated variation in fitness and motor coordination were examined in children aged 8-9 years (n = 128, 67 girls). Assessments included stature and body mass, two-component body composition, percentage of predicted adult stature (as an index of biological maturation), and motor performance and coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder). Compared to girls, boys were less advanced in maturation status, possessed larger fat mass, demonstrated superior performances in six tests of fitness, and obtained one superior score on the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. After controlling for somatic maturation, sex differences persisted in the two multivariate domains: motor performance and motor coordination.

  8. New biological temporary skin cover Xe-Derma(®) in the treatment of superficial scald burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, Robert; Matouskova, Eva; Broz, Ludomir; Kubok, Richard; Waldauf, Petr; Königova, Radana

    2011-03-01

    Xe-Derma® is a new dry sterile biological cover derived from acellular pig dermis. Hydrated Xe-Derma® displays bio-mechanical features similar to the normal skin. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of Xe-Derma® with hydrocolloid dressing Askina THINSite® for treatment of superficial burns in children in a prospective study. In a prospective study, 86 patients (5 months to 7 years of age) with superficial scald burns on a surface area of 1-35% BSA were enrolled. In the course of the study, 43 patients were treated with Xe-Derma® and 43 patients with Askina THINSite®. We collected data including the percentage of BSA covered with biological or synthetic material, epithelization time, the number of complete conversions (deepening of 100% of covered area into deep dermal wound) under each cover, the number and extent of partial conversions (deepening of less then 100% of covered area into deep dermal wound), infectious complications, the number of reapplications of the temporary cover and the extent in square centimetres of dressing material needed for successful healing of 1% BSA. No significant difference in the epithelization time, percentage of conversion from superficial to deep dermal burns and percentage of infectious complication was detected between the two groups. However, patients in the Xe-Derma® group were burned on a more extensive burn surface area (p ≤ 0.028). Xe-Derma® showed adherence to the wound and therefore there has been no need to be changed The number of reapplications and therefore also the number of square centimetres needed for successful healing of 1% BSA were statistically higher in the Askina THINSite® group (p skin covers in the treatment of superficial scald burns in children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. [Biological adaptation and immune status of preschool children with visual function disorders in conditions of preschool educational institutions of compensating type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, L P; Koksharov, A V

    2013-01-01

    For implementation of a comprehensive approach in the elaboration of preventive and corrective measures in children with impaired visual function in conditions of preschool educational institutions of compensating type there were studied adaptation reserves of their organism, as well as indices of immune status. Biological adaptation was studied with the help ofcardiointervalography in 111 children aged 6-7years. With the use of ELISA 88 children were examined in terms of IgA, IgM, IgG, slgA in saliva.

  10. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center.

  11. Aerobic fitness and biological and sociodemographic indicators in female school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Régis Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness is an important health-related fitness component. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of age, growth, body composition, sexual maturation and socioeconomic status on the aerobic fitness of female school children attending public schools in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Across-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 2006 on 1,317 school children aged 8 to17 years. Body mass, height and triceps and medial calf skinfold thickness were measured and relative body fat (%BF was calculated. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using a breast development scale (M1 to M5. The questionnaire proposed by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies was used to assess socioeconomic status. Aerobic fitness was estimated by the 20-m shuttle runtest. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression with 95% confidence intervals. Three variables (age, %BF and socioeconomic status showed an interaction (p<0.05 in the prediction of VO2peakrel (R2=0.73. All independent variables (body mass, height, age, %BF, socioeconomic status, and sexual maturation were significant predictors (p<0.05 of VO2picoabs (R2=0.88. In conclusion, chronological age and sexual maturation were the best predictors of VO2peakabs (positive and VO2peakrel (negative.

  12. Molecular biology and cellular mechanisms of Brugada and long QT syndromes in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzelevitch, C

    2001-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death accounts for 19% of sudden deaths in children between 1 and 13 years of age and 30% of sudden deaths that occur between 14 and 21 years of age. The incidence of sudden cardiac death displays 2 peaks: one between 45 and 75 years of age, as a result of coronary artery disease, and the other between birth and 6 months of age, caused by sudden infant death syndrome. The role of cardiac arrhythmias in sudden infant death syndrome has long been a matter of debate and the role of cardiac arrhythmias in children in general is not well defined. Recent findings point to a contribution of primary electrical diseases of the heart including the Brugada and long QT syndromes to sudden death in infants and children. Mutations in SCN5A and HERG and KvLQT1 have been shown to be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and long QT intervals in young infants. These mutations cause changes in sodium and potassium currents that amplify intrinsic electrical heterogeneities within the heart, thus providing a substrate as well as a trigger for the development of reentrant arrhythmias, including Torsade de Pointes (TdP), commonly associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Mutations in SCN5A have also been shown to cause the sodium channel to turn off prematurely and thus to set the stage for the development of a rapid polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in patients with the Brugada Syndrome. In LQTS, ion channel mutations cause a preferential prolongation of the M cell action potential that contributes to the development of long QT intervals, wide-based or notched T waves, and a large transmural dispersion of repolarization, which provides the substrate for the development of TdP. An early afterdepolarization-induced triggered beat is thought to provide the extrasystole that precipitates TdP. In the Brugada syndrome, mutations in SCN5A reduce sodium current density, causing premature repolarization of the epicardial action potential due

  13. Predictors of Paternal Involvement for Resident and Nonresident Low-Income Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Hernandez, Daphne C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of low-income families (N = 239), structural equation models assessed predictors of fathers' involvement with preschool-aged children in instrumental, behavioral, and emotional realms. Results suggest that parental conflict has a strong negative relation with father involvement. Fathers' human capital characteristics, healthy…

  14. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Martin-Prevel

    Full Text Available Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions.The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36-59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions.A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient's probability of adequacy (PA. Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR, C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers.Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06. Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes.Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when based on dietary intakes or biomarkers

  15. Evidence of early alterations in adipose tissue biology and function and its association with obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Kathrin; Rockstroh, Denise; Wagner, Isabel V; Weise, Sebastian; Tauscher, Roy; Schwartze, Julian T; Löffler, Dennis; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of fat mass in obesity may result from hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia and is frequently associated with adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction in adults. Here we assessed early alterations in AT biology and function by comprehensive experimental and clinical characterization of 171 AT samples from lean and obese children aged 0 to 18 years. We show an increase in adipocyte size and number in obese compared with lean children beginning in early childhood. These alterations in AT composition in obese children were accompanied by decreased basal lipolytic activity and significantly enhanced stromal vascular cell proliferation in vitro, potentially underlying the hypertrophy and hyperplasia seen in obese children, respectively. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration, including the formation of crown-like structures, was increased in AT of obese children from 6 years on and was associated with higher hs-CRP serum levels. Clinically, adipocyte hypertrophy was not only associated with leptin serum levels but was highly and independently correlated with HOMA-IR as a marker of insulin resistance in children. In summary, we show that adipocyte hypertrophy is linked to increased inflammation in AT in obese children, thereby providing evidence that obesity-associated AT dysfunction develops in early childhood and is related to insulin resistance. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. [Study of possible urban environmental pollution by a steel plant through the biological monitoring of urine and hair in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Valter; Franchini, Silva; Pezzarossi, Giuseppina; Catalani, Simona; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Tomasi, Cesare; Apostoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis of an increased exposure to metallic elements through the biological monitoring (urine and hair) in a group of children living near an electric steel plant and in a control group. The concentrations were also compared with the reference values of the literature. The study included the measure of porphyrins in urine (total and homologue), by some authors considered as effect indicators of xenobiotics such as heavy metals and some persistent organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). The comparison between the groups and with the reference values shows that the metallic elements in the hair and urine and urinary porphyrins does not indicates significant differences thus excluding specific health risk. In both groups the values of some metallic elements exceeded the upper limit of reference values. Following a control carried out two months later values returned in reference range probable due to different food intake and individual behavior. As a whole our survey demonstrated that there is no exposure to metallic elements representing a significant risk for this particular groups of general population possibly exposed to environmental pollution.

  17. Manual accidents, biological risk control, and quality indicators at a children's hospital in north-east Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Roberto Simeone, Patrizia Visconti Department of Health Technology Assessment, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: Working in health care carries the risk of transmission of infected blood to patients by hospital workers and to other health personnel in the form of occupational infections. Conscientious application of the standard precautions is the main method used to avoid needle stick injuries, contamination of skin and mucous membranes, cuts with sharp tools, and inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. The aim of this work was to investigate in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-east Italy, the enhancement carried out to prevent situations of biologic risk for health care workers, and to verify the related laboratory analyses. Methods: Biological accidents occurring during the years 2012–2013 in the departments of oncology and pediatric-obstetric surgery, and in the intensive care unit at Burlo Garofolo Children's Hospital in Trieste (a large town in Friuli Venezia Giulia were reviewed, and a new panel of tests was introduced for patients and health care workers, to also detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and aspartate transaminase and immunoglobulin G. All tests were submitted for external quality assessment. Results: In total, 230 nosocomial events were reported by health care workers in the above-mentioned hospital departments in 2012–2013. There were 158 accidents in 2012, including 55 accidental needle stick injuries (34.81%, 59 blood splashes (37.34%, and 44 cuts with infected instruments (27.84%. The risk of sustaining a cut was related to movement error during surgery when the appropriate procedure was not followed or when devices were being assembled and passed between doctors and nurses. Most accidents happened among physicians compared to nurses; the high percentage of needle stick injuries (34

  18. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  19. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  20. Invasibility of a nutrient-poor pasture through resident and non-resident herbs is controlled by litter, gap size and propagule pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lutz Eckstein

    Full Text Available Since inference concerning the relative effects of propagule pressure, biotic interactions, site conditions and species traits on the invasibility of plant communities is limited, we carried out a field experiment to study the role of these factors for absolute and relative seedling emergence in three resident and three non-resident confamilial herb species on a nutrient-poor temperate pasture. We set up a factorial field experiment with two levels each of the factors litter cover (0 and 400 g m(-2, gap size (0.01 and 0.1 m(2 and propagule pressure (5 and 50 seeds and documented soil temperature, soil water content and relative light availability. Recruitment was recorded in spring and autumn 2010 and in spring 2011 to cover initial seedling emergence, establishment after summer drought and final establishment after the first winter. Litter alleviated temperature and moisture conditions and had positive effects on proportional and absolute seedling emergence during all phases of recruitment. Large gaps presented competition-free space with high light availability but showed higher temperature amplitudes and lower soil moisture. Proportional and absolute seedling recruitment was significantly higher in large than in small gaps. In contrast, propagule pressure facilitated absolute seedling emergence but had no effects on proportional emergence or the chance for successful colonisation. Despite significantly higher initial seedling emergence of resident than non-resident species, seed mass and other species-specific traits may be better predictors for idiosyncratic variation in seedling establishment than status. Our data support the fluctuating resource hypothesis and demonstrate that the reserve effect of seeds may facilitate seedling emergence. The direct comparison of propagule pressure with other environmental factors showed that propagule pressure affects absolute seedling abundance, which may be crucial for species that depend on other

  1. Differential Vulnerability of Global Motion, Global Form, and Biological Motion Processing in Full-Term and Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. M.; Jakobson, L. S.; Maurer, D.; Lewis, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). "Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely." "Progress in Brain Research, 164." 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005).…

  2. Visual Processing of Biological Motion in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Event Related Potential-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Anne; Hof, Katharina; Krick, Christoph; Siniatchkin, Michael; Jarczok, Tomasz; Freitag, Christine M.; Bender, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion–recently discussed as a marker of social cognition–was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD. PMID:24520402

  3. Visual processing of biological motion in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an event related potential-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kröger

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD. However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion-recently discussed as a marker of social cognition-was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD.

  4. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  5. 非居民企业纳税筹划:框架设计与案例分析%Tax Planning Research for Non-resident Enterprises: Theoretical Analysis and Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曾莲; 吴晓娟

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, non-resident enterprise tax revenue is increasing in China, and has a more and more significant contribution on financial performance. But most of non-resident enterprises in China last a short duration, and they change quickly with large and complex service types. What's more, non-resident enterprises are not familiar with the tax environment, and their consciousness of paying tax is not strong. This situation is not only the problem of China' s tax administrations, but also aggravating the non-resident enterprise' s tax risk and burden. In view of the lacking of related literature, this paper hopes establishing a tax planning framework for non-resident enterprises in China. The frame includes five parts: taxpayer's identification and permanent establishment, entity form, income tax, tax incentives and other kinds of tax. And this paper will combine with the case to analysis and verify the usefulness of the proposed tax planning framework.%近年来中国非居民企业税收规模越来越大,对财政业绩贡献显著。但非居民企业大多在中国持续时间短,变化快,业务类型多而复杂,且对中国税务环境不熟悉,纳税意识不强。这对中国的税收管理带来难题,也加重了其自身的税务风险和税收负担。而相关研究相对较少,文章力争构建非居民企业在我国税收环境下的有效税收筹划框架:从纳税人身份和常设机构、组织形式、所得税、税收优惠及其它税种五个方面进行筹划,并结合案例,分析该框架的有用性。

  6. Why Dogs Have Puppies and Cats Have Kittens: The Role of Birth in Young Children's Understanding of Biological Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan C.; Solomon, Gregg E. A.

    1997-01-01

    Three studies used interspecies adoption stories to examine children's understanding of the role of birth in determining animal properties and species identity. Found that most 4- to 7-year olds could reliably judge that babies would be of the same species as birth parents, but were unable to attribute properties of adoptive parents. (Author/KB)

  7. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  8. Evaluation of status of cadmium, lead, and nickel levels in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Sirajuddin; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2011-09-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood trace metals toxicity, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. This study was designed to compare the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged 3-7 and 8-12 years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of Cd, Pb, and Ni in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The digests of all biological samples were analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Ni by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated significantly higher levels of Cd, Pb, and Ni in the biological samples (blood, scalp hair, and urine) of male and female night blindness children, compared with control subjects of both genders. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating toxicity of trace metals in biological samples of night blindness children.

  9. System-active approach in working with gifted children on the program author's circle of ecological and biological orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plonish Julia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's program of environmental and biological circle orientation. It is shown that the basis of the federal state educational standards is a system-activity approach. The result of its application is the development of the child on the basis of Universal Instructional activities. The main advantage of the course by choice "school environmental monitoring 'is his experimental and practice-oriented direction. As a result of the development of the educational program students will learn: about current research in biology, chemistry, ecology, and their practical and moral-ethical significance, the actions of human beings in critical environmental situations, the impact of the natural environment on human health (eg, geochemical characteristics of terrain, the quality of drinking water, dust atmosphere, etc., health-enhancing effects of natural elements (plants, recreational resources, etc..

  10. A qualitative study of non-residents on voluntary AIDS counseling and testing service in a city%某市异地人口艾滋病自愿咨询和检测服务的定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贵; 马福军; 王慧玲; 罗江磋

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To learn why non-residents use the Vduntary counseling testing services, their psychological state and coping style, and the stigma and discrimination facing the patients and their families. Methods: All non-residents who came to the city from December 2013 to November 2014 for the AIDS VCT were interviewed one-by-one.ResuIts: Of a total of 75 non-residents who came for the AIDS VCT, 26 were confirmed HIV positive. All interviewees felt great psychological pressure. However, those who were confirmed HIV positive feel shameful in front of their family, and both the patients and their family members are facing discrimination from society. ConcIusion: Non-resident HIV positive patients have severe psychological disability and are reluctant to release their HIV status. Promoting AIDS health education, eliminating discrimination against HIV positive patients and their family, and providing all necessary support would be helpful to establish a barrier-free channel for patients to seek medical care.%目的::了解异地人群VCT(Vduntary counseling testing)服务的原因、心理状态、应对方式,艾滋病感染者及家庭承受的耻辱和受到社会歧视状况。方法:采取偶遇抽样的方法,对某市的VCT机构2013年12月~2014年11月期间前来咨询的异地人群进行一对一访谈。结果:来自异地接受访谈的75名VCT求询人员中,26名确诊为阳性,存在的心理压力比一般人群大, HIV阳性受访者表现出无颜面对家人的心理行为,社会对本人及其家庭成员都存在社会歧视。结论:异地咨询HIV阳性人员存在严重心理障碍,患病信息不愿被人知道;积极开展艾滋病健康教育,社会大众应该给艾滋病感染者及病人更多的支持和关怀,消除对艾滋病患者及家属的歧视;搭建艾滋病患无障碍求医需要构建有效策略。

  11. A molecular biology and phase II study of imetelstat (GRN163L) in children with recurrent or refractory central nervous system malignancies: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ralph; Hummel, Trent R; Kumar, Shiva Senthil; Dorris, Kathleen; Li, Shaoyu; Lin, Tong; Daryani, Vinay M; Stewart, Clinton F; Miles, Lili; Poussaint, Tina Young; Stevenson, Charles; Goldman, Stewart; Dhall, Girish; Packer, Roger; Fisher, Paul; Pollack, Ian F; Fouladi, Maryam; Boyett, James; Drissi, Rachid

    2016-09-01

    Telomerase activation is critical in many cancers including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Imetelstat is an oligonucleotide that binds to the template region of the RNA component of telomerase, inhibiting its enzymatic activity. We conducted an investigator-sponsored molecular biology (MB) and phase II study to estimate inhibition of tumor telomerase activity and sustained responses by imetelstat in children with recurrent CNS malignancies. In the MB study, patients with recurrent medulloblastoma, high-grade glioma (HGG) or ependymoma undergoing resection received one dose of imetelstat as a 2-h intravenous infusion at 285 mg/m(2), 12-24 h before surgery. Telomerase activity was evaluated in fresh tumor from surgery. Post-surgery and in the phase II study, patients received imetelstat IV (days 1 and 8 q21-days) at 285 mg/m(2). Imetelstat pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed. Of two evaluable patients on the MB trial, intratumoral telomerase activity was inhibited by 95 % compared to baseline archival tissue in one patient and was inevaluable in one patient. Forty-two patients (40 evaluable for toxicity) were enrolled: 9 medulloblastomas, 18 HGG, 4 ependymomas, 9 diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Most common grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (32.5 %), lymphopenia (17.5 %), neutropenia (12.5 %), ALT (7.5 %) and AST (5 %) elevation. Two patients died of intratumoral hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopenia leading to premature study closure. No objective responses were observed. Telomerase inhibition was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for at least 8 days. Imetelstat demonstrated intratumoral and PBMC target inhibition; the regimen proved too toxic in children with recurrent CNS tumors.

  12. LEGAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL FATHER: The Analysis of Constitutional Court Decree No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 in the Perspective of Civil and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang Marilang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, children born out of wedlock only have legal relationship or family lineage relationship with their mother and mother’s family, not with their biological father and biological father’s family. This provisions of law are arranged in Article 43 paragraph (1 of Marriage Law No. 1 of 1974 which is highly influenced by Shafi’ite School of Islamic jurisprudence. Through judicial review of Aisyah (Machica Mochtar and her son named M. Iqbal Ramadhan, Constitutional Court has agreed to waive the provisions by means of the Decree Number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 with legal consideration that the concerned article contravenes the Constitution, then it creates new legal norm which states those children have legal relationship and family lineage with their mother and mother’s family and also the man who is their father. The Decree sparks controversies concerning the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ and ‘legal relationship’ in the decree. Contrary to many law experts, the article argues that the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ simply means children born from zina (adultery or fornication. Thus, ‘legal relationship’ only refer to limited relationship between both parties.

  13. All biology is computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  14. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  15. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  16. Biologi Radiasi

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Yoesfianda

    2008-01-01

    Biologi radiasi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang pengaruh dari ionisasi radiasi dalam tubuh makhluk hidup. Kemungkinan terjadinya efek biologis akibat interaksi radiasi dan jaringan tubuh manusia, berbanding lurus dengan besarnya dosis radiasi yang mengenai jaringan tubuh tersebut. Radiasi dapat mengakibatkan efek baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Efek yang merusak secara biologis dari radiasi ionisasi diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kategori utama, yaitu efek somatik determin...

  17. Impacts of biological and family factors on lexical and intellectual development in Mandarin-speaking children%生物和家庭因素对汉语儿童词汇和智能发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛杰; 陈永香; 朱莉琪

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过纵向追踪考察生物因素(年龄、性别)和家庭因素(家庭社会经济地位、家庭育儿方式)对儿童早期词汇和智能发展的影响。方法使用《汉语沟通发展量表》(普通话版,简称PCDI)、《年龄发育进程问卷》(ASQ)和自行设计的《父母调查问卷》,对38名18~24月龄汉语儿童进行测查,6个月后对被试者再次进行PCDI和ASQ追踪测查。结果(1)初测时生物因素可以解释词汇量65%的变异(其中性别占10%);6个月后检测时其解释量下降为26%,且性别的影响消失。(2)词汇发展可正向预测智能发展,控制年龄和性别后,词汇发展可解释智能发展22%的变异。(3)家庭社会经济地位对词汇和智能发展的影响均不显著。(4)家庭教养方式中“家长引导儿童认识环境中的人和物”可预测6个月后儿童的智能发展(可解释10%的变异)。结论生物因素对儿童早期词汇发展有重要作用,但其影响力随月龄增长而减少。生物因素、词汇发展、家庭育儿方式等因素共同影响儿童的智能发展。%ObjectiveTo investigate the impacts of biological factors (age and sex) and family factors (socioeconomic status and parenting style) on the early lexical and intellectual development of children in a longitudinal tracking study.MethodsA total of 38 Mandarin-speaking children aged from 18 to 24 months were surveyed using the Putonghua Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (PCDI), the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and a self-designed Questionnaire for Parents. All of the subjects were retested using PCDI and ASQ after 6 months. ResultsBiological factors accounted for 65% of the variance in lexical development, 10% of which was attributed to gender, in the ifrst survey. After six months, the contribution of age decreased to 26% and gender had no signiifcant impact. Lexical development could positively predict the

  18. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  19. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  20. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of diarrhoeal disease in young children identifies FUT2 locus and provides plausible biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustamante, Mariona; Standl, Marie; Bassat, Quique

    2016-01-01

    More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-...

  1. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  2. Introducing Basic Molecular Biology to Turkish Rural and Urban Primary School Children via Hands-on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Cigdem; Yildirim, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation,…

  3. Introducing Basic Molecular Biology to Turkish Rural and Urban Primary School Children via Hands-on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Cigdem; Yildirim, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation,…

  4. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  5. Curative Effect of Biological Sequence Therapy on 1665 Children with Autism%生物调序益智疗法治疗1665例孤独症儿童的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕清; 李介珍; 许晓燕; 陈小霞; 陈飞龙; 史积善

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of biological sequence therapy on treatment of children with autism. Methods 1665 children with autism treated in our hospital between January 2010 and December 2012 are randomly divided into treatment group and control group. In treatment group, implantation of biological proteins, traditional Chinese medicine and rehabilitation treatment are conducted;while in the control group, only implement traditional Chinese medicine and rehabilitation therapy. Results Effective rate, significant efficiency rate and invalid rate of the treatment group are 70.39%, 49.84%and 29.61%, while those in the control group are 31.7%, 15.85%and 68.3%, respectively. Through the chi-square test, effective rate of the treatment group is better than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion With biological sequence therapy to treat children with autism, is economic and quick with distinct clinical curative effect and is worthy of promotion.%目的:应用生物调序益智疗法治疗孤独症儿童疗效观察。方法随机将我院2010年1月至2012年12月底收治的1665例孤独症分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组实施生物蛋白埋植、中药及康复训练治疗;对照组实施中药及康复训练治疗。结果治疗组有效率达70.39%,显效率49.84%,无效率29.61%。对照组有效率31.7%,显效率15.85%,无效率68.3%,经χ2检验,P<0.05,治疗组有效率优于对照组。结论运用生物调序益智疗法治疗孤独症儿童,经济、时间短、疗效显著,值得推广。

  6. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  7. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  8. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  9. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  10. Biology teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics, Science and Biology teachers code switch when they teach. ... (by constantly translating back and forth), and argue for a 'separation approach' ..... for the classroom, only 3 students did not give an answer to this open-ended.

  11. Los orígenes biológicos y los derechos de hijos e hijas: filiación y derecho a saber | Biological Origins and the Rights of Children: Parentage and the Right to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Olga Sánchez Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Este trabajo tiene el propósito principal de estudiar cómo las nuevas formas de acceder a la paternidad y maternidad, a través de las técnicas de reproducción asistida con donación de gametos o embriones, afectan a algunos derechos de los hijos e hijas. En concreto, serán analizados los derechos de filiación paterna y materna y el derecho a conocer los orígenes biológicos. Para ello, será central tomar en consideración el deber que pesa sobre los poderes públicos de asegurar la protección integral de los hijos y posibilitar la investigación de la paternidad, junto con el deber de los padres de prestar asistencia de todo orden a sus hijos. La igualdad de todos los hijos ante la ley, con independencia de su filiación, llevará a comprobar las diferencias entre las personas nacidas mediante reproducción asistida, las nacidas por reproducción natural y las adoptadas, y a valorar si tales diferencias pueden seguir siendo justificadas.   ABSTRACT. This work has the main purpose of studying how new ways of access to parenthood, through assisted reproductive technologies with donation of gametes or embryos, affect some rights of the children. Specifically, there will be analyzed the children´s right to both a mother and a father and the right to know their biological origins. To do so, it will be central to take into consideration the duty of public authorities to ensure the comprehensive protection of children and enable the investigation of paternity, together with the duty of parents to provide assistance of all kinds to their children. The equality of all children before the law will lead to testing the differences between those born through assisted reproduction, those born by natural reproduction and the adopted ones, and to assess if such differences may continue being justified

  12. Pulp development, repair, and regeneration: challenges of the transition from traditional dentistry to biologically based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Smith, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    The traditional concept of replacing diseased tooth/pulp tissues by inert materials (restoration) is being challenged by recent advances in pulp biology leading to regenerative strategies aiming at the generation of new vital tissue. New tissue formation in the pulp chamber can be observed after adequate infection control and the formation of a blood clot. However, differentiation of true odontoblasts is still more speculative, and the approach is largely limited to immature teeth with open apices. A more systematic approach may be provided by the adoption of the tissue engineering concepts of using matrices, suitable (stem) cells, and signaling molecules to direct tissue events. With these tools, pulplike constructs have already been generated in experimental animals. However, a number of challenges still remain for clinical translation of pulp regeneration (eg, the cell source [resident vs nonresident stem cells, the latter associated with cell-free approaches], mechanisms of odontoblast differentiation, the pulp environment, the role of infection and inflammation, dentin pretreatment to release fossilized signaling molecules from dentin, and the provision of suitable matrices). Transition as a process, defined by moving from one form of "normal" to another, is based not only on the progress of science but also on achieving change to established treatment concepts in daily practice. However, it is clear that the significant recent achievements in pulp biology are providing an exciting platform from which clinical translation of dental pulp regeneration can advance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  14. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  15. Vitalism in naive biological thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C; Taplin, J E; Gelman, S A

    2000-09-01

    Vitalism is the belief that internal bodily organs have agency and that they transmit or exchange a vital force or energy. Three experiments investigated the use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-old English-speaking children and adults, focusing on 2 components: the notion that bodily organs have intentions and the notion that some life force or energy is transmitted. The original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking was replicated in Experiment 1 with English-speaking 5-year-olds. Experiment 2 indicated that the more active component of vitalism for these children is a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes, and Experiment 3 suggested an additional, albeit lesser, role for organ intentionality. A belief in vital energy may serve a causal placeholder function within a naive theory of biology until a more precisely formulated mechanism is known.

  16. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  17. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  18. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  19. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  20. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  1. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  2. As tecnologias de reprodução assistida e as representações sociais de filho biológico The reproductive technologies and the social representations of biological children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Monteiro Borlot

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as representações sociais de filho biológico em casais que se submeteram às tecnologias reprodutivas. Nossos objetivos foram analisar a trajetória de vida do casal a partir do momento em que foi constatada a infertilidade e identificar as representações sociais de filho biológico. Cinco casais da Grande Vitória, ES foram entrevistados e nenhum deles havia obtido êxito com relação à gravidez após o tratamento. As entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas individualmente. O roteiro seguiu o mesmo padrão para ambos os cônjuges, incluindo itens sobre a constatação da infertilidade, o tratamento realizado, o significado da maternidade, paternidade, casamento e filho biológico. A análise dos resultados apontou para um fortalecimento do vínculo no casamento após o diagnóstico de infertilidade e evidenciou a importância que os casais atribuem ao filho biológico. Os elementos de representações sociais que apareceram fortemente foram: "sangue do meu sangue", descendência, semelhança física e pressão social.Social representations of biological child in couples who underwent reproductive treatment were studied. Our objectives were to analyze the life trajectory of the couple from the moment infertility was diagnosed and identify the social representations of biological children. Five couples of Great Vitória (Espírito Santo State, Brazil were interviewed and none of them had success with respect to pregnancy. We used semi-structured interviews, individually taken. The script followed the same pattern for both the man and the woman, including items about the acceptance of the infertility diagnosis, the kind of treatment, the meaning of motherhood, fatherhood, marriage and biological child. The analysis of the results pointed to a strengthening of the bond in the marriage after the acceptance of the infertility diagnosis and highlighted the importance that couples attribute to the biological child. The

  3. Children's living arrangements following separation and divorce: insights from empirical and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B

    2007-03-01

    When parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents or, failing private agreement, as a result of recommendations and decisions by lawyers, therapists, custody evaluators, or family courts. Most of these decisions have been based on cultural traditions and beliefs regarding postseparation parenting plans, visitation guidelines adopted within jurisdictions, unsubstantiated theory, and strongly held personal values and professional opinions, and have resulted since the 1960s in children spending most of their time with one residential parent and limited time with nonresident, or "visiting", parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after divorce. Such research remains largely unknown and untapped by parents and professionals making these crucial decisions about children's living arrangements. This article highlights empirical and clinical research that is relevant to the shape of children's living arrangements after separation, focusing first on what is known about living arrangements following divorce, what factors influence living arrangements for separated and divorced children, children's views about their living arrangements, and living arrangements associated with children's adjustment following divorce. Based on this research, it is argued that traditional visiting patterns and guidelines are, for the majority of children, outdated, unnecessarily rigid, and restrictive, and fail in both the short and long term to address their best interests. Research-based parenting plan models offering multiple options for living arrangements following separation and divorce more appropriately serve children's diverse developmental and psychological needs.

  4. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  5. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  6. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area ​Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  7. Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID

  8. Biological heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  9. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  10. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  11. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  12. Biological characteristics of pathogens causing dental caries among children%儿童龋齿口腔感染的病原菌生物学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦醒; 关飞; 邵若蘅; 赵丽萍; 李岳华

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate biological characteristics of pathogens causing children′s oral caries and pre‐ventive measures of dental caries in children ,so as to decrease incidence of oral infections .METHODS In our hos‐pital from Jan .2012 to Dec .2014 ,86 cases of children with dental caries were enrolled in the study as observation group ,and another 86 cases of children without dental caries were selected as control group .Through examination of oral secretions from children′s infected sites ,positive rate ,colony counts ,and drug sensibility of major patho‐gens Streptococcus mutans were analyzed .Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 .0 .RESULTS A total of 134 patho‐gens were detected in the control group ,54 pathogens were detected in control group .The positive rate of S .mu‐tans in observation group was significantly higher than control group (P<0 .05) .Colonies of S .mutans in obser‐vation group accounted for 61 .38% in total number of colonies ,while the colonies in control group accounted for , 19 .15% ,the difference was significant (P< 0 .05) .Drug resistant rate of S .mutans towards penicillin was 76 .99% .CONCLUSION The number of S .mutans and dental caries had direct relationship .Good oral hygiene can reduce the incidence of dental caries in children .%目的:探讨儿童龋齿口腔感染的病原菌生物学特性分析及对儿童龋齿的预防措施,以降低口腔感染率。方法选择医院2012年1月-2014年12月86例龋齿儿童为观察组,另外选择86例无龋齿儿童为对照组,通过对儿童口腔感染部位的分泌物进行鉴定,比较两组儿童口腔中主要病原菌变形链球菌的阳性率、菌落数及药敏性,数据采用SPSS 18.0软件进行统计分析。结果观察组检测出134株病原菌,对照组中检测出54株病原菌,观察组儿童变形链球菌阳性率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组变形链球菌菌落数占

  13. A Comparison of Biological and Adoptive Mothers and Fathers: The Relevance of Biological Kinship and Gendered Constructs of Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Used qualitative interviews to examine beliefs and values about biological and adoptive parents. Considered how biological kinship, gender, and actual parenting behavior affect the assessments respondents made of the emotional bonding between parents and children. Found that biological and adoptive parents viewed motherhood as instinctive and…

  14. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  15. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  16. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  17. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  18. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  19. Biological characteristics and multi-directional differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in children%小儿骨髓间充质干细胞生物学特性及多向分化潜能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵景范; 黎润光; 魏明发; 杨小进; 柴成伟; 覃宇冰; 康慧聪; 赵东明; 杨勇

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that in China, human bone marrow mesenchymal stem ceils are mostly harvested from adults. Studies on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in children are few.OBJECTIVE: To isolate and expand bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from children, and to analyze the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and their potential of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and neural like cells.DESIGN: Observational comparative study.SETTING: Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.MATERIALS: Experiments were performed at the Laboratory of Department of Orthopaedics of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from March to September 2006. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were collected from one boy patient and two girl patients aged 5-8 years, who received pelvis osteotomy for dysplasia of the hip joint. The experimental procedures were approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee and family members of all children patients singed the informed consent.Dexamethasone, vitamin C, β-sodium glycerophosphate, 3-1sobutyl-1-methylxanthine, insulin, indometacin and butylated hydroxyanisole were bought from Sigma Company. Dimethyl sulphoxide was purchased from Amersco Company.METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured from mononuclear cells isolated over a Percoll gradient.Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and neural like cells with osteoblast inductor (β-sodium glycerophosphate, dexamethasone, vitamin C), lipoblast inductor (dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine,bovine insulin, indometacin) and serum-free medium inductor (dimethyl sulphoxide, butylated hydroxyanisole) respectively.Osteoblast marker (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin mRNA, calcium node), adipocyte marker (lipid droplet, PPAR γ-2mRNA) and neural ceil-like marker (nissl body, neuron

  20. Determinantes biológicos e ambientais no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em uma amostra de crianças de Canoas/RS Environmental and biological determinants of neuropsychomotor development in a sample of children in Canoas/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Maria Luz Pilz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e possíveis associações a fatores ambientais e biológicos, bem como à competência materna, em uma amostra de crianças de até 6 anos residentes no município de Canoas/RS. Às mães foi aplicado um questionário sobre fatores socioeconômicos e reprodutivos, condições da criança ao nascer, patologia da criança, estrutura familiar, atenção à criança e componentes da competência materna. Avaliou-se a suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor via teste de Denver II. Visitaram-se quarenta clusters pelo processo de amostragem probabilística por cluster na cidade de Canoas/RS. O delineamento do estudo foi analítico transversal. Segundo os resultados, há prevalência de suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de 27% (n=53 das 197 crianças avaliadas. A análise multivariada mostrou os seguintes fatores associados à suspeita de atraso no desenvolvimento: baixa renda familiar (or=9,3, gestação materna com intervalo interpartal inferior a 18 meses (or=3,9 e mães sem o apoio dos pais da criança (or= 7,0. Os resultados afirmam a importância de programas de geração de renda, educação em saúde e planejamento familiar para a prevenção de atraso no desenvolvimento infantil.The object of this study is to determine the prevalence of potential delays in neuropsychomotor development and their possible association with, on one hand, environmental and biological factors, and maternal competence on the other, in a sample of children up to six years old living in Canoas, in Rio Grande do Sul state. A questionnaire was submitted to mothers including questions on social, economic and reproduction factors; child´s conditions at birth; child´s pathologies; family structure; child care and elements on maternal competence. The potential for neuropsychomotor development delay was assessed by the Denver II Test. Forty

  1. Principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso The main biological and social characteristics of children low birth-weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1978-09-01

    utilization of health facilities, ideal age of delivery and ideal number of children. The main biological and social characteristics identified and analyzed in this study put forth elements that will help to establish comprehensive care to the pregnant woman, thus allowing a decrease in the occurrence of low birth-weight.

  2. The Clinical Efficacy Analysis of Biological Resonance Therapy System for Children with Cough Variant Asthma%生物共振治疗系统对儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 马秀丽; 段司凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨生物共振治疗系统对儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘变应原检测的意义和临床疗效.方法:选取我院咳嗽变异性哮喘儿童92例,使用生物共振治疗仪进行变应原检测,随机分成3组,包括生物共振治疗组30例(生物共振组)、服用孟鲁司特钠组34例(白三烯组)、吸入丙酸氟替卡松组28例(吸入激素组).结果:生物共振仪检测变应原阳性依次为尘螨、花粉、环境化学物、动物皮毛、杀虫剂、霉菌、细菌、木材/植物纤维等.3组治疗后的症状评分及肺功能检测较治疗前均有显著改善,生物共振组与白三烯组比较,症状评分及肺功能改善差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而吸入激素组优于生物共振组,症状评分及肺功能改善差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:生物共振治疗系统可作为儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘变应原检测的一种参考方法,近期疗效与单用白三烯调节剂相当,无明显不良反应,是治疗这类疾病的一种选择,但与吸入激素比较有差异,吸入激素仍为儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘治疗的首选方案.%Objective:To investigate the meaning and clinical efficacy of biological resonance therapy system for children with cough variant asthma.Methods:Ninety-two children with cough variant asthma detected with biological resonance therapy instrument for allergen.All children were randomly divided into three groups,including biological resonance therapy group (n =30),montelukast sodium group (n =34),fluticasone propionate group (n =28).Results:Biological resonance instrument detecting allergens are dustmites,pollen,environmental chemicals,animal fur,pesticides,mycete,bacterial,wood/plant fiber etc.The symptom scores and pulmonary functions tests of 3 groups after treatment were significantly improved compared with before treatment.There were no significant difference between the biological resonance therapy group and montelukast sodium group in scores and pulmonary

  3. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  4. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gender Identity Development in Children Page Content Article Body ​What's the ... children, the match between biological sex and gender identity is not so ... gender development in children. See the related article, Gender Non- ...

  5. Nonresident Suicides in England: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; Bickley, Harriet; While, David; Williams, Alyson; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the numbers and characteristics of people who travel away from home before dying by suicide. Therefore, this studied attempts to identify the sociodemographic characteristics, location, and method of suicide in people who died distant from home, in a national sample. Data were collected on all English suicides and a patient…

  6. Catalog of Nonresident Training Courses, 1994 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Processing ........................................................... 2-7 Endodontics ...The guide for the instructor includes all the command master chief program; Navy ceremonies and the material covered in the Student’s Journal in...Course, PER ORDER QUANTITY RESTRICTION: 5 Student’s Journal SP EDITION: 1993 NAVEDTRA NUMBER: 38202 Command Master Chief Course Student’s NSN: 0502-LP

  7. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  8. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA (R......Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF......-with-ROPA allows for do not have any particular value beside the satisfaction of a legitimate wish, because there is no intrinsic value in a biological tie between parents and children; further, I argue that equality within parental projects cannot be achieved by redistributing biological ties....

  9. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences.......The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences....

  10. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  11. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  12. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  13. Synthetic Biology-The Synthesis of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, Simon; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic biology concerns the engineering of man-made living biomachines from standardized components that can perform predefined functions in a (self-)controlled manner. Different research strategies and interdisciplinary efforts are pursued to implement engineering principles to biology. The "top-down" strategy exploits nature's incredible diversity of existing, natural parts to construct synthetic compositions of genetic, metabolic, or signaling networks with predictable and controllable properties. This mainly application-driven approach results in living factories that produce drugs, biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals, and results in living pills that are based on engineered cells with the capacity to autonomously detect and treat disease states in vivo. In contrast, the "bottom-up" strategy seeks to be independent of existing living systems by designing biological systems from scratch and synthesizing artificial biological entities not found in nature. This more knowledge-driven approach investigates the reconstruction of minimal biological systems that are capable of performing basic biological phenomena, such as self-organization, self-replication, and self-sustainability. Moreover, the syntheses of artificial biological units, such as synthetic nucleotides or amino acids, and their implementation into polymers inside living cells currently set the boundaries between natural and artificial biological systems. In particular, the in vitro design, synthesis, and transfer of complete genomes into host cells point to the future of synthetic biology: the creation of designer cells with tailored desirable properties for biomedicine and biotechnology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  15. Development of Motion Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Remington, Anna; Milne, Elizabeth; Coleman, Mike; Campbell, Ruth; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Swettenham, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that children with autism may be impaired in the perception of biological motion from moving point-light displays. Some children with autism also have abnormally high motion coherence thresholds. In the current study we tested a group of children with autism and a group of typically developing children aged 5 to 12 years of…

  16. Exploring the biology of socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, M I; Rothbart, M K; Gerardi-Caulton, G

    2001-05-01

    How will the social sciences take advantage of the revolution that has taken place in biology during the past two decades? Over the last fifteen years, neuroimaging has allowed the study of human cognition and emotion within psychology to achieve close alliances with biology through the development of cognitive and affective neuroscience. There is little doubt that a similar alliance between psychology and biology will occur in the domain of human brain development. In principle, understanding how the human brain is organized by experience (epigenetic rules) and how societies instruct their young could produce a link between natural and social science. The late David C. McClelland sought methods to base the social sciences on psychological ideas. McClelland sought to connect the values of achievement and power as coded from children's readers and popular ballads to societal economic growth and conflict. These efforts lacked knowledge of brain mechanisms of memory and attention and an understanding of the role of experience in organizing brain circuitry. Understanding of cognitive and brain systems related to knowledge and action may allow a new approach to forging connections between individual minds and social behavior.

  17. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  18. Resetting Biological Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  19. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  1. Resetting Biological Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  2. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  3. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  4. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  5. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  6. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  7. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  8. Synthetic biology: putting synthesis into biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself--encompassing many branches of science and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery--a self-replicating organism--is being pursued at this moment. The aim of this article is to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture.

  9. [Biological evolution and specialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weizhen; Wang, Deli

    2003-12-01

    There were some disputes about the concept and mechanism of biological evolution. This paper tried to give more explanations on the key concepts. The biological adaptability was distinguished into two different concepts: biological evolution and specialization. The former was defined as the process of biologically gradual evolvement, and the latter was considered as the process of species formation at horizontal development. Moreover, a new conceptual framework was applied to the popular biological theories known by people, and the previous research results or discoveries were explained over again.

  10. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  11. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  12. Adverse Drug Reactions in Children: Types, Incidence,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug Reactions in Children: Types, Incidence, and Risk Factors. Nigerian fownal of Paedzkztrits 2006; ... 'prescription, non-prescription, biological and herbal. Lagos'State University ..... intensity of data collection and possibility of prevention.

  13. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  14. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  15. Cognitive tempo in children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, N J

    1977-04-01

    An adoption study was conducted to determine if cognitive tempo (as characterized by errors and latencies on the Matching Familiar Figures Test) is more similar between parents and their biological children or between parents and their adopted children. Zero-order correlations between parents and children were not significant (regardless of familial relationship), but the results of canonical correlations for mean of parents' scores with those of biological and adopted children respectively were consonant with hypothesized values, suggesting a degree of heritability exists. A slight trend for parents' latency to be consistently related to their biological children's latency was noted, but no such trend was present for errors. The heritability of latency versus errors in cognitive tempo is discussed.

  16. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  17. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  18. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  19. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  20. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  1. Biological Individuality of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  2. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  3. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  4. Polythiophenes in biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  5. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  6. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  7. Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Reactions to an Autonomous versus Controlled Social Robot Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Nadia; Gary, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Interactive technology has become ubiquitous in young children's lives, but little is known about how children incorporate such technologies into their intuitive biological theories. Here we explore how the manner in which technology is introduced to young children impacts their biological reasoning, moral regard, and prosocial…

  8. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    , and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in identifying the genetic causes have resulted in increased understanding of the underlying biological pathways and improvements......Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present......-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually...

  9. For the Sake of the Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of divorce on children are reviewed, acknowledging two contradictory trends. On one hand, it is increasingly recognized that the intact biological parent family offers many advantages. On the other hand, there is increasing acceptance that divorce can be better than having parents stay together for their children's sake. (SLD)

  10. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  11. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  12. Biology Library Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  13. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  14. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  15. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  16. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  17. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  18. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled......, and mechanical biological stabilization (MBS), which first composts the waste for drying prior to extraction of a large RDF fraction. Only a small fraction is landfilled. The latter technology is also referred to as biodrying. Within each of the two main technologies, a range of variations is available depending...

  19. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  20. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  1. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  2. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  3. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  4. Primary School Children's Perceptions of Parent and Teacher Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne B.

    Children's perceptions of the roles of mother, father, and teacher were examined in a sample of 98 children of 7 to 9 years. Children of working mothers numbered 54. Interview data were coded into five main role categories: Domestic, Child Care, Paid Work, Biological, and Personal. Results showed no effect of age or maternal work status on…

  5. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M;

    2008-01-01

    between parents. Very little overlap was observed between children and adults. The two most important biological processes or molecular functions significantly modulated in children, but not in adults, are nucleosome and immune response related. Our study suggests differences between children and adults...

  6. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  7. Cognitive function assessment in the biological parents of the children with autism%孤独症患儿生物学父母的认知功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷青云; 王白兰; 陈劲梅; 李雪荣; 罗学荣; 张荣花

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较孤独症父母和健康对照的认知功能,探索孤独症核心家系中神经心理的改变.方法 选用11个效能可靠的神经心理测验,通过与正常对照的比较,来探索孤独症父母的认知损害.结果 孤独症父母在数字符号、木块图、Stroop CW、言语流畅性测验的重复数、WCST的持续错误数、WCST的非持续错误数、坚持性反应数和概括力水平百分数、Hanoi塔的执行时间、Hanoi塔的总分和总分/执行时间测验上与正常对照组有明显差异.结论 孤独症父母存在一定程度的认知功能损害,特别是构建功能、注意和执行功能方面,这些神经心理指标可能是孤独症遗传的表型标记.%Objective Comparing the cognitive neuropsychological function between the autistic children's parents and the normal controls,to exploring the neuropsychological defects in the pedigree of autism.Methods We choose eleven neuropsychological tests to compare the neuropsychological function of the autism's parents and normal controls.Results Compared with normal controls, the parents of children with autism showed the impairments of the cognitive functions,which included digit-symbol,block design,verbal fluency,ToH and WCST.Conclusions Compared with normal controls,the parents of the children with autism show the impairment of some cognitive functions.It suggests that the cognition defects are possible genetic marker in autism.

  8. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  9. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  10. Biologic Medications for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... put directly on the skin, such as hydrocortisone, betamethasone, calcipotriene (Dovonex and generics), clobetasol, halobetasol, and tazarotene ( ... Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Children can also develop the ailment, but it occurs ...

  11. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  12. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  13. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  14. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  15. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  16. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  17. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  18. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  19. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  20. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  1. Biological Monitoring Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Biological Monitoring Team (BMT) was a pilot project focused on addressing NWRS inventory and monitoring needs in Regions 3 and 5. The BMT was a precursor to the...

  2. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  3. Egyptian Journal of Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biology publishes standard scientific contributions and ... Faunistic papers or field-based studies of the natural history of the Egyptian fauna ... Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina under ...

  4. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  5. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  6. Achieving Relevance Through Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a one-semester biology course for nonmajors which explores the interdisciplinary potential of psychology, anthropology, history, literature, philosophy, and religion. Satisfactory results in the 1970 tryout with 126 college students are identified. (CC)

  7. Chemistry and biology data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  8. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  9. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  10. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  11. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  12. Biological Parameters of Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-09-01

    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  13. Nestedness across biological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  14. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  15. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  16. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  17. Meaningful Change for Children in Foster Care: Much More than Just Reunification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Amy B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The youngest children in foster care suffer disproportionately. The Adoption and Safe Families Act (1997) attempted to provide greater safeguards for children, which led courts to push for earlier reunifications between foster children and their biological families. Although no one wants young children to languish in the foster care system, early…

  18. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  19. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  1. Are Prompts Provided by Electronic Books as Effective for Teaching Preschoolers a Biological Concept as Those Provided by Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children's comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children's understanding of a biological…

  2. Are Prompts Provided by Electronic Books as Effective for Teaching Preschoolers a Biological Concept as Those Provided by Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children's comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children's understanding of a biological…

  3. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  4. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated measurem

  5. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  6. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  7. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  8. Biological anthropology and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Gillian H

    2005-06-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 and older is increasing dramatically in both developed and developing nations of the world, the health and well-being of elders has become a worldwide public health concern. Although older adults are now found in higher proportions across all cultures, the biology, behavior, and environment vary tremendously across older populations. Biomedical research largely follows a reductionist paradigm separating the domains of culture and biology. Even when health is examined in association with culture and behavior, biomedical researchers largely focus on static unidirectional associations instead of examining the dynamic multidirectional impact of culture, behavior, and the environment on physiology and ultimately health. Since aging and the processes of senescence clearly involve complex interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains, anthropologists with a bio-cultural and evolutionary perspective are well-equipped to study variation in aging and senescence. While relatively few biological anthropologists have focused their attention on aging, a growing literature has demonstrated the utility of biocultural approaches to aging. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights the core of the biological anthropology of aging.

  9. Information Complexity and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  10. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  11. Biology and therapeutic advances for pediatric osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Neyssa; Gebhardt, Mark; Teot, Lisa; Gorlick, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Survival for these patients was poor with the use of surgery and/or radiotherapy. The introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy dramatically improved the outcome for these patients and the majority of modern series report 3-year disease-free survival of 60%-70%. This paper describes current strategies for treating patients with osteosarcoma as well as review of the clinical features, radiologic and diagnostic work-up, and pathology. The authors review the state of the art management for patients with osteosarcoma in North America and Europe including the use of limb-salvage procedures and reconstruction as well as discuss the etiologic and biologic factors associated with tumor development. Therapy-related sequelae and future directions in the biology and therapy for these patients are also discussed. Copyright AlphaMed Press

  12. Biology, childhood trauma, and murder: rethinking justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Solomon, Eldra P

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings in the developmental neurophysiology of children subjected to psychological trauma. Studies link extreme neglect and abuse with long-term changes in the nervous and endocrine systems. A growing body of research literature indicates that individuals with severe trauma histories are at higher risk of behaving violently than those without such histories. This article links these two research areas by discussing how severe and protracted child abuse and/or neglect can lead to biological changes, putting these individuals at greater risk for committing homicide and other forms of violence than those without child maltreatment histories. The implications of these biological findings for forensic evaluations are discussed. Based on new understanding of the effects of child maltreatment, the authors invite law and mental health professionals to rethink their notions of justice and offender accountability, and they challenge policymakers to allocate funds for research into effective treatment and for service delivery.

  13. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses...

  14. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  15. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  16. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  17. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  18. Biological therapy and dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  19. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  20. [Biologics in SLE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonitsch, Thomas; Aringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have become indispensable in the last decade in the treatment of the more common rheumatic diseases. For treating systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), B-cell depletion, albeit off-label, has been a well-accepted strategy in severe and refractory disease. Unexpectedly, however, the results of the first randomized controlled rituximab trials in SLE were negative. New trials with improved study protocols are ongoing, which should resolve this issue. In 2012, with the approval of belimumab, SLE finally entered the era of approved biological therapies. The anti-Blys/BAFF antibody belimumab showed prevention of SLE flares, glucocorticoid sparing, and significant improvement in the quality of life of SLE patients, in part by drastically reducing immune complex mediated fatigue. Positive reports on further targeting approaches give hope that additional biological agents will be available for SLE therapy soon.

  1. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  2. The biology of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  3. Biolog phenotype microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, April; Wolcott, Mark; Daefler, Simon; Rozak, David A

    2012-01-01

    Phenotype microarrays nicely complement traditional genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis by offering opportunities for researchers to ground microbial systems analysis and modeling in a broad yet quantitative assessment of the organism's physiological response to different metabolites and environments. Biolog phenotype assays achieve this by coupling tetrazolium dyes with minimally defined nutrients to measure the impact of hundreds of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur sources on redox reactions that result from compound-induced effects on the electron transport chain. Over the years, we have used Biolog's reproducible and highly sensitive assays to distinguish closely related bacterial isolates, to understand their metabolic differences, and to model their metabolic behavior using flux balance analysis. This chapter describes Biolog phenotype microarray system components, reagents, and methods, particularly as they apply to bacterial identification, characterization, and metabolic analysis.

  4. Professional equity as reported by biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Claudia B.; Lakes Matyas, Marsha; Butler Kahle, Jane

    In 1982, the National Association of Biology Teachers surveyed its membership in order to assess the role and status of women in biology education. Items describing roles, salaries, assignments, professional activities, and sexual bias were included in the survey. This paper compares the responses of male and female biology educators, draws conclusions from the data, and suggests implications for the science education profession. Inequality in several professional areas was revealed. More women than men were single and reported no dependent children. Women exceeded men in both the lower and upper ends of the distribution of years of experience. However, the percentage of men exceeded that of women in most salary brackets beyond $20,000 and more men reported paid consulting opportunities. Men tended to teach at larger institutions and, at all academic levels, more men taught advanced classes. More men than women were involved with research activities. However, neither sex felt that the other one received preferential treatment in regard to salary and promotion. The majority of education administrators as well as science and biology faculties were male. However, the recent influx of women into science education positions may produce important changes. It is recommended that a comparative study be conducted in five years.

  5. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    , there was no effect of the child's history of atopy, parental atopy or smoking. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with previous data from 121 healthy young children; mean sRaw (SD) 1.27 kPa*s (0.25). Conclusion: Control using biological standards revealed errors in factory setting......The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... and clinical practise. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. The primary aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in 6 centers. Seven healthy young children were brought to each of the 6 centers for sRaw measurements...

  6. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  7. [Cybernetics and biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  8. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  9. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2015-01-01

    individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...... for the recording of exposure information in clinical practice, as well as the critical steps involved in the transfer of exposure data to various pharmacovigilance databases. EXPERT OPINION: The existing systems ensure the traceability of biologicals down to the manufacturer within pharmacy records, but do...

  10. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  11. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2017-09-15

    Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually caused by parathyroid tumors, which may give rise to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which usually arises in association with chronic renal failure and in the treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets. Acquired causes of PTH-dependent hypercalcemia in neonates include maternal hypocalcemia and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. PHPT usually occurs as an isolated non-syndromic and non-hereditary endocrinopathy, but may also occur as a hereditary hypercalcemic disorder such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in

  12. New biological dermis cover Pelnac® in wound healing of children with severe trauma%人工真皮移植修复儿童严重创伤创面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田良; 邱林; 傅跃先; 田晓菲; 刘燕; 肖军

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, tissue engineering has made great progress, and skin tissue engineering is especialy noteworthy. Artificial dermis (PELNAC) is relatively used widely, but there is a lack of relevant reports on wound repair in children. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Pelnac® METHODS:In a retrospective study, 22 patients with the wound of severe trauma were treated with Pelnac as skin graft dressings on treatment of the wounds of severe trauma in children. ® graft, negative-pressure wound therapy and split-thickness skin graft as experimental group (Pelnac® group), and another 19 patients treated with granulation formation dressing and split-thickness skin graft as control group. We colected data including the graft livability, the required re-operative times and the epithelization time after the skin graft. During the folow-up, the skin color and texture of survival skin, subcutaneous fulness, scar hyperplasia and the joint function were also evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the Pelnac ® group, the graft livability was up to 90% within 10-14 days after grafting. The secondary split-thickness skin graft was required in two cases in the Pelnac® group and in eight cases in the control group. There was a significant difference in the graft livability (P < 0.05). The average epithelization time after the skin graft was (13.86±3.09) days in the Pelnac® group, which was significant shorter than the control group, (19.10±4.62) days, after the first time operation (P< 0.05). During the 10 months folow-up, the survival skin color and skin elasticity in the Pelnac® group was significantly better than that in the control group (P< 0.05). Better subcutaneous fulness and milder scar hyperplasy in the injured sites were obtained in the Pelnac® group compared with the control gorup. Five cases had certain joint function limitation in the Pelnac® group, compared to 10 cases in the control group, with a significant difference (P < 0

  13. Biological implications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays. (HLW)

  14. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  15. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  16. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  17. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  18. The biology of strigolactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, C.P.; Al-Babili, S.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected

  19. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question, ...

  20. Doublethink in Biological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  1. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  2. Biological Isolation Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  3. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  4. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  5. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  6. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  7. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  8. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  9. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  10. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  11. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  12. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  13. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  14. Assessment of biology investigations.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, R.; Gott, R.

    2003-01-01

    This review makes a case for the assessment of investigations against the Concepts of Evidence in written tests as a potentially more reliable and valid way of assessing the ideas used in all types of biology investigations, thus reducing the distorting effect of assessment on the curriculum.

  15. Physiology of biological variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In agricultural products, variation exists in quality attributes between batches. Examples of this biological variation are well known and the general response is trying to suppress it as much as possible; to create uniformity using pre- andpostharvestmethods. This thesis

  16. Commercializing Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  17. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  18. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  19. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  20. Biological fathers and stepfathers who molest their daughters: psychological, phallometric, and criminal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Firestone, Philip; Nunes, Kevin L; Bradford, John M; Curry, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A sample (N=143) of men who sexually abused their biological daughters or their step/adopted daughters were examined on a comprehensive array of demographic and historical information, offense characteristics, psychological and phallometric measures, and recidivism. Biological fathers were significantly less sexually aroused by children than were the stepfathers. On all the remaining variables, however, no statistically significant differences were found. Overall, biological and stepfathers in the present study appear to be much more similar than different from one another.

  1. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  2. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  3. Heritability and biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, E

    1998-10-01

    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  4. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing......As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question......, a limited budget, and challenging sample material. Furthermore, although recent advances in technology offer unprecedented opportunities for research in non-model organisms, they also demand unprecedented awareness from the researcher regarding the assumptions and limitations of each method. In this review...

  5. [Cell biology and cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T

    1991-01-01

    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  6. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  7. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  8. Mathematical hierarchies and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...

  9. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  10. Dynamics of Wasting and Underweight in Ethiopian Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    points in time and with changes in status over time. Our findings should .... being the grandchild of the household head, living biological parents, mother's ..... services via main roads may have broad benefits for children's WHZ. Among other ...

  11. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  12. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  13. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Travis C. Collier

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  14. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  15. Milli-Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    inefficient at low RPM because power is wasted as heat in the coils, requiring gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position...soldering to join metal parts, epoxy to join the heat -sensitive permanent magnets, and screws to reversibly fasten subassemblies that might require...aerospace, and heliostat pointing for solar power. These are now transitioning to commercial development. The milli-biology workflow for coded

  16. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to tr...

  17. Plankton Production Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00... Crustacea ), the group that contributes the major part of the biomass of zooplankton collected with plankton nets in salt- and freshwater. The basis of...windows to the large Russian-language marine- biological literature by publishing this translation. The observations are not subject to becoming outdated

  18. Biological Imaging Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Berthold, Michael R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B.S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Murphy, Robert F.; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L.; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R.; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis, and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the challenges in that domain, and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open source options. PMID:22743775

  19. Types of biological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Monteiro, Ashma D; Ganapathy, Sachit

    2017-06-01

    Identification and description of variables used in any study is a necessary component in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on the type of variables that are involved in the study. In this short article, we introduce the different types of biological variables. A researcher has to be familiar with the type of variable he/she is dealing with in his/her research to decide about appropriate graphs/diagrams, summary measures and statistical analysis.

  20. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  1. Cultural and biological factors modulate spatial biases over development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.

  2. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  3. Absolute biological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  4. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  5. Physics of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    The biological membrane is a complex system consisting of an aqueous biomolecular planar aggregate of predominantly lipid and protein molecules. At physiological temperatures, the membrane may be considered a thin (˜50Å) slab of anisotropic fluid characterized by a high lateral mobility of the various molecular components. A substantial fraction of biological activity takes place in association with membranes. As a very lively piece of condensed matter, the biological membrane is a challenging research topic for both the experimental and theoretical physicists who are facing a number of fundamental physical problems including molecular self-organization, macromolecular structure and dynamics, inter-macromolecular interactions, structure-function relationships, transport of energy and matter, and interfacial forces. This paper will present a brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on such problems, with special emphasis on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution. The paper advocates the dual point of view that there are a number of interesting physics problems in membranology and, at the same time, that the physical properties of biomembranes are important regulators of membrane function.

  6. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field. PMID:22348749

  7. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  8. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  9. Biological surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  10. Personal Constructions of Biological Concepts – The Repertory Grid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. J. McCloughlin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses repertory grid analysis as a tool for investigating the structures of students’ representations of biological concepts. Repertory grid analysis provides the researcher with a variety of techniques that are not associated with standard methods of concept mapping for investigating conceptual structures. It can provide valuable insights into the learning process, and can be used as a diagnostic tool in identifying problems that students have in understanding biological concepts. The biological concepts examined in this work are ‘natural kinds’: a technical class of concepts which ‘appear’ to have invisible ‘essences’ meaning carrying more perceptual weight than being perceptually similar. Because children give more weight to natural-kind membership when reasoning about traits, it would seem pertinent to apply such knowledge to deep-level research into how children reason in biology. The concept of natural kinds has a particular resonance with biology since biological kinds hold the distinction of being almost all natural kinds, such as when the same ‘stuff or thing’ takes many different forms. We have conducted a range of studies using a diversity of biological natural kinds, but in this paper, we wish to explore some of the theoretical underpinnings in more detail. To afford this exploration, we outline one case-study in a small group of secondary school students exploring the concept of ‘equine’ – that is, what is an equine? Five positive examples were chosen to engaged with by the students and one ‘outlier’ with which to compare the construction process. Recommendations are offered in applying this approach to biological education research.

  11. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  12. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  13. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animal, and microorganism—and may be produced by biotechnology methods. Gene-based and cellular biologics, at the ... other categories of biological products mostly produced by biotechnology methods, including: monoclonal antibodies designed as targeted therapies ...

  14. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  15. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  16. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  17. Logical impossibilities in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.

  18. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  19. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  20. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. ECO-BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  3. Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexson, Dimitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen Hongfeng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Cho, Michael [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Dutta, Mitra [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Li Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shi, Peng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Raichura, Amit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ramadurai, Dinakar [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Parikh, Shaunak [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, Michael A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vasudev, Milana [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2005-07-06

    Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications are discussed. Results are presented on the use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots both as biological tags and as structures that interact with and influence biomolecules. Results are presented on the use of semiconducting carbon nanotubes in biological applications. (topical review)

  4. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  5. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Akula, Balaji; Cusick, James

    2009-01-01

    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  6. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  7. Cellular structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yutaka; Selenko, Philipp

    2010-10-01

    While we appreciate the complexity of the intracellular environment as a general property of every living organism, we collectively lack the appropriate tools to analyze protein structures in a cellular context. In-cell NMR spectroscopy represents a novel biophysical tool to investigate the conformational and functional characteristics of biomolecules at the atomic level inside live cells. Here, we review recent in-cell NMR developments and provide an outlook towards future applications in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We hope to thereby emphasize the usefulness of in-cell NMR techniques for cellular studies of complex biological processes and for structural analyses in native environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Tuberculosis and molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ase Bengård; Lillebaek, Troels; Søborg, Christian; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    2003-02-24

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) hunting millions worldwide, is a challenge to work with in the laboratory. Modern molecular biology has provided extremely useful tools which have changed conventional diagnostic procedures in the TB laboratories. Research in molecular epidemiology is currently expanding our knowledge of the natural history of TB. Access to the genome sequence has opened new avenues for research in drug development and new vaccines. However, we are still awaiting the impact of these efforts in the resource-poor TB endemic countries.

  9. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  10. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  11. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively.

  12. Nanoindentation of biological composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, M.

    2009-08-01

    This investigation studied the effect of storage conditions on the mechanical properties as measured by nanoindentation of mineralised tissue samples. The three storage solutions were Hanks balanced salt solution, phosphate buffered saline and deionised water and all had a significant effect on the surface properties, namely hardness and modulus of enamel, dentin and bone tested. The effect was significant with a greater than 70% reduction in surface mechanical properties after 8 days immersion in the solutions. This study highlights the importance of testing biological tissues immediately after extraction, and the possible structural and chemistry changes that may occur by artificially storing the tissues.

  13. Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    mg Inositol, 4.4 mg Folic acid , 2 mLs β-mercaptoethanol, 5 mL L- glutamine, 0.75 g sodium bicarbonate, 62.5 mL Horse serum, 62.5mL FBS normal. The...research acquired the fundamental knowledge needed to improve understanding of nano-bio interaction mechanisms and provided in-depth analyses of...corresponding effects on biological systems. This knowledge will help to improve nanomaterial safety strategies for the protection of both human and

  14. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  15. Computational biology for ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions. PMID:21115530

  16. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  17. Systems biology: experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  18. Biology of Nanobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-12-01

    One of the more interesting recent discoveries has been the ability to design nano/microbots which catalytically harness the chemical energy in their environment to move autonomously. Their potential applications include delivery of materials, self-assembly of superstructures, and roving sensors. One emergent area of research is the study of their collective behavior and how they emulate living systems. The aim of this chapter is to describe the "biology" of nanobots, summarizing the fundamentals physics behind their motion and how the bots interact with each other to initiate complex emergent behavior.

  19. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  20. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  1. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  2. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  3. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  4. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  5. Psoriasis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinson R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Pinson,1 Bahman Sotoodian,2 Loretta Fiorillo2,3 1School of Medicine, 2Division of Dermatology and Cutaneous Sciences, Department of Medicine, 3Division of Pediatric Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: The clinical presentation, disease associations, and diverse treatment modalities in overcoming the challenges of managing pediatric psoriasis have been extensively summarized in this article. An extensive literature review revealed the differences in presentation of psoriasis during infancy, childhood, and adolescence. We also summarized the latest topical, systemic, and biological modalities in treating recalcitrant psoriasis. The association of psoriasis with juvenile arthritis and obesity and the significant influence of the disease on the children's quality of life were explored. The clinical presentation of psoriasis can evolve during the child's lifespan. While many treatment modalities already exist for treating pediatric psoriasis, some of the new biologics that are approved for adult patients have not been investigated in the pediatric population and no algorithm exists for their use in this population. Large clinical studies in the future will enhance our understanding with regards to their safety and potential implications in pediatric populations. Keywords: pediatric, epidemiology, juvenile arthritis, topical treatment, systemic treatment, phototherapy, biologics

  6. Malnutrition in young Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rate in South Asia. In this region, malnutrition underlies much of the high infant and under five child morbidity and mortality rates. Although struggle to tackle the issue of malnutrition among young Pakistani children has been going on since many decades, till yet a realistic solution for this growing problem has not been found. This paper aims at reviewing literature to analyse the biological, maternal, socio-cultural, environmental, and politico-economical determinants of malnutrition among young children in Pakistan so that need based interventions can be recommended to prevent and overcome this growing issue. A systematic search of national, regional, and international literature was undertaken from peer-reviewed databases for 1991-2011 including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed. The search was augmented by reviewing the literature from WHO and UNICEF websites, books, local newspapers, and reference lists of articles thought to be relevant. Determinants of malnutrition among Pakistani children are multiple and are prevalent at the level of individual, family, and community. An analysis of biological, maternal, socio-cultural, environmental, and politico-economical factors indicate that most of these factors are interrelated; therefore, to tackle this issue, there is a need to plan composite interventions at the level of malnourished children, their families, and the Pakistani community.

  7. Bodies, Brains and Poverty: Poor Children and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussow, Joan Dye

    In this issue of the IRCD Bulletin is reviewed the status of research relating to health, nutrition, and learning as pertaining to children from economically disadvantaged families. At present there is considered to be little hard evidence in support of the notion that children's present biological condition is correlated with their learning. The…

  8. Death Sentences: A Content Analysis of Children's Death Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    A multidimensional concept of death must include biological, sociocultural, and emotional components. Children glean information about death in many ways, one of which is through books. In this study, the authors compared the 3 dimensions of death-related information (irreversibility, inevitability, nonfunctionality) in 24 young children's picture…

  9. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  10. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  11. Industrial systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-02-15

    The chemical industry is currently undergoing a dramatic change driven by demand for developing more sustainable processes for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. In biotechnological processes different microorganisms can be exploited, and the large diversity of metabolic reactions represents a rich repository for the design of chemical conversion processes that lead to efficient production of desirable products. However, often microorganisms that produce a desirable product, either naturally or because they have been engineered through insertion of heterologous pathways, have low yields and productivities, and in order to establish an economically viable process it is necessary to improve the performance of the microorganism. Here metabolic engineering is the enabling technology. Through metabolic engineering the metabolic landscape of the microorganism is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of the raw material, typically glucose, to the product of interest. This process may involve both insertion of new enzymes activities, deletion of existing enzyme activities, but often also deregulation of existing regulatory structures operating in the cell. In order to rapidly identify the optimal metabolic engineering strategy the industry is to an increasing extent looking into the use of tools from systems biology. This involves both x-ome technologies such as transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome analysis, and advanced mathematical modeling tools such as genome-scale metabolic modeling. Here we look into the history of these different techniques and review how they find application in industrial biotechnology, which will lead to what we here define as industrial systems biology.

  12. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  13. Synthetic biology in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  14. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  15. [The Biology of Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of brain activation in foster children and nonmaltreated children during an inhibitory control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Graham, Alice M; Moore, William E; Peake, Shannon J; Mannering, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control.

  17. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  18. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  19. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the Administration on Children, Youth and Families' anti-trafficking strategy and resources about preventing, identifying, and responding ... Laws Technical Bulletins Policy Resources Monitoring AFCARS Assessment Reviews Child & Family Services Reviews NYTD Reviews SACWIS Assessment ...

  20. Children's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Demartini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of children's rights is of paramount importance in the face of social and economic context in which it is the Brazilian society and as a result of childhood. Speaking in childhood can not think of a single child, because it reflects the variations of human culture and in the same society are built different childhoods. The variation of social conditions the children live is the main factor of heterogeneity in the constitution of childhood.

  1. Biologic basis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Angelica; Weller, Elizabeth B; Weller, Ronald A

    2008-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious and difficult-to-treat condition in any age group. In childhood and adolescence, diagnosis and treatment present specific challenges, as the disorder often manifests in atypical presentations, such as marked irritability and frequent alterations of mood states not typically seen in adults. The lack of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in pediatric populations also leads to many difficult pharmacologic challenges. In this paper, we review available studies in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurocognitive functioning, and genetics to further explore the underlying neurobiologic mechanisms of child and adolescent bipolar disorder. Future investigation should elicit distinct mechanisms for diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder from a neurobiologic perspective.

  2. Protein microarrays for systems biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yang; Shujuan Guo; Yang Li; Shumin Zhou; Shengce Tao

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology holds the key for understanding biological systems on a system level. It eventually holds the key for the treatment and cure of complex diseases such as cancer,diabetes, obesity, mental disorders, and many others. The '-omics' technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics,proteomics, and metabonomics, are among the major driving forces of systems biology. Featured as highthroughput, miniaturized, and capable of parallel analysis,protein microarrays have already become an important technology platform for systems biology, In this review, we will focus on the system level or global analysis of biological systems using protein microarrays. Four major types of protein microarrays will be discussed: proteome microarrays, antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein arrays,and lectin microarrays. We will also discuss the challenges and future directions of protein microarray technologies and their applications for systems biology. We strongly believe that protein microarrays will soon become an indispensable and invaluable tool for systems biology.

  3. Synthetic biology: ethical ramifications 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinow, Paul; Bennett, Gaymon

    2009-12-01

    During 2007 and 2008 synthetic biology moved from the manifesto stage to research programs. As of 2009, synthetic biology is ramifying; to ramify means to produce differentiated trajectories from previous determinations. From its inception, most of the players in synthetic biology agreed on the need for (a) rationalized design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems as well as (b) the re-design of natural biological systems for specified purposes, and that (c) the versatility of designed biological systems makes them suitable to address such challenges as renewable energy, the production of inexpensive drugs, and environmental remediation, as well as providing a catalyst for further growth of biotechnology. What is understood by these goals, however, is diverse. Those assorted understandings are currently contributing to different ramifications of synthetic biology. The Berkeley Human Practices Lab, led by Paul Rabinow, is currently devoting its efforts to documenting and analyzing these ramifications as they emerge.

  4. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  5. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  6. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, systems biology provides the knowledge necessary for the development of synthetic biology tools, which in turn facilitates the manipulation and understanding of complex biological systems. Thus, the combination of systems and synthetic biology has huge potential for studying and engineering microbes, especially to perform advanced tasks, such as producing biofuels. Although there have been very few studies in integrating systems and synthetic biology, existing examples have demonstrated great power in extending microbiological capabilities. This review focuses on recent efforts in microbiological genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, aiming to fill the gap between systems and synthetic biology.

  7. Personality Characteristics of the Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to biological mothers of children aged 6-13 (N=100). Found conduct disordered (CD) children (N=13) had mothers with higher MMPI antisocial, histrionic, and disturbed adjustment scores; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) children (N=22) had no significant association…

  8. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…

  9. Molecular biology of sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, M C

    1996-07-01

    There has been a virtual explosion of information relating to the biology of sarcomas with which we as orthopaedists deal. Much more is yet to be learned. These findings will teach us more about the etiology of these tumors. More important, the findings will alter the way in which these tumors are treated. It is unlikely that we will continue to treat osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma patients with currently available drug regimens and surgery or make treatment decisions based on the histologic classification of tumors we know today. If we are to remain active in the management of these patients we must be aware of the findings as they occur. That will ensure both that we remain the primary caretakers of these patients, and that we will continue to be stimulated intellectually by these intriguing scientific investigations.

  10. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  11. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  12. The biology of strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.

    2013-02-01

    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected simplicity of the originally postulated complex pathway. Moreover, the discovery and localization of a strigolactone exporter sheds new light on putative strigolactone fluxes to the rhizosphere as well as within the plant. The combination of these data with information on the expression and regulation of strigolactone biosynthetic and downstream signaling genes provides new insights into how strigolactones control the many different aspects of plant development and how their rhizosphere signaling role may have evolved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Molecular biology of potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses.

  14. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  15. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  16. Update on zinc biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Evolutionary biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle

    2005-10-01

    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  18. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2015-02-27

    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  20. Nanoelectronics Meets Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Charles

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale materials enable unique opportunities at the interface between the physical and life sciences, and the interface between nanoelectronic devices and biological systems makes possible communication between these two diverse systems at the length scale relevant to biological function. In this presentation, the development of nanowire nanoelectronic devices and their application as powerful tools for the life sciences will be discussed. First, a brief introduction to nanowire nanoelectronic devices as well as comparisons to other electrophysiological tools will be presented to illuminate the unique strengths and opportunities enabled at the nanoscale. Second, illustration of detection capabilities including signal-to-noise and applications for real-time label-free detection of biochemical markers down to the level of single molecules will be described. Third, the use of nanowire nanoelectronics for building interfaces to cells and tissue will be reviewed. Multiplexed measurements made from nanowire devices fabricated on flexible and transparent substrates recording signal propagation across cultured cells, acute tissue slices and intact organs will be illustrated, including quantitative analysis of the high simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution achieved with these nanodevices. Specific examples of subcellular and near point detection of extracellular potential will be used to illustrate the unique capabilities, such as recording localized potential changes due to neuronal activities simultaneously across many length scales, which provide key information for functional neural circuit studies. Last, emerging opportunities for the creation of powerful new probes based on controlled synthesis and/or bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials will be described with an emphasis on nanowire probes demonstrating the first intracellular transistor recordings, and the development of ``cyborg'' tissue. The prospects for blurring the distinction between nanoelectronic

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that children...

  2. Systems biology: a biologist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Biplab

    2013-12-01

    The debate over reductionism and antireductionism in biology is very old. Even the systems approach in biology is more than five decades old. However, mainstream biology, particularly experimental biology, has broadly sidestepped those debates and ideas. Post-genome data explosion and development of high-throughput techniques led to resurfacing of those ideas and debates as a new incarnation called Systems Biology. Though experimental biologists have co-opted systems biology and hailed it as a paradigm shift, it is practiced in different shades and understood with divergent meanings. Biology has certain questions linked with organization of multiple components and processes. Often such questions involve multilevel systems. Here in this essay we argue that systems theory provides required framework and abstractions to explore those questions. We argue that systems biology should follow the logical and mathematical approach of systems theory and transmogrification of systems biology to mere collection of higher dimensional data must be avoided. Therefore, the questions that we ask and the priority of those questions should also change. Systems biology should focus on system-level properties and investigate complexity without shying away from it.

  3. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  4. The Physics behind Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radde Nicole E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems Biology is a young and rapidly evolving research field, which combines experimental techniques and mathematical modeling in order to achieve a mechanistic understanding of processes underlying the regulation and evolution of living systems. Systems Biology is often associated with an Engineering approach: The purpose is to formulate a data-rich, detailed simulation model that allows to perform numerical (‘in silico’ experiments and then draw conclusions about the biological system. While methods from Engineering may be an appropriate approach to extending the scope of biological investigations to experimentally inaccessible realms and to supporting data-rich experimental work, it may not be the best strategy in a search for design principles of biological systems and the fundamental laws underlying Biology. Physics has a long tradition of characterizing and understanding emergent collective behaviors in systems of interacting units and searching for universal laws. Therefore, it is natural that many concepts used in Systems Biology have their roots in Physics. With an emphasis on Theoretical Physics, we will here review the ‘Physics core’ of Systems Biology, show how some success stories in Systems Biology can be traced back to concepts developed in Physics, and discuss how Systems Biology can further benefit from its Theoretical Physics foundation.

  5. Biology of biological meshes used in hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Yuri W

    2013-10-01

    Successful repair of most hernias requires the use of a prosthetic implant for reinforcement of the defect. Because of the need for prosthetic implants to resist infections as well to support repairs in contaminated or potentially contaminated fields, biological meshes have been developed to take the place of nondegradable synthetic meshes in cases where mesh infection is of high concern. The ideal is a biological matrix that resists infection while providing durable reinforcement of a hernia repair. This article reviews the validity of assumptions that support the purported notion of the biological behavior of biological meshes.

  6. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  7. Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted.

  8. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  9. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  10. BIOLOGY OF SOME NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerta Vrbova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand and possibly interfere/ treat neuromuscular disorders it is important to analyze the biological events that may be causing the disability. We illustrate such attempts on two examples of genetically determined neuromuscular diseases: 1 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, and 2 Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA.DMD is an x-linked hereditary muscle disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness. The altered gene in DMD affects dystrophin, a muscle membrane associated proteine. Attempts were made to replace the deficient or missing gene/ protein into muscles of Duchenne children. Two main strategies were explored: 1 Myoblast and stem cell transfer and 2 Gene delivery. The possible use of methods other than the introduction of the missing gene for dystrophin into muscle fibres are based on the knowledge about the adaptive potential of muscle to different functional demands and the ability of the muscle to express a new set of genes in response to such stimuli. Stretch or overload is now known to lead to changes of gene expression in normal muscle, and the success of muscle stretch in the management of Duchenne boys is most likely to be due to such adaptive changes. Electrical stimulation of muscles is also a powerful stimulus for inducing the expression of new genes and this method too has produced beneficial effects on the progress of the disease in mice and men.SMA is a heterogeneous group of hereditary neuromuscular disorders where the loss of lower motoneurones leads to progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The disease subdivides into 3 forms according to the severity of the symptoms and age of onset. All three forms of SMA have been mapped to chromosome 5q11.2-13.2. Clinical features of all these forms of SMA include hypotonia shortly after birth, symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy, finger tremor, areflexia or hyporeflexia and later contractures. In patients with SMA 1 and 2 the development of all parts of the motor

  11. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  12. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  13. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  14. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  15. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - Hodgkin - children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... In children, Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur between ages 15 to 19 years. The cause of this type of ...

  16. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  17. Values, Advocay and Conservation Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conser...

  18. The physics behind systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Radde, Nicole; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Systems Biology is a young and rapidly evolving research field, which combines experimental techniques and mathematical modeling in order to achieve a mechanistic understanding of processes underlying the regulation and evolution of living systems. Systems Biology is often associated with an Engineering approach: The purpose is to formulate a data-rich, detailed simulation model that allows to perform numerical (‘in silico’) experiments and then draw conclusions about the biological system...

  19. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-03-02

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions.

  20. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the new world of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostring, Genevieve Tyra; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis results in significant pain and disability in both children and adults. Advances in treatment resulting in improved long-term outcomes have occurred; however, an emphasis on early and aggressive diagnosis and management hopes to improve outcomes further. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis remains a clinical diagnosis of exclusion, but further research may delineate biological markers associated with the disease and its subtypes. Therapy for patients includes intra-articular steroid injections, disease modifying agents such as methotrexate and biological agents. Biological agents have provided exciting new therapeutic options in the last decade; however, long-term side effects of modulating the immune system are not yet fully understood. Systemic steroids may also be required but their long-term use is avoided. Uveitis needs to be screened for in all of those with the diagnosis. Multidisciplinary team care is required in managing these young people.

  2. Engineering Nanoscale Biological Molecular Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Korosec, Chapin; Forde, Nancy R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the operation of biological molecular motors, nanoscale machines that transduce electrochemical energy into mechanical work, is enhanced by bottom-up strategies to synthesize novel motors.

  3. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  4. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-04-01

    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  5. NASA space biology accomplishments, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. W.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries of NASA's Space Biology Program projects are provided. The goals, objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of each project are described in this publication as individual technical summaries.

  6. Synthetic biology for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-02-02

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  7. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  8. The ontology of biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological sequences play a major role in molecular and computational biology. They are studied as information-bearing entities that make up DNA, RNA or proteins. The Sequence Ontology, which is part of the OBO Foundry, contains descriptions and definitions of sequences and their properties. Yet the most basic question about sequences remains unanswered: what kind of entity is a biological sequence? An answer to this question benefits formal ontologies that use the notion of biological sequences and analyses in computational biology alike. Results We provide both an ontological analysis of biological sequences and a formal representation that can be used in knowledge-based applications and other ontologies. We distinguish three distinct kinds of entities that can be referred to as "biological sequence": chains of molecules, syntactic representations such as those in biological databases, and the abstract information-bearing entities. For use in knowledge-based applications and inclusion in biomedical ontologies, we implemented the developed axiom system for use in automated theorem proving. Conclusion Axioms are necessary to achieve the main goal of ontologies: to formally specify the meaning of terms used within a domain. The axiom system for the ontology of biological sequences is the first elaborate axiom system for an OBO Foundry ontology and can serve as starting point for the development of more formal ontologies and ultimately of knowledge-based applications.

  9. Computer algebra in systems biology

    CERN Document Server

    Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Systems biology focuses on the study of entire biological systems rather than on their individual components. With the emergence of high-throughput data generation technologies for molecular biology and the development of advanced mathematical modeling techniques, this field promises to provide important new insights. At the same time, with the availability of increasingly powerful computers, computer algebra has developed into a useful tool for many applications. This article illustrates the use of computer algebra in systems biology by way of a well-known gene regulatory network, the Lac Operon in the bacterium E. coli.

  10. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  11. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  12. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  13. Crystallogenesis of biological macromolecules. Biological, microgravity and other physicochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giege, R; Drenth, J; Ducruix, A; McPherson, A; Saenger, W

    1995-01-01

    After an historical introduction and justification of the importance of proteins (as well as other macromolecules or macromolecular assemblies of biological origin) in modern biology but also in physics, this review presents the state of the field of macromolecular crystallogenesis. The basic questi

  14. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  15. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  16. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  17. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  18. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management

  19. Biological studies of dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, R H; Thase, M E

    1991-08-01

    Dysthymic disorder (DD) is a chronic subsyndromal depressive condition that has generated increasing interest since its formal introduction into the psychiatric nomenclature in 1980. Although DD was included among the affective disorders in DSM-III, this classification was controversial. Some clinical and family studies support an association between DD and major depression disorder (MDD), but there has been little additional research firmly establishing the diagnostic validity of DD or clarifying its relation to MDD and to personality disorders. In this article, the literature on the biology of DD is reviewed. Studies of rapid eye movement (REM) latency, electrodermal activity, and the thyroid axis show similarities between DD and MDD, but the findings are mixed. Other investigations, including the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST), catecholamines, and several other electroencephalogram (EEG) sleep variables, show more consistent differences between DD and MDD. These findings suggest that DD manifests primarily trait characteristics of depression, thus differentiating it from the state characteristics of MDD. The methodological problems and implications of these studies, and suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  20. Biological rhythms and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eDitisheim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood.The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for small for gestational age babies, low birth weight babies and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy.